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Versions: 00 01 02

DNSOP                                                         P. Wouters
Internet-Draft                                                   Red Hat
Updates: 4035 (if approved)                                  W. Hardaker
Intended status: Informational                                   USC/ISI
Expires: September 11, 2019                               March 10, 2019


                    The DELEGATION_ONLY DNSKEY flag
                      draft-pwouters-powerbind-02

Abstract

   This document introduces a new DNSKEY flag called DELEGATION_ONLY
   that indicates that the particular zone will never sign zone data
   aside from records at the apex of the zone or delegation records for
   its children.  That is, every label (dot) underneath is considered a
   zone cut and must have its own (signed) delegation.  DNSSEC
   Validating Resolvers can use this bit to mark any data that violates
   the DELEGATION_ONLY policy as BOGUS.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on September 11, 2019.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2019 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must



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   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  The Deep Link State problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   4.  The DELEGATION_ONLY DNSKEY flag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     4.1.  _underscore label exception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     4.2.  Parent Zone Transparency  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     4.3.  Marking the Root DNSKEY DELEGATION_ONLY . . . . . . . . .   5
     4.4.  Migrating to and from DELEGATION_ONLY . . . . . . . . . .   5
     4.5.  Allowed record types for labels inside
           DELEGATION_ONLY zones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   5.  Operational Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   6.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   7.  Privacy Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   8.  Human Rights Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   9.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   10. Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   11. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     11.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     11.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9

1.  Introduction

   The DNS Security Extensions [DNSSEC] use public key cryptography to
   create a hierarchical trust base with the DNSSEC root public keys at
   the top, followed by Top Level domain (TLD) keys one level
   underneath.  While the root and TLD zones are asumed to be almost
   exclusively delegation-only zones, there is currently no method to
   audit these zones to ensure they behave as a delegation-only zone.
   This creates an attractive target for malicious use of these zones -
   either by their owners or through coercion.

   This document defines a mechanism for zone owners, at DNSKEY creation
   time, to indicate they will only delegate the remainder of the tree
   to lower-level zones, allowing easier delegation policy verification,
   logging and auditing of DNS responses they serve.

   This document introduces a new DNSKEY flag allowing zone owners to
   commit that the zone will never sign any DNS data aside from records
   at the zone apex and child delegation records, and if any such signed
   data is encountered by validating resolvers, that this data should be
   interpreted as BOGUS.



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2.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

3.  The Deep Link State problem

   The hierarchical model of DNS and DNSSEC ([RFC4033], [RFC4034] and
   [RFC4035]) comes with the property that a zone at one point in the
   hierarchy can define, and therefor override, everything in the DNS
   tree from their point and below.  For example, the DNSSEC root key
   could ignore the NS records for ".org" and "example.org" and could
   place a record "www.example.org" directly into its own zone, with a
   corresponding RRSIG signed by the root key itself.  Even if resolvers
   would defend against this attack by not allowing RRSIG's to span
   across a potential zone cut, the zone operator (any level higher in
   the hierarchy than the target victim) could briefly remove the NS and
   DS records, and create a "legitimate" DNS entry for
   "www.example.org", hiding the normal zone cuts.  The attacker can
   then publish DNS addresses records (e.g.  A and AAAA records), as
   well as records used for authentication (e.g.  TLSA, SMIME,
   OPENPGPKEY, SSHP or IPSECKEY records).

   Exposing such targeted attacks would require a transparency audit
   setup ([RFC6962]) that would need to log all signed DNS data to prove
   that data signed by a parent zone's DNSKEY was out of expected
   policy.  The very distributed nature of the DNS makes such
   transparency logs prohibitively expensive and nearly impossible to
   operate.  Additionally, it would require zone owners to expose all
   their zone data to any public log operators, thereby introducing
   privacy implications and exposing all relevant DNS data to a public
   archive.  Though this may be acceptable for some domains, such as the
   root, where data is already public, other delegation domains have
   legal implications that prohibit them from participating in such a
   system.

4.  The DELEGATION_ONLY DNSKEY flag

   This document introduces a new DNSKEY flag called DELEGATION_ONLY.
   When this flag is set on a DNSKEY with its Secure Entry Point (SEP)
   bit set - that is the DNSKEY is a Key Signing Key (KSK) - the zone
   owner commits to not sign any data aside from its records at the apex
   of the zone and delegation records for its children.  This commits a
   parent in the DNS hierarchy to only publish signed DS records and
   unsigned glue records (NS and A/AAAA) for its child zones.  It will
   no longer be able to ignore (or briefly delete, see below) a child




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   delegation and publish data beyond its own label by pretending the
   next label is not a zone cut.

   For such a parent to take over data that belongs to its child zone,
   it has two choices.  It can (temporarily) remove its own DNSKEY
   DELEGATION_ONLY flag or it can replace the NS and DS records of its
   child zone with its own data (destinations and key references) so it
   can sign DNS data that belongs to its own child zone.  However, both
   of these actions cannot be hidden, thus exposing such malicious
   behavior when combined with DNSSEC Transparency logs.

