[Docs] [txt|pdf] [Tracker] [WG] [Email] [Diff1] [Diff2] [Nits]

Versions: 00 01

Internet Engineering Task Force                                 Authors:
INTERNET DRAFT                            R. Rajan/S. Kamat/J. C. Martin
                                               AT&T/IBM/Sun Microsystems
                                                    M. See/ R. Chaudhury
                                                      IBM/Xylan/ Telstra
                                        D. Verma/ G. Powers/ R. Yavatkar
                                                   IBM/ Packeteer/ Intel
                                                           5/ April/1999


    Policy Action Classes for Differentiated Services and Integrated
                                Services
                  draft-rajan-policy-qosschema-01.txt

   Status of Memo

      This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full
      conformance with all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026
      except for the right to produce derivative works.

      Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet
      Engineering Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working
      groups.  Note that other groups may also distribute working
      documents as Internet-Drafts.

      Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of
      six months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by
      other documents at any time.  It is inappropriate to use
      Internet-Drafts as reference material or to cite them other
      than as ``work in progress.''

      The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
      http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt

      The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be
      accessed at
      http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.

      This draft is in accordance with the policy information
      model presented in draft-ietf-policy-core-schema-02.txt,
      and elaborates on the action class for specifying quality
      of service (QoS) related policies.  This draft replaces
      draft-rajan-policy-qosschema-00.txt by modeling networking
      QoS policy actions as subclass of policyAction.

      Discussion of this draft will be carried on the policy
      mailing list (policy@raleigh.ibm.com).  Suggestions for
      improvement may also be sent to rajan@research.att.com.






rajan, kamat, martin, see        Expires 5/ October/1999        [Page i]


Internet Draft     draft-rajan-policy-qosschema-01.txt     5/ April/1999


      Distribution of this memo is unlimited.

      Copyright Notice

         Copyright (C) The Internet Society (1999).  All Rights
                               Reserved.

   Abstract

      This document describes the structure of a directory
      schema to enable and support administration of QoS
      policies in networks through regulation or configuration
      of nodes that support Differentiated Services and/or
      Integrated Services with RSVP signaling.  This draft
      is consistent with the core schema described in
      draft-ietf-policy-core-schema-02.txt and must be used in
      conjunction with draft-ietf-rajan-policy-conditions-00.txt
      for definition of complete QoS policies.


1. Purpose and Overview

   As protocol aspects of providing quality of service in IP networks
   begin to get standardized, there is a need for corresponding
   standards towards enabling policy based administration of these
   protocols.  Supporting QoS in a network consumes network resources
   and policy based administration seeks to regulate such resource usage
   to ensure that it is consistent with the network service provider's
   objectives or Service Level Agreements.  The contents or nature
   of the high level objectives or SLAs are clearly not within IETF
   scope.  However, there is a need to standardize lower level schema
   definitions that facilitate the administration of QoS protocols to
   ensure interoperability among network devices from multiple vendors.

   Currently, there are two sets of standards for providing QoS in IP
   networks.  Integrated services with RSVP [8] signaling approach
   allows providing per-flow QoS assurances with dynamic resource
   reservation.  A flow is defined by the 5-tuple (source address,
   destination address, protocol, source port, destination port).
   In this context, there is a need to provide policy control of
   individual flows, and to regulate their ability to reserve network
   resources.  (See [9] for a discussion of policy based admission
   control framework and sample policies).  Differentiated services
   [4], on the other hand, are aimed at traffic aggregates that are
   identified by the DS code point (part of TOS field) in IP headers of
   packets.  This approach primarily relies on administrative control of
   bandwidth, delay or dropping preferences through simple policies and
   configuration rather than per-flow signaling protocols to communicate



rajan, kamat, martin, see       Expires 5/ October/1999        [Page ii]


Internet Draft     draft-rajan-policy-qosschema-01.txt     5/ April/1999


   the service level information to network elements [3].  For such
   services we wish to enable flexible definition of class-based packet
   handling behaviors and class-based policy control.  (See [7] for
   a discussion of DiffServ framework and sample behavior/service
   descriptions).

   In either of these environments, network administrators need the
   ability to specify different classes of packets and appropriate
   bounds on the usage of network resources by packets from these
   classes.  For example, with the signaled QoS approach of IntServ with
   RSVP, a policy may specify an upper limit on the total number of
   active controlled load reservations from receivers in a particular
   subnet or the size of individual controlled load or guaranteed
   service reservations in terms of the request parameters such as token
   buket rates, delay, etc.  In the DiffServ scenario, a policy may
   specify that an ingress router classify packets from a specific set
   of applications as requiring DiffServ Expedited Forwarding (EF) [6]
   treatment, and specify the token bucket parameters for conditioning
   (policing and shaping) the traffic.  In order to provide the desired
   level of service through consistent per hop behaviours at all nodes
   for this traffic, the DiffServ policy may also specify the resource
   allocation information at all network nodes to ensure that the
   aggregate EF traffic has the well defined minimum departure rate
   at Similarly, for the Assured Forwarding (AF) [5] class, policies
   for ingress routers may specify that packets from a certain set of
   sources be classified into a particular AF class, and further, assign
   different drop precedence values to packets based on additional
   criteria.  Furthermore, for ensuring the desired level of service,
   the DiffServ policy may specify traffic conditioning actions at the
   ingress to ensure that the aggregate traffic belonging to the two
   lowest drop precedence values in each AF class is within specified
   limits and appropriate levels of bandwidth and buffer resoures are
   allocated for the class at all nodes.


