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Versions: 00 draft-netslices-usecases

Network Working Group                                             J. Qin
Internet-Draft                                              K. Makhijani
Intended status: Informational                                   J. Dong
Expires: September 14, 2017                                     L. Qiang
                                                                 S. Peng
                                                     Huawei Technologies
                                                          March 13, 2017

Network Slicing Use Cases: Network Customization for Different Services


   Network Slicing (NS) is widely discussed and considered in 5G
   communities and standard organizations as a key mechanism to meet
   diverse service requirements concurrently with the same physical
   network infrastructure.  NS enables the operator to provide isolated
   platform for service verticals, and deploy new services without
   causing or experiencing any disruption to other already deployed
   services in the same physical network infrastructure.  This document
   describes the typical use cases that could benefit from network
   slicing, to support each case, the corresponding requirements on 5G
   transport network will be analyzed.

Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

   Additionally, the key words "MIGHT", "COULD", "MAY WISH TO", "WOULD
   this document are to interpreted as described in RFC 6919 [RFC6919].

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any

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   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on September 14, 2017.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
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   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     1.1.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.  Network Customization Requirement for Diverse Services  . . .   4
     2.1.  Overview  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     2.2.  Network Customization Concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     2.3.  Service Requirements from Customized Networks . . . . . .   4
   3.  Use Cases Demanding NS  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     3.1.  eMBB Type NS Use Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
       3.1.1.  HD Video  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
       3.1.2.  Virtual Reality (VR)/Augmented Reality (AR) . . . . .   5
     3.2.  uRLLC Type NS Use Case  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
       3.2.1.  Industrial Operation and Inspection . . . . . . . . .   6
       3.2.2.  Remote Surgery  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
       3.2.3.  Vehicle-to-everything (V2X) . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     3.3.  mMTC Type NS use case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
       3.3.1.  Smart City  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
       3.3.2.  Health Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     3.4.  Other Type NS Use Case  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
       3.4.1.  Use Cases Have Mixed Requirements . . . . . . . . . .   8
       3.4.2.  Use Cases Have no Special Requirements  . . . . . . .   8
   4.  Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   5.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   6.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   7.  Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   8.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10

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1.  Introduction

   Network Slicing (NS) has been widely discussed and considered in 5G
   communities and standard organizations to meet the diverse service
   requirements in different 5G service scenarios.  NS refers to the
   managed partitions of physical and/or virtual network resources,
   network physical/virtual and service functions [RFC7665] that can act
   as an independent instance of a connectivity network and/or as a
   network cloud [I-D.gdmb-netslices-intro-and-ps].  As [TR23.799] of
   3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) identified, "Network
   slicing enables the operator to create networks customized to provide
   optimized solutions for different market scenarios which demands
   diverse requirements, e.g. in the areas of functionality, performance
   and isolation".  Draft [I-D.gdmb-netslices-intro-and-ps] defines
   network slicing in a broad context and suggests related problems and
   work areas.  Other standardization organizations like Next Generation
   Mobile Networks (NGMN) [Network-Slicing-Concept] and ITU-T FG
   IMT-2020 [FG-IMT2020-Gaps] also present their separate definitions of

   To maximize resource utilization and minimize infrastructure cost,
   services will need to be deployed simultaneously, next to each other
   over a shared network as against the traditional monolithic model.
   Service operators can utilize or benefit from Network Slicing through
   multi-tenancy, enabling different customized infrastructures for
   different group of services across different network segments and
   operating them independently.  Moreover, NS is also able to guarantee
   the isolation between different network slices.  The operation of the
   data packets traversing one network slice do not adversely affect the
   service operation in other network slices sharing the same underlying
   packet network.

   Transport networks need to provide the functionality and capability
   required to support end-to-end network slicing.  This draft presents
   various use cases from diverse industries.  In each use case, the
   requirement for the transport network is analyzed.

1.1.  Terminology

   o Over-the-top (OTT): A service, e.g., content delivery using a CDN,
   operated by a different operator than the NSP to which the users of
   that service are attached.

   o Industry Vertical: A collection of services or tools specific to an
   industry, trade or market sector.

