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Open Authentication Protocol                                  A. Parecki
Internet-Draft                                                      Okta
Intended status: Best Current Practice                          D. Waite
Expires: June 11, 2019                                     Ping Identity
                                                       December 08, 2018


                    OAuth 2.0 for Browser-Based Apps
               draft-parecki-oauth-browser-based-apps-02

Abstract

   OAuth 2.0 authorization requests from apps running entirely in a
   browser are unable to use a Client Secret during the process, since
   they have no way to keep a secret confidential.  This specification
   details the security considerations that must be taken into account
   when developing browser-based applications, as well as best practices
   for how they can securely implement OAuth 2.0.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on June 11, 2019.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2018 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of



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   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Notational Conventions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   4.  Overview  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   5.  First-Party Applications  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   6.  Architectural Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     6.1.  Apps Served from the Same Domain as the API . . . . . . .   5
     6.2.  Browser-Based App with a Backend Component  . . . . . . .   5
   7.  Authorization Code Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     7.1.  Initiating the Authorization Request from a Browser-Based
           Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     7.2.  Handling the Authorization Code Redirect  . . . . . . . .   6
   8.  Refresh Tokens  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   9.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     9.1.  Registration of Browser-Based Apps  . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     9.2.  Client Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     9.3.  Client Impersonation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     9.4.  Cross-Site Request Forgery Protections  . . . . . . . . .   8
     9.5.  Authorization Server Mix-Up Mitigation  . . . . . . . . .   8
     9.6.  Cross-Domain Requests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     9.7.  Content-Security Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     9.8.  OAuth Implicit Grant Authorization Flow . . . . . . . . .   9
       9.8.1.  Threat: Interception of the Redirect URI  . . . . . .  10
       9.8.2.  Threat: Access Token Leak in Browser History  . . . .  10
       9.8.3.  Threat: Manipulation of Scripts . . . . . . . . . . .  10
       9.8.4.  Threat: Access Token Leak to Third Party Scripts  . .  10
       9.8.5.  Countermeasures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
       9.8.6.  Disadvantages of the Implicit Flow  . . . . . . . . .  11
       9.8.7.  Historic Note . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     9.9.  Additional Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   10. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   11. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     11.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     11.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   Appendix A.  Server Support Checklist . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   Appendix B.  Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14

1.  Introduction

   This specification describes the current best practices for
   implementing OAuth 2.0 authorization flows in applications running
   entirely in a browser.



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   For native application developers using OAuth 2.0 and OpenID Connect,
   an IETF BCP (best current practice) was published that guides
   integration of these technologies.  This document is formally known
   as [RFC8252] or BCP 212, but nicknamed "AppAuth" after the OpenID
   Foundation-sponsored set of libraries that assist developers in
   adopting these practices.

   AppAuth steers developers away from performing user authorization via
   embedding user agents such as browser controls into native apps,
   instead insisting that an external agent (such as the system browser)
   be used.  The RFC continues on to promote capabilities and
   supplemental specifications beyond the base OAuth 2.0 and OpenID
   Connect specifications to improve baseline security, such as
   [RFC7636], also known as PKCE.

   OAuth 2.0 for Browser-Based Apps addresses the similarities between
   implementing OAuth for native apps as well as browser-based apps, and
   includes additional considerations when running in a browser.  This
   is primarily focused on OAuth, except where OpenID Connect provides
   additional considerations.

2.  Notational Conventions

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
   [RFC2119].

3.  Terminology

   In addition to the terms defined in referenced specifications, this
   document uses the following terms:

   "OAuth":  In this document, "OAuth" refers to OAuth 2.0, [RFC6749].

   "Browser-based application":  An application that runs entirely in a
      web browser, usually written in JavaScript, where the source code
      is downloaded from a domain prior to execution.  Also sometimes
      referred to as a "single-page application", or "SPA".

4.  Overview

   For authorizing users within a browser-based application, the best
   current practice is to

   o  Use the OAuth 2.0 authorization code flow with the PKCE extension

   o  Require the OAuth 2.0 state parameter



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   o  Recommend exact matching of redirect URIs, and require the
      hostname of the redirect URI match the hostname of the URL the app
      was served from

   o  Do not return access tokens in the front channel

   Previously it was recommended that browser-based applications use the
   OAuth 2.0 Implicit flow.  That approach has several drawbacks,
   including the fact that access tokens are returned in the front-
   channel via the fragment part of the redirect URI, and as such are
   vulnerable to a variety of attacks where the access token can be
   intercepted or stolen.  See Section 9.8 for a deeper analysis of
   these attacks and the drawbacks of using the Implicit flow in
   browsers, many of which are described by [oauth-security-topics].