1.1. Objectives and Scope

   [1] defines five very general classes for defining policies:
   policyGroup, policyRule, policyCondition, policyTimePeriodCondition,
   and policyAction.  Policy solutions for specific areas, such as QoS
   and security are expected to use some of these classes directly
   while creating their own subclasses derived from policyCondition and
   policyAction in order to represent their own application-specific
   needs.  A subclass of policyCondition to facilitate definition of
   packet classifiers applicable for both QoS and security policies is
   proposed in [2].  This draft defines subclasses of policyAction for
   QoS related policies and is consistent with the above proposals.




rajan, kamat, martin, see       Expires 5/ October/1999       [Page iii]


Internet Draft     draft-rajan-policy-qosschema-01.txt     5/ April/1999


   This document aims to support QoS policies for differentiated and
   integrated services networks that fall within the following three
   broad scenarios:

    -  Integrated services secured through the use of RSVP signaling,
       within or across domains.  The use of policy in such an
       environment allows enterprises to be able to police QoS requests
       on a per-flow, per-user or per-application basis.  Directory
       schema are meant to be used in conjunction with the use of the
       policy elements in RSVP signaling messages, to enable routers to
       identify users and applications to which policy must be applied.

    -  Differentiated services secured through provisioning within a
       domain, and, in an inter-domain scenario, bilateral agreements
       across peer network boundaries.  In such cases, policies are used
       to map across the two domain specific semantics, and enforce
       access control restrictions, such as ensuring that the amount of
       in-profile traffic is within the specified contractual limits.
       More specifically, policies for DiffServ facilitate specification
       of the following:

        1. packet classification filters to be installed into
           DS-compliant nodes allowing wide granularity for edge nodes
           and simple DSCP based aggregate traffic filters for DS
           interior nodes;

        2. appropriate traffic conditioning actions to be performed at
           different nodes, specifically allowing for marking, metering,
           policing, shaping and dropping;

        3. bandwidth and buffer resources to be allocated at
           DS-compliant nodes for different traffic aggregates
           identified by DS code points.

    -  Integrated services secured within a domain, being mapped onto
       differentiated services across domains.  In such cases, policies
       are needed at the domain boundary to translate between integrated
       and differentiated service semantics, to enforce traffic
       monitoring and to provide access control to network resources.

   Two important scenarios, not explicitly supported by the schema in
   this draft, but which may be covered by extensions to it are:

    -  RSVP aggregation, i.e., the mapping of several RSVP flows into
       pre-configured RSVP tunnels,

    -  Support of differentiated services using RSVP tunnels.




rajan, kamat, martin, see       Expires 5/ October/1999        [Page iv]


Internet Draft     draft-rajan-policy-qosschema-01.txt     5/ April/1999


   We have the following objectives in defining this schema.

    1. We want to cover a broad range of PEP clients that enforce
       QoS policies.  These include:  1) an edge device that
       marks/drops/buffers/schedules certain packets to enforce a
       service differentiation policy, 2) an RSVP capable router that
       accepts/denies resource reservation requests based on allowed
       policies, and 3) hosts capable of packet marking and traffic
       conditioning.  We would like the schema definition to be generic
       enough to support a wide range of resource control environments
       including the clients mentioned above.

    2. We want to describe QoS actions in terms of observable or
       measurable behaviors rather than implementation specific
       configuration parameters.  We believe that adminstrators
       specifying QoS policies in a heterogeneous multi-vendor network
       would prefer such descriptive semantics instead of detailed
       prescription of configuration parameters for specific scheduling
       or buffer management mechanisms used in network nodes.  We assume
       that translation of QoS action directives to implementation
       specific actions will be carried out in the policy clients
       (within PDP/PEP/proxies).


1.2. Class Hierarchy

   The new classes and subclasses added to support QoS policy actions
   are depicted in the class hierarchy below:


                      Top
                       |
                       |
                       |------- policyCondition
                       |             |
                       |        networkingPolicyCondition
                       |
                       |------- policyAction
                       |             |
                       |             |--- RSVPAction
                       |             |--- diffServAction
                       |
                       |------- diffServResourceGroup
                       |
                       |------- RSVPResourceGroup






rajan, kamat, martin, see        Expires 5/ October/1999        [Page v]


Internet Draft     draft-rajan-policy-qosschema-01.txt     5/ April/1999


2. The Subclass diffServAction

   The class policyRule specifies a sequence of actions to be employed
   on a sub-stream of packets identified through a simple or complex set
   of conditions.  Assuming that a packet substream has been identified
   (for details, see drafts [1] and [2]), the diffServAction class
   describes a component per-hop behaviour (PHB) in force at a network
   device.  The diffServAction class does not seek to describe in
   detail resource reservations, packet treatment and configuration of
   every possible network device.  Instead, it provides a high-level
   description of QoS services through a simple model that uses the
   following three descriptors -- traffic profile descriptors, packet
   marking descriptors and resource group descriptors.  Of these,
   traffic profile descriptors and packet marking descriptors constitute
   attributes of diffServAction itself, while resource group descriptors
   are used through reference to another class diffServResourceGroup.

   The traffic profile descriptor is used to describe precisely, the
   portion of the packets of the identified sub-stream that are to be
   regarded as in-profile, with the understanding that the remaining
   packets are to be regarded as out-of-profile (or excess traffic).  To
   this end we employ a leaky bucket model with three attributes -- a
   mean rate, a peak rate and a bucket size.  Of course, the sorting of
   packets into in-profile and out-of-profile packets is possible only
   under the assumption that a policing device is present at the policy
   enforcement point; otherwise the attributes may be omitted or will be
   ignored (i.e., all packets will be regarded as in-profile).