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2.  Network Customization Requirement for Diverse Services

2.1.  Overview

   It should be possible for the providers of above service categories
   to continuously evolve, adapt, and differentiate themselves through
   purpose-built infrastructures with minimal impact on network
   deployment and operations.  The motivation behind 5G Network slicing
   paradigm is exactly that.  By creating logically partitioned network
   infrastructures, isolated platforms for various industry verticals
   can be provided.  NS is envisioned to enable new service deployments
   without having to build new network infrastructures or causing
   disruptions to other already deployed services in the network.

2.2.  Network Customization Concept

   Network slicing is enabled through customization.  Customization
   gives control to the operator (of a slice) to create, provision,
   change and consume network resources to suit their service demands.
   It requires ability to decompose resources from an underlying network
   infrastructure and logically aggregate them to form a customized
   network into a slice.  These customizations are not only in the
   context of the network characteristics but include network functions.

2.3.  Service Requirements from Customized Networks

   Services or Service Verticals (i.e. a service or group of services
   specific to an industry or trade) refer to combination of service
   segments in which services are offered to customers with customized
   requirements.  The customization may be along the following
   constraints and features:

   o Reliability

   o Latency

   o Bandwidth

   o Redundancy

   o Burst

   o Security/Encryption

   o Mobility

   o Authentication

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3.  Use Cases Demanding NS

   The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) has classified 5G
   mobile network services into three categories: Enhanced Mobile
   Broadband (eMBB), Ultra-reliable and Low-latency Communications
   (uRLLC), and Massive Machine Type Communications (mMTC).  Based on
   this, we give representative use cases that demanding NS in each type
   of the services.

3.1.  eMBB Type NS Use Case

3.1.1.  HD Video

   Person-to-person or person-to-group video communication with high
   resolution (4K/8K) and more advanced capabilities will have a much
   wider usage in 5g era.  The gathering in large stadium or some open-
   air location, people can watch HD playback video, share live video or
   post HD photos to social networks.  The connection density and date
   rate requirements will be high.  Currently the 4K UHD video streaming
   service promoted in UK needs at least 40Mbps consistent data rates
   [BT-Ultra-HD-review], with 8K UHD and further evolutions these
   requirements are likely to increase many fold.  In 5g era an
   environment will emerge in which video is available to everyone,
   regardless of the physical location, the device being used, and the
   network connection [NGMN-White-Paper].The number of concurrently
   active connections, combined with the bandwidth required will present
   a challenging situation for the transport network.  For the network,
   when a bandwidth intensive trasmission bursts, it is necessaryt to
   avoid the performance of the other services being affected.

3.1.2.  Virtual Reality (VR)/Augmented Reality (AR)

   Virtual Reality(VR)/Augmented Reality(AR) is another demanding use
   case of eMBB services.  VR/AR video streaming will have far more
   stringent network resource requirements than on-demand video content.
   It may require it's own dedicated infrastructure with enhanced
   network protocols.  A mass adoption of bandwidth-hungry VR/AR
   immersive services will have a significant impact on network
   capacity.  The 360 degree video on which VR/AR applications based
   today are mostly low resolution, requiring a bandwidth of around 25
   Mbit/s for streaming.  But as display quality improves towards HD and
   eventually retina resolution (5073x5707 per eye and upwards), the
   bandwidth required will ramp up significantly.  For retina experience
   VR/AR, estimates suggest that bandwidths ranging from hundreds of
   Mbit/s through to several gigabits per second will be needed for a
   fully immersive mobile experience.

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3.2.  uRLLC Type NS Use Case

3.2.1.  Industrial Operation and Inspection

   In industry area, usually remote operations need the support of the
   mobile transport networks.  Remote operation solutions allow people
   to operate machinery in a control center at another site that could
   avoid the on-site dangers of industrial sites like waterworks, large
   process plants, mines, harbors, chemical factory.  On the other hand,
   deploying a remote or tele-operation for heavy machinery and other
   equipments in dangerous environment is one way to cut the size of the
   on-site workforce.  Securing a high-quality communication link
   between the control site and the machines being operated is key to
   accurate and effective remote operation.  Remote operation requires
   the communication with the characteristics of low latency and low
   jitter.  To manipulate equipment efficiently on a remote site, the
   time interval between the instant an operator sends a control
   instruction to the moment the equipment's reaction is sensed by the
   operator must be as short as possible.  A typical haptic control loop
   in a remote operation application requires latency to be below

3.2.2.  Remote Surgery

   Remote surgery which enables surgeons to perform critical specialized
   medical procedures remotely, allowing their vital expertise to be
   applied globally.  Providing the correct control and feedback for the
   surgeon entails very strict requirements in terms of latency,
   reliability and security.

