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Informational                                             R. Pantos, Ed.
Internet-Draft                                                    W. May
Intended status: Informational                                Apple Inc.
Expires: April 17, 2015                                 October 14, 2014


                          HTTP Live Streaming
                  draft-pantos-http-live-streaming-14

Abstract

   This document describes a protocol for transferring unbounded streams
   of multimedia data.  It specifies the data format of the files and
   the actions to be taken by the server (sender) and the clients
   (receivers) of the streams.  It describes version 7 of this protocol.


Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on April 17, 2015.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2014 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.

   This document may not be modified, and derivative works of it may not
   be created, and it may not be published except as an Internet-Draft.



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   This Informational Internet Draft is submitted as an RFC Editor
   Contribution and/or non-IETF Document (not as a Contribution, IETF
   Contribution, nor IETF Document) in accordance with BCP 78 and BCP
   79.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction to HTTP Live Streaming . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.  Overview  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   3.  Media Segments  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   4.  Playlists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     4.1.  Definition of a Playlist  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     4.2.  Attribute Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     4.3.  Playlist Tags . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       4.3.1.  Basic Tags  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
         4.3.1.1.  EXTM3U  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
         4.3.1.2.  EXT-X-VERSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       4.3.2.  Media Segment Tags  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
         4.3.2.1.  EXTINF  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
         4.3.2.2.  EXT-X-BYTERANGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
         4.3.2.3.  EXT-X-DISCONTINUITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
         4.3.2.4.  EXT-X-KEY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
         4.3.2.5.  EXT-X-MAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
         4.3.2.6.  EXT-X-PROGRAM-DATE-TIME . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
       4.3.3.  Media Playlist Tags . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
         4.3.3.1.  EXT-X-TARGETDURATION  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
         4.3.3.2.  EXT-X-MEDIA-SEQUENCE  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
         4.3.3.3.  EXT-X-DISCONTINUITY-SEQUENCE  . . . . . . . . . .  16
         4.3.3.4.  EXT-X-ENDLIST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
         4.3.3.5.  EXT-X-PLAYLIST-TYPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
         4.3.3.6.  EXT-X-I-FRAMES-ONLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
       4.3.4.  Master Playlist Tags  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
         4.3.4.1.  EXT-X-MEDIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
           4.3.4.1.1.  Rendition Groups  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
         4.3.4.2.  EXT-X-STREAM-INF  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
           4.3.4.2.1.  Alternative Renditions  . . . . . . . . . . .  24
         4.3.4.3.  EXT-X-I-FRAME-STREAM-INF  . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
         4.3.4.4.  EXT-X-SESSION-DATA  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  25
       4.3.5.  Media or Master Playlist Tags . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
         4.3.5.1.  EXT-X-INDEPENDENT-SEGMENTS  . . . . . . . . . . .  26
         4.3.5.2.  EXT-X-START . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
   5.  Key files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27
     5.1.  Structure of Key files  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27
     5.2.  IV for [AES_128]  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27
   6.  Client/Server Responsibilities  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
     6.1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
     6.2.  Server Responsibilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28



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       6.2.1.  General Server Responsibilities . . . . . . . . . . .  28
       6.2.2.  Live Playlists  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  30
       6.2.3.  Encrypting Media Segments . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  31
       6.2.4.  Providing Variant Streams . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  32
     6.3.  Client Responsibilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  33
       6.3.1.  General Client Responsibilities . . . . . . . . . . .  33
       6.3.2.  Loading the Media Playlist file . . . . . . . . . . .  34
       6.3.3.  Playing the Media Playlist file . . . . . . . . . . .  34
       6.3.4.  Reloading the Media Playlist file . . . . . . . . . .  35
       6.3.5.  Determining the next segment to load  . . . . . . . .  36
       6.3.6.  Decrypting encrypted Media Segments . . . . . . . . .  36
   7.  Protocol version compatibility  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  37
   8.  Playlist Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  39
     8.1.  Simple Media Playlist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  39
     8.2.  Live Media Playlist, using HTTPS  . . . . . . . . . . . .  39
     8.3.  Playlist with encrypted Media Segments  . . . . . . . . .  39
     8.4.  Master Playlist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  40
     8.5.  Master Playlist with I-Frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  40
     8.6.  Master Playlist with Alternative audio  . . . . . . . . .  41
     8.7.  Master Playlist with Alternative video  . . . . . . . . .  41
     8.8.  Session Data in a Master Playlist . . . . . . . . . . . .  42
   9.  Contributors  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  43
   10. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  43
   11. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  44
   12. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  44
     12.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  44
     12.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  46
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  47

1.  Introduction to HTTP Live Streaming

   HTTP Live Streaming provides a reliable, cost-effective means of
   delivering continuous and long-form video over the Internet.  It
   allows a receiver to adapt the bit rate of the media to the current
   network conditions in order to maintain uninterrupted playback at the
   best possible quality.  It supports interstitial content boundaries.
   It provides a flexible framework for media encryption.  It can
   efficiently offer multiple renditions of the same content, such as
   audio translations.  It offers compatibility with large-scale HTTP
   caching infrastructure to support delivery to large audiences.

   Since its first draft publication in 2009, HTTP Live Streaming has
   been implemented and deployed by a wide array of content producers,
   tools vendors, distributors, and device manufacturers.

   The purpose of this document is to facilitate interoperability
   between HTTP Live Streaming implementations by describing the media




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   transmission protocol.  Using this protocol, a client can receive a
   continuous stream of media from a server for concurrent presentation.

   This document describes version 7 of the protocol.

2.  Overview

   A multimedia presentation is specified by a Uniform Resource
   Identifier (URI) [RFC3986] to a Playlist.

   A Playlist is either a Media Playlist or a Master Playlist.  Both are
   text files containing URIs and descriptive tags.

   A Media Playlist contains a list of Media Segments, which when played
   sequentially will play the multimedia presentation.

   Here is an example of a Media Playlist:

   #EXTM3U
   #EXT-X-TARGETDURATION:10

   #EXTINF:9.009,
   http://media.example.com/first.ts
   #EXTINF:9.009,
   http://media.example.com/second.ts
   #EXTINF:3.003,
   http://media.example.com/third.ts

   The first line is the format identifier tag #EXTM3U.  The line
   containing #EXT-X-TARGETDURATION says that all Media Segments will be
   10 seconds long or less.  Then three Media Segments are declared.
   The first and second are 9.009 seconds long; the third is 3.003
   seconds.

   To play this Playlist, the client first downloads it and then
   downloads and plays each Media Segment declared within it.  The
   client reloads the Playlist as described in this document to discover
   any added segments.  Data is usually carried over HTTP [RFC7230], but
   in general a URI can specify any protocol that can reliably transfer
   the specified resource on demand.

   A more complex presentation can be described by a Master Playlist.  A
   Master Playlist provides a set of Variant Streams, each of which
   describes a different version of the same content.

   A Variant Stream includes a Media Playlist that specifies media
   encoded at a particular bit rate, in a particular format, and at a
   particular resolution for media containing video.



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   A Variant Stream can also specify a set of Renditions.  Renditions
   are alternate versions of the content, such as audio produced in
   different languages or video recorded from different camera angles.

   Players can switch between the different Variant Streams and
   Renditions to adapt to network conditions and user preferences.

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

3.  Media Segments

   A Media Playlist contains a series of Media Segments which make up
   the overall presentation.  A Media Segment is specified by a URI and
   optionally a byte range.

   The duration of each Media Segment is indicated in the Media Playlist
   by its EXTINF tag (Section 4.3.2.1).

   Each segment in a Media Playlist has a unique integer Media Sequence
   Number.  The Media Sequence Number of the first segment in the
   playlist is either 0, or declared in the Playlist (Section 4.3.3.2).
   The Media Sequence Number of every other segment is equal to the
   Media Sequence Number of the segment that precedes it plus one.

   Each Media Segment MUST be formatted as an MPEG-2 Transport Stream
   [ISO_13818], an MPEG audio elementary stream [ISO_11172], or a WebVTT
   [WebVTT] file.  Transport of other media file formats is not defined.

   Some media formats require that a parser be initialized with a common
   sequence of bytes before a Media Segment can be parsed.  This format-
   specific sequence is called the Media Initialization Section.  The
   Media Initialization Section of an MPEG-2 Transport Stream segment is
   the Program Association Table (PAT) followed by the Program Map
   Table (PMT).  The Media Initialization Section of a WebVTT segment is
   the WebVTT header.  An audio elementary stream has no Media
   Initialization Section.

   Transport Stream segments MUST contain a single MPEG-2 Program;
   playback of Multi-Program Transport Streams is not defined.  Each
   Transport Stream segment SHOULD contain a PAT and a PMT at the start
   of the segment - or have a Media Initialization Section declared in
   the Media Playlist (Section 4.3.2.5).  Transport Stream packets read
   before a corresponding PAT/PMT can be discarded.






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   A Media Segment that contains video SHOULD have at least one key
   frame and enough information to completely initialize a video
   decoder.

   Each Media Segment MUST be the continuation of the encoded media at
   the end of the segment with the previous Media Sequence Number, where
   values in a continuous series such as timestamps and Continuity
   Counters continue uninterrupted.  The only exceptions are the first
   Media Segment ever to appear in a Media Playlist, and Media Segments
   which are explicitly signaled as discontinuities (Section 4.3.2.3).
   Unmarked media discontinuities can trigger playback errors.

   Each Elementary Audio Stream segment MUST signal the timestamp of its
   first sample with an ID3 PRIV tag [ID3] at the beginning of the
   segment.  The ID3 PRIV owner identifier MUST be
   "com.apple.streaming.transportStreamTimestamp".  The ID3 payload MUST
   be a 33-bit MPEG-2 Program Elementary Stream timestamp expressed as a
   big-endian eight-octet number, with the upper 31 bits set to zero.
   An Elementary Audio Stream segment without such an ID3 tag can
   trigger playback errors.

   Subtitle segments are formatted as WebVTT [WebVTT] files.  Each
   subtitle segment MUST contain all subtitle cues that are intended to
   be displayed during the period indicated by the segment EXTINF
   duration.  The start time offset and end time offset of each cue MUST
   indicate the total display time for that cue, even if that time range
   extends beyond the EXTINF duration.  A WebVTT segment MAY contain no
   cues; this indicates that no subtitles are to be displayed during
   that period.

   Each subtitle segment MUST either start with a WebVTT header or have
   a Media Initialization Section declared in the Media Playlist
   (Section 4.3.2.5).

   Within each WebVTT header there MUST be an X-TIMESTAMP-MAP metadata
   header.  This header synchronizes the cue timestamps in the WebVTT
   file with the MPEG-2 (PES) timestamps in other Renditions of the
   Variant Stream.  Its format is:

   X-TIMESTAMP-MAP=LOCAL:<cue time>,MPEGTS:<MPEG-2 time>
   e.g. X-TIMESTAMP-MAP=LOCAL:00:00:00.000,MPEGTS:900000

   The cue timestamp in the LOCAL attribute MAY fall outside the range
   of time covered by the segment.