   The packet marking descriptor provides an edge device with the
   ability to mark the DS byte for enabling simpler QoS classification
   at downstream network devices.  We allow for differential marking
   of in and out of profile traffic (which makes sense if policing is
   present); as well as for the enforcement point to mark or remark
   the DS code point portion of the DS byte in the packet header.  The
   latter is facilitated by allowing masking certain bits of the DS byte
   while modifying others.

   The resource group descriptor describes the treatment expected by
   packets within a common service group (identified by the forwarding
   class).  The descriptor does NOT aim to describe how the service
   is to be provided, i.e., scheduling, buffer management, and other
   resource control details cannot be dictated by policy.  The resource
   group descriptor instead encapsulates the (qualitative/quantitative)
   nature of the service to be accorded to identified packets.  There
   are two aspects of such a description:
   (a) The treatment of in-profile traffic:  The principal service
   descriptors are rate, delay and loss.  These may be defined
   deterministically, stochastically or qualitiatively.  For instance,



rajan, kamat, martin, see       Expires 5/ October/1999        [Page vi]


Internet Draft     draft-rajan-policy-qosschema-01.txt     5/ April/1999


   a rate may be defined deterministically through the transmission of
   a certain number of bits over time period, stochastically through an
   on-off Markov process, or qualititatively as Class 1 traffic.  We
   allow for deterministic and qualitative descriptions; stochastic
   descriptors may be introduced as future extension.
   (b) Treatment of out-of-profile traffic:  Excess traffic may be
   tolerated, reshaped, provided a different class of service or
   dropped.

   It is important to note that trafficProfileDescriptor and
   resourceGroupDescriptor objects refer to states created in the
   network device.  To understand this better, consider two policy
   rules, as follows.

Rule1:    If PolicyCondition1 then PolicyDSAction1

Rule2:    If PolicyCondition2  then PolicyDSAction1

PolicyDSAction1:  TrafficProfileDescriptor1
                  PacketMarkingDescriptor1
                  ResourceGroupDescriptor1

   Now, all packets described either by PolicyCondition1 or by
   PolicyCondition2 will be policed together, and share the same rate
   resource reservations.  This is different from the case where we have

Rule1: If PolicyCondition1 then PolicyDSAction1

Rule2: If PolicyCondition2 then PolicyDSAction2

PolicyDSAction1:  TrafficProfileDescriptor1
                  PacketMarkingDescriptor1
                  ResourceGroupDescriptor1

PolicyDSAction2:  TrafficProfileDescriptor2
                  PacketMarkingDescriptor2
                  ResourceGroupDescriptor2

   Even if the two traffic profile descriptors were numerically
   identical, the two streams will not be policed together by the same
   policer -- they will be policed by identical policers.  Similarly,
   they will not share the same buffer or bandwidth resources.  In fact,
   the resource requirements for the second example will be twice those
   of the first (ignoring multiplexing gains).

   The class description of diffServAction is as follows:

NAME               diffServAction



rajan, kamat, martin, see       Expires 5/ October/1999       [Page vii]


Internet Draft     draft-rajan-policy-qosschema-01.txt     5/ April/1999


TYPE               Structural
DERIVED FROM       policyAction
AUXILIARY CLASSES  NONE
MUST
      CommonName
      diffServPermission
MAY
      diffServInProfileRate,
      diffServInProfilePeakRate,
      diffServInProfileTokenBucket,
      diffServInProfileTransmittedTOSByte,
      diffServOutProfileTransmittedTOSByte,
      diffServResourceGroupRef,
      diffServActionName

   The first three MAY attributes describe the traffic profile, the next
   two specify the marking, and next is a reference to the resource
   group.

   The following set of attributes are currently defined for the
   DiffServ policy clients, namely hosts, edge devices, and routers that
   do traffic conditioning (packet marking, dropping, shaping, etc).

NAME     diffServPermission
DESC     Allow/drop data packets
SYNTAX   IA5String
EQUALITY caseExactIA5Match
SINGLE-VALUED
FORMAT   The currently defined values for this attribute are:
            Accept
            Deny

   With the permission attribute set to ``Accept'', and no other
   attribute present, the packets matching the PolicyCondition are given
   the ``default'' service.

NAME      diffServActionName
DESC      The user friendly name of this entry.
SYNTAX    IA5String
EQUALITY  caseExactIA5Match
SINGLE-VALUED
DEFAULT   No name

NAME      diffServInProfileRate
DESC      Specifies the token rate for the in-profile traffic descriptor in kbps
SYNTAX    INTEGER
EQUALITY  integerMatch
SINGLE-VALUED



rajan, kamat, martin, see      Expires 5/ October/1999       [Page viii]


Internet Draft     draft-rajan-policy-qosschema-01.txt     5/ April/1999


SEMANTICS All packets in the behavior aggregate are measured against
          a leaky bucket with this token rate. Traffic that passes the leaky
          bucket check is considered in-profile.
DEFAULT   All packets considered in-profile, i.e., infinity


NAME      diffServInProfilePeakRate
DESC      Specifies the peak rate for the in-profile traffic descriptor in kbps
SYNTAX    INTEGER
EQUALITY  integerMatch
SINGLE-VALUED
SEMANTICS All packets in the behaviour aggregate are measured
          against a leaky bucket with this peak rate.
DEFAULT   Same value as diffServInProfileRate


NAME      diffServInProfileTokenBucket
DESC      Specifies the token bucket size for in-profile traffic
          descriptor in kilobits
SYNTAX    INTEGER
EQUALITY  integerMatch
SINGLE-VALUED
SEMANTICS All packets in the behaviour aggregate are measured
          against a leaky bucket with this  token bucket size.
DEFAULT   Defaults to the maximum IP packet size.