   Instead, browser-based apps can perform the OAuth 2.0 authorization
   code flow and make a POST request to the token endpoint to exchange
   an authorization code for an access token, just like other OAuth
   clients.  This ensures that access tokens are not sent via the less
   secure front-channel, and are only returned over an HTTPS connection
   initiated from the application.  Combined with PKCE, this enables the
   authorization server to ensure that authorization codes are useless
   even if intercepted in transport.

5.  First-Party Applications

   While OAuth and OpenID Connect were initially created to allow third-
   party applications to access an API on behalf of a user, they have
   both proven to be useful in a first-party scenario as well.  First-
   party apps are applications created by the same organization that
   provides the API being accessed by the application.

   For example, a web email client provided by the operator of the email
   account, or a mobile banking application created by bank itself.
   (Note that there is no requirement that the application actually be
   developed by the same company; a mobile banking application developed
   by a contractor that is branded as the bank's application is still
   considered a first-party application.)  The first-party app
   consideration is about the user's relationship to the application and
   the service.

   To conform to this best practice, first-party applications using
   OAuth or OpenID Connect MUST use an OAuth Authorization Code flow as
   described later in this document or use the OAuth Password grant.

   It is strongly RECOMMENDED that applications use the Authorization
   Code flow over the Password grant for several reasons.  By
   redirecting to the authorization server, this provides the



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   authorization server the opportunity to prompt the user for multi-
   factor authentication options, take advantage of single-sign-on
   sessions, or use third-party identity providers.  In contrast, the
   Password grant does not provide any built-in mechanism for these, and
   must be extended with custom code.

6.  Architectural Considerations

   In some cases, it may make sense to avoid the use of a strictly
   browser-based OAuth application entirely, instead using an
   architecture that can provide better security.

6.1.  Apps Served from the Same Domain as the API

   For simple system architectures, such as when the JavaScript
   application is served from the same domain as the API (resource
   server) being accessed, it is likely a better decision to avoid using
   OAuth entirely, and just use session authentication to communicate
   with the API.

   OAuth and OpenID Connect provide very little benefit in this
   deployment scenario, so it is recommended to reconsider whether you
   need OAuth or OpenID Connect at all in this case.  Session
   authentication has the benefit of having fewer moving parts and fewer
   attack vectors.  OAuth and OpenID Connect were created primarily for
   third-party or federated access to APIs, so may not be the best
   solution in a same-domain scenario.

6.2.  Browser-Based App with a Backend Component

   To avoid the risks inherent in handling OAuth access tokens from a
   purely browser-based application, implementations may wish to move
   the authorization code exchange and handling of access and refresh
   tokens into a backend component.

   The backend component essentially becomes a new authorization server
   for the code running in the browser, issuing its own tokens (e.g. a
   session cookie).  Security of the connection between code running in
   the browser and this backend component is assumed to utilize browser-
   level protection mechanisms.  Details are out of scope of this
   document, but many recommendations can be found at the OWASP
   Foundation (https://www.owasp.org/).

   In this scenario, the backend component may be a confidential client
   which is issued its own client secret.  Despite this, there are still
   some ways in which this application is effectively a public client,
   as the end result is the application's code is still running in the
   browser and visible to the user.  Some authorization servers may have



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   different policies for public and confidential clients, and this type
   of hybrid approach does not provide all the assurances of
   confidential clients that an authorization server is expecting.
   Authorization servers may wish to treat this type of deployment as a
   public client.

7.  Authorization Code Flow

   Public browser-based apps needing user authorization create an
   authorization request URI with the authorization code grant type per
   Section 4.1 of OAuth 2.0 [RFC6749], using a redirect URI capable of
   being received by the app.

7.1.  Initiating the Authorization Request from a Browser-Based
      Application

   Public browser-based apps MUST implement the Proof Key for Code
   Exchange (PKCE [RFC7636]) extension to OAuth, and authorization
   servers MUST support PKCE for such clients.

   The PKCE extension prevents an attack where the authorization code is
   intercepted and exchanged for an access token by a malicious client,
   by providing the authorization server with a way to verify the same
   client instance that exchanges the authorization code is the same one
   that initiated the flow.

   Browser-based apps MUST use the OAuth 2.0 "state" parameter to
   protect themselves against Cross-Site Request Forgery and
   authorization code swap attacks and MUST use a unique value for each
   authorization request, and MUST verify the returned state in the
   authorization response matches the original state the app created.

