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Network Working Group                                   A. Petrescu, Ed.
Internet-Draft                                                 CEA, LIST
Intended status: Informational                                  J. Huang
Expires: January 3, 2016                             Huawei Technologies
                                                                T. Ernst
                                                         Mines ParisTech
                                                           R. Buddenberg
                                                                     " "
                                                            July 2, 2015


       Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control and Platooning at SDOs
                   draft-petrescu-its-cacc-sdo-01.txt

Abstract

   This document describes the use-cases of Cooperative Adaptive Cruise
   Control, and Platooning, as defined by several Standards Development
   Organizations such as ETSI, IEEE 1609, SAE and 3GPP.

   C-ACC and Platooning involve concepts of direct vehicle-to-vehicle,
   and device-to-device communications, which are developped by 3GPP and
   precursory by the METIS EU project.  They are illustrated very
   clearly in emergency settings such as FirstNet.

   IP messages - instead of link-layer messages - are pertinent for
   C-ACC and Platooning use-cases because applications for road safety
   such as WAZE, iRezQ and Coyote (currently involving infrastructure)
   are IP messages, and proved succesful in deployments.  Applications
   such as Sentinel are direct between vehicles but are not IP,
   currently.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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   This Internet-Draft will expire on January 3, 2016.



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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2015 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
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   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  ETSI ITS C-ACC and Platooning use-case and reqs . . . . . . .   3
   4.  IEEE 1609 perspective on vehicle-to-vehicle communications  .   4
   5.  SAE perspective on C-ACC and Platooning . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   6.  3GPP SDO and EU projects using LTE Device-to-Device concepts    4
     6.1.  3GPP  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     6.2.  METIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   7.  ISO perspective on V2V  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   8.  FirstNet EMS use of LTE and IP           in V2I2V . . . . . .   7
   9.  Internet apps: WAZE, iRezQ, Coyote, Sentinel  . . . . . . . .   8
   10. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   11. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   12. Contributors  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   13. Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   14. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     14.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     14.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   Appendix A.  ChangeLog  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9

1.  Introduction

   Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control and Platooning are two use-cases
   described recently at particular Standards Development Organizations.
   C-ACC describes the formation of chains of automobiles following each
   other at constant speed, in an automatic manner.  This is to offer
   more comfort for human drivers on long journeys on straight roads.

   Platooning is a concept related to larger vehicles following each
   other.  The goal in this case is not necessarily comfort, but the



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   expected gains in terms of gas consumption: when large vehicles can
   follow each other at small distance the air-drag is much lower,
   directly influencing on gas consumption, tyre use, and more.

   Both C-ACC and Platooning are relying on information exchange between
   vehicles.  These exchanges may happen in a direct manner (direct
   vehicle to vehicle communications) or with assistance from a fixed
   communication infrastructure (vehicle-to-infrastructure-to-vehicle
   communications).

   This document describes the C-ACC and Platooning use-cases as
   described at ETSI ITS.  These use-cases are widely accepted as
   Vehicle-to-Vehicle applications.  For this reason, we present the
   perspectives on V2V from IEEE, SAE, ISO and LTE.

   In emergency settings the concepts of direct vehicle-to-vehicle
   communications are of paramount importance.  FirstNet, an overarching
   example described later in this document, covers V2V, V2I and V2I2V
   communication needs, together with strong security requirements.

   In the market, several systems for vehicular communications have
   demonstrated a number of benefits in the context of vehicle-to-
   vehicle communications.  The Sentinel system is used between vehicles
   to warn each other about approach; the WAZE application on
   smartphones created a community where users influence others about
   the route choice; the iRezQ and Coyote applications communicate
   between vehicles, via infrastructure, about route risks.

   In [I-D.petrescu-ipv6-over-80211p] the use of IPv6 over 802.11p is
   described.  This link layer is potentially used in direct vehicle-to-
   vehicle communications.  It is obviously not the only link layer
   pertinent for V2V.

2.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

   C-ACC: Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control.

   V2V: Vehicle-to-Vehicle communications.

3.  ETSI ITS C-ACC and Platooning use-case and reqs







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4.  IEEE 1609 perspective on vehicle-to-vehicle communications

5.  SAE perspective on C-ACC and Platooning

6.  3GPP SDO and EU projects using LTE Device-to-Device concepts

6.1.  3GPP

   Proximity Service (ProSe) allows a UE to discover and communicate
   with other UEs that are in proximity directly or with the network
   assistance.  This may also be called as Device-to-Device (D2D)
   communication.  ProSe is intended for purposes such as public
   security, network offloading, etc [GPP-TR-22-803].

   The ProSe Communication path could use E-UTRAN or WLAN.  In the case
   of WLAN, only ProSe-assisted WLAN direct communication (i.e. when
   ProSe assists with connection establishment management and service
   continuity) is considered [GPP-TS-22-278].

   The work on ProSe is initiated in 3GPP Release 12.  Some enhancements
   are being added in Release 13, e.g.  Restricted ProSe Discovery.
   Some use cases are identified in [GPP-TR-22-803], but most of which
   are intended for common mobile users, e.g. walking people, not for
   vehicles moving at high speed, for example the latency in ProSe
   communication may be a problem for V2X.