NAME      diffServInProfileTransmittedTOSByte
DESC      Specifies the outgoing TOS byte for in profile packet
          marking descriptor
SYNTAX    IA5String
EQUALITY  caseExactIA5Match
FORMAT    String(s) of the form xxxxxxxx:xxxxxxxx, where each of the `x's
          is either 0 or 1.
SINGLE-VALUED
SEMANTICS Each of the two substrings is treated as specifying an 8-bit
          field. The left substring is termed Mask and the right
          substring Modify. 0's in the Mask specify the bit locations
          in the TOS byte that must not be changed and 1's specify
          those that must be changed to match the corresponding ones
          in the Modify field.  The operation involved is: newTOSByte
          = (Mask' & oldTOSbyte) | (Mask & Modify), where Mask' is the
          bitwise complement of Mask and '&' and '|' denote the
          bit-wise AND and OR operations respectively.
EXAMPLE   Consider a policy rule that specifies 11100000:11001010 as
          the value for this attribute. The Mask of 11100000 means
          that when this rule is applied, the 5 least significant bits
          in the TOS byte must be left unchanged but the 3 most
          significant bits must be changed to make them identical to



rajan, kamat, martin, see       Expires 5/ October/1999        [Page ix]


Internet Draft     draft-rajan-policy-qosschema-01.txt     5/ April/1999


          the corresponding ones in the Modify field. Thus, if this
          rule were to be applicable to a packet whose TOS byte is
          10101010, then the TOS byte will be changed to 11001010
          before transmission.
DEFAULT   Don't modify any bit, i.e.,
          Mask   00000000
          Modify 00000000


NAME      diffServOutProfileTransmittedTOSByte
DESC      Specifies the outgoing TOS byte for out-of-profile packet
          marking descriptor
SYNTAX    IA5String
EQUALITY  caseExactIA5Match
FORMAT    same as `DiffServInProfileTransmittedTOSByte' attribute
SINGLE-VALUED
SEMANTICS same as `diffServInProfileTransmittedTOSByte' attribute
DEFAULT   same as `diffServInProfileTransmittedTOSByte' attribute

NAME      diffServResourceGroupRef
DESC      Absolute distinguished name of LDAP entry, from the objectclass
          diffServResourceGroup, that identifies the service category and
          resource group descriptors that apply to the traffic.
SYNTAX    DN
EQUALITY  distinguishedNameMatch
SINGLE-VALUED
DEFAULT   Best Effort Service


2.0.1. The class diffServResourceGroup

   Objects of this class fully specify the treatment accorded to
   in-profile and out-of-profile traffic, in terms of their access to
   QoS resources.  The class description of diffServResourceGroup is as
   follows:


NAME               diffServResourceGroup
TYPE               Structural
DERIVED FROM       Top
AUXILIARY CLASSES  NONE
MUST               CommonName
MAY
                   diffServLossParameter,
                   diffServDelayParameter,
                   diffServBandwidthShare,
                   diffServExcessTrafficTreatment
                   diffServAutoStart



rajan, kamat, martin, see        Expires 5/ October/1999        [Page x]


Internet Draft     draft-rajan-policy-qosschema-01.txt     5/ April/1999


                   diffServResourceGroupName

   The attributes are described below.

NAME      diffServResourceGroupName
DESC      The user friendly name of this entry.
SYNTAX    IA5String
EQUALITY  caseExactIA5Match
SINGLE-VALUED
DEFAULT   No name

NAME      diffServLossParameter
DESC      Packet loss paremeters  for in-profile traffic for this
          class of service
SYNTAX    IA5String
EQUALITY  caseExactIA5Match
FORMAT    Colon seperate numeric strings, A:B, where at most A packets
          may be dropped for every B packets received.
SINGLE-VALUED
EXAMPLE   2:1000 implies a maximum loss rate of .002.
DEFAULT   Best Effort

NAME      diffServDelayParameters
DESC      Packet delay paremeters  for out-of-profile traffic for this
          class of service
SYNTAX    IA5String
EQUALITY  caseExactIA5Match
FORMAT    Colon seperated integer:string pair. Currently defined
          1:<absolute delay>  where the absolute delay is expressed in msec
          2:<relative delay > where the relative delay is expressed as
            a priority (1 means best effort)
SINGLE-VALUED
DEFAULT   Best Effort

NAME      diffServBandwidthShare
DESC      Bandwidth share for this class of service
SYNTAX    IA5String
EQUALITY  caseExactIA5Match
FORMAT    Colon seperated integer:string pair. Currently defined
          1:<absolute bandwidth>  where the absolute bw is expressed
            in kilobits/sec
          2:<bandwidth percent> where the bandwidth percent is a number
            between 0 and 100 expressing the share of the bandwidth
            allowed to this class
SINGLE-VALUED
SEMANTICS The intervals over which bandwidths are delivered are PEP-specific.
          Percentages are provided for instances where the policy rule is unaware
          of the link capacity at the enforcement entity. Percentages for all



rajan, kamat, martin, see       Expires 5/ October/1999        [Page xi]


Internet Draft     draft-rajan-policy-qosschema-01.txt     5/ April/1999


          classes must add to less than 100.
EXAMPLES  1:200  -- This class is allocated a 200kbps
          2:40   -- This class is allocated 40% of the link bandwidth
DEFAULT   0, i.e., No reserved share

NAME      diffServExcessTrafficTreatment
DESC      Describes how excess traffic is to be treated.
SYNTAX    IA5String
EQUALITY  caseExactIA5Match
FORMAT    The following values are defined
              `Drop'  -- Allow no excess traffic
              `Best Effort' -- Treat excess traffic as best effort
              `Reshape'--Reshape excess traffic
SINGLE-VALUED
SEMANTICS This field specifes the actions that must be taken if an
          incoming packet cannot be placed within the reserved buffer
          allocation of the stream.
DEFAULT   Best Effort