7.2.  Handling the Authorization Code Redirect

   Authorization servers SHOULD require an exact match of a registered
   redirect URI.

   If an authorization server wishes to provide some flexibility in
   redirect URI usage to clients, it MAY require that only the hostname
   component of the redirect URI match the hostname of the URL the
   application is served from.

   Authorization servers MUST support one of the two redirect URI
   validation mechanisms as described above.







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8.  Refresh Tokens

   Refresh tokens provide a way for applications to obtain a new access
   token when the initial access token expires. [oauth-security-topics]
   describes some additional requirements around refresh tokens on top
   of the recommendations of [RFC6749].

   For public clients, the risk of a leaked refresh token is much
   greater than leaked access tokens, since an attacker can potentially
   continue using the stoken refresh token to obtain new access without
   being detectable by the authorization server.  Additionally, browser-
   based applications provide many attack vectors by which a refresh
   token can be leaked.  As such, these applications are considered a
   higher risk for handling refresh tokens.

   Authorization servers SHOULD NOT issue refresh tokens to browser-
   based applications.

   If an authorization server does choose to issue refresh tokens to
   browser-based applications, then it MUST issue a new refresh token
   with every access token refresh response.  Doing this mitigates the
   risk of a leaked refresh token, as a leaked refresh token can be
   detected if both the attacker and the legitimate client attempt to
   use the same refresh token.  Authorization servers MUST follow the
   additional refresh token replay mitigation techniques described in
   [oauth-security-topics].

9.  Security Considerations

9.1.  Registration of Browser-Based Apps

   Browser-based applications are considered public clients as defined
   by section 2.1 of OAuth 2.0 [RFC6749], and MUST be registered with
   the authorization server as such.  Authorization servers MUST record
   the client type in the client registration details in order to
   identify and process requests accordingly.

   Authorization servers MUST require that browser-based applications
   register one or more redirect URIs.

9.2.  Client Authentication

   Since a browser-based application's source code is delivered to the
   end-user's browser, it cannot contain provisioned secrets.  As such,
   a browser-based app with native OAuth support is considered a public
   client as defined by Section 2.1 of OAuth 2.0 [RFC6749].





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   Secrets that are statically included as part of an app distributed to
   multiple users should not be treated as confidential secrets, as one
   user may inspect their copy and learn the shared secret.  For this
   reason, and those stated in Section 5.3.1 of [RFC6819], it is NOT
   RECOMMENDED for authorization servers to require client
   authentication of browser-based applications using a shared secret,
   as this serves little value beyond client identification which is
   already provided by the client_id request parameter.

   Authorization servers that still require a statically included shared
   secret for SPA clients MUST treat the client as a public client, and
   not accept the secret as proof of the client's identity.  Without
   additional measures, such clients are subject to client impersonation
   (see Section 9.3 below).

9.3.  Client Impersonation

   As stated in Section 10.2 of OAuth 2.0 [RFC6749], the authorization
   server SHOULD NOT process authorization requests automatically
   without user consent or interaction, except when the identity of the
   client can be assured.  Even when the user has previously approved an
   authorization request for a given client_id, the request SHOULD be
   processed as if no previous request had been approved, unless the
   identity of the client can be proven.

   If authorization servers restrict redirect URIs to a fixed set of
   absolute HTTPS URIs without wildcard domains, paths, or query string
   components, this exact match of registered absolute HTTPS URIs MAY be
   accepted by authorization servers as proof of identity of the client
   for the purpose of deciding whether to automatically process an
   authorization request when a previous request for the client_id has
   already been approved.

9.4.  Cross-Site Request Forgery Protections

   Section 5.3.5 of [RFC6819] recommends using the "state" parameter to
   link client requests and responses to prevent CSRF (Cross-Site
   Request Forgery) attacks.  To conform to this best practice, use of
   the "state" parameter is REQUIRED, as described in Section 7.1.

9.5.  Authorization Server Mix-Up Mitigation

   The security considerations around the authorization server mix-up
   that are referenced in Section 8.10 of [RFC8252] also apply to
   browser-based apps.

   Clients MUST use a unique redirect URI for each authorization server
   used by the application.  The client MUST store the redirect URI



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   along with the session data (e.g. along with "state") and MUST verify
   that the URI on which the authorization response was received exactly
   matches.

