[Docs] [txt|pdf] [Tracker] [Email] [Diff1] [Diff2] [Nits]

Versions: 00 01 02 03 04

  Internet-Draft                                           Norman Paskin
  Document: draft-paskin-doi-uri-03.txt                              IDF
  Expires: November 2003                                   Eamonn Neylon
                                                      Manifest Solutions
                                                            Tony Hammond
                                                                Elsevier
                                                                 Sam Sun
                                                                    CNRI
                                                                May 2003
  
        The "doi" URI Scheme for the Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
  
  Status of this Memo
  
     This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with
     all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026.
  
     Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
     Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups.  Note that
     other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-
     Drafts.
  
     Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six
     months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other
     documents at any time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts
     as reference material or to cite them other than as "work in
     progress."
  
     The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
          http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt
     The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
          http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.
  
  Abstract
  
     This document defines the "doi" Uniform Resource Identifier (URI)
     scheme for the Digital Object Identifier (DOI). DOIs are
     identifiers for entities of significance to the intellectual
     property communities. The "doi" URI scheme allows a resource for
     an entity identified by a DOI to be referenced by a URI for
     Internet applications.  A "doi" URI is dereferenced to a set of
     network services through an appropriate resolution system. The
     binding between the "doi" URI and the resource which it references
     is managed and is persistent over time.
  
  Table of Contents
  
     1  Introduction..................................................2
     2  Terminology...................................................3
  
  
  
  Paskin                 Expires - November 2003               [Page 1]


                           The "doi" URI Scheme                 May 2003
  
  
     3  The "doi" URI Scheme..........................................3
     4  Lexical Equivalence for the "doi" URI Scheme..................5
     5  Examples of Lexical Equivalence for the "doi" URI Scheme......5
     6  DOI Administration............................................5
     7  DOI Resolution................................................6
     8  Rationale.....................................................6
     9  Security Considerations.......................................7
     10   Acknowledgements............................................7
     11   References..................................................7
     12   Authors' Addresses..........................................8
     13   Full Copyright Statement....................................8
  
  1  Introduction
  
     This document defines the "doi" Uniform Resource Identifier (URI)
     scheme for the Digital Object Identifier (DOI). DOIs are
     identifiers for entities of significance to the intellectual
     property communities. The "doi" URI scheme allows a resource for
     an entity identified by a DOI to be referenced by a URI for
     Internet applications.  A "doi" URI is dereferenced to a set of
     network services through an appropriate resolution system. The
     binding between the "doi" URI and the resource which it references
     is managed and is persistent over time.
  
     The term "Digital Object Identifier" should be construed as
     meaning an identifier ("Identifier") of an entity ("Object") for
     use in networked environments ("Digital"). In this sense an
     "Object" can be any entity - any digital or physical manifestation
     or  performance, or any abstract work - that is identified by a
     DOI.
  
     Some concepts relevant to DOI follow:
  
     International DOI Foundation (IDF) û A not-for-profit membership-
        based organization founded to develop a framework of
        infrastructure, policies and procedures to support the
        identification needs of the intellectual property communities.
  
     DOI Registration Agency - An IDF-appointed body that provides
        administration facilities to DOI Prefix Holders.
  
     DOI Prefix Holder û Any network user who has been assigned the use
        of a DOI naming authority under which DOIs may be created.
  
     DOI Service û One or more network services accessible on
        dereference of a DOI.
  
  
  
  
  
  Paskin                 Expires - November 2003               [Page 2]


                           The "doi" URI Scheme                 May 2003
  
  
     DOI Metadata û A set of data associated with a DOI which is
        deposited into a repository at time of creation by a DOI
        Registration Agency and thereafter maintained.
  
  2  Terminology
  
     In this document the key words "must", "must not", "required",
     "shall", "shall not", "should", "should not", "recommended",
     "may", and "optional" are to be interpreted as described in
     RFC2119 [1] and indicate requirement levels for compliant
     implementations.
  
