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Versions: 00 01 draft-ietf-pcp-optimize-keepalives

PCP                                                             T. Reddy
Internet-Draft                                                     Cisco
Intended status: Standards Track                              M. Isomaki
Expires: July 25, 2013                                             Nokia
                                                                 D. Wing
                                                                P. Patil
                                                                   Cisco
                                                        January 21, 2013


Optimizing NAT and Firewall Keepalives Using Port Control Protocol (PCP)
                 draft-reddy-pcp-optimize-keepalives-01

Abstract

   This document describes how Port Control Protocol is useful to reduce
   NAT and firewall keepalive messages for a variety of applications.

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on July 25, 2013.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2013 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as



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   described in the Simplified BSD License.


Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  Notational Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   3.  Overview of Operation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
     3.1.  Application Scenarios  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
     3.2.  NAT and Firewall Topologies and Detection  . . . . . . . .  5
     3.3.  Detect PCP Unaware Firewalls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     3.4.  Keepalive Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
   4.  Keepalive Interval Determination Procedure when PCP
       unaware Firewall or NAT is detected  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
   5.  Application-Specific Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     5.1.  SIP  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     5.2.  HTTP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     5.3.  Media and data channels with ICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     5.4.  Detecting Flow Failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     5.5.  Firewalls  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
       5.5.1.  IPv6 Network with Firewalls  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
       5.5.2.  Mobile Network with Firewalls  . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   6.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   7.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   8.  Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   9.  Change History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     9.1.  Changes from draft-reddy-pcp-optimize-keepalives-00  . . . 12
   10. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     10.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     10.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   Appendix A.  Example PHP script  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14



















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1.  Introduction

   Many types of applications need to keep their Network Address
   Translator (NAT) and Firewall (FW) mappings alive for long periods of
   time, even when they are otherwise not sending or receiving any
   traffic.  This is typically done by sending periodic keep-alive
   messages just to prevent the mappings from expiring.  As NAT/FW
   mapping timers may be short and unknown to the endpoint, the
   frequency of these keep-alives may be high.  An IPv4 or IPv6 host can
   use the Port Control Protocol (PCP)[I-D.ietf-pcp-base] to flexibly
   manage the IP address and port mapping information on NATs and FWs to
   facilitate communications with remote hosts.  This document describes
   how PCP can be used to reduce keep-alive messages for both client-
   server and peer-to-peer type of communication.

   The mechanism described in this document is especially useful in
   cellular mobile networks, where frequent keep-alive messages make the
   radio transition between active and power-save states causing
   signaling congestion.  The excessive time spent on the active state
   due to keep-alives also greatly reduces the battery life of the
   cellular connected devices such as smartphones or tablets.
   Requirement #14 in [I-D.binet-v6ops-cellular-host-reqs-rfc3316update]
   explains that cellular host SHOULD support of PCP as a driver to save
   battery consumption exacerbated by keepalive messages.


2.  Notational Conventions

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

   This note uses terminology defined in [RFC5245] and
   [I-D.ietf-pcp-base] .


3.  Overview of Operation

3.1.  Application Scenarios

   PCP can help both client-server and peer-to-peer applications to
   reduce their keep-alive rate.  The relevant applications are the ones
   that need to keep their NAT/FW mappings alive for long periods of
   time, for instance to be able to send or receive application messages
   in both directions at any time.

   A typical client-server scenario is depicted in Figure 1.  A client,
   who may reside behind one or multiple layers of NATs/FWs, opens a



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   connection to a globally reachable server, and keeps it open to be
   able to receive messages from the server at any time.  The connection
   may be a connection-oriented transport protocol such as TCP or SCTP
   or connection-less transport protocol such as UDP.  Protocols
   operating in this manner include Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)
   [RFC3261], Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP)
   [RFC3921], Internet Mail Application Protocol (IMAP) [RFC2177] with
   its IDLE command, the WebSocket protocol and the various HTTP long-
   polling protocols.  There are also a number of proprietary instant
   messaging, Voice over IP, e-mail and notification delivery protocols
   that belong in this category.  All of these protocols aim to keep the
   client-server connection alive for as long as the application is
   running.  When the application has otherwise no traffic to send,
   specific keep-alive messages are sent periodically to ensure that the
   NAT/FW state in the middle does not expire.  The client can use PCP
   to keep the required mapping at the NAT/FW and use application keep-
   alives to keep the state on the Application Server/Peer as mentioned
   in Section 3.4.