NAME      diffServAutoStart
DESC      Indicates if the resource allocation for this service should be
          done at time of enforcement entity startup, or should be packet
          driven. This attribute is for guidance only, and its
          interpretation is implementation specific.
SYNTAX    IA5String
EQUALITY  caseExactIA5Match
FORMAT    The following strings are defined
             `AutoStart' --- Allocate resources at device startup
             `NoAutoStart' --- Allocate resources when packets for
                              flow are seen.
SINGLE-VALUED
DEFAULT   Autostart


2.1. The Class RSVPAction

   The class RSVPAction contains policies to be applied to RSVP
   signalling packets, i.e., PATH messages and RESV messages, satisfying
   the conditions specified in the policy conditions.  In this draft of
   the schema we allow for simple forms of policy based control, where
   administrative restrictions may be placed on the amount of resources
   that a single RSVP flow, or group of flows, may consume.  We also
   allow for an RSVP reservation to be supported through a mapping into
   a DiffServ service category.  Support for additional rules based on
   richer classes of policy information such as user ids for signalled
   QoS will be supported in future extensions to this schema.





rajan, kamat, martin, see       Expires 5/ October/1999       [Page xii]


Internet Draft     draft-rajan-policy-qosschema-01.txt     5/ April/1999


   Currently, there are two kinds of restrictions that we may place on
   resource usage by RSVP flows -- individual restrictions and group
   restrictions.

   The class description of RSVPAction is as follows:


NAME               RSVPAction
TYPE               Structural
DERIVED FROM       policyAction
AUXILIARY CLASSES  NONE
MUST               CommonName
                   RSVPFlowServiceType,
                   RSVPPermission
MAY                RSVPActionName
                   RSVPMaxRatePerFlow,
                   RSVPMaxTokenBucketPerFlow,
                   RSVPMinDelay,
                   RSVPMaxFlowDuration,
                   RSVPResourceGroupRef,
                   diffServActionRef

   The syntax and semantics of the attributes of an `RSVPAction' entry
   are described below.


NAME      RSVPFlowServiceType
DESC      IntServ service type that a flow can request
SYNTAX    IA5String
EQUALITY  caseExactIA5Match
FORMAT:   String with allowed values
           ControlledLoad
           GuaranteedService
MULTI-VALUED

Name      RSVPPermission
DESC      Allow/Dissallow RSVP flows
SYNTAX    IA5String
EQUALITY  caseExactIA5Match
FORMAT:   String with allowed values
            Accept
            Deny
SEMANTICS Accept or deny RSVP sessions of the specified Service Type(s).
          The remaining attributes make sense only in the case of `Accept'
SINGLE-VALUED

NAME      RSVPActionName
DESC      The user friendly name of this entry.



rajan, kamat, martin, see      Expires 5/ October/1999       [Page xiii]


Internet Draft     draft-rajan-policy-qosschema-01.txt     5/ April/1999


SYNTAX    IA5String
EQUALITY  caseExactIA5Match
SINGLE-VALUED
DEFAULT   No Name

NAME      RSVPMaxRatePerFlow
DESC      The maximum token rate for any individual flow in kilobits per second
SYNTAX    INTEGER
EQUALITY  integerMatch
SINGLE-VALUED
SEMANTICS  Reservation requests for higher per-flow bandwidth are denied.
DEFAULT    No limit

NAME       RSVPMaxPeakRatePerFlow
DESC       The maximum peak rate for any individual flow in kilobits per second
SYNTAX     INTEGER
EQUALITY   integerMatch
SINGLE-VALUED
SEMANTICS  Reservation requests for higher per-flow peak rate are denied.
DEFAULT    Assigned the same value as RSVPMaxRatePerFlow.

NAME       RSVPMaxTokenBucketPerFlow
DESC       The maximum token bucket size for any individual flow in kilobits
SYNTAX     INTEGER
EQUALITY   integerMatch
SINGLE-VALUED
SEMANTICS: Reservation requests for higher per-flow token bucket size
           are denied.
DEFAULT    Implementation Specific.

NAME       RSVPMinDelay
DESC       The minimum delay value an individual flow may request in millisec
SYNTAX     INTEGER
EQUALITY   integerMatch
SINGLE-VALUED
DEFAULT    No limit

NAME       RSVPMaxFlowDuration
DESC       Maximum time (in seconds) an RSVP flow matching the profile may last
SYNTAX     INTEGER
EQUALITY   integerMatch
SINGLE-VALUED
DEFAULT    No limit


NAME       RSVPUserAuthPolicy
DESC       Manner of authentication to be performed to authenticate user
SYNTAX     IA5String



rajan, kamat, martin, see       Expires 5/ October/1999       [Page xiv]


Internet Draft     draft-rajan-policy-qosschema-01.txt     5/ April/1999


EQUALITY   caseExactIA5Match
SINGLE-VALUED
FORMAT: String, currently defined values are
           Plain       (Plain text password)
           Kerberos    (Kerberos ticket authentication)
           Public-Key  (Public Key authentication)
           None        (for no authentication)
DEFAULT    None

   All the policy attributes hitherto described for RSVPAction refer
   to an individual flow for which a reservation is sought to be made.
   Often an adminstrator might wish to place group restrictions on
   flows described as an aggregation of multiple policy condition
   objects.  For instance, the administrator might wish to restrict the
   total number of active RSVP reservations.  To facilitate such group
   restrictions, we allow the reference attribute RSVPResourceGroupRef.
   The reason for making this a reference is not difficult to see.
   The group that the adminstrator wishes to control may not be
   describable through a single profile, or a single profile might
   belong to different groups in terms of resource control.  In such
   cases, multiple policy rules ``point'' to the same group.  Note that
   policies described through group rules require that the enforcement
   entity maintain some state; in the example suggested above, the
   enforcement entity would have to track the number of active flows in
   order to enforce the policy.