   Although ProSe does not support V2X communication before Release 14,
   but it has some very good characteristics which makes it a good
   candidate for V2X besides DSRC.  ProSe communication does not have to
   go through the EPC, which will significantly reduce the latency.
   ProSe also support group and broadcast communication by means of a
   common communication path established between the UEs.

   There are some efforts at 3GPP Release 14, trying to address V2X
   communication.  The efforts are proposed by experts in the industry,
   and may be subject to change.  These efforts include the following:

   1.  To address the V2X use cases in 3GPP.  The use cases may have
       been defined by other SDOs, e.g.  ETSI ITS, 3GPP can reference to
       them.  Requirements for V2X communication should also be
       considered, for example network delay, packet loss rate, etc.
       [METIS-D1.1] already propose some requirements, but those are
       intended for future mobile network, which may be too critical for
       LTE.

   2.  To address V2X applications and messages.  The messages may
       include message defined in SAE J2735, ETSI Cooperative Awareness
       Message (CAM) and ETSI Decentralized Environmental Notification



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       Message (DeNM).  The messages defined by different SDOs might be
       similar to each other.

   3.  Study of possibility to add enhancements to ProSe, and to make it
       able to support and enhance DSRC.

   4.  Study of using existing LTE technologies for unicast/multicast/
       broadcast communication.

   The above are just some examples, not an exhaustive list.

   [GPP-TR-22-885] studies many V2X services using LTE.  These services
   include V2V communication (e.g.  Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control,
   Forwarding Collision Warning, etc), V2I/V2N communication (e.g.  Road
   Safety Services) and vehicle to pedestrian communication.  The
   services' pre-condition, service flow, post-condition, including some
   network communication requirements, such as delay, messages frequency
   and message size, are ayalyzed.

   In [GPP-TR-22-885], Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) allows
   a vehicle to join a group of CACC vehicles, and the benefits are to
   improve road congestion and fuel efficiency.  Member vehicles of CACC
   group should periodically broadcast messages including the CACC group
   information, such as speed and gap policies, etc.  If a vehicle
   outside the group wants to join, it should send a request to the
   group.  If a member of the CACC group accepts the request, it should
   send a confirm message and provide necessary distance gap; and
   members of the group will update their group information.  When a
   Member wants to leave the CACC group, it should broadcast a goodbye
   message, and the driver assumes control of the vehicle.

6.2.  METIS

   METIS is co-funded by the European Commission as an Integrated
   Project under the Seventh Framework Programme for research and
   development (FP7).

   METIS defines test cases and requirements of "Traffic safety and
   efficiency", as depicted in [METIS-D1.1], which is intended for 5G in
   2020 but may also be applicable for LTE and beyond.

   The use cases include:

   1.  Dangerous situation that can be avoided by means of V2V
       communications.

   2.  Dangerous situation with vulnerable road users (i.e. pedestrians,
       cyclists,...) that can be avoided by means of V2D communications.



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       "D" can denote any cellular device that the vulnerable road user
       may carry (e.g. smart phone, tablet, sensor tag).

   3.  Assistance services that can improve traffic efficiency by means
       of V2X communications, e.g. traffic sign recognition and green
       light assistance.

   4.  Platooning (or road trains) in an autonomous manner to increase
       traffic flows and reduce fuel consumption and emissions.

   5.  Highly automated vehicles.

   To support the above use cases, METIS works out the corresponding
   network requirements, such as E2E latency should be within 5ms,
   required data rates for various scenarios, service ranges in
   highway/rural/urban scenarios, etc.

7.  ISO perspective on V2V

   The International Standards Organization's Technical Committee 204
   (ISO TC204, in short) has specified a communication architecture
   known as the "ITS station reference communication architecture"
   [ISO-21217].  This communication architecture covers all layers
   (access technologies, network, transport, facilities and
   applications) of a typical communications protocol stack.  It is
   designed to accommodate communications between ITS stations engaged
   in ITS services.  ITS stations can be deployed in vehicles of any
   type, roadside infrastructure (traffic lights, variable message
   signs, toll road gantries, etc.), urban infrastructure (parking
   gates, bus stops, etc.) nomadic devices (smartphones, tablets) and
   control centers (traffic control center, emergency call centers, data
   centers and services centers).  The ITS stations can be distributed
   in several nodes (e.g. an in-vehicle gateway and a set of hosts
   attached to the internal in-vehicle network).  The ITS station
   architecture is designed to support many kinds of wired and wireless
   access technologies (vehicular WiFi 802.11p, urban WiFi
   802.11b/g/n/ac/ad; cellular networks; satellite; infra-red, LiFi,
   millimeter wave, etc.)

   The ISO ITS station architecture can thus support both broadcast and
   unicast types of communication, vehicle-to-infrastructure
   communications (road infrastructure using e.g.  WiFi, or cellular
   infrastructure using e.g. 3G/4G) and, most notably, direct vehicle-
   to-vehicle communications.