  3  The "doi" URI Scheme
  
  3.1 Definition of "doi" URI Syntax
  
     The "doi" URI syntax defined in this document conforms to the
     generic URI syntax as specified in RFC 2396 [2] and follows the
     "opaque_part" production rule. The complete BNF for a "doi" URI
     using the grammar of RFC 822 [3] as amended by RFC 2396, section 
     1.6, is as follows:
  
       doi_uri         = scheme ":" doi_identifier
       scheme          = "doi"
       doi_identifier  = prefix "/" suffix
       prefix          = *uric_no_slash
       suffix          = *uric
  
     where the following productions are taken directly from RFC 2396:
  
       uric_no_slash = unreserved | escaped | ";" | "?" | ":" | "@" |
                       "&" | "=" | "+" | "$" | ","
  
       uric          = reserved | unreserved | escaped
  
       reserved      = ";" | "/" | "?" | ":" | "@" | "&" | "=" | "+" |
                       "$" | ","
       unreserved    = alphanum | mark
       mark          = "-" | "_" | "." | "!" | "~" | "*" | "'" |
                       "(" | ")"
       escaped       = "%" hex hex
       hex           = digit | "A" | "B" | "C" | "D" | "E" | "F" |
                       "a" | "b" | "c" | "d" | "e" | "f"
  
       alphanum      = alpha | digit
       alpha         = lowalpha | upalpha
  
       lowalpha = "a" | "b" | "c" | "d" | "e" | "f" | "g" | "h" | "i" |
  
  
  
  Paskin                 Expires - November 2003               [Page 3]


                           The "doi" URI Scheme                 May 2003
  
  
                  "j" | "k" | "l" | "m" | "n" | "o" | "p" | "q" | "r" |
                  "s" | "t" | "u" | "v" | "w" | "x" | "y" | "z"
       upalpha  = "A" | "B" | "C" | "D" | "E" | "F" | "G" | "H" | "I" |
                  "J" | "K" | "L" | "M" | "N" | "O" | "P" | "Q" | "R" |
                  "S" | "T" | "U" | "V" | "W" | "X" | "Y" | "Z"
       digit    = "0" | "1" | "2" | "3" | "4" | "5" | "6" | "7" |
                  "8" | "9"
  
     A "doi" URI has a DOI as its scheme-specific part. A DOI is
     constructed by appending a unique suffix string to an assigned
     prefix string separated by a slash "/" character. The prefix is
     always assigned to a DOI Prefix Holder by a DOI Registration
     Agency. The DOI Prefix Holder is responsible for the creation of a
     valid suffix. The prefix in a DOI corresponds to the naming
     authority. The administration of any particular DOI may be
     transferred to another party at any time. The prefix does not
     denote the owner of a DOI.
  
     ANSI/NISO Z39.84-2000 [4] is the authoritative reference that
     specifies the rules for constructing a DOI. Once constructed, a
     DOI should be regarded as an opaque identifier with no internal
     structure. The minimum constraints for validation of a DOI string
     are that the prefix and suffix components be non-empty.
  
  3.2 Allowed Characters Under the "doi" URI Scheme
  
     The syntax for a DOI is defined in accordance with the ANSI/NISO
     Z39.84-2000 standard "Syntax for the Digital Object Identifier
     Syntax". A DOI is represented using the Unicode [5] character set
     and is encoded in UTF-8 [6].
  
     The "doi" URI syntax uses the same set of allowed US-ASCII
     characters as specified in RFC 2396 for a generic URI. No special
     characters are reserved, although certain US-ASCII characters are
     excluded from all URIs.
  
     Excluded US-ASCII characters and non-US-ASCII characters must be
     escaped before forming the URI. Details of the escape encoding can
     be found in RFC 2396, section 2.4.
  
  3.3 Examples of "doi" URIs
  
     Some examples of syntactically valid "doi" URIs are given below:
  
       (a) doi:alpha-beta/182.342-24
  
     where "alpha-beta" is the prefix and "182.342-24" is the suffix.
  
  
  
  Paskin                 Expires - November 2003               [Page 4]


                           The "doi" URI Scheme                 May 2003
  
  
       (b) doi:10.abc/ab-cd-ef
  
     where "10.abc" is the prefix and "ab-cd-ef" is the suffix.
  
       (c) <rdf:Description about="doi:10.23/2002/january/21/4690"/>
  
     where "10.23" is the prefix and "2002/january/21/4690" is the
     suffix.
  