4.1.  _underscore label exception

   Some protocols, such as the DANE protocol [RFC6698] use a number of
   labels that start with an underscore (_) prefix to publish
   information about the zone itself.  For example, the TLSA record for
   example.com is published at the location _443._tcp.example.com.
   These records are semantically part of the zone itself and are not
   delegated child zones.  Any chain of labels consisting of only labels
   each starting with an underscore (_) under the apex of the zone is
   not considered to violate the DELEGATION_ONLY flag limitation of
   being DELEGATION_ONLY, as this data is logically part of the zone
   itself and is never meant to be interpreted as an independent
   delegated child zone.

4.2.  Parent Zone Transparency

   A parent zone, such as the root zone, a TLD or any public suffix list
   delegation point, that has published a key with the DELEGATION_ONLY
   flag can no longer make an exception for a single delegated zone
   without removing the DELEGATION_ONLY flag, switching off its
   published policy.  This action would be highly visible, and for some
   domains such as the root or TLDs, require human interaction to notify
   the stake holders to prevent loss of trust.

   Removing the DELEGATION_ONLY flag from a DNSKEY requires that the
   zone first publishes an additional updated DS record to its parent.

   In the case of the root key, it would require updating out-of-band
   root key meta information and/or performing an [RFC5011] style
   rollover for the same key with updated DNSKEY flags.  Due to the
   timings of such a rollover, it would take at least 30 days for the
   first validating resolvers to process this policy change.  It would
   also be a highly visible event.

   Replacing the NS and DS records of a child zone can still be done in
   a targeted attack by a parent, but these events are something that
   can be easily tracked by a transparency infrastructure similar to



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   what is now in use for the WebPKI using [RFC6962](bis).  With client
   implementations of transparency, all DELEGATION_ONLY flag changes
   would be logged and become visible to the owner of attacked child
   zones, exposing a parent's malicious actions.

4.3.  Marking the Root DNSKEY DELEGATION_ONLY

   Once the Root DNSKEY is marked with a DELEGATION_ONLY flag and
   deployed resolvers are configured with the new DNSKEY, all TLDs will
   be assured that the Root DNSKEY can no longer be abused to override
   child zone data.  Until the Root KSK DNSKEY sets this bit, software
   SHOULD imply this bit is always set, as this is the current
   expectation of the Root Zone.

4.4.  Migrating to and from DELEGATION_ONLY

   There might be multiple DNSKEYs with the SEP bit set in a zone.  For
   the purpose of declaring a zone as DELEGATION_ONLY, only those
   DNSKEY's that have a corresponding DS record at the parent MUST be
   considered.  If multiple DS records appear at the parent, some of
   which point to DNSKEY's with the DELEGATION_ONLY flag set and some of
   which point to DNSKEY's without the DELEGATION_ONLY flag set, the
   zone MUST be considered DELEGATION_ONLY.  This situation will occur
   when a zone is rolling its DNSKEY key at the same time as it is
   committing to a DELEGATION_ONLY zone (or the reverse).  During the
   overlap, the zone is considered to be a delegation-only zone.

4.5.  Allowed record types for labels inside DELEGATION_ONLY zones

   Some labels within a DELEGATION_ONLY marked zone must be published by
   a parent in order to properly sign its zone and its child's referral
   data.  Thus, any published and signed zone data deeper than the zone
   apex MUST only include DNS TYPEs of glue (NS, A and AAAA), DS, NSEC
   and NSEC3 records.

5.  Operational Considerations

   Setting or unsetting the DELEGATION_ONLY flag must be handled like
   any other Key Signing Key rollover procedure, with the appropriate
   wait times to give resolvers the chance to update their caches.

   Some TLDs offer a service where small domains can be hosted in-zone
   at the TLD zone itself.  In that case, the TLD MUST NOT set the
   DELEGATION_ONLY flag.  Another solution for such TLDs is to create
   delegations for these child zones with the same or different DNSKEY
   as used in the parent zone itself.





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   Zones setting the DELEGATION_ONLY flag can no longer publish non-
   delegation records in their zone.  That means that for those RRTYPEs
   that take DNS targets as parameters (NS, MX, SRV, ...), the targets
   cannot have their own host names on the zone.  Instead, a sub-zone
   needs to be created to place those targets in.  If "example.com" has
   an NS record pointing to "ns0.example.com", this entry needs to be
   moved to a sub-zone such as ns0.nic.example.com before the zone can
   be switched to DELEGATION_ONLY.  Otherwise, the signed record
   "ns0.example.com" would be interpreted as the parent's hostile
   takeover of the child zone "ns0.example.com".  Similarly, an MX
   target pointing to "mail.example.com" would have to be moved to a
   sub-zone, such as "mail.nic.example.com".  The zone "nic.example.com"
   MUST NOT be made DELEGATION_ONLY in that case, otherwise it would
   have the exact same problem.

   If a zone is publishing glue records for a number of zones, and the
   zone that contains the authoritative records for this glue is
   deleted, a resigning of the zone will make this orphaned glue
   authoritative within the zone.  However, with the DELEGATION_ONLY bit
   set, this (signed) DNSSEC data will be considered BOGUS as it
   violations the commitment to only delegate.  This may impact domains
   that depend on these incorrect glue records.