   A subtitle segment not meeting these requirements can be displayed
   inconsistently, not display at all, or cause other playback errors.




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4.  Playlists

   This section describes the Playlist files used by HTTP Live
   Streaming.  In this section, "MUST" and "MUST NOT" specify the rules
   for the syntax and structure of legal Playlist files.  Playlists that
   violate these rules are invalid; clients MUST fail to parse them.
   See Section 6.3.2.

   In this section, tags are specified using a BNF-style syntax.

   Each Playlist file MUST be identifiable by either the path component
   of its URI or by HTTP Content-Type.  In the first case, the path MUST
   end with either .m3u8 or .m3u (for compatibility).  In the second,
   the HTTP Content-type MUST be "application/vnd.apple.mpegurl" or
   "audio/mpegurl" (for compatibility).  Clients SHOULD refuse to parse
   Playlists that are not so identified.

4.1.  Definition of a Playlist

   Playlist files MUST be encoded in UTF-8 [RFC3629].  They MUST NOT
   contain any byte order mark (BOM); Clients SHOULD refuse to parse
   Playlists which contain a BOM or do not parse as UTF-8.  Note that
   US-ASCII [US_ASCII] is a proper subset of UTF-8.

   Lines in a Playlist file are terminated by either a single line feed
   character or a carriage return character followed by an line feed
   character.  Each line is a URI, blank, or starts with the character
   '#'.  Blank lines are ignored.  White space MUST NOT be present,
   except for elements in which it is explicitly specified.

   Lines that start with the character '#' are either comments or tags.
   Tags begin with #EXT.  They are case-sensitive.  All other lines that
   begin with '#' are comments and SHOULD be ignored.

   A URI line identifies a Media Segment or a Playlist file (see
   Section 4.3.4.2).  Each Media Segment is specified by an URI and the
   tags that apply to it.

   A Playlist is a Media Playlist if all URI lines in the Playlist
   identify Media Segments.  A Playlist is a Master Playlist if all URI
   lines in the Playlist identify Media Playlists.  A Playlist MUST be
   either a Media Playlist or a Master Playlist; all other Playlists are
   invalid.

   A URI in a Playlist, whether it is a URI line or part of a tag, MAY
   be relative.  Any relative URI is considered to be relative to the
   URI of the Playlist that contains it.




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   The duration of a Media Playlist file is the sum of the durations of
   the Media Segments within it.

   The segment bit rate of a Media Segment is the size of the Media
   Segment divided by its EXTINF duration (Section 4.3.2.1).  Note that
   this includes container overhead.

   The peak bit rate of a Media Playlist is the largest segment bit rate
   of all segments in the Media Playlist.

   The average segment bit rate of a Media Playlist is the sum of the
   sizes (in bits) of every Media Segment in the Media Playlist, divided
   by the Media Playlist duration.  Note that this includes container
   overhead, but not HTTP or other overhead imposed by the delivery
   system.

4.2.  Attribute Lists

   Certain tags have values which are Attribute Lists.  An Attribute
   List is a comma-separated list of attribute/value pairs with no
   whitespace.

   An attribute/value pair has the following syntax:

   AttributeName=AttributeValue

   An AttributeName is an unquoted string containing characters from the
   set [A..Z], [0..9] and '-'.

   An AttributeValue is one of the following:

   o  decimal-integer: an unquoted string of characters from the set
      [0..9] expressing an integer in base-10 arithmetic in the range
      from 0 to 2^64-1.

   o  hexadecimal-sequence: an unquoted string of characters from the
      set [0..9] and [A..F] that is prefixed with 0x or 0X.

   o  decimal-floating-point: an unquoted string of characters from the
      set [0..9] and '.' which expresses a non-negative floating-point
      number in decimal positional notation.

   o  signed-decimal-floating-point: an unquoted string of characters
      from the set [0..9], '-' and '.' which expresses a signed
      floating-point number in decimal positional notation.

   o  quoted-string: a string of characters within a pair of double-
      quotes (0x22).  All uses of quoted-strings REQUIRE that the



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      following characters be escaped: line feed (0xA), carriage return
      (0xD), and double quote (0x22).  Escaping rules vary by attribute
      type; for instance, URI attributes use percent-encoding.  Quoted-
      strings SHOULD be constructed so that byte-wise comparison is
      sufficient to test two quoted-strings for equality (which implies
      case-sensitive comparison).

   o  enumerated-string: an unquoted character string from a set which
      is explicitly defined by the Attribute.  An enumerated-string will
      never contain double-quotes ("), commas (,), or whitespace.

   o  decimal-resolution: two decimal-integers separated by the "x"
      character.  The first integer is a horizontal pixel dimension
      (width); the second is a vertical pixel dimension (height).

   The type of the AttributeValue for a given AttributeName is specified
   by the Attribute definition.

   A given AttributeName MUST NOT appear more than once in a given
   Attribute List.  Clients SHOULD refuse to play such Playlists.

4.3.  Playlist Tags

   Playlist tags specify either global parameters of the Playlist, or
   information about the Media Segments or Media Playlists that appear
   after them.

4.3.1.  Basic Tags

   These tags are allowed in both Media Playlists and Master Playlists.

4.3.1.1.  EXTM3U

   The EXTM3U tag indicates that the file is an Extended M3U [M3U]
   Playlist file.  It MUST be the first line of every Media Playlist and
   every Master Playlist.  Its format is:

   #EXTM3U

4.3.1.2.  EXT-X-VERSION

   The EXT-X-VERSION tag indicates the compatibility version of the
   Playlist file, its associated media, and its server.








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   The EXT-X-VERSION tag applies to the entire Playlist file.  Its
   format is:

   #EXT-X-VERSION:<n>

   where n is an integer indicating the protocol compatibility version
   number.

   It MUST appear in all Playlists containing tags or attributes that
   are not compatible with protocol version 1 to support
   interoperability with older clients.  Section 7 specifies the minimum
   value of the compatibility version number for any given Playlist
   file.

   A Playlist file MUST NOT contain more than one EXT-X-VERSION tag.  If
   a client encounters a Playlist with multiple EXT-X-VERSION tags, it
   SHOULD fail to parse it.

4.3.2.  Media Segment Tags

   Each Media Segment is specified by a series of Media Segment tags
   followed by a URI.  Some Media Segment tags apply to just the next
   segment; others apply to all subsequent segments until another
   instance of the same tag.

   A Media Segment tag MUST NOT appear in a Master Playlist.  Clients
   SHOULD fail to parse Playlists that contain both Media Segment Tags
   and Master Playlist tags (Section 4.3.4).

4.3.2.1.  EXTINF

   The EXTINF tag specifies the duration of a Media Segment.  It applies
   only to the next Media Segment.  This tag is REQUIRED for each Media
   Segment.  Its format is:

   #EXTINF:<duration>,<title>

   where duration is a decimal-integer or decimal-floating-point number
   (as described in Section 4.2) that specifies the duration of the
   Media Segment in seconds.  Durations that are reported as integers
   SHOULD be rounded to the nearest integer.  Durations MUST be integers
   if the compatibility version number is less than 3 to support older
   clients.  Durations SHOULD be floating-point if the compatibility
   version number is 3 or greater.  The remainder of the line following
   the comma is an optional human-readable informative title of the
   Media Segment.





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4.3.2.2.  EXT-X-BYTERANGE

   The EXT-X-BYTERANGE tag indicates that a Media Segment is a sub-range
   of the resource identified by its URI.  It applies only to the next
   URI line that follows it in the Playlist.  Its format is:

   #EXT-X-BYTERANGE:<n>[@<o>]

   where n is a decimal-integer indicating the length of the sub-range
   in bytes.  If present, o is a decimal-integer indicating the start of
   the sub-range, as a byte offset from the beginning of the resource.
   If o is not present, the sub-range begins at the next byte following
   the sub-range of the previous Media Segment.

   If o is not present, a previous Media Segment MUST appear in the
   Playlist file and MUST be a sub-range of the same media resource, or
   the Media Segment is undefined and parsing the Playlist MUST fail.

   A Media Segment without an EXT-X-BYTERANGE tag consists of the entire
   resource identified by its URI.

   Use of the EXT-X-BYTERANGE tag REQUIRES a compatibility version
   number of 4 or greater.

4.3.2.3.  EXT-X-DISCONTINUITY

   The EXT-X-DISCONTINUITY tag indicates a discontinuity between the
   Media Segment that follows it and the one that preceded it.

   Its format is:

   #EXT-X-DISCONTINUITY

   The EXT-X-DISCONTINUITY tag MUST be present if there is a change in
   any of the following characteristics:

   o  file format

   o  number, type and identifiers of tracks

   o  timestamp sequence

   The EXT-X-DISCONTINUITY tag SHOULD be present if there is a change in
   any of the following characteristics:

   o  encoding parameters

   o  encoding sequence



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   See Section 3, Section 6.2.1, and Section 6.3.3 for more information
   about the EXT-X-DISCONTINUITY tag.

4.3.2.4.  EXT-X-KEY

   Media Segments MAY be encrypted.  The EXT-X-KEY tag specifies how to
   decrypt them.  It applies to every Media Segment that appears between
   it and the next EXT-X-KEY tag in the Playlist file with the same
   KEYFORMAT attribute (or the end of the Playlist file).  Two or more
   EXT-X-KEY tags with different KEYFORMAT attributes MAY apply to the
   same Media Segment if they ultimately produce the same decryption
   key.  The format is:

   #EXT-X-KEY:<attribute-list>

   The following attributes are defined:

   METHOD

   The value is an enumerated-string that specifies the encryption
   method.  This attribute is REQUIRED.

   The methods defined are: NONE, AES-128, and SAMPLE-AES.

   An encryption method of NONE means that Media Segments are not
   encrypted.  If the encryption method is NONE, other attributes MUST
   NOT be present.

   An encryption method of AES-128 signals that Media Segments are
   completely encrypted using the Advanced Encryption Standard [AES_128]
   with a 128-bit key, Cipher Block Chaining, and PKCS7 padding
   [RFC5652].  CBC is restarted on each segment boundary, using either
   the IV attribute value or the Media Sequence Number as the IV; see
   Section 5.2.  The URI attribute is REQUIRED for this METHOD.

   An encryption method of SAMPLE-AES means that the Media Segments
   contain media samples, such as audio or video, that are encrypted
   using the Advanced Encryption Standard [AES_128].  How these media
   streams are encrypted and encapsulated in a segment depends on the
   media encoding and the media format of the segment.  The encryption
   format for H.264 [H_264], AAC [ISO_14496] and AC-3 [AC_3] media
   streams is described by [SampleEnc].  The IV attribute MAY be
   present; see Section 5.2.