       (d) doi:11.a.7/0363-0277(19950315)120%3A5%3C%3E1.0.TX%3B2-V
  
     where "11.a.7" is the prefix and "0363-
     0277(19950315)120%3A5%3C%3E1.0.TX%3B2-V" is the prefix. Note that
     in unescaped form this DOI is represented in UTF-8 as
     "11.a.7/0363-0277(19950315)120:5<>1.0.TX;2-V".
  
  4  Lexical Equivalence for the "doi" URI Scheme
  
     The DOI is a case-insensitive identifier. As it is often desirable
     to determine if two "doi" URIs are the same without resolving them
     a general purpose means of doing so is by testing for "lexical
     equivalence" as defined below.
  
     Two "doi" URIs are lexically equivalent if they are octet-by-octet
     equal after the following preprocessing:
  
         1. Normalize the case of the leading "doi:" token to be
            lowercase
         2. Normalize the case of the scheme-specific part
            including any %-escaped characters to be lowercase
  
     Note that %-escaped characters must not be removed.
  
  5  Examples of Lexical Equivalence for the "doi" URI Scheme
  
     The following comparisons highlight the lexical equivalence
     definitions for "doi" URIs:
  
         1. doi:10.abc/ab-cd-ef
         2. doi:10.ABC/ab-cd-ef
         3. doi:10.ABC/AB-cd-ef
         4. doi:10.ABC/AB-CD-ef
         5. doi:10.ABC/AB-CD-EF
  
     All the above "doi" URIs are lexically equivalent.
  
  6  DOI Administration
  
  
  
  
  Paskin                 Expires - November 2003               [Page 5]


                           The "doi" URI Scheme                 May 2003
  
  
     The International DOI Foundation (IDF) is a not-for-profit
     membership-based organization founded to develop a framework of
     infrastructure, policies and procedures to support the
     identification needs of the intellectual property communities.
     The IDF is the maintenance agency for DOI and appoints DOI
     Registration Agencies.
  
     DOIs are created by DOI Prefix Holders and must be registered via
     a DOI Registration Agency. Any network user can become a DOI
     Prefix Holder by agreement with a DOI Registration Agency.
  
     Registration Agencies perform the following functions: allocating
     DOI prefixes, registering DOIs, and providing the necessary
     infrastructure to allow DOI Prefix Holders to declare and maintain
     the metadata associated with a particular DOI. DOI Registration
     Agencies also maintain knowledge of the current owner of each
     individual DOI to ensure legal administrative updates.
  
  7  DOI Resolution
  
     A "doi" URI is dereferenced to one or more network services. This
     dereference process is known as "resolution" of the DOI. Examples
     of network services that can be accessed on resolution of the DOI
     include redirection to another network resource, return of a
     metadata record describing the entity identifed by the DOI, etc.
  
     Resolution of a DOI is accomplished through an appropriate
     resolution service using a network protocol specific to that
     service.
  
  8  Rationale
  
  8.1 Why Create a New URI Scheme for DOI?
  
     Under RFC 2718, "Guidelines for new URL Schemes" [7], it is stated
     that a URI scheme should have a "demonstrated utility", and in
     particular should be applied to "things that cannot be referred to
     in any other way". DOI meets both of these criteria in that it is
     a well established identifier (see <http://www.doi.org/>) for
     entities of significance to the intellectual property communities,
     with some 10 million examples in current use on the Internet, and
     is being widely embraced by the content industries. DOI is not
     bound to an Internet protocol and so requires its own dedicated
     URI scheme.
  
  8.2 Why Not Use an Existing URI Scheme for DOI?
  
  
  
  
  Paskin                 Expires - November 2003               [Page 6]


                           The "doi" URI Scheme                 May 2003
  
  
     The administration granularity of existing URI schemes typically
     operates at the authority component level. By contrast DOIs are
     managed at the individual identifier level. It is for this reason
     that the DOI prefix is not to be interpreted as an "owner"
     authority but rather as the "creator" authority. Once created the
     DOI should be regarded as an opaque identifier with no internal
     structure. For this reason a "doi" URI has no relative URI forms.
  