NAME      RSVPResourceGroupRef
DESC      Absolute distinguished name(s) of LDAP entry, from the objectclass
          RSVPResourceGroup, which specifies constraints on a group of
          RSVP flows.
SYNTAX    DN
EQUALITY  distinguishedNameMatch
MULTI-VALUED
DEFAULT   No Resource Group

   The next attribute allows the enforcement entity to map RSVP flows
   onto DiffServ resource groups.

NAME      DiffServActionRef
DESC      Absolute distinguished name of an LDAP entry, from the objectclass
          DiffServAction, which specifies the class of service that the
          RSVP flow must be mapped into.
EQUALITY  distinguishedNameMatch
SINGLE-VALUED
SYNTAX    DN
DEFAULT   No RSVP to DiffServ Translation





rajan, kamat, martin, see       Expires 5/ October/1999        [Page xv]


Internet Draft     draft-rajan-policy-qosschema-01.txt     5/ April/1999


2.2. The Class RSVPResourceGroup

   The class description of RSVPResourceGroup is as follows:

NAME               RSVPResourceGroup
TYPE               Structural
DERIVED FROM       Top
AUXILIARY CLASSES  NONE
MUST
                   CommonName
MAY
                   RSVPMaxFlows
                   RSVPMaxAggregateRate
                   RSVPMaxAggregateTokenBucket
                   RSVPResourceGroupName

   The syntax and semantics of individual attributes are described
   below.

NAME      RSVPResourceGroupName
DESC      The user friendly name of this entry.
SYNTAX    IA5String
EQUALITY  caseExactIA5Match
SINGLE-VALUED
DEFAULT   No Name

NAME      RSVPMaxFlows
DESC      The maximum allowed number of reserved flows belonging to the
          group
SYNTAX    INTEGER
EQUALITY  integerMatch
SINGLE-VALUED
DEFAULT   No limit

NAME      RSVPMaxAggregateRate
DESC      The aggregate maximum token rate for all flows in the group
SYNTAX    INTEGER
EQUALITY  integerMatch
SINGLE-VALUED
SEMANTICS Reservation requests that result in a higher aggregate
          bandwidth reservation are denied.
Default   No limit

NAME      RSVPMaxAggregateTokenBucket
DESC      The maximum token bucket size for the aggregate traffic matching
          the profile in kilobits
SYNTAX    INTEGER
EQUALITY  integerMatch



rajan, kamat, martin, see       Expires 5/ October/1999       [Page xvi]


Internet Draft     draft-rajan-policy-qosschema-01.txt     5/ April/1999


SINGLE-VALUED
DEFAULT   No limit


3. QoS Schema Usage Examples

   In this section we describe some usage scenarios for defining QoS
   policies for different contexts.  We use LDIF notation.  These
   examples broadly adhere to the core Policy schema as defined in
   [1], and to the policyCondition class as defined in [2].  However,
   for clarity of exposition we simplify certain attribute syntaxes
   (policyRuleConditionList, for instance).


3.1. DiffServ PHB

   The requirements are:

    -  All web traffic originating from two server clusters S1
       (1.1.1.0 mask 255.255.255.0) and S2 (2.2.2.0 mask 255.255.255.0)
       traversing a router must be assigned a low delay, low loss
       service with a shared reservation of 40Mbps.

    -  This traffic must be marked with the TOS bits set to 10100000.

   The following rules achieve the above objective:

    dn: cn=S1-Web-Rule, o=XYZ, c=US
    Objectclass: policyRule
    policyRuleConditionList: cn=S1-Web-Condition,o=XYZ, c=US,
    policyRuleActionList: cn=DSGoldService, o=XYZ, c=US

    dn: cn=S2-Web-Rule, o=XYZ, c=US
    Objectclass: policyRule
    PolicyRuleConditionList: cn=S2-Web-Condition,o=XYZ, c=US,
    PolicyRuleActionList: cn=DSGoldService, o=XYZ, c=US

   The conditions and actions referred to in the above rules are:


    dn: cn=S1-Web-Condition, o=XYZ, c=US
    Objectclass: networkingPolicyCondition
    Objectclass: hostConditionAuxClass
    Objectclass: applicationConditionAuxClass
    sourceIPAddressRange: 1:1.1.0:24
    SourcePortRange: 8000:8080
    protocolNumber: 4                               (TCP)




rajan, kamat, martin, see      Expires 5/ October/1999       [Page xvii]


Internet Draft     draft-rajan-policy-qosschema-01.txt     5/ April/1999


    dn: cn=S2-Web-Condition, o=XYZ, c=US
    objectclass: networkingPolicyCondition
    objectclass: hostConditionAuxClass
    objectclass: applicationConditionAuxClass
    sourceIPAddressRange: 1:2.2.2.0:24
    sourcePortRange: 8000:8080
    protocolNumber: 4                               (TCP)

    dn: cn=DSGoldService, o=XYZ, c=US
    Objectclass: DiffServAction
    DiffServPermission: Permit
    DiffServInProfileTransmittedTOSByte: 11111111:1010000
    DiffServResourceGroupRef: cn=S1-S2-WebDSResourceGroup, o=XYZ, c=US

    dn: cn=S1-S2-WebDSResourceGroup, o=XYZ, c=US
    ObjectClass: DiffServResourceGroup
    DiffServQueuePriority: 1                   (implementation specific)
    DiffServLossParameter: 1:1000000
    DiffServDelayParameter: 1:1
    DiffServBandwidthShare: 40000              (kbps)
    DiffServAutoStart: AutoStart