        PCP          PCP
       Client       Server      __________
   +-----------+   +------+    /          \   +-----------+
   |Application|___| NAT/ |____| Internet |___|Application|
   |  Client   |   |  FW  |    |          |   |   Server  |
   +-----------+   +------+    \__________/   +-----------+
                  (multiple
                   layers)

          ------------> PCP

          ----------------------------------------->
                  Application keep-alive


               Figure 1: PCP with Client-Server applications

   There are also scenarios where the long-term communication
   association is between two peers, both of whom may reside behind one
   or more layers of NAT/FW.  This is depicted in Figure 2.  The
   initiation of the association may have happened using mechanisms such
   as Interactive Communications Establishment (ICE), perhaps first
   triggered by a "signaling" protocol such as SIP or XMPP or RTCWeb.
   Examples of the peer-to-peer protocols include RTP and RTCWeb data
   channel.  A number of proprietary VoIP or video call or streaming or
   file transfer protocols also exist in this category.  Typically the
   communication is based on UDP, but TCP or SCTP may be used.  Unless



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   there is no traffic flowing otherwise, the peers have to inject
   periodic keep-alive packets to keep the NAT/FW mappings on both sides
   of the communication active.  Instead of application keep-alives,
   both peers can use PCP to control the mappings on the NAT/FWs to
   reduce the keep-alive frequency as explained in Section 3.4.



        PCP          PCP                        PCP          PCP
       Client       Server      __________     Server       Client
   +-----------+   +------+    /          \   +------+   +-----------+
   |Application|___| NAT/ |____| Internet |___| NAT/ |___|Application|
   |   Peer    |   |  FW  |    |          |   |  FW  |   |    Peer   |
   +-----------+   +------+    \__________/   +------+   +-----------+
                  (multiple                  (multiple
                   layers)                    layers)

          ------------> PCP                   PCP <------------

          <--------------------------------------------------->
                          Application keep-alive


               Figure 2: PCP with Peer-to-Peer applications

3.2.  NAT and Firewall Topologies and Detection

   Before an application can reduce its keep-alive rate, it has to make
   sure it has all of the NATs and Firewalls on its path under control.
   This means it has to detect the presence of any PCP-unaware NATs and
   Firewalls on its path.  PCP itself is able to detect unexpected NATs
   between the PCP client and server as depicted in Figure 3.  The PCP
   client includes its own IP address and UDP port within the PCP
   request.  The PCP server compares them to the source IP address and
   UDP port it sees on the packet.  If they differ, there are one or
   more additional NATs between the PCP client and server, and the
   server will return an error.  Unless the application has some other
   means to control these PCP unaware NATs, it has to fall back to its
   default keep-alive mechanism.












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        PCP           PCP       PCP
       Client       Unaware    Aware       __________
   +-----------+   +------+   +------+    /          \   +-----------+
   |Application|___| NAT  |___| NAT/ |____| Internet |___|Application|
   |  Client   |   |      |   |  FW  |    |          |   |   Server  |
   +-----------+   +------+   +------+    \__________/   +-----------+

         <-----------///---------->
             PCP based detection



          Figure 3: PCP unaware NAT between PCP client and server

   Figure 4 shows a topology where one or more PCP unaware NATs are
   deployed on the exterior of the PCP capable NAT/FWs.  To detect this,
   the application must have the capability to request from its server
   or peer what IP and transport address it sees.  If those differ from
   the IP and transport address given to the application by the out most
   PCP aware NAT/FW, the application can detect that there is at least
   one more PCP unaware NAT on the path.  In this case, the application
   has to fall back to its default keep-alive mechanism.



        PCP          PCP        PCP
       Client       Aware     Unaware      __________
   +-----------+   +------+   +------+    /          \   +-----------+
   |Application|___| NAT/ |___| NAT  |____| Internet |___|Application|
   |  Client   |   |  FW  |   |      |    |          |   |   Server  |
   +-----------+   +------+   +------+    \__________/   +-----------+

         <------------>
               PCP

         <---------------------///--------------------------->
                    Application based detection



       Figure 4: PCP unaware NAT external to the last PCP aware NAT

   Section 5 describes how the detection works in a number of real
   application protocols.