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   URI

   The value is a quoted-string containing a URI that specifies how to
   obtain the key.  This attribute is REQUIRED unless the METHOD is
   NONE.

   IV

   The value is a hexadecimal-sequence that specifies a 128-bit unsigned
   integer Initialization Vector to be used with the key.  Use of the IV
   attribute REQUIRES a compatibility version number of 2 or greater.
   See Section 5.2 for when the IV attribute is used.

   KEYFORMAT

   The value is a quoted-string that specifies how the key is
   represented in the resource identified by the URI; see Section 5 for
   more detail.  This attribute is OPTIONAL; its absence indicates an
   implicit value of "identity".  Use of the KEYFORMAT attribute
   REQUIRES a compatibility version number of 5 or greater.

   KEYFORMATVERSIONS

   The value is a quoted-string containing one or more positive integers
   separated by the "/" character (for example, "1/3").  If more than
   one version of a particular KEYFORMAT is defined, this attribute can
   be used to indicate which version(s) this instance complies with.
   This attribute is OPTIONAL; if it is not present, its value is
   considered to be "1".  Use of the KEYFORMATVERSIONS attribute
   REQUIRES a compatibility version number of 5 or greater.

   If the Media Playlist file does not contain an EXT-X-KEY tag then
   Media Segments are not encrypted.

   See Section 5 for the format of the key file, and Section 5.2,
   Section 6.2.3 and Section 6.3.6 for additional information on Media
   Segment encryption.

4.3.2.5.  EXT-X-MAP

   The EXT-X-MAP tag specifies how to obtain the Media Initialization
   Section (Section 3) required to parse the applicable Media Segments.
   It applies to every Media Segment that appears after it in the
   Playlist until the next EXT-X-MAP tag or until the end of the
   playlist.






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   Its format is:

   #EXT-X-MAP:<attribute-list>

   The following attributes are defined:

   URI

   The value is a quoted-string containing a URI that identifies a
   resource that contains the Media Initialization Section.  This
   attribute is REQUIRED.

   BYTERANGE

   The value is a quoted-string specifying a byte range into the
   resource identified by the URI attribute.  This range SHOULD contain
   only the Media Initialization Section.  The format of the byte range
   is described in Section 4.3.2.2.  This attribute is OPTIONAL; if it
   is not present, the byte range is the entire resource indicated by
   the URI.

   An EXT-X-MAP tag SHOULD be supplied for Media Segments in Playlists
   with the EXT-X-I-FRAMES-ONLY tag when the first Media Segment (i.e.,
   I-frame) in the Playlist (or the first segment following an EXT-
   X-DISCONTINUITY tag) does not immediately follow the Media
   Initialization Section at the beginning of its resource.

   Use of the EXT-X-MAP tag in a Media Playlist that does not contain
   the EXT-X-I-FRAMES-ONLY tag REQUIRES a compatibility version number
   of 6 or greater; otherwise, a compatibility version number of 5 or
   greater is REQUIRED.

4.3.2.6.  EXT-X-PROGRAM-DATE-TIME

   The EXT-X-PROGRAM-DATE-TIME tag associates the first sample of a
   Media Segment with an absolute date and/or time.  It applies only to
   the next Media Segment.

   The date/time representation is ISO/IEC 8601:2004 [ISO_8601] and
   SHOULD indicate a time zone and fractional parts of seconds:

   #EXT-X-PROGRAM-DATE-TIME:<YYYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ssZ>

   For example:

   #EXT-X-PROGRAM-DATE-TIME:2010-02-19T14:54:23.031+08:00

   EXT-X-PROGRAM-DATE-TIME tags SHOULD provide millisecond accuracy.



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   See Section 6.2.1 and Section 6.3.3 for more information on the EXT-
   X-PROGRAM-DATE-TIME tag.

4.3.3.  Media Playlist Tags

   Media Playlist tags describe global parameters of the Media Playlist.
   There MUST NOT be more than one Media Playlist tag of each type in
   any Media Playlist.

   A Media Playlist Tag MUST NOT appear in a Master Playlist

4.3.3.1.  EXT-X-TARGETDURATION

   The EXT-X-TARGETDURATION tag specifies the maximum Media Segment
   duration.  The EXTINF duration of each Media Segment in the Playlist
   file, when rounded to the nearest integer, MUST be less than or equal
   to the target duration; longer segments can trigger playback stalls
   or other errors.  It applies to the entire Playlist file.  Its format
   is:

   #EXT-X-TARGETDURATION:<s>

   where s is a decimal-integer indicating the target duration in
   seconds.  The EXT-X-TARGETDURATION tag is REQUIRED.

4.3.3.2.  EXT-X-MEDIA-SEQUENCE

   The EXT-X-MEDIA-SEQUENCE tag indicates the Media Sequence Number of
   the first Media Segment that appears in a Playlist file.  Its format
   is:

   #EXT-X-MEDIA-SEQUENCE:<number>

   where number is a decimal-integer.

   If the Media Playlist file does not contain an EXT-X-MEDIA-SEQUENCE
   tag then the Media Sequence Number of the first Media Segment in the
   playlist SHALL be considered to be 0.  A client MUST NOT assume that
   segments with the same Media Sequence Number in different Media
   Playlists contain matching content - see Section 6.3.2.

   A URI for a Media Segment is not required to contain its Media
   Sequence Number.

   See Section 6.2.1 and Section 6.3.5 for more information on setting
   the EXT-X-MEDIA-SEQUENCE tag.





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   The EXT-X-MEDIA-SEQUENCE tag MUST appear before the first Media
   Segment in the Playlist.

4.3.3.3.  EXT-X-DISCONTINUITY-SEQUENCE

   The EXT-X-DISCONTINUITY-SEQUENCE tag allows synchronization between
   different Renditions of the same Variant Stream or different Variant
   Streams that have EXT-X-DISCONTINUITY tags in their Media Playlists.

   Its format is:

   #EXT-X-DISCONTINUITY-SEQUENCE:<number>

   where number is a decimal-integer.

   If the Media Playlist does not contain an EXT-X-DISCONTINUITY-
   SEQUENCE tag, then the Discontinuity Sequence Number of the first
   Media Segment in the Playlist SHALL be considered to be 0.

   The EXT-X-DISCONTINUITY-SEQUENCE tag MUST appear before the first
   Media Segment in the Playlist.

   The EXT-X-DISCONTINUITY-SEQUENCE tag MUST appear before any EXT-
   X-DISCONTINUITY tag.

   See Section 6.2.1 and Section 6.2.2 for more information about
   setting the value of the EXT-X-DISCONTINUITY-SEQUENCE tag.

4.3.3.4.  EXT-X-ENDLIST

   The EXT-X-ENDLIST tag indicates that no more Media Segments will be
   added to the Media Playlist file.  It MAY occur anywhere in the Media
   Playlist file.  Its format is:

   #EXT-X-ENDLIST

4.3.3.5.  EXT-X-PLAYLIST-TYPE

   The EXT-X-PLAYLIST-TYPE tag provides mutability information about the
   Media Playlist file.  It applies to the entire Media Playlist file.
   It is OPTIONAL.  Its format is:

   #EXT-X-PLAYLIST-TYPE:<EVENT|VOD>

   Section 6.2.1 defines the implications of the EXT-X-PLAYLIST-TYPE
   tag.





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   If the EXT-X-PLAYLIST-TYPE value is EVENT, Media Segments can only be
   added to the end of the Media Playlist.  If the EXT-X-PLAYLIST-TYPE
   value is VOD, the Media Playlist cannot change.

   If the EXT-X-PLAYLIST-TYPE tag is omitted from a Media Playlist, the
   Playlist can be updated according to the rules in Section 6.2.1 with
   no additional restrictions.  For example, a live Playlist
   (Section 6.2.2) MAY be updated to remove Media Segments in the order
   that they appeared.

4.3.3.6.  EXT-X-I-FRAMES-ONLY

   The EXT-X-I-FRAMES-ONLY tag indicates that each Media Segment in the
   Playlist describes a single I-frame.  I-frames (or Intra frames) are
   encoded video frames whose encoding does not depend on any other
   frame.

   The EXT-X-I-FRAMES-ONLY tag applies to the entire Playlist.  Its
   format is:

   #EXT-X-I-FRAMES-ONLY

   In a Playlist with the EXT-X-I-FRAMES-ONLY tag, the Media Segment
   duration (EXTINF tag value) is the time between the presentation time
   of the I-frame in the Media Segment and the presentation time of the
   next I-frame in the Playlist, or the end of the presentation if it is
   the last I-frame in the Playlist.

   Media resources containing I-frame segments MUST begin with either a
   Media Initialization Section (Section 3) or be accompanied by an EXT-
   X-MAP tag indicating the Media Initialization Section so that clients
   can load and decode I-frame segments in any order.  The byte range of
   an I-frame segment with an EXT-X-BYTERANGE tag applied to it
   (Section 4.3.2.2) MUST NOT include its Media Initialization Section;
   clients can assume that the Media Initialization Section is defined
   by EXT-X-MAP tag, or is located from the start of the resource to the
   offset of the first I-frame segment in that resource.

   Use of the EXT-X-I-FRAMES-ONLY REQUIRES a compatibility version
   number of 4 or greater.

4.3.4.  Master Playlist Tags

   Master Playlist tags define the Variant Streams, Renditions, and
   other global parameters of the presentation.






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   Master Playlist Tags MUST NOT appear in a Media Playlist; clients
   SHOULD fail to parse any Playlist that contains both a Master
   Playlist tag and either a Media Playlist tag or a Media Segment tag.

4.3.4.1.  EXT-X-MEDIA

   The EXT-X-MEDIA tag is used to relate Media Playlists that contain
   alternative Renditions (Section 4.3.4.2.1) of the same content.  For
   example, three EXT-X-MEDIA tags can be used to identify audio-only
   Media Playlists that contain English, French and Spanish Renditions
   of the same presentation.  Or two EXT-X-MEDIA tags can be used to
   identify video-only Media Playlists that show two different camera
   angles.

   Its format is:

   #EXT-X-MEDIA:<attribute-list>

   The following attributes are defined:

   TYPE

   The value is an enumerated-string; valid strings are AUDIO, VIDEO,
   SUBTITLES and CLOSED-CAPTIONS.  If the value is AUDIO, the Playlist
   described by the tag MUST contain audio media.  If the value is
   VIDEO, the Playlist MUST contain video media.  If the value is
   SUBTITLES, the Playlist MUST contain subtitle media.  If the value is
   CLOSED-CAPTIONS, the Media Segments for the video Renditions can
   include closed captions.  Specifying a Playlist that does not contain
   the appropriate media type can lead to client playback errors.  This
   attribute is REQUIRED.

   URI

   The value is a quoted-string containing a URI that identifies the
   Playlist file.  This attribute is OPTIONAL; see Section 4.3.4.2.1.
   If the TYPE is CLOSED-CAPTIONS, the URI attribute MUST NOT be
   present.