3.2. DiffServ Policing

   Now, consider a policy rule that allows for no more than an aggregate
   of 5000 kilobits/second of best effort traffic from sources in subnet
   S3 (range 139.24.2.12 to 139.24.2.255).

    dn: cn=S3-Policing-Rule, o=XYZ, c=US
    objectclass: policyRule
    policyRuleConditionList: cn=S3-Condition,o=XYZ, c=US,
    policyRuleActionList: cn=S3-DS-Action, o=XYZ, c=US


    dn: cn=S3-Condition,o=XYZ, c=US,
    objectclass: networkingPolicyCondition
    objectclass: hostConditionAuxClass
    sourceIPAddressRange:   2:139.24.2.12:139.24.2.255

    dn: cn=S3-DS-Action, o=XYZ, c=US
    Objectclass: PolicyAction
    DiffServInProfileRate: 5000
    DiffServInProfileTokenBucket: 1024
    DiffServResourceGroupRef: cn=BestEffortPolicing, o=XYZ, c=US

    dn: cn=BestEffortPolicing, o=XYZ, c=US
    DiffServQueuePriority: 1



rajan, kamat, martin, see      Expires 5/ October/1999      [Page xviii]


Internet Draft     draft-rajan-policy-qosschema-01.txt     5/ April/1999


    DiffServExcessTrafficTreatment: drop
    DiffServAutoStart: NoAutoStart

   Here, we have allocated a nominal token bucket to take care of the
   maximum packet size.


3.3. Forbidding RSVP Sessions

   Suppose that RSVP traffic from a subnet S1 is to be denied access
   to the network during the working day (9 am to 5 pm).  We have the
   following entry to express this policy.

    dn: cn=S1-RSVP-Rule, o=XYZ, c=US
    objectclass: Policy
    policyRuleConditionList: cn=S1-RSVP-Condition,o=XYZ, c=US,
    policyRuleActionList: cn=S1-RSVP-Action, o=XYZ, c=US
    policyRuleValidityPeriodList: cn=workinghrs, o=XYZ, c=US

    dn: cn=S1-RSVP-Condition,o=XYZ, c=US
    objectclass: networkingPolicyCondition
    objectclass: hostConditionAuxClass
    sourceIPAddressRange: 1:1.1.0:4

    dn: cn=workinghrs, o=XYZ, c=US
    Objectclass: PolicyValidityPeriod
    PolicyValidityTimeOfDayRange: 090000:170000

    dn: cn=S1-RSVP-Action, o=XYZ, c=US
    Objectclass: RSVPAction
    RSVPFlowServiceType: ControlledLoad
    RSVPFlowServiceType: GuaranteedService             (multi-valued)
    RSVPPermission: Deny


3.4. Controlling RSVP Reservations

   Consider a policy that specifies that during after hours (5 pm to
   9am) each RSVP controlled load reservation for outgoing traffic from
   subnet S1 have a token rate of no more than 1 Mbps, that there be
   no more than 100 such reservations active at any time, and that the
   aggregate reservable amount from that subnet total to no more than 10
   Mbps.

    dn: cn=S1-CL-nw-Rule, o=XYZ, c=US
    objectclass: policyRule
    policyRuleConditionList: cn=S1-CL-nw-Condition,o=XYZ, c=US,
    policyRuleActionList: cn=S1-CL-nw-Action, o=XYZ, c=US



rajan, kamat, martin, see       Expires 5/ October/1999       [Page xix]


Internet Draft     draft-rajan-policy-qosschema-01.txt     5/ April/1999


    PolicyValidityPeriodList: cn=non-workinghrs, o=XYZ, c=US

    dn: cn=S1-CL-Condition,o=XYZ, c=US
    objectclass: networkingPolicyCondition
    objectclass: hostConditionAuxClass
    sourceIPAddressRange: 1:1.1.0:4

    dn: cn=non-workinghrs, o=XYZ, c=US
    Objectclass: PolicyValidityPeriod
    PolicyValidityTimeOfDayRange: 170000: 090000

    dn: cn=S1-RSVP-Action, o=XYZ, c=US
    Objectclass: RSVPAction
    RSVPFlowServiceType: ControlledLoad
    RSVPPermission: Permit
    RSVPMaxRatePerFlow: 1000
    RSVPResourceGroupReference: cn=S1-RSVPGroup, o=XYZ, c=US

    dn: cn=S1-RSVPGroup, o=XYZ, c=US
    RSVPMaxFlows: 100
    RSVPMaxAggregateRate: 10000


4. Security Considerations

   There are two potential security considerations, both of which may
   be addressed through standards compliant mechanisms.  The first is
   the unauthorized access to read or change policy rules and related
   objects in the directory repository.  The schema in this document
   SHOULD be used in conjunction with an LDAP access control mechanisms,
   see for instance [15].  The second exposure for violation of security
   lies in the communication between policy decision point and the
   directory repository.  Such communication SHOULD be secured, with
   both ends mutually authenticated using SSL/TLS or IPSec.