9.6.  Cross-Domain Requests

   To complete the authorization code flow, the browser-based
   application will need to exchange the authorization code for an
   access token at the token endpoint.  If the authorization server
   provides additional endpoints to the application, such as metadata
   URLs, dynamic client registration, revocation, introspection,
   discovery or user info endpoints, these endpoints may also be
   accessed by the browser-based app.  Since these requests will be made
   from a browser, authorization servers MUST support the necessary CORS
   headers (defined in [Fetch]) to allow the browser to make the
   request.

   This specification does not include guidelines for deciding whether a
   CORS policy for the token endpoint should be a wildcard origin or
   more restrictive.  Note, however, that the browser will attempt to
   GET or POST to the API endpoint before knowing any CORS policy; it
   simply hides the succeeding or failing result from JavaScript if the
   policy does not allow sharing.  If POSTs in particular from
   unsupported single-page applications are to be rejected as errors per
   authorization server security policy, such rejection is typically
   done based on the Origin request header.

9.7.  Content-Security Policy

   A browser-based application that wishes to use either long-lived
   refresh tokens or privileged scopes SHOULD restrict its JavaScript
   execution to a set of statically hosted scripts via a Content
   Security Policy ([CSP2]) or similar mechanism.  A strong Content
   Security Policy can limit the potential attack vectors for malicious
   JavaScript to be executed on the page.

9.8.  OAuth Implicit Grant Authorization Flow

   The OAuth 2.0 Implicit grant authorization flow (defined in
   Section 4.2 of OAuth 2.0 [RFC6749]) works by receiving an access
   token in the HTTP redirect (front-channel) immediately without the
   code exchange step.  In this case, the access token is returned in
   the fragment part of the redirect URI, providing an attacker with
   several opportunities to intercept and steal the access token.
   Several attacks on the implicit flow are described by [RFC6819] and
   [oauth-security-topics], not all of which have sufficient mitigation
   strategies.




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9.8.1.  Threat: Interception of the Redirect URI

   If an attacker is able to cause the authorization response to be sent
   to a URI under his control, he will directly get access to the
   fragment carrying the access token.  A method of performing this
   attack is described in detail in [oauth-security-topics].

9.8.2.  Threat: Access Token Leak in Browser History

   An attacker could obtain the access token from the browser's history.
   The countermeasures recommended by [RFC6819] are limited to using
   short expiration times for tokens, and indicating that browsers
   should not cache the response.  Neither of these fully prevent this
   attack, they only reduce the potential damage.

   Additionally, many browsers now also sync browser history to cloud
   services and to multiple devices, providing an even wider attack
   surface to extract access tokens out of the URL.

9.8.3.  Threat: Manipulation of Scripts

   An attacker could modify the page or inject scripts into the browser
   via various means, including when the browser's HTTPS connection is
   being man-in-the-middled by for example a corporate network.  While
   this type of attack is typically out of scope of basic security
   recommendations to prevent, in the case of browser-based apps it is
   much easier to perform this kind of attack, where an injected script
   can suddenly have access to everything on the page.

   The risk of a malicious script running on the page is far greater
   when the application uses a known standard way of obtaining access
   tokens, namely that the attacker can always look at the
   window.location to find an access token.  This threat profile is very
   different compared to an attacker specifically targeting an
   individual application by knowing where or how an access token
   obtained via the authorization code flow may end up being stored.

9.8.4.  Threat: Access Token Leak to Third Party Scripts

   It is relatively common to use third-party scripts in browser-based
   apps, such as analytics tools, crash reporting, and even things like
   a Facebook or Twitter "like" button.  In these situations, the author
   of the application may not be able to be fully aware of the entirety
   of the code running in the application.  When an access token is
   returned in the fragment, it is visible to any third-party scripts on
   the page.





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9.8.5.  Countermeasures

   In addition to the countermeasures described by [RFC6819] and
   [oauth-security-topics], using the authorization code with PKCE
   avoids these attacks.

   When PKCE is used, if an authorization code is stolen in transport,
   the attacker is unable to do anything with the authorization code.

9.8.6.  Disadvantages of the Implicit Flow

   There are several additional reasons the Implicit flow is
   disadvantageous compared to using the standard Authorization Code
   flow.

   o  OAuth 2.0 provides no mechanism for a client to verify that an
      access token was issued to it, which could lead to misuse and
      possible impersonation attacks if a malicious party hands off an
      access token it retrieved through some other means to the client.

   o  Returning an access token in the front channel redirect gives the
      authorization server little assurance that the access token will
      actually end up at the application, since there are many ways this
      redirect may fail or be intercepted.

   o  Supporting the implicit flow requires additional code, more upkeep
      and understanding of the related security considerations, while
      limiting the authorization server to just the authorization code
      flow reduces the attack surface of the implementation.

   o  If the JavaScript application gets wrapped into a native app, then
      [RFC8252] also requires the use of the authorization code flow
      with PKCE anyway.