   GROUP-ID

   The value is a quoted-string which specifies the group to which the
   Rendition belongs.  See Section 4.3.4.1.1.  This attribute is
   REQUIRED.







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   LANGUAGE

   The value is a quoted-string containing one of the standard Tags for
   Identifying Languages [RFC5646], which identifies the primary
   language used in the Rendition.  This attribute is OPTIONAL.

   ASSOC-LANGUAGE

   The value is a quoted-string containing a language tag [RFC5646] that
   identifies a language that is associated with the Rendition.  An
   associated language is often used in a different role than the
   language specified by the LANGUAGE attribute (e.g. written vs.
   spoken, or as a fallback dialect).  This attribute is OPTIONAL.

   NAME

   The value is a quoted-string containing a human-readable description
   of the Rendition.  If the LANGUAGE attribute is present then this
   description SHOULD be in that language.  This attribute is REQUIRED.

   DEFAULT

   The value is an enumerated-string; valid strings are YES and NO.  If
   the value is YES, then the client SHOULD play this Rendition of the
   content in the absence of information from the user indicating a
   different choice.  This attribute is OPTIONAL.  Its absence indicates
   an implicit value of NO.

   AUTOSELECT

   The value is an enumerated-string; valid strings are YES and NO.
   This attribute is OPTIONAL.  Its absence indicates an implicit value
   of NO.  If the value is YES, then the client MAY choose to play this
   Rendition in the absence of explicit user preference because it
   matches the current playback environment, such as chosen system
   language.

   If the AUTOSELECT attribute is present, its value MUST be YES if the
   value of the DEFAULT attribute is YES.

   FORCED

   The value is an enumerated-string; valid strings are YES and NO.
   This attribute is OPTIONAL.  Its absence indicates an implicit value
   of NO.  The FORCED attribute MUST NOT be present unless the TYPE is
   SUBTITLES.





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   A value of YES indicates that the Rendition contains content which is
   considered essential to play.  When selecting a FORCED Rendition, a
   client SHOULD choose the one that best matches the current playback
   environment (e.g. language).

   A value of NO indicates that the Rendition contains content which is
   intended to be played in response to explicit user request.

   INSTREAM-ID

   The value is a quoted-string that specifies a Rendition within the
   segments in the Media Playlist.  This attribute is REQUIRED if the
   TYPE attribute is CLOSED-CAPTIONS, in which case it MUST have one of
   the values: "CC1", "CC2", "CC3", "CC4", or "SERVICEn" where n MUST be
   an integer between 1 and 63 (e.g."SERVICE3" or "SERVICE42").

   The values "CC1", "CC2", "CC3", and "CC4" identify a Line 21 Data
   Services channel [CEA608].  The "SERVICE" values identify a Digital
   Television Closed Captioning [CEA708] service block number.

   For all other TYPE values, the INSTREAM-ID MUST NOT be specified.

   CHARACTERISTICS

   The value is a quoted-string containing one or more Uniform Type
   Identifiers [UTI] separated by comma (,) characters.  This attribute
   is OPTIONAL.  Each UTI indicates an individual characteristic of the
   Rendition.

   A SUBTITLES Rendition MAY include the following characteristics:
   "public.accessibility.transcribes-spoken-dialog";
   "public.accessibility.describes-music-and-sound"; "public.easy-to-
   read" (which indicates that the subtitles have been edited for ease
   of reading).

   An AUDIO Rendition MAY include the following characteristics:
   "public.accessibility.describes-video".

   The CHARACTERISTICS attribute MAY include private UTIs.

4.3.4.1.1.  Rendition Groups

   A set of EXT-X-MEDIA tags with the same GROUP-ID value and the same
   TYPE value forms a group of Renditions.  Each member of the group
   MUST be an alternative rendition of the same content; otherwise
   playback errors can occur.





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   All EXT-X-MEDIA tags in a Playlist MUST meet the following
   constraints:

   o  All EXT-X-MEDIA tags in the same group MUST have different NAME
      attributes.

   o  A group MUST NOT have more than one member with a DEFAULT
      attribute of YES.

   o  All members of a group whose AUTOSELECT attribute has a value of
      YES MUST have LANGUAGE [RFC5646] attributes with unique values.

   A Playlist MAY contain multiple groups of the same TYPE in order to
   provide multiple encodings of that media type.  If it does so, each
   group of the same TYPE MUST have the same set of members, and each
   corresponding member MUST have identical attributes with the
   exception of the URI attribute.

   Each member in a group of Renditions MAY have a different sample
   format.  However, any EXT-X-STREAM-INF (Section 4.3.4.2) tag or EXT-
   X-I-FRAME-STREAM-INF (Section 4.3.4.3) tag which references that
   group MUST have a CODECS attribute that lists every sample format
   present in any Rendition in the group, or client playback failures
   can occur.

4.3.4.2.  EXT-X-STREAM-INF

   The EXT-X-STREAM-INF tag specifies a Variant Stream, which is a set
   of Renditions which can be combined to play the presentation.  The
   attributes of the tag provide information about the Variant Stream.

   The EXT-X-STREAM-INF tag identifies the next URI line in the Playlist
   as a Rendition of the Variant Stream.

   Its format is:

   #EXT-X-STREAM-INF:<attribute-list>
   <URI>

   The following attributes are defined:

   BANDWIDTH

   The value is a decimal-integer of bits per second.  It represents the
   peak segment bit rate of the Variant Stream.

   If all the Media Segments in a Variant Stream have already been
   created, the BANDWIDTH value MUST be the largest sum of peak segment



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   bit rates that is produced by any playable combination of Renditions.
   (For a Variant Stream with a single Media Playlist, this is just the
   peak segment bit rate of that Media Playlist.)  An inaccurate value
   can cause playback stalls or prevent clients from playing the
   variant.

   If the Master Playlist is to be made available before all Media
   Segments in the presentation have been encoded, the BANDWIDTH value
   SHOULD be the BANDWIDTH value of a representative period of similar
   content, encoded using the same settings.

   Every EXT-X-STREAM-INF tag MUST include the BANDWIDTH attribute.

   AVERAGE-BANDWIDTH

   The value is a decimal-integer of bits per second.  It represents the
   average segment bit rate of the Variant Stream.

   If all the Media Segments in a Variant Stream have already been
   created, the AVERAGE-BANDWIDTH value MUST be the largest sum of
   average segment bit rates that is produced by any playable
   combination of Renditions.  (For a Variant Stream with a single Media
   Playlist, this is just the average segment bit rate of that Media
   Playlist.)  An inaccurate value can cause playback stalls or prevent
   clients from playing the variant.

   If the Master Playlist is to be made available before all Media
   Segments in the presentation have been encoded, the AVERAGE-BANDWIDTH
   value SHOULD be the AVERAGE-BANDWIDTH value of a representative
   period of similar content, encoded using the same settings.

   The AVERAGE-BANDWIDTH attribute is OPTIONAL.

   CODECS

   The value is a quoted-string containing a comma-separated list of
   formats, where each format specifies a media sample type that is
   present in one or more Renditions specified by the Variant Stream.
   Valid format identifiers are those in the ISO Base Media File Format
   Name Space defined by The 'Codecs' and 'Profiles' Parameters for
   "Bucket" Media Types [RFC6381].

   Every EXT-X-STREAM-INF tag SHOULD include a CODECS attribute.

   RESOLUTION

   The value is a decimal-resolution describing the optimal pixel
   resolution at which to display all the video in the Variant Stream.



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   The RESOLUTION attribute is OPTIONAL but is recommended if the
   Variant Stream includes video.

   AUDIO

   The value is a quoted-string.  It MUST match the value of the GROUP-
   ID attribute of an EXT-X-MEDIA tag elsewhere in the Master Playlist
   whose TYPE attribute is AUDIO.  It indicates the set of audio
   Renditions that MAY be used when playing the presentation.  See
   Section 4.3.4.2.1.

   The AUDIO attribute is OPTIONAL.

   VIDEO

   The value is a quoted-string.  It MUST match the value of the GROUP-
   ID attribute of an EXT-X-MEDIA tag elsewhere in the Master Playlist
   whose TYPE attribute is VIDEO.  It indicates the set of video
   Renditions that MAY be used when playing the presentation.  See
   Section 4.3.4.2.1.

   The VIDEO attribute is OPTIONAL.

   SUBTITLES

   The value is a quoted-string.  It MUST match the value of the GROUP-
   ID attribute of an EXT-X-MEDIA tag elsewhere in the Master Playlist
   whose TYPE attribute is SUBTITLES.  It indicates the set of subtitle
   Renditions that MAY be used when playing the presentation.  See
   Section 4.3.4.2.1.

   The SUBTITLES attribute is OPTIONAL.

   CLOSED-CAPTIONS

   The value can be either a quoted-string or an enumerated-string with
   the value NONE.  If the value is a quoted-string, it MUST match the
   value of the GROUP-ID attribute of an EXT-X-MEDIA tag elsewhere in
   the Playlist whose TYPE attribute is CLOSED-CAPTIONS, and indicates
   the set of closed-caption Renditions that MAY be used when playlist
   the presentation.  See Section 4.3.4.2.1.

   If the value is the enumerated-string value NONE, all EXT-X-STREAM-
   INF tags MUST have this attribute with a value of NONE, indicating
   that there are no closed captions in any Variant Stream in the Master
   Playlist.  Having closed captions in one Variant Stream but not
   another can trigger playback inconsistencies.




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   The CLOSED-CAPTIONS attribute is OPTIONAL.

4.3.4.2.1.  Alternative Renditions

   When an EXT-X-STREAM-INF tag contains an AUDIO, VIDEO, SUBTITLES, or
   CLOSED-CAPTIONS attribute, it indicates that alternative Renditions
   of the content are available for playback of that Variant Stream.

   When defining alternative Renditions, the following constraints MUST
   be met to prevent client playback errors:

   o  All playable combinations of Renditions associated with an EXT-X-
      STREAM-INF tag MUST have an aggregate bandwidth less than or equal
      to the BANDWIDTH attribute of the EXT-X-STREAM-INF tag.

   o  If an EXT-X-STREAM-INF tag contains a RESOLUTION attribute and a
      VIDEO attribute, then every alternative video Rendition MUST have
      an optimal display resolution matching the value of the RESOLUTION
      attribute.

   o  Every alternative Rendition associated with an EXT-X-STREAM-INF
      tag MUST meet the constraints for a Variant Stream described in
      Section 6.2.4.

   The URI attribute of the EXT-X-MEDIA tag is REQUIRED if the media
   type is SUBTITLES, but OPTIONAL if the media type is VIDEO or AUDIO.
   If the media type is VIDEO or AUDIO, a missing URI attribute
   indicates that the media data for this Rendition is included in the
   Media playlist of any EXT-X-STREAM-INF tag referencing this MEDIA
   tag.  If the media type is AUDIO and the URI attribute is missing,
   clients MAY assume that the audio data for this Rendition is present
   in every video Rendition specified by the EXT-X-STREAM-INF tag.