   The caveat is that Firewalls can not be detected this way.  The
   client will have to use the alternative procedure explained in
   Section 3.3 to detect PCP unaware Firewalls.



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3.3.  Detect PCP Unaware Firewalls

   The client sends a STUN Binding Request to the STUN server.  STUN
   server will return its alternate IP address and alternate port in
   OTHER-ADDRESS in the binding response [RFC5780].  The client then
   sends MAP request with FILTER option to PCP server to permit STUN
   server to reach the client using the STUN servers alternate IP
   address and alternate port.  The client then sends a binding request
   to the primary address of the STUN server with the CHANGE-REQUEST
   attribute set to change-port and change-IP.  This will cause the
   server to send its response from its alternate IP address and
   alternate port.  If the client receives a response then the client is
   aware that on path Firewall devices are PCP aware.  If the client
   does not receive a response then the client is aware that could be
   one or more on path PCP unaware Firewall devices.  PCP client will
   perform the tests separately for each transport protocol.  If no
   response is received, the client will then repeat the test atmost
   three times for connectionless transport protocols.

   If the STUN server does not support OTHER-ADDRESS then this test
   cannot be run.  This procedure can be adopted by other protocols to
   detect PCP unaware Firewalls.

3.4.  Keepalive Optimization

   If the application determines that all NATs and Firewalls on its path
   to the Internet support PCP, it can start using PCP instead of its
   default keep-alives to maintain the NAT/FW state.  It can use PCP
   PEER Request with the Requested Lifetime set to an appropriate value.
   The application may still send some application-specific heartbeat
   messages end-to-end.

   Processing the lifetime value of the PEER Opcode is described in
   Section 15 of [I-D.ietf-pcp-base].  Sending a PEER request with a
   very short Requested Lifetime can be used to query the lifetime of an
   existing mapping.  PCP recommends that lifetimes of mapping created
   or lengthened with PEER be longer than the lifetimes of implicitly-
   created NAT and Firewall mappings.  Thus PCP can be used to save
   battery consumption by making PCP PEER message interval longer than
   what the application would normally use the keep middle box state
   alive, and strictly shorter than the server state refresh interval.


4.  Keepalive Interval Determination Procedure when PCP unaware Firewall
    or NAT is detected

   If PCP unaware NAT/Firewall is detected then a client can use the
   following heuristics method to determine the keepalive interval :



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   1.  The client sends a STUN Binding Request to the STUN server.  This
       connection is called the Primary Channel.  STUN server will
       return its alternate IP address and alternate port in OTHER-
       ADDRESS in the binding response [RFC5780].

   2.  The client then sends STUN Binding Request to the STUN server
       using alternate IP address and alternate port.  This connection
       is called the Secondary Channel.

   3.  The Client will initially set the default keepalive interval for
       NAT/FW mappings to 60 seconds (FWa).

   4.  After FWa seconds the Client will send a binding request to the
       STUN server using the Primary Channel with the CHANGE-REQUEST
       attribute set to change-port and change-IP.  This will cause the
       STUN server to send its response from the Secondary channel.

   5.  If the client receives response from the server then it will
       increase the keepalive interval value FWa = (old FWa) + (old
       FWa)/2.  This indicates that NAT/FW mappings are alive.

   6.  Steps 4 and 5 will be repeated until there is no response from
       the STUN server.  If there is no response from the STUN server
       then the client will use the FWa value as Keepalive interval to
       refresh FW/NAT mappings.

   The above procedure will be done separately for each transport
   protocol.  For connectionless transport protocols like UDP if timer
   of 2 seconds elapses without response from the STUN server then the
   client will repeat step 4 atmost three times to handle packet loss.

   This procedure can be adopted by other protocols to use Primary and
   Secondary channels, so that the client can determine the keepalive
   interval to refresh FW/NAT mapping.  This procedure only serves as a
   guideline and if applications already use some other heuristics
   method to determine keepalive, they can continue with the existing
   logic.  For example Teredo determines Refresh interval using the
   procedure in "Optional Refresh Interval Determination Procedure"
   (Section 5.2.7 of [RFC4380]).