Acknowledgments

   Thanks to Partha Bhattacharya, Tim Moore, Roch Guerin, Dimitrios
   Pendarakis and Ellen Stokes for useful discussion and suggestions in
   this problem space.  In addition, we also thank numerous others who
   have read and commented on this draft in various forms.









rajan, kamat, martin, see       Expires 5/ October/1999        [Page xx]


Internet Draft     draft-rajan-policy-qosschema-01.txt     5/ April/1999


References

    [1] J. Strassner, E. Ellesson, and B. Moore (editor),
        Policy Framework Core Information Model, Internet Draft,
        draft-ietf-policy-core-schema-02.txt, Feb. 1999.

    [2] R. Rajan, S. Kamat, and P. Bhattacharya, Networking
        Policy Condition Information Model, Internet Draft,
        draft-ietf-policy-conditions-01.txt, Apr. 1999.

    [3] K. Nichols, S. Blake, F. Baker and D. Black, Definition of the
        Differentiated Services Field (DS Field) in the IPv4 and IPv6
        Headers, RFC2474, Dec. 1998.

    [4] S. Blake, D. Black, M. Carlson, E. Davies, Z. Wang, and W.
        Weiss, An Architecture for Differentiated Services, RFC2475,
        Dec. 1998.

    [5] J. Heinanen, F. Baker, W. Weiss, and J. Wroclawski, Assured
        Forwarding PHB Group Internet Draft, draft-ietf-diffserv-af-06.txt,
        Feb. 1999.

    [6] V. Jacobson, K. Nichols, and K. Poduri, An Expedited Forwarding
        PHB, Internet Draft, draft-ietf-diffserv-phb-ef-02.txt, Feb.
        1999.

    [7] Y. Bernet, et al, A Framework for Differentiated Services,
        Internet Draft, draft-ietf-diffserv-framework-02.txt, Feb. 1999.

    [8] R. Braden, L. Zhang, S. Berson, S. Herzog, and S. Jamin,
        Resource ReSerVation Protocol (RSVP) Version 1 Functional
        Specification. RFC2205, Sept. 1997.

    [9] R. Yavatkar, R. Guerin and D. Pendarakis, A Framework
        for Policy-based Admission Control Internet Draft,
        draft-ietf-rap-framework-01.txt, Nov. 1998.

   [10] S. Herzog, A. Sastry, R. Rajan, R. Cohen, J. Boyle, and
        D. Durham, The COPS (Common Open Policy Service) Protocol
        Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-rap-cops-06.txt, Feb. 1999.

   [11] W. Yeong, T. Howes and S. Kille, Lightweight Directory Access
        Protocol, RFC1777, Mar. 1995.

   [12] M. Wahl, A. Coulbeck, T. Howes and S. Kille, Lightweight
        Directory Access Protocol (v3):  Attribute Syntax Definitions
        Internet Draft draft-ietf-asid-ldapv3-attributes-07.txt, August
        1997.



rajan, kamat, martin, see       Expires 5/ October/1999       [Page xxi]


Internet Draft     draft-rajan-policy-qosschema-01.txt     5/ April/1999


   [13] S. Judd and J. Strassner, Directory Enabled Networks -
        Information Model and Base Schema - Draft v3.0c5 DEN
        Specifications, Sep. 1998.

   [14] Desktop Management Task Force, Common Information Model (CIM)
        Specification, Version 2.0, Mar. 1998.

   [15] E. Stokes, D. Byrne, B. Blakeley and P. Behera, Access Control
        Requirements for LDAP, Internet Draft, Sep. 1998.

   [16] R. Droms, Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol, RFC1541, Oct.
        1993.


AUTHORS' ADDRESS

   Raju Rajan
   AT&T Labs - Research
   180 Park Avenue, P.O. Box 971
   Florham Park, NJ 07932-0971
   email:  rajan@research.att.com



   Sanjay Kamat
   IBM Research
   30 Saw Mill River Road
   Hawthorne, NY 10532
   email:  sanjay@watson.ibm.com



   Jean-Christophe Martin
   Solaris and Network Software Group
   Sun Microsystems
   France
   email:jean-christophe.martin@sun.com


   Michael See
   email:  Michael.See@xylan.com



   Rajiv Chaudhury
   email:  rchaudhu@telstra.com.au





rajan, kamat, martin, see      Expires 5/ October/1999       [Page xxii]


Internet Draft     draft-rajan-policy-qosschema-01.txt     5/ April/1999


   Dinesh Verma
   IBM Research
   30 Saw Mill River Road
   Hawthorne, NY 10532
   email:  dverma@watson.ibm.com



   George Powers
   email:  george@packeteer.com



   Raj Yavatkar
   Intel Corporation, JF3-206
   2111 NE 25th Avenue,
   Hillsboro, OR 97124
   email:  raj.yavatkar@intel.com


Full Copyright Statement

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (1997).  All Rights Reserved.

   This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to
   others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain it
   or assist in its implementation may be prepared, copied, published
   and distributed, in whole or in part, without restriction of any
   kind, provided that the above copyright notice and this paragraph
   are included on all such copies and derivative works.  However,
   this document itself may not be modified in any way, such as by
   removing the copyright notice or references to the Internet Society
   or other Internet organizations, except as needed for the purpose
   of developing Internet standards in which case the procedures
   for copyrights defined in the Internet Standards process must be
   followed, or as required to translate it into languages other than
   English.  The limited permissions granted above are perpetual and
   will not be revoked by the Internet Society or its successors or
   assigns.

   This document and the information contained herein is provided on an
   "AS IS" basis and THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET ENGINEERING
   TASK FORCE DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING
   BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE INFORMATION
   HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
   MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.





rajan, kamat, martin, see      Expires 5/ October/1999      [Page xxiii]


Html markup produced by rfcmarkup 1.129d, available from https://tools.ietf.org/tools/rfcmarkup/