   The URI attribute of the EXT-X-MEDIA tag MUST NOT be included if the
   media type is CLOSED-CAPTIONS.

4.3.4.3.  EXT-X-I-FRAME-STREAM-INF

   The EXT-X-I-FRAME-STREAM-INF tag identifies a Media Playlist file
   containing the I-frames of a multimedia presentation.  It stands
   alone, in that it does not apply to a particular URI in the Master
   Playlist.  Its format is:

   #EXT-X-I-FRAME-STREAM-INF:<attribute-list>

   All attributes defined for the EXT-X-STREAM-INF tag (Section 4.3.4.2)
   are also defined for the EXT-X-I-FRAME-STREAM-INF tag, except for the




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   AUDIO, SUBTITLES and CLOSED-CAPTIONS attributes.  In addition, the
   following attribute is defined:

   URI

   The value is a quoted-string containing a URI that identifies the
   I-frame Playlist file.

   Every EXT-X-I-FRAME-STREAM-INF tag MUST include a BANDWIDTH attribute
   and a URI attribute.

   The provisions in Section 4.3.4.2.1 also apply to EXT-X-I-FRAME-
   STREAM-INF tags with a VIDEO attribute.

   A Master Playlist that specifies alternative VIDEO Renditions and
   I-frame Playlists SHOULD include an alternative I-frame VIDEO
   Rendition for each regular VIDEO Rendition, with the same NAME and
   LANGUAGE attributes.

4.3.4.4.  EXT-X-SESSION-DATA

   The EXT-X-SESSION-DATA tag allows arbitrary session data to be
   carried in a Master Playlist.

   Its format is:

   #EXT-X-SESSION-DATA:<attribute list>

   The following attributes are defined:

   DATA-ID

   The value of DATA-ID is a quoted-string which identifies that data
   value.  The DATA-ID SHOULD conform to a reverse DNS naming
   convention, such as "com.example.movie.title".  This attribute is
   REQUIRED.

   VALUE

   VALUE is a quoted-string.  It contains the data identified by DATA-
   ID.  If the LANGUAGE is specified, VALUE SHOULD contain a human-
   readable string written in the specified language.

   URI

   The value is a quoted-string containing a URI.  The resource
   identified by the URI MUST be formatted as JSON [RFC7159]; otherwise,
   clients may fail to interpret the resource.



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   LANGUAGE

   The value is a quoted-string containing a language tag [RFC5646] that
   identifies the language of the VALUE.  This attribute is OPTIONAL.

   Each EXT-X-SESSION-DATA tag MUST contain either a VALUE or URI
   attribute, but not both.

   A Playlist MAY contain multiple EXT-X-SESSION-DATA tags with the same
   DATA-ID attribute.  A Playlist MUST NOT contain more than one EXT-X-
   SESSION-DATA tag with the same DATA-ID attribute and the same
   LANGUAGE attribute.

4.3.5.  Media or Master Playlist Tags

   The tags in this section can appear in either Master Playlists or
   Media Playlists.  If one of these tags appears in a Master Playlist,
   it SHOULD NOT appear in any Media Playlist referenced by that Master
   Playlist.  A tag that appears in both MUST have the same value;
   otherwise, clients SHOULD ignore the value in the Media Playlist(s).

   These tags MUST NOT appear more than once in a Playlist.

4.3.5.1.  EXT-X-INDEPENDENT-SEGMENTS

   The EXT-X-INDEPENDENT-SEGMENTS tag indicates that all media samples
   in a Media Segment can be decoded without information from other
   segments.  It applies to every Media Segment in the Playlist.

   Its format is:

   #EXT-X-INDEPENDENT-SEGMENTS

   If the EXT-X-INDEPENDENT-SEGMENTS tag appears in a Master Playlist,
   it applies to every Media Segment in every Media Playlist in the
   Master Playlist.

4.3.5.2.  EXT-X-START

   The EXT-X-START tag indicates a preferred point at which to start
   playing a Playlist.  By default, clients SHOULD start playback at
   this point when beginning a playback session.  This tag is OPTIONAL.

   Its format is:

   #EXT-X-START:<attribute list>

   The following attributes are defined:



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   TIME-OFFSET

   The value of TIME-OFFSET is a signed-decimal-floating-point number of
   seconds.  A positive number indicates a time offset from the
   beginning of the Playlist.  A negative number indicates a negative
   time offset from the end of the last Media Segment in the Playlist.
   This attribute is REQUIRED.

   The absolute value of TIME-OFFSET SHOULD NOT be larger than the
   Playlist duration.  If the absolute value of TIME-OFFSET exceeds the
   duration of the Playlist, it indicates either the end of the Playlist
   (if positive) or the beginning of the Playlist (if negative).

   If the Playlist does not contain the EXT-X-ENDLIST tag, the TIME-
   OFFSET SHOULD NOT be within three target durations of the end of the
   Playlist file.

   PRECISE

   The value is an enumerated-string; valid strings are YES and NO.  If
   the value is YES, clients SHOULD start playback at the Media Segment
   containing the TIME-OFFSET, but SHOULD NOT render media samples in
   that segment whose presentation times are prior to the TIME-OFFSET.
   If the value is NO, clients SHOULD attempt to render every media
   sample in that segment.  This attribute is OPTIONAL.  If it is
   missing, its value should be treated as NO.

5.  Key files

5.1.  Structure of Key files

   An EXT-X-KEY tag with a URI attribute identifies a Key file.  A Key
   file contains a cipher key that can decrypt Media Segments in the
   Playlist.

   [AES_128] encryption uses 16-octet keys.  If the KEYFORMAT of an EXT-
   X-KEY tag is "identity", the Key file is a single packed array of 16
   octets in binary format.

5.2.  IV for [AES_128]

   [AES_128] REQUIRES the same 16-octet Initialization Vector (IV) to be
   supplied when encrypting and decrypting.  Varying this IV increases
   the strength of the cipher.

   An IV attribute on an EXT-X-KEY tag with a KEYFORMAT of "identity"
   specifies an Initialization Vector that can be used when decrypting




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   Media Segments encrypted with that Key file.  It is formatted as a
   128-bit unsigned integer.

   An EXT-X-KEY tag with a KEYFORMAT of "identity" that does not have an
   IV attribute indicates that the Media Sequence Number is to be used
   as the IV when decrypting a Media Segment, by putting its big-endian
   binary representation into a 16-octet (128-bit) buffer and padding
   (on the left) with zeros.

6.  Client/Server Responsibilities

6.1.  Introduction

   This section describes how the server generates the Playlist and
   Media Segments and how the client should download them for playback.

6.2.  Server Responsibilities

6.2.1.  General Server Responsibilities

   The production of the source media is outside the scope of this
   document, which simply presumes a source of continuous encoded media
   containing the presentation.

   The server MUST divide the source media into individual Media
   Segments whose duration is less than or equal to a constant target
   duration.  Segments that are longer than the planned target duration
   can trigger playback stalls and other errors.

   The server SHOULD attempt to divide the source media at points that
   support effective decode of individual Media Segments, e.g. on packet
   and key frame boundaries.

   The server MUST create a URI for every Media Segment that enables its
   clients to obtain the segment data.  If a server supports partial
   loading of resources (e.g. via HTTP Range requests), it MAY specify
   segments as sub-ranges of larger resources using the EXT-X-BYTERANGE
   tag.

   Any Media Segment that is specified in a Playlist loaded by a client
   MUST be completely available at that time, or playback errors can
   occur.

   HTTP servers SHOULD transfer text files - such as Playlists and
   WebVTT segments - using the "gzip" Content-Encoding if the client
   indicates that it is prepared to accept it.





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   The server must create a Media Playlist file (Section 4) that
   contains a URI for each Media Segment that the server wishes to make
   available, in the order in which they are to be played.

   The value of the EXT-X-VERSION tag (Section 4.3.1.2) SHOULD NOT be
   greater than what is required for the tags and attributes in the
   Playlist - see Section 7.

   Changes to the Playlist file MUST be made atomically from the point
   of view of the clients, or playback errors MAY occur.

   The server MUST NOT change the Media Playlist file, except to:

      Append lines to it (Section 6.2.1).

      Remove Media Segment URIs from the Playlist in the order that they
      appear, along with any tags that apply only to those segments
      (Section 6.2.2).

      Increment the value of the EXT-X-MEDIA-SEQUENCE or EXT-X-
      DISCONTINUITY-SEQUENCE tags (Section 6.2.2).

      Add an EXT-X-ENDLIST tag to the Playlist (Section 6.2.1).

   Furthermore, the Playlist file MAY contain an EXT-X-PLAYLIST-TYPE tag
   with a value of either EVENT or VOD.  If the tag is present and has a
   value of EVENT, the server MUST NOT change or delete any part of the
   Playlist file (although it MAY append lines to it).  If the tag is
   present and has a value of VOD, the Playlist file MUST NOT change.

   The value of the EXT-X-TARGETDURATION tag in the Media Playlist MUST
   NOT change.  A typical target duration is 10 seconds.

   Unexpected Playlist changes MAY trigger playback errors or
   inconsistent client behavior.

   Each Media Segment in a Media Playlist has an integer Discontinuity
   Sequence Number.  The Discontinuity Sequence Number can be used in
   addition to the timestamps within the media to synchronize Media
   Segments across different Renditions.

   A segment's Discontinuity Sequence Number is the value of the EXT-X-
   DISCONTINUITY-SEQUENCE tag (or zero if none) plus the number of EXT-
   X-DISCONTINUITY tags in the Playlist preceding the URI line of the
   segment.

   The server MAY associate an absolute date and time with a Media
   Segment by applying an EXT-X-PROGRAM-DATE-TIME tag to it.  This



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   defines an informative mapping of the (wall-clock) date and time
   specified by the tag to the first media timestamp in the segment,
   which may be used as a basis for seeking, for display, or for other
   purposes.  If a server provides this mapping, it SHOULD apply an EXT-
   X-PROGRAM-DATE-TIME tag to every segment that has an EXT-
   X-DISCONTINUITY tag applied to it.

   If the Media Playlist contains the final Media Segment of the
   presentation then the Playlist file MUST contain the EXT-X-ENDLIST
   tag; this allows clients to minimize unproductive Playlist reloads.

   If a Media Playlist does not contain the EXT-X-ENDLIST tag, the
   server MUST make a new version of the Playlist file available that
   contains at least one new Media Segment.  It MUST be made available
   relative to the time that the previous version of the Playlist file
   was made available: no earlier than one-half the target duration
   after that time, and no later than 1.5 times the target duration
   after that time.  This allows clients to utilize the network
   efficiently.

   If the server wishes to remove an entire presentation, it SHOULD
   provide a clear indication to clients that the Playlist file is no
   longer available (e.g. with an HTTP 404 or 410 response).  It MUST
   ensure that all Media Segments in the Playlist file remain available
   to clients for at least the duration of the Playlist file at the time
   of removal to prevent interruption of in-progress playback.