3.2.3.  Vehicle-to-everything (V2X)

   Vehicle-to-everthing (V2X) refers to an intelligent transport system
   where all vehicles and infrastructure systems are interconnected with
   each other [5GAA White Paper].  This connectivity will provide more
   precise knowledge of the traffic situation across the entire road
   network which in turn will help: optimize traffic flows, reduce
   congestion, cut accident numbers.  V2X scenarios have certain common
   network functions (dynamic topology, mobility, vehicle subscription)
   and then there are specialized operations per services a.  V2I in
   short-range, adhoc routing, high reliability, higher layer security
   and authentication; b. traditional broadband for Infotainment; c. in
   network assistance for localized services.

   Vehicles on the road cooperate, coordinate and share information with
   other vehicles, the information could be collected from sensors on
   the road and other vehicles.  During the drive a vehicle may
   subscribe to various location based services.  A vehicle may become

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   part of of slices such that different customized slice serves low
   latency and zero-packet loss slice perhaps with a Vehicular Ad Hoc
   Network (VANET) type protocols for vehicle to vehicle and composed of
   an access medium (either intelligent transportation systesm (ITS)
   band or commercial-cellular) and a part transport and core.  Vehicles
   also may join remote diagnose network, in which diagnostics, or
   software/firmware upgrades to vehicle maybe performed.  Remote
   diagnose, location-based services are of somewhat less sensitive to
   response time.  Vehicles will demand enhanced connectivity for in
   vehicle entertainment, accessing the Internet, enhanced navigation
   through instant and real-time information, autonomous driving, and
   safety, which are resource intensive.

3.3.  mMTC Type NS use case

3.3.1.  Smart City

   Smart city is about various kinds of public infrastructures
   connecting and harmonizing (relate to machine-to-machine (M2M)
   communications based on Internet of things (IoT)).  Using various
   data sensors, smart city technologies will be able to respond in
   real-time to everyday events including metering (e.g., gas, energy,
   and water), environment (e.g., pollution, temperature, humidity,
   noise) monitoring, city or building lights management, vehicle
   traffic control, public safety like nature disaster alerting and
   forecasting, etc.  The communication network enabling smart city need
   to ensure reliable communication over the entire footprint of the
   emergency services.

3.3.2.  Health Monitoring

   Applications of remote health monitoring will continue growing, such
   applications will include several devices, like sensors, e.g., for
   heart rate, pulse, blood pressure, temperature.  Constantly
   monitoring vital signs could prevent body conditions from becoming
   acute, and adapt medication to meet changing conditions.  E-Health
   applications can be life critical and the system must be able to
   reserve/prioritise capacity for the related communications including
   out of coverage warnings.  Identity, privacy, security and
   authentication management must be ensured for each device.

3.4.  Other Type NS Use Case

   This type includes those use cases that do not have special
   requirements for network infrastructure and those use cases that may
   have mixed requirement (e.g. both eMBB and uRLL).

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3.4.1.  Use Cases Have Mixed Requirements

   Use cases that have mixed requirements for the network are
   pervasively existed.  As described in section 2.1.2, AV/VR may have
   high requirements for bandwidth.  On the other hand, as most of the
   applications for AR and VR are real-time, interactive VR/AR
   applications are extremely sensitive to delay and require very low
   end-to-end latency.  Less than 20ms roundtrip is essential to avoid
   users experiencing disorientation and dizziness, which can occur if
   there is too much delay between the perception of an action and image
   display.  In remote controlling, remote operation requires the
   communication with the characteristics of low latency and low jitter,
   in case of video or voice assisted communication maintenance, the
   bandwidth is also important.

   Actually, usually most of the services have mixed requirements for
   the network, especially for the mMTC type applications.