   To improve reliability, applications SHOULD continue to use PCP to
   lengthen the FW/NAT mappings even if the above described mechanism is
   used to detect PCP unaware NAT/Firewall.  This ensures that PCP aware
   FW/NAT do not close old mappings with no packet exchange when there
   is a resource-crunch situation.






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5.  Application-Specific Operation

   This section describes how PCP is used with specific application
   protocols.

5.1.  SIP

   For connection-less transports the User Agent (UA) sends a STUN
   Binding Request over the SIP flow as described in section 4.4.2 of
   [RFC5626].  The UA then learns the External IP Address and Port using
   a PEER request/response.  If the XOR-MAPPED-ADDRESS in the STUN
   Binding Response matches the external address and port provided by
   PCP PEER response then the UA optimizes the keepalive traffic as
   described in Section 3.4.  There is no further need to send STUN
   Binding Requests over the SIP flow to keep the NAT binding alive.

   If the XOR-MAPPED-ADDRESS in the STUN Binding Response does not match
   the external address and port provided by the PCP PEER response then
   PCP will not be used to keep the NAT bindings alive for the flow that
   is being used for the SIP traffic.  This means that multiple layers
   of NAT are involved and intermediate NATs are not PCP aware.  In this
   case the UA will continue to use the technique in section 4.4.2 of
   [RFC5626].

   For connection-oriented transports, the UA sends a STUN Binding
   Request multiplexed with SIP over the TCP connection.  STUN
   multiplexed with other data over a TCP or TLS-over-TCP connection is
   explained in section 7.2.2 of [RFC5389].  The UA then learns the
   External IP address and port using a PEER request/response.  If the
   XOR-MAPPED-ADDRESS in the STUN Binding Response matches the external
   address and port provided by PCP PEER response then the UA optimizes
   the keepalive traffic as described in Section 3.4.

   If the XOR-MAPPED-ADDRESS in the STUN Binding Response does not match
   the external address and port provided by PCP PEER response then PCP
   will not be used to keep the NAT bindings alive.  In this case the UA
   performs a keep-alive check by sending a double-CRLF (the "ping")
   then waits to receive a single CRLF (the "pong") using the technique
   in section 4.4.1 of [RFC5626].

5.2.  HTTP

   Web Applications that require persistent connections use techniques
   such as HTTP long polling and Websockets for session keep alive as
   explained in section 3.1 of [I-D.isomaki-rtcweb-mobile].  In such
   scenarios, after the client establishes a connection with the HTTP
   server, it can execute server side scripts such as PHP residing on
   the server to provide the transport address and port of the HTTP



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   client seen at the HTTP server.  In addition, the HTTP client also
   learns the external IP Address and port using the PCP PEER request/
   response.

   If the IP address and port learned from the server matches the
   external address and port provided by PCP PEER response then the HTTP
   client optimizes keepalive traffic as described in Section 3.4.

   If the IP address and port do not match then PCP will not be used to
   keep the NAT bindings alive for the flow that is being used for the
   HTTP traffic.  This means that there are NATs or HTTP proxies between
   the PCP server and the HTTP server.  The HTTP client will have to
   resort to use existing techniques for keep alive.  Please see
   Appendix A for an example server side PHP script to obtain the client
   source IP address.

   HTTP protocol allows intermediaries like transparent proxies to be
   involved and there is no way for the client to know that request/
   response is relayed through a proxy.

5.3.  Media and data channels with ICE

   The ICE agent learns the External IP Address and Port using a MAP
   request/response.  This candidate learnt through PCP is encoded in
   the ICE offer and answer just like the server reflexive candidate, If
   the server reflexive candidate and External IP address learnt using
   PCP are different.  When using the Recommended Formula in section
   4.1.2.1 of [RFC5245] to compute priority for the candidates learnt
   through PCP, the ICE agent can use a preference value greater than or
   equal to the server reflexive candidates.

   The ICE agent in addition to ICE connectivity checks and performs the
   following :

   The ICE agent checks if the XOR-MAPPED-ADDRESS from the STUN
   [RFC5389] Binding response received as part of ICE connectivity check
   matches the external address and port provided by PCP MAP response.

   1.  If the match is successful then PCP will be used to keep the NAT
       bindings alive.  The ICE agent optimizes keepalive traffic by
       refreshing the mapping via a new PCP MAP request containing
       information from the earlier PCP response.