6.2.2.  Live Playlists

   The server MAY limit the availability of Media Segments by removing
   Media Segments from the Playlist file (Section 6.2.1).  If Media
   Segments are to be removed, the Playlist file MUST contain an EXT-X-
   MEDIA-SEQUENCE tag.  Its value MUST be incremented by 1 for every
   Media Segment that is removed from the Playlist file; it MUST NOT
   decrease or wrap.  Clients can malfunction if each Media Segment does
   not have a consistent, unique Media Sequence Number.

   Media Segments MUST be removed from the Playlist file in the order
   that they appear in the Playlist; otherwise, client playback can
   malfunction.

   The server MUST NOT remove a Media Segment from a Playlist file
   without an EXT-X-ENDLIST tag if that would produce a Playlist whose
   duration is less than three times the target duration.  Doing so can
   trigger playback stalls.

   When the server removes a Media Segment URI from the Playlist, the
   corresponding Media Segment MUST remain available to clients for a



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   period of time equal to the duration of the segment plus the duration
   of the longest Playlist file distributed by the server containing
   that segment.  Removing a Media Segment earlier than that can
   interrupt in-progress playback.

   If the server wishes to remove segments from a Media Playlist
   containing an EXT-X-DISCONTINUITY tag, the playlist MUST contain an
   EXT-X-DISCONTINUITY-SEQUENCE tag.  Without the EXT-X-DISCONTINUITY-
   SEQUENCE tag, it can be impossible for a client to locate
   corresponding segments between Renditions.

   If the server removes an EXT-X-DISCONTINUITY tag from the Media
   Playlist, it MUST increment the value of the EXT-X-DISCONTINUITY-
   SEQUENCE tag so that the Discontinuity Sequence Numbers of the
   segments still in the playlist remain unchanged.  The value of the
   EXT-X-DISCONTINUITY-SEQUENCE tag MUST NOT decrease or wrap.  Clients
   can malfunction if each Media Segment does not have a consistent
   Discontinuity Sequence Number.

   If a server plans to remove a Media Segment after it is delivered to
   clients over HTTP, it SHOULD ensure that the HTTP response contains
   an Expires header that reflects the planned time-to-live.

   A Live Playlist MUST NOT contain the EXT-X-PLAYLIST-TYPE tag, as no
   value of that tag allows Media Segments to be removed.

6.2.3.  Encrypting Media Segments

   Media Segments MAY be encrypted.  Every encrypted Media Segment MUST
   have an EXT-X-KEY tag (Section 4.3.2.4) applied to it with a URI that
   the client can use to obtain a Key file (Section 5) containing the
   decryption key.  A Media Segment MAY have multiple EXT-X-KEY tags,
   each with a different KEYFORMAT attribute value.

   The server MAY set the HTTP Expires header in the key response to
   indicate that the key can be cached.

   If an encrypted Media Segment is followed by one or more unencrypted
   Media Segments in the Playlist, the unencrypted Media Segments MUST
   have an EXT-X-KEY tag whose METHOD is NONE applied to them.
   Otherwise, the client will misinterpret those segments as encrypted.

   If the encryption METHOD is AES-128 and the Playlist does not contain
   the EXT-X-I-FRAMES-ONLY tag, AES encryption as described in
   Section 4.3.2.4 SHALL be applied to individual Media Segments.

   If the encryption METHOD is AES-128 and the Playlist contains an EXT-
   X-I-FRAMES-ONLY tag, the entire resource MUST be encrypted using



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   AES-128 CBC with PKCS7 padding [RFC5652].  Encryption MAY be
   restarted on 16-byte block boundaries, unless the first block
   contains an I-frame.  The IV used for encryption MUST be either the
   Media Sequence Number of the Media Segment or the value of the IV
   attribute of the EXT-X-KEY tag, as described in Section 5.2.  These
   constraints allow a client to load and decrypt individual I-frames
   specified as sub-ranges of regular encrypted Media Segments, and
   their Media Initialization Sections.

   If the encryption METHOD is SAMPLE-AES, media samples MAY be
   encrypted prior to encapsulation in a Media Segment.  The encryption
   format for H.264, AAC and AC-3 media streams is described by
   [SampleEnc].

   The server MUST NOT remove an EXT-X-KEY tag from the Playlist file if
   it applies to any Media Segment in the Playlist file, or clients who
   subsequently load that Playlist will be unable to decrypt those Media
   Segments.

6.2.4.  Providing Variant Streams

   A server MAY offer multiple Media Playlist files to provide different
   encodings of the same presentation.  If it does so it SHOULD provide
   a Master Playlist file that lists each Variant Stream to allow
   clients to switch between encodings dynamically.

   Master Playlists describe regular Variant Streams with EXT-X-STREAM-
   INF tags and I-frame Variant Streams with EXT-X-I-FRAME-STREAM-INF
   tags.

   If an EXT-X-STREAM-INF tag or EXT-X-I-FRAME-STREAM-INF tag contains
   the CODECS attribute, the attribute value MUST include every media
   format [RFC6381] present in any Media Segment in any of the
   Renditions specified by the Variant Stream.

   The server MUST meet the following constraints when producing Variant
   Streams in order to allow clients to switch between them seamlessly:

      Each Variant Stream MUST present the same content.

      Matching content in Variant Streams MUST have matching timestamps.
      This allows clients to synchronize the media.

      Matching content in Variant Streams MUST have matching
      Discontinuity Sequence Numbers - see Section 4.3.3.3.

      Each Media Playlist in each Variant Stream MUST have the same
      target duration.  The only exception is that SUBTITLES Renditions



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      with an EXT-X-PLAYLIST-TYPE of VOD MAY have longer target
      durations.

      Content that appears in a Media Playlist of one Variant Stream but
      not in another MUST appear either at the beginning or at the end
      of the Media Playlist file and MUST NOT be longer than the target
      duration.

      If any Media Playlist in a Master Playlist contains an EXT-X-
      PROGRAM-DATE-TIME tag, then all Media Playlists in that Master
      Playlist MUST contain EXT-X-PROGRAM-DATE-TIME tags with consistent
      mappings of date and time to media timestamps.

   In addition, for broadest compatibility, Variant Streams SHOULD
   contain the same encoded audio bitstream.  This allows clients to
   switch between Variant Streams without audible glitching.

   The rules for Variant Streams also apply to alternative Renditions -
   see Section 4.3.4.2.1.

6.3.  Client Responsibilities

6.3.1.  General Client Responsibilities

   How the client obtains the URI to the Playlist file is outside the
   scope of this document; it is presumed to have done so.

   The client obtains the Playlist file from the URI.  If the Playlist
   file so obtained is a Master Playlist, the client can select a
   Variant Stream to load from the Master Playlist.

   Clients MUST ensure that loaded Playlists comply with Section 4 and
   that the EXT-X-VERSION tag, if present, specifies a protocol version
   supported by the client; if either check fails, the client MUST NOT
   attempt to use the Playlist, or unintended behavior could occur.

   To support forward compatibility, when parsing Playlists, Clients
   MUST:

   o  ignore any unrecognized tags.

   o  ignore any Attribute/value pair with an unrecognized
      AttributeName.

   o  ignore any tag containing an attribute/value pair of type
      enumerated-string whose AttributeName is recognized but whose
      AttributeValue is not recognized, unless the definition of the
      attribute says otherwise.



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   This document does not specify the treatment of Variant Streams by
   clients.

6.3.2.  Loading the Media Playlist file

   Every time a Media Playlist is loaded or reloaded from a Playlist
   URI, the client MUST determine the next Media Segment to load, as
   described in Section 6.3.5, if it intends to play the presentation
   normally (i.e., in playlist order at the nominal playback rate).

   If the Media Playlist contains the EXT-X-MEDIA-SEQUENCE tag, the
   client SHOULD assume that each Media Segment in it will become
   unavailable at the time that the Playlist file was loaded plus the
   duration of the Playlist file.

   A client MAY use the segment Media Sequence Number to track the
   location of a Media Segment within a Playlist when the Playlist is
   reloaded.

   A client MUST NOT assume that segments with the same Media Sequence
   Number in different Variant Streams or Renditions have the same
   position in the presentation; Playlists MAY have independent Media
   Sequence Numbers.  Instead, a client MUST use the relative position
   of each segment on the Playlist timeline and its Discontinuity
   Sequence Number to locate corresponding segments.

   A client MUST load the Media Playlist file of every Rendition
   selected for playback in order to locate the media specific to that
   Rendition.  But it SHOULD NOT load the Playlist file of any other
   Rendition to prevent unnecessary load on the server.

   For some Variant Streams, it is possible to select Renditions such
   that the Media Playlist to which the EXT-X-STREAM-INF tag is applied
   contains none of the media selected for playback.  In that case, the
   client SHOULD NOT load that Media Playlist file.

6.3.3.  Playing the Media Playlist file

   The client SHALL choose which Media Segment to play first from the
   Media Playlist when playback starts.  If the EXT-X-ENDLIST tag is not
   present and the client intends to play the media normally, the client
   SHOULD NOT choose a segment which starts less than three target
   durations from the end of the Playlist file.  Doing so can trigger
   playback stalls.

   Normal playback can be achieved by playing the Media Segments in the
   order that they appear in the Playlist.  The client MAY present the




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   available media in any way it wishes, including normal playback,
   random access, and trick modes.

   The encoding parameters for samples in a Media Segment and across
   multiple Media Segments in a Media Playlist SHOULD remain consistent.
   However, clients SHOULD deal with encoding changes as they are
   encountered, for example by scaling video content to accommodate a
   resolution change.  If the Variant Stream includes a RESOLUTION
   attribute, clients SHOULD display all video within a rectangle with
   the same proportions as that resolution.

   Clients SHOULD be prepared to handle multiple tracks of a particular
   type (e.g. audio or video).  A client with no other preference SHOULD
   choose the track with the lowest numerical track identifier that it
   can play.

   Clients SHOULD ignore private streams inside Transport Streams that
   they do not recognize to support cross-device addressability.

   The client MUST be prepared to reset its parser(s) and decoder(s)
   before playing a Media Segment that has an EXT-X-DISCONTINUITY tag
   applied to it, otherwise playback errors can occur.

   The client SHOULD attempt to load Media Segments in advance of when
   they will be required for uninterrupted playback to compensate for
   temporary variations in latency and throughput.

   The client MAY use the value of the EXT-X-PROGRAM-DATE-TIME tag to
   display the program origination time to the user.  If the value
   includes time zone information, the client SHALL take it into
   account; if it does not the client MAY assume the time to be local.

   The client MUST NOT depend upon the correctness or the consistency of
   the value of the EXT-X-PROGRAM-DATE-TIME tag; its value is
   informative.