3.4.2.  Use Cases Have no Special Requirements

   Over-The-Top(OTT) services are the typical scenario of this kind.
   OTT services are those associated with content, like video (with
   normal definition), audio, IM messages, web-digital content, and
   other media transmitted via the Internet, this kind of communications
   are expected to be pervasive and part of everyday life.  Most
   commonly, a high degree of applications such as VOIP, CDNs are
   deployed as OTT services with low expectations from the underlying
   network as communication medium and subsequently by building their
   own application infrastructure.  The trend toward IP (or HTTP) based
   content delivery may be perceived as an indicative of network as dumb
   pipe.  However, QoE is important to content delivery and requires
   coordination with the ISPs.  With a network slice which represents a
   partitioned network infrastructure allocated for content delivery can
   help create new opportunities for both network operators and content

4.  Conclusions

   Many vertical industries will migrate onto the 5G network, the goal
   of 5G is to support various service scenarios from these verticals
   that have very different network capability and performance demands.
   The above listed typical use cases show that each scenario requires a
   different network service and poses requirements that are different,
   each of which usually has a set of unique requirements in delay,
   jitter, bandwidth, security, availability et., al.  These
   requirements indicate that the 5G networks need to be more flexible
   and scalable to support massive connections of diverse performance
   requirements into a single network.  The current transport network

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   architecture is not flexible and scalable enough to support the
   various services scenarios and fulfill specific set of performance
   requirements of each use case at the same time.  Network slicing aims
   to support services with diverse requirements to be provided on the
   same physical network with guaranteed independence/isolation levels.
   Each network slice appears to its users as an independent, dedicated
   private network which is impervious to anything that is happening on
   any of the other network slices.  For the applications that do not
   have special requirements for network, the emergence of NS will help
   these applications work more economical and effective.

5.  IANA Considerations

   This document makes no request of IANA.

6.  Security Considerations

   The security considerations apply to each slice.  In addition general
   security considerations of underlying infrastructure whether isolated
   communication with in a slice apply for links using wireless

7.  Acknowledgements

   Thanks to Stewart Bryant for providing details for several use cases.

8.  Informative References

              "BT", 2016, <http://www.techradar.com/reviews/audiovisual/
              digital-tv-receivers/bt- ultra-hd-youview-box- 1301334/

              "FG IMT-2020: Report on Standards Gap Analysis", 2015,

              Galis, A., Dong, J., kiran.makhijani@huawei.com, k.,
              Bryant, S., Boucadair, M., and P. Martinez-Julia, "Network
              Slicing - Introductory Document and Revised Problem
              Statement", draft-gdmb-netslices-intro-and-ps-02 (work in
              progress), February 2017.

              "Description of Network Slicing Concept", 2016,

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              "NGMN", 2016, <https://www.ngmn.org/uploads/media/

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,

   [RFC6919]  Barnes, R., Kent, S., and E. Rescorla, "Further Key Words
              for Use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels", RFC 6919,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6919, April 2013,

   [RFC7665]  Halpern, J., Ed. and C. Pignataro, Ed., "Service Function
              Chaining (SFC) Architecture", RFC 7665,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7665, October 2015,

              , 2016, <ITU-T, August 2014, Technology Watch Report, The
              Tactile Internet, available at: http://ow.ly/Ubmow>.

              "Study on Architecture for Next Generation System", 2012,

Authors' Addresses

   Jun Qin
   Huawei Technologies
   Huawei Campus, No. 156 Beiqing Rd.
   Beijing 100095

   Email: qinjun4@huawei.com

   Kiran Makhijani
   Huawei Technologies
   2890 Central Expressway
   Santa Clara CA 95050

   Email: kiran.makhijani@huawei.com

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   Jie Dong
   Huawei Technologies
   Huawei Campus, No. 156 Beiqing Rd.
   Beijing 100095

   Email: jie.dong@huawei.com

   Li Qiang
   Huawei Technologies
   Huawei Campus, No. 156 Beiqing Rd.
   Beijing 100095

   Email: qiangli3@huawei.com

   Shuping Peng
   Huawei Technologies
   Huawei Campus, No. 156 Beiqing Rd.
   Beijing 100095

   Email: pengshuping@huawei.com

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