   The architecture includes the possibility to communicate using IPv6
   [ISO-21210] or non-IP (ISO FNTP, currently being harmonized with IEEE
   WAVE).



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8.  FirstNet EMS use of LTE and IP in V2I2V

   FirstNet is a corporation housed inside the US Department of
   Commerce.  It gets capitalization budget from, among other sources,
   sale of spectrum by the US FCC.  It gets operating budget from sale
   of services to state emergency services entities.

   The specific use-cases for FirstNet include vehicle-to-vehicle,
   vehicle-to-infrastructure and vehicle-to-infrastructure-to-vehicle
   communications using in certain cases LTE and IP:

   1.  Emergency communications to vehicles from government entities
       conveying, for example: weather warnings, road conditions,
       evacuation orders.  The government entities might include PSAPs
       or mobile vehicles such as police cruisers.

   2.  Instrumented emergency services vehicles such as ambulances.  An
       example is the ability to telemeter casualty (patient) data from
       sensors attached to the casualty to a hospital emergency room.

   3.  Emergency communications from vehicles' occupants to government
       entities such as Public Safety Access Points (PSAPs, also known
       as 911 operators in US).

   The National Public Safety Telecommunications Council describes
   FirstNet as an emergency communications system (largely viewed
   through the prism of the familiar Land Mobile Radio systems most
   emergency services use.)  The cellular telephone industry views
   FirstNet as supplementary to an existing commercial cellphone system
   (e.g. reusing the same towers and backhaul).  Perhaps a better view
   of FirstNet is as an extension of the Internet to emergency services
   vehicles (including foot-borne).

   It is clear that FirstNet overlaps to a large extent to the concepts
   that have been discussed in vehicle-to-vehicle communications for
   other purposes.

   FirstNet has not been clear about its communication technology
   choices to date.  But LTE has been discussed as the most likely layer
   2 protocol.  A segregated segment of spectrum in the 700MHz band has
   been set aside by Congressional action for emergency services and
   control of that spectrum has been passed to FirstNet.  There appear
   to be no new protocols, development of which is fostered by FirstNet.
   Several Internet applications would need rework to handle high
   availability, security and assured access needs of emergency
   services.





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9.  Internet apps: WAZE, iRezQ, Coyote, Sentinel

   Applications using the Internet have been developped in the
   particular context of vehicular communications.  These applications
   are designed for parties situated in vehicles.  Their profile is less
   of client-server kind, but more of peer-to-peer kind (vehicle to
   vehicle).

   Some use vehicle-to-infrastructure-to-vehicle IP paths, whereas
   others involve direct vehicle-to-vehicle paths (without
   infrastructure).

   These applications are described in more detail in draft-liu-its-
   scenario-00.txt issued on March 9th, 2015, authored by Dapeng Liu.

10.  Security Considerations

   All government-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-government communications
   require authenticity; there will be no exceptions.

   Some, but not all, communications from government-to-vehicle and
   vehicle-to-government require confidentiality (some of these
   requirements, such as medical data, have the force of law, many have
   custom or respect as the requirements base).

   These requirements pertain to the content.

11.  IANA Considerations

   mandatory

12.  Contributors

   contributors

13.  Acknowledgements

   The authors would like to acknowledge .

14.  References

14.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.






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14.2.  Informative References

   [GPP-TR-22-803]
              3GPP, "Feasibility study for Proximity Services (ProSe)",
              June 2013.

   [GPP-TR-22-885]
              3GPP, "Study on LTE Support for V2X Services", April 2015.

   [GPP-TS-22-278]
              3GPP, "Service requirements for the Evolved Packet System
              (EPS)", December 2014.

   [I-D.petrescu-ipv6-over-80211p]
              Petrescu, A., Pfister, P., Benamar, N., and T.
              Leinmueller, "Transmission of IPv6 Packets over IEEE
              802.11p Networks", draft-petrescu-ipv6-over-80211p-02
              (work in progress), June 2014.

   [ISO-21210]
              ISO, "21210: TC ITS - WG CALM - IPv6 Networking -
              International Standard", 2014.

   [ISO-21217]
              ISO, "21217: TC ITS - WG CALM - Architecture -
              International Standard", 2014.

   [METIS-D1.1]
              Fallgren, M. and B. Timus, "Scenarios, requirements and
              KPIs for 5G mobile and wireless system", April 2013.

Appendix A.  ChangeLog

   The changes are listed in reverse chronological order, most recent
   changes appearing at the top of the list.

   From nil to draft-petrescu-its-cacc-sdo-00.xml:

   o  initial version

Authors' Addresses










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   Alexandre Petrescu (editor)
   CEA, LIST
   CEA Saclay
   Gif-sur-Yvette , Ile-de-France   91190
   France

   Phone: +33169089223
   Email: Alexandre.Petrescu@cea.fr


   James Huang
   Huawei Technologies
   Shenzhen
   China

   Email: james.huang@huawei.com


   Thierry Ernst
   Mines ParisTech
   Paris   75006
   France

   Email: Thierry.Ernst@mines-paristech.fr


   Rex Buddenberg
   " "
   US

   Email: buddenbergr@gmail.com




















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