6.3.4.  Reloading the Media Playlist file

   The client MUST periodically reload a Media Playlist file to learn
   what media is currently available, unless it contains an EXT-X-
   PLAYLIST-TYPE tag with a value of VOD, or a value of EVENT and the
   EXT-X-ENDLIST tag is also present.

   However the client MUST NOT attempt to reload the Playlist file more
   frequently than specified by this section, in order to limit the
   collective load on the server.





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   When a client loads a Playlist file for the first time or reloads a
   Playlist file and finds that it has changed since the last time it
   was loaded, the client MUST wait for at least the target duration
   before attempting to reload the Playlist file again, measured from
   the last time the client began loading the Playlist file.

   If the client reloads a Playlist file and finds that it has not
   changed then it MUST wait for a period of one-half the target
   duration before retrying.

   After reloading a Media Playlist, the client SHOULD verify that each
   Media Segment in it has the same URI (and byte range, if specified)
   as the Media Segment with the same Media Sequence Number in the
   previous Media Playlist.  It SHOULD halt playback if it does not, as
   this normally indicates a server error.

   In order to reduce server load, the client SHOULD NOT reload the
   Playlist files of Variant Streams or alternate Renditions that are
   not currently being played.  If it decides to switch playback to a
   different Variant Stream, it SHOULD stop reloading the Playlist of
   the old Variant Stream and begin loading the Playlist of the new
   Variant Stream.  It can use the EXTINF durations and the constraints
   in Section 6.2.4 to determine the approximate location of
   corresponding media.  Once media from the new Variant Stream has been
   loaded, the timestamps in the Media Segments can be used to
   synchronize the old and new timelines precisely.

   A client MUST NOT attempt to use the Media Sequence Number to
   synchronize between streams - see Section 6.3.2.

6.3.5.  Determining the next segment to load

   The client MUST examine the Media Playlist file every time it is
   loaded or reloaded to determine the next Media Segment to load, as
   the set of available media MAY have changed.

   The first segment to load is generally the segment that the client
   has chosen to play first - see Section 6.3.3.

   In order to play the presentation normally, the next Media Segment to
   load is the one with the lowest Media Sequence Number that is greater
   than the Media Sequence Number of the last Media Segment loaded.

6.3.6.  Decrypting encrypted Media Segments

   If a Media Playlist file contains an EXT-X-KEY tag that specifies a
   Key file URI, the client can obtain that Key file and use the key




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   inside it to decrypt all Media Segments to which that EXT-X-KEY tag
   applies.

   A client MUST ignore any EXT-X-KEY tag with an unsupported or
   unrecognized KEYFORMAT attribute, to allow for cross-device
   addressibility.  If the Playlist contains a Media Segment to which
   only EXT-X-KEY tags with unrecognized or unsupported KEYFORMAT
   attributes are applied, playback SHOULD fail.

   A client MUST NOT not attempt to decrypt any segments whose EXT-X-KEY
   tag has a METHOD attribute that it does not recognize.

   If the encryption METHOD is AES-128, AES-128 CBC decryption SHALL be
   applied to individual Media Segments, whose encryption format is
   described in Section 4.3.2.4.

   If the encryption METHOD is AES-128 and the Media Segment is part of
   an I-frame playlist (Section 4.3.3.6) and it has an EXT-X-BYTERANGE
   tag applied to it, special care needs to be taken in loading and
   decrypting the segment, because the resource identified by the URI is
   encrypted in 16-byte blocks from the start of the resource (offset
   0).  The decrypted I-frame can be recovered by first widening its
   byte range, as specified by the EXT-X-BYTERANGE tag, so that it
   starts and ends on 16-byte boundaries.  Next, the byte range is
   widened further to include the previous 16-byte block.  That byte
   range is then loaded and decrypted with AES-128 CBC using an
   arbitrary IV.  The decrypted I-frame can then be read out from the
   range specified by the EXT-X-BYTERANGE tag and the remainder
   discarded.

   If the encryption METHOD is SAMPLE-AES, AES-128 decryption SHALL be
   applied to encrypted media samples within the Media Segment.  The
   format for encrypted H.264, AAC and AC-3 media streams is described
   by [SampleEnc].

   An EXT-X-KEY tag with a METHOD of NONE indicates that the Media
   Segments it applies to are not encrypted.

7.  Protocol version compatibility

   Protocol compatibility is specified by the EXT-X-VERSION tag.  A
   Playlist that contains tags or attributes that are not compatible
   with protocol version 1 MUST include an EXT-X-VERSION tag.  The value
   of the EXT-X-VERSION tag MUST be a protocol version that defines all
   tags and attributes in the Playlist; otherwise, client behavior is
   not defined.





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   A client MUST NOT attempt playback if it does not support the
   protocol version specified by the EXT-X-VERSION tag, or unintended
   behavior could occur.

   A Media Playlist REQUIRES protocol version 2 or higher if it
   contains:

   o  The IV attribute of the EXT-X-KEY tag.

   A Media Playlist REQUIRES protocol version 3 or higher if it
   contains:

   o  Floating-point EXTINF duration values.

   A Media Playlist REQUIRES protocol version 4 or higher if it
   contains:

   o  The EXT-X-BYTERANGE tag.

   o  The EXT-X-I-FRAMES-ONLY tag.

   A Media Playlist REQUIRES protocol version 5 or higher if it
   contains:

   o  The KEYFORMAT and KEYFORMATVERSIONS attributes of the EXT-X-KEY
      tag.

   o  The EXT-X-MAP tag.

   A Media Playlist REQUIRES protocol version 6 or higher if it
   contains:

   o  The EXT-X-MAP tag in a Media playlist that does not contain EXT-
      X-I-FRAMES-ONLY.

   A Media Playlist REQUIRES protocol version 7 or higher if it
   contains:

   o  "SERVICE" values for the INSTREAM-ID attribute for the EXT-X-MEDIA
      tag.

   The EXT-X-MEDIA tag and the AUDIO, VIDEO and SUBTITLES attributes of
   the EXT-X-STREAM-INF tag are backward compatible to protocol version
   1, but playback on older clients may not be desirable.  A server MAY
   consider indicating protocol version 4 in the Master Playlist but is
   not required to do so.





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   The PROGRAM-ID attribute of the EXT-X-STREAM-INF and the EXT-X-I-
   FRAME-STREAM-INF tags was removed in protocol version 6.

   The EXT-X-ALLOW-CACHE tag was removed in protocol version 7.

8.  Playlist Examples

8.1.  Simple Media Playlist

   #EXTM3U
   #EXT-X-TARGETDURATION:10
   #EXTINF:9.009,
   http://media.example.com/first.ts
   #EXTINF:9.009,
   http://media.example.com/second.ts
   #EXTINF:3.003,
   http://media.example.com/third.ts
   #EXT-X-ENDLIST

8.2.  Live Media Playlist, using HTTPS

   #EXTM3U
   #EXT-X-VERSION:3
   #EXT-X-TARGETDURATION:8
   #EXT-X-MEDIA-SEQUENCE:2680

   #EXTINF:7.975,
   https://priv.example.com/fileSequence2680.ts
   #EXTINF:7.941,
   https://priv.example.com/fileSequence2681.ts
   #EXTINF:7.975,
   https://priv.example.com/fileSequence2682.ts

8.3.  Playlist with encrypted Media Segments

















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   #EXTM3U
   #EXT-X-VERSION:3
   #EXT-X-MEDIA-SEQUENCE:7794
   #EXT-X-TARGETDURATION:15

   #EXT-X-KEY:METHOD=AES-128,URI="https://priv.example.com/key.php?r=52"

   #EXTINF:2.833,
   http://media.example.com/fileSequence52-A.ts
   #EXTINF:15.0,
   http://media.example.com/fileSequence52-B.ts
   #EXTINF:13.333,
   http://media.example.com/fileSequence52-C.ts

   #EXT-X-KEY:METHOD=AES-128,URI="https://priv.example.com/key.php?r=53"

   #EXTINF:15.0,
   http://media.example.com/fileSequence53-A.ts

8.4.  Master Playlist

   #EXTM3U
   #EXT-X-STREAM-INF:BANDWIDTH=1280000,AVERAGE-BANDWIDTH=1000000
   http://example.com/low.m3u8
   #EXT-X-STREAM-INF:BANDWIDTH=2560000,AVERAGE-BANDWIDTH=2000000
   http://example.com/mid.m3u8
   #EXT-X-STREAM-INF:BANDWIDTH=7680000,AVERAGE-BANDWIDTH=6000000
   http://example.com/hi.m3u8
   #EXT-X-STREAM-INF:BANDWIDTH=65000,CODECS="mp4a.40.5"
   http://example.com/audio-only.m3u8

8.5.  Master Playlist with I-Frames

   #EXTM3U
   #EXT-X-STREAM-INF:BANDWIDTH=1280000
   low/audio-video.m3u8
   #EXT-X-I-FRAME-STREAM-INF:BANDWIDTH=86000,URI="low/iframe.m3u8"
   #EXT-X-STREAM-INF:BANDWIDTH=2560000
   mid/audio-video.m3u8
   #EXT-X-I-FRAME-STREAM-INF:BANDWIDTH=150000,URI="mid/iframe.m3u8"
   #EXT-X-STREAM-INF:BANDWIDTH=7680000
   hi/audio-video.m3u8
   #EXT-X-I-FRAME-STREAM-INF:BANDWIDTH=550000,URI="hi/iframe.m3u8"
   #EXT-X-STREAM-INF:BANDWIDTH=65000,CODECS="mp4a.40.5"
   audio-only.m3u8






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8.6.  Master Playlist with Alternative audio

   In this example, the CODECS attributes have been condensed for space.
   A '\' is used to indicate that the tag continues on the following
   line with whitespace removed:

   #EXTM3U
   #EXT-X-MEDIA:TYPE=AUDIO,GROUP-ID="aac",NAME="English", \
      DEFAULT=YES,AUTOSELECT=YES,LANGUAGE="en", \
      URI="main/english-audio.m3u8"
   #EXT-X-MEDIA:TYPE=AUDIO,GROUP-ID="aac",NAME="Deutsch", \
      DEFAULT=NO,AUTOSELECT=YES,LANGUAGE="de", \
      URI="main/german-audio.m3u8"
   #EXT-X-MEDIA:TYPE=AUDIO,GROUP-ID="aac",NAME="Commentary", \
      DEFAULT=NO,AUTOSELECT=NO,LANGUAGE="en", \
      URI="commentary/audio-only.m3u8"
   #EXT-X-STREAM-INF:BANDWIDTH=1280000,CODECS="...",AUDIO="aac"
   low/video-only.m3u8
   #EXT-X-STREAM-INF:BANDWIDTH=2560000,CODECS="...",AUDIO="aac"
   mid/video-only.m3u8
   #EXT-X-STREAM-INF:BANDWIDTH=7680000,CODECS="...",AUDIO="aac"
   hi/video-only.m3u8
   #EXT-X-STREAM-INF:BANDWIDTH=65000,CODECS="mp4a.40.5",AUDIO="aac"
   main/english-audio.m3u8