   In OpenID Connect, the id_token is sent in a known format (as a JWT),
   and digitally signed.  Performing OpenID Connect using the
   authorization code flow also provides the additional benefit of the
   client not needing to verify the JWT signature, as the token will
   have been fetched over an HTTPS connection directly from the
   authorization server.  However, returning an id_token using the
   Implicit flow requires the client validate the JWT signature, as
   malicious parties could otherwise craft and supply fraudulent
   id_tokens.








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9.8.7.  Historic Note

   Historically, the Implicit flow provided an advantage to single-page
   apps since JavaScript could always arbitrarily read and manipulate
   the fragment portion of the URL without triggering a page reload.
   Now with the Session History API (described in "Session history and
   navigation" of [HTML]), browsers have a mechanism to modify the path
   component of the URL without triggering a page reload, so this
   overloaded use of the fragment portion is no longer needed.

9.9.  Additional Security Considerations

   The OWASP Foundation (https://www.owasp.org/) maintains a set of
   security recommendations and best practices for web applications, and
   it is RECOMMENDED to follow these best practices when creating an
   OAuth 2.0 Browser-Based application.

10.  IANA Considerations

   This document does not require any IANA actions.

11.  References

11.1.  Normative References

   [CSP2]     West, M., Barth, A., and D. Veditz, "Content Security
              Policy", December 2016.

   [Fetch]    whatwg, "Fetch", 2018.

   [oauth-security-topics]
              Lodderstedt, T., Bradley, J., Labunets, A., and D. Fett,
              "OAuth 2.0 Security Best Current Practice", November 2018.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC6749]  Hardt, D., Ed., "The OAuth 2.0 Authorization Framework",
              RFC 6749, DOI 10.17487/RFC6749, October 2012,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6749>.

   [RFC6819]  Lodderstedt, T., Ed., McGloin, M., and P. Hunt, "OAuth 2.0
              Threat Model and Security Considerations", RFC 6819,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6819, January 2013,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6819>.




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   [RFC7636]  Sakimura, N., Ed., Bradley, J., and N. Agarwal, "Proof Key
              for Code Exchange by OAuth Public Clients", RFC 7636,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7636, September 2015,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7636>.

   [RFC8252]  Denniss, W. and J. Bradley, "OAuth 2.0 for Native Apps",
              BCP 212, RFC 8252, DOI 10.17487/RFC8252, October 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8252>.

11.2.  Informative References

   [HTML]     whatwg, "HTML", 2018.

Appendix A.  Server Support Checklist

   OAuth servers that support browser-based apps MUST:

   1.  Require "https" scheme redirect URIs.

   2.  Require exact matching on redirect URIs or matching the hostname
       the application is served from.

   3.  Support PKCE [RFC7636].  Required to protect authorization code
       grants sent to public clients.  See Section 7.1

   4.  Support cross-domain requests at the token endpoint in order to
       allow browsers to make the authorization code exchange request.
       See Section 9.6

   5.  Not assume that browser-based clients can keep a secret, and
       SHOULD NOT issue secrets to applications of this type.

Appendix B.  Acknowledgements

   The authors would like to acknowledge the work of William Denniss and
   John Bradley, whose recommendation for native apps informed many of
   the best practices for browser-based applications.  The authors would
   also like to thank Hannes Tschofenig and Torsten Lodderstedt, as well
   as all the attendees of the Internet Identity Workshop 27 session at
   which this BCP was originally proposed.

   The following individuals contributed ideas, feedback, and wording
   that shaped and formed the final specification:

   Annabelle Backman, Brian Campbell, Brock Allen, Christian Mainka,
   Daniel Fett, George Fletcher, Hannes Tschofenig, John Bradley, Joseph
   Heenan, Justin Richer, Karl McGuinness, Tomek Stojecki, Torsten
   Lodderstedt, and Vittorio Bertocci.



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Authors' Addresses

   Aaron Parecki
   Okta

   Email: aaron@parecki.com
   URI:   https://aaronparecki.com


   David Waite
   Ping Identity

   Email: david@alkaline-solutions.com






































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