   For example, if "example.com" and "example.net" use NS records
   pointing to "ns.example.net", then if "example.net" is deleted from
   the ".net" zone, and the previously unsigned glue of "ns.example.net"
   is now signed by the ".net" zone, the "example.com" zone will lose
   its NS records and fail to resolve.

   The bind DNS software has an option called "delegation_only zones"
   which is an option that means something completely different.  It
   refers to ignoring wildcard records in specified zones that are
   deemed delegation-only zones.

6.  Security Considerations

   Some parent zone attacks cannot be detected when the validating
   resolver's cache is empty.  Care should be taken by resolvers to not
   unnecessarily empty their cache.  This is specifically important for
   roaming clients that re-connect frequently to different wireless or
   mobile data networks.

   The DELEGATION_ONLY DNSKEY flag is only valid for DNSKEY's that have
   the SEP bit set.  It MUST be ignored on DNSKEY's without the SEP bit
   set.






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   This DELEGATION_ONLY mechanism is not designed to completely foil
   attacks (since parent's can simply change a child's referral data),
   but rather to empower transparency logging mechanisms.

7.  Privacy Considerations

   Some of the protection offered by the DELEGATION_ONLY flag is only
   available when DNS resolvers report changes in the signing depth of
   high level (root or TLD) DNSKEYs to gain DNSSEC Transparency.  This
   reporting can reveal that a particular node is trying to access a
   certain DNS name.  Defensive measures to prevent exposing users
   should be taken when implementing DNSSEC Transparency.  It is
   expected that DNSSEC Transparency behaviour will be written up in a
   separate document.

8.  Human Rights Considerations

   The DNS protocol's hierarchy limits zones authority to themselves and
   their child zones only.  While this provides a finer grained trust
   model compared to a simple list of all-powerful trusted entities,
   such as those used in the WebPKI, it consolidates a lot of power in
   the few keys at the top of the DNS hierarchy.  With the increased
   reliance on DNSSEC for securely identifying resources, such as DANE
   records, it is important to monitor and audit the keys at the top of
   the DNS hierarchy to prevent their abuse and coercion of child zones.
   This DNS protocol extension specifically aims at increasing parent
   zone transparency and blocks some parent zone attacks from those
   parents who have publicly claimed to never override their child zone
   data and thus increases the security and stability of DNS and DNSSEC.

   Zones publishing the DELEGATION_ONLY flag to increase their public
   trust are still able to remove child zones from their zone, for
   example in cases of legal compliance or to prevent malicious activity
   happening in its child zones.  But these parents can only do so
   publicly and can no longer surreptitiously take control of their own
   child zones.  This protocol extension does not limit legal
   enforcement of child zones by their parent zones other than making it
   visible for everyone when a childzone is legally taken over for
   compliance or legal reasons.

9.  IANA Considerations

   This document defines a new DNSKEY flag, the DELEGATION_ONLY flag,
   whose value [TBD] has been allocated by IANA from the DNSKEY FLAGS
   Registry.






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10.  Acknowledgements

   The authors thank Thomas H.  Ptacek for his insistence on pointing
   out the trust issues at the top of the DNSSEC hierarchy.

   Thanks to the following IETF participants: Viktor Dukhovni, Shumon
   Huque, Geoff Huston, Rick Lamb, Andrew McConachie and Sam Weiler.

11.  References

11.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997, <https://www.rfc-
              editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC4035]  Arends, R., Austein, R., Larson, M., Massey, D., and S.
              Rose, "Protocol Modifications for the DNS Security
              Extensions", RFC 4035, DOI 10.17487/RFC4035, March 2005,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4035>.

   [RFC5011]  StJohns, M., "Automated Updates of DNS Security (DNSSEC)
              Trust Anchors", STD 74, RFC 5011, DOI 10.17487/RFC5011,
              September 2007, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5011>.

11.2.  Informative References

   [RFC4033]  Arends, R., Austein, R., Larson, M., Massey, D., and S.
              Rose, "DNS Security Introduction and Requirements",
              RFC 4033, DOI 10.17487/RFC4033, March 2005,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4033>.

   [RFC4034]  Arends, R., Austein, R., Larson, M., Massey, D., and S.
              Rose, "Resource Records for the DNS Security Extensions",
              RFC 4034, DOI 10.17487/RFC4034, March 2005,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4034>.

   [RFC6698]  Hoffman, P. and J. Schlyter, "The DNS-Based Authentication
              of Named Entities (DANE) Transport Layer Security (TLS)
              Protocol: TLSA", RFC 6698, DOI 10.17487/RFC6698, August
              2012, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6698>.

   [RFC6962]  Laurie, B., Langley, A., and E. Kasper, "Certificate
              Transparency", RFC 6962, DOI 10.17487/RFC6962, June 2013,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6962>.





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Authors' Addresses

   Paul Wouters
   Red Hat

   Email: pwouters@redhat.com


   Wes Hardaker
   USC/ISI
   P.O. Box 382
   Davis, CA  95617
   US

   Email: ietf@hardakers.net




































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