8.7.  Master Playlist with Alternative video

   In this example, the CODECS attributes have been condensed for space.
   A '\' is used to indicate that the tag continues on the following
   line with whitespace removed:





















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   #EXTM3U
   #EXT-X-MEDIA:TYPE=VIDEO,GROUP-ID="low",NAME="Main", \
      DEFAULT=YES,URI="low/main/audio-video.m3u8"
   #EXT-X-MEDIA:TYPE=VIDEO,GROUP-ID="low",NAME="Centerfield", \
      DEFAULT=NO,URI="low/centerfield/audio-video.m3u8"
   #EXT-X-MEDIA:TYPE=VIDEO,GROUP-ID="low",NAME="Dugout", \
      DEFAULT=NO,URI="low/dugout/audio-video.m3u8"

   #EXT-X-STREAM-INF:BANDWIDTH=1280000,CODECS="...",VIDEO="low"
   low/main/audio-video.m3u8

   #EXT-X-MEDIA:TYPE=VIDEO,GROUP-ID="mid",NAME="Main", \
      DEFAULT=YES,URI="mid/main/audio-video.m3u8"
   #EXT-X-MEDIA:TYPE=VIDEO,GROUP-ID="mid",NAME="Centerfield", \
      DEFAULT=NO,URI="mid/centerfield/audio-video.m3u8"
   #EXT-X-MEDIA:TYPE=VIDEO,GROUP-ID="mid",NAME="Dugout", \
      DEFAULT=NO,URI="mid/dugout/audio-video.m3u8"

   #EXT-X-STREAM-INF:BANDWIDTH=2560000,CODECS="...",VIDEO="mid"
   mid/main/audio-video.m3u8

   #EXT-X-MEDIA:TYPE=VIDEO,GROUP-ID="hi",NAME="Main", \
      DEFAULT=YES,URI="hi/main/audio-video.m3u8"
   #EXT-X-MEDIA:TYPE=VIDEO,GROUP-ID="hi",NAME="Centerfield", \
      DEFAULT=NO,URI="hi/centerfield/audio-video.m3u8"
   #EXT-X-MEDIA:TYPE=VIDEO,GROUP-ID="hi",NAME="Dugout", \
      DEFAULT=NO,URI="hi/dugout/audio-video.m3u8"

   #EXT-X-STREAM-INF:BANDWIDTH=7680000,CODECS="...",VIDEO="hi"
   hi/main/audio-video.m3u8

   #EXT-X-STREAM-INF:BANDWIDTH=65000,CODECS="mp4a.40.5"
   main/audio-only.m3u8

8.8.  Session Data in a Master Playlist

   In this example, only the EXT-X-SESSION-DATA is shown:

   #EXT-X-SESSION-DATA:DATA-ID="com.example.lyrics",URI="lyrics.json"

   #EXT-X-SESSION-DATA:DATA-ID="com.example.title",LANGUAGE="en", \
       VALUE="This is an example"
   #EXT-X-SESSION-DATA:DATA-ID="com.example.title",LANGUAGE="sp", \
       VALUE="Este es un ejemplo"







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9.  Contributors

   Significant contributions to the design of this protocol were made by
   Jim Batson, David Biderman, Bill May, Roger Pantos, Alan Tseng, and
   Eryk Vershen.

10.  IANA Considerations

   This memo requests that the following MIME type [RFC2046] be
   registered with the IANA:

   Type name: "application"

   Subtype name: "vnd.apple.mpegurl"

   Required parameters: (none)

   Optional parameters: (none)

   Encoding considerations: encoded as text.  See Section 4 for more
   information.

   Security considerations: See Section 11.

   Compression: this media type does not employ compression.

   Interoperability considerations: There are no byte-ordering issues,
   since files are 7- or 8-bit text.  Applications could encounter
   unrecognized tags, which SHOULD be ignored.

   Published specification: see Section 4.

   Applications that use this media type: Multimedia applications such
   as the iPhone media player in iOS 3.0 and later and QuickTime Player
   in Mac OS X version 10.6 and later.

   Additional information: files begin with the magic number #EXTM3U.
   Filenames normally end with .m3u8 or .m3u (see Section 4).  No
   Macintosh file type codes have been registered.

   Person & email address to contact for further information: David
   Singer, singer AT apple.com.

   Intended usage: LIMITED USE

   Restrictions on usage: (none)

   Author: Roger Pantos



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   Change Controller: David Singer

11.  Security Considerations

   Since the protocol generally uses HTTP to transfer data, most of the
   same security considerations apply.  See section 15 of HTTP
   [RFC7230].

   Media file parsers are typically subject to "fuzzing" attacks.
   Implementors SHOULD pay particular attention to code that will parse
   data received from a server and ensure that all possible inputs are
   handled correctly.

   Playlist files contain URIs, which clients will use to make network
   requests of arbitrary entities.  Clients SHOULD range-check responses
   to prevent buffer overflows.  See also the Security Considerations
   section of Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax
   [RFC3986].

   Clients SHOULD limit each playback session to a reasonable number of
   concurrent downloads (e.g. 4) to avoid contributing to denial-of-
   service attacks.

   HTTP requests often include session state ("cookies"), which may
   contain private user data.  Implementations MUST follow cookie
   restriction and expiry rules specified by HTTP State Management
   Mechanism [RFC6265] to protect themselves from attack.  See also the
   Security Considerations section of that document, and Use of HTTP
   State Management [RFC2964].

   Encryption keys are specified by URI.  The delivery of these keys
   SHOULD be secured by a mechanism such as HTTP Over TLS [RFC2818]
   (formerly SSL) in conjunction with a secure realm or a session token.

12.  References

12.1.  Normative References

   [AC_3]     Advanced Television Systems Committee, "ATSC Standard:
              A/52:2010: Digital Audio Compression (AC-3) (E-AC-3)
              Standard", November 2010,
              <http://www.atsc.org/cms/standards/a_52-2010.pdf>.

   [AES_128]  U.S. Department of Commerce/National Institute of
              Standards and Technology, "Advanced Encryption Standard
              (AES), FIPS PUB 197", November 2001,
              <http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/fips/fips197/
              fips-197.pdf>.



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   [CEA608]   Consumer Electronics Association, "CEA-608-E: Line 21 Data
              Services", April 2008, <http://www.ce.org/Standards/
              Standard-Listings/R4-3-Television-Data-Systems-
              Subcommittee/Line-21-Data-Service.aspx>.

   [CEA708]   Consumer Electronics Association, "CEA-708-E (ANSI):
              Digital Television (DTV) Closed Captioning", August 2013,
              <http://www.ce.org/Standards/Standard-Listings/
              R4-3-Television-Data-Systems-Subcommittee/CEA-708-D.aspx>.

   [H_264]    International Telecommunications Union, "Advanced video
              coding for generic audiovisual services", January 2012,
              <http://www.itu.int/rec/T-REC-H.264>.

   [ISO_11172]
              International Organization for Standardization, "ISO/IEC
              International Standard 11172-1; Coding of moving pictures
              and associated audio for digital storage media -- Part 1:
              Systems", 1993,
              <http://www.iso.org/iso/catalogue_detail?csnumber=19180>.

   [ISO_13818]
              International Organization for Standardization, "ISO/IEC
              International Standard 13818; Generic coding of moving
              pictures and associated audio information", October 2007,
              <http://www.iso.org/iso/catalogue_detail?csnumber=44169>.

   [ISO_14496]
              International Organization for Standardization, "ISO/IEC
              14496-3:2009 Information technology -- Coding of audio-
              visual objects -- Part 3: Audio", 2009,
              <http://www.iso.org/iso/catalogue_detail?csnumber=53943>.

   [ISO_8601]
              International Organization for Standardization, "ISO/IEC
              International Standard 8601:2004; Data elements and
              interchange formats -- Information interchange --
              Representation of dates and times", December 2004,
              <http://www.iso.org/iso/catalogue_detail?csnumber=40874>.

   [RFC2046]  Freed, N. and N. Borenstein, "Multipurpose Internet Mail
              Extensions (MIME) Part Two: Media Types", RFC 2046,
              November 1996.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC2818]  Rescorla, E., "HTTP Over TLS", RFC 2818, May 2000.



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   [RFC2964]  Moore, K. and N. Freed, "Use of HTTP State Management",
              BCP 44, RFC 2964, October 2000.

   [RFC3629]  Yergeau, F., "UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO
              10646", STD 63, RFC 3629, November 2003.

   [RFC3986]  Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, "Uniform
              Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax", STD 66, RFC
              3986, January 2005.

   [RFC5646]  Phillips, A. and M. Davis, "Tags for Identifying
              Languages", BCP 47, RFC 5646, September 2009.

   [RFC5652]  Housley, R., "Cryptographic Message Syntax (CMS)", STD 70,
              RFC 5652, September 2009.

   [RFC6265]  Barth, A., "HTTP State Management Mechanism", RFC 6265,
              April 2011.

   [RFC6381]  Gellens, R., Singer, D., and P. Frojdh, "The 'Codecs' and
              'Profiles' Parameters for "Bucket" Media Types", RFC 6381,
              August 2011.

   [RFC7159]  Bray, T., "The JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Data
              Interchange Format", RFC 7159, March 2014.

   [RFC7230]  Fielding, R. and J. Reschke, "Hypertext Transfer Protocol
              (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing", RFC 7230, June
              2014.

   [US_ASCII]
              American National Standards Institute, "ANSI X3.4-1986,
              Information Systems -- Coded Character Sets 7-Bit American
              National Standard Code for Information Interchange (7-Bit
              ASCII)", December 1986.

   [WebVTT]   World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), "WebVTT: The Web Video
              Text Tracks Format", July 2013,
              <http://dev.w3.org/html5/webvtt/>.

12.2.  Informative References

   [ID3]      ID3.org, "The ID3 audio file data tagging format",
              <http://www.id3.org/Developer_Information>.

   [M3U]      Nullsoft, Inc., "The M3U Playlist format, originally
              invented for the Winamp media player",
              <http://wikipedia.org/wiki/M3U>.



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   [SampleEnc]
              Apple Inc., "MPEG-2 Stream Encryption Format for HTTP Live
              Streaming",
              <https://developer.apple.com/library/ios/documentation/
              AudioVideo/Conceptual/HLS_Sample_Encryption/>.

   [UTI]      Apple Inc., "Uniform Type Identifier", <http://developer.a
              pple.com/library/ios/#documentation/general/conceptual/
              DevPedia-CocoaCore/UniformTypeIdentifier.html>.

Authors' Addresses

   Roger Pantos (editor)
   Apple Inc.
   Cupertino, California
   United States

   Email: http-live-streaming-review@group.apple.com


   William May, Jr.
   Apple Inc.
   Cupertino, California
   United States

   Email: http-live-streaming-review@group.apple.com

























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