  8.3 Why Not Use a URN Namespace ID for DOI?
  
     RFC 2396 states that a "URN differs from a URL in that it's [sic]
     primary purpose is persistent labeling of a resource with an
     identifier". A DOI on the other hand has a dual purpose: both to
     provide for the persistent identification of an entity of
     significance to the intellectual property communities, as well as
     to enable access to a set of network services. In this regard a
     "doi" URI scheme should be considered as being similar to the
     "tel", "fax" and "modem" URI schemes documented in RFC 2806 [8].
  
  9  Security Considerations
  
     The "doi" URI scheme is subject to the same security
     considerations as the general URI scheme described in RFC 2396.
  
     Dereference of a "doi" URI to access network services will be
     subject to the security considerations of the underlying protocol
     used to access the resource referenced by the "doi" URI.
  
  10 Acknowledgements
  
     The authors gratefully acknowledge the contributions of Larry
     Lannom and Jason Petrone, of the Corporation for National Research
     Initiatives, to this specification.
  
  11 References
  
     1. Bradner, S., "Key Words for Use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
     Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
  
     2. Berners-Lee, T., R. Fielding and L. Manister, "Uniform Resource
     Identifiers (URI): Generic Syntax", RFC 2396, August 1998.
  
     3. Crocker, D., "Standard for the Format of ARPA Internet Text
     Messages", STD 11, RFC 822, August 1982.
  
     4. ANSI/NISO Z39.84-2000, "Syntax for the Digital Object
     Identifier", ISBN 1-880124-47-5.
  
  
  
  
  Paskin                 Expires - November 2003               [Page 7]


                           The "doi" URI Scheme                 May 2003
  
  
     5. The Unicode Consortium, "The Unicode Standard", Version 3, ISBN
     0-201-61633-5, as updated from time to time by the publication of
     new versions. (See
     http://www.unicode.org/unicode/standard/versions for the latest
     version and additional information on versions of the standard and
     of the Unicode Character Database).
  
     6. Yergeau, F., "UTF-8, A Transformation Format for Unicode and
     ISO10646", RFC 2279, October 1996.
  
     7. Masinter, L., H. Alvestrand, D. Zigmond and P. Petke,
     "Guidelines for new URL Schemes", RFC 2718, November 1999.
  
     8. Vaha-Sipila, A., "URLs for Telephone Calls", RFC 2806, April
     2000.
  
  12 Authors' Addresses
  
     Norman Paskin
     The International DOI Foundation
     Linacre House, Jordan Hill
     Oxford, OX2 8DP, UK
     n.paskin@doi.org
  
     Eamonn Neylon
     Manifest Solutions
     Bicester
     Oxfordfordshire, OX26 2HX, UK
     eneylon@manifestsolutions.com
  
     Tony Hammond
     Elsevier Ltd
     32 Jamestown Road
     London, NW1 7BY, UK
     t.hammond@elsevier.com
  
     Sam Sun
     Corporation for National Research Initiatives
     1805 Preston White Dr., Suite 100
     Reston, VA 20191, USA
     ssun@cnri.reston.va.us
  
  13 Full Copyright Statement
  
     Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2003).  All Rights Reserved.
  
     This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished
     to others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise
     explain it or assist in its implementation may be prepared, copied,
  
  
  Paskin                 Expires - November 2003               [Page 8]


                           The "doi" URI Scheme                 May 2003
  
  
     published and distributed, in whole or in part, without
     restriction of any kind, provided that the above copyright notice
     and this paragraph are included on all such copies and derivative
     works.  However, this document itself may not be modified in any
     way, such as by removing the copyright notice or references to the
     Internet Society or other Internet organizations, except as needed
     for the purpose of developing Internet standards in which case the
     procedures for copyrights defined in the Internet Standards
     process must be followed, or as required to translate it into
     languages other than English.
  
     The limited permissions granted above are perpetual and will not
     be revoked by the Internet Society or its successors or assigns.
  
     This document and the information contained herein is provided on
     an "AS IS" basis and THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET
     ENGINEERING TASK FORCE DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR
     IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF
     THE INFORMATION HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED
     WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  Paskin                 Expires - November 2003               [Page 9]
  

Html markup produced by rfcmarkup 1.129c, available from https://tools.ietf.org/tools/rfcmarkup/