   2.  If the match is not successful then PCP will not be used for keep
       NAT binding alive.  The ICE agent will use the technique in
       section 4.4 of [RFC6263] to keep NAT bindings alive.  This means
       that multiple layers of NAT are involved and intermediate NATs
       are not PCP aware.



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   Some network operators deploying a PCP Server may allow PEER but not
   MAP.  In such cases the ICE agent learns the external IP address and
   port using a STUN binding request/response during ICE connectivity
   checks.  The ICE agent also learns the external IP Address and port
   using a PCP PEER request/response.  If the IP address and port
   learned from the STUN binding response matches the external address
   and port provided by the PCP PEER response then the ICE agent
   optimizes keepalive traffic as described in Section 3.4.

5.4.  Detecting Flow Failure

   Using the Rapid Recovery technique in section 14 of
   [I-D.ietf-pcp-base] PCP client upon receiving a PCP ANNOUNCE from a
   PCP server becomes aware that PCP server has rebooted or lost its
   mapping state.  The PCP client issues new PCP requests to recreate
   any lost mapping state and thus reconstructs lost mappings fast
   enough that existing media, HTTP and SIP flows do not break.  If the
   NAT state cannot be recovered the endpoint will find the new external
   address and port as part of the Rapid Recovery technique in PCP
   itself and reestablish a connection with the peer.

   In lieu of this mechanism if a PCP server reboots and loses its
   mapping state or when a NAT gateway has its external IP address
   changed so that its current mapping state becomes invalid, it may
   take some time before the endpoints realize that the connectivity is
   lost.

5.5.  Firewalls

   PCP allows applications to communicate with Firewall devices with PCP
   functionality to create mappings for incoming connections.  In such
   cases PCP can be used by the endpoint to create an explicit mapping
   on Firewall to permit inbound traffic and further use PCP to send
   keep-alives to keep the Firewall mappings alive.

5.5.1.  IPv6 Network with Firewalls

   As part of the call setup, the endpoint would gather its host
   candidates and relayed candidate from a TURN server, send the
   candidates in the offer to the peer endpoint.  On receiving the
   answer from the peer endpoint, the PCP client sends a PCP MAP request
   with FILTER opcode to create a dynamic mapping in Firewall to permit
   ICE connectivity checks and subsequent media traffic from the remote
   peer.







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5.5.2.  Mobile Network with Firewalls

   Mobile Networks are also making use of a Firewall to protect their
   customers from various attacks like downloading malicious content.
   The Firewall is usually configured to block all unknown inbound
   connections as explained in section 2.1 of
   [I-D.chen-pcp-mobile-deployment].  In such cases PCP can be used by
   Mobile devices to create an explicit mapping on the Firewall to
   permit inbound traffic and optimize the keepalive traffic as
   described in Section 3.4.  This would result in saving of radio and
   power consumption of the Mobile device while protecting it from
   attacks.


6.  IANA Considerations

   None


7.  Security Considerations

   The security considerations in [RFC5245]and [I-D.ietf-pcp-base] apply
   to this use.


8.  Acknowledgements

   Authors would like to thank Dave Thaler, Basavaraj Patil for valuable
   inputs to the document.


9.  Change History

   [Note to RFC Editor: Please remove this section prior to
   publication.]

9.1.  Changes from draft-reddy-pcp-optimize-keepalives-00

   o  Added sections 3.3, 4

   o  Updated section 3 an 3.4 and Introduction


10.  References







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10.1.  Normative References

   [I-D.ietf-pcp-base]
              Wing, D., Cheshire, S., Boucadair, M., Penno, R., and P.
              Selkirk, "Port Control Protocol (PCP)",
              draft-ietf-pcp-base-29 (work in progress), November 2012.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC5245]  Rosenberg, J., "Interactive Connectivity Establishment
              (ICE): A Protocol for Network Address Translator (NAT)
              Traversal for Offer/Answer Protocols", RFC 5245,
              April 2010.

   [RFC5389]  Rosenberg, J., Mahy, R., Matthews, P., and D. Wing,
              "Session Traversal Utilities for NAT (STUN)", RFC 5389,
              October 2008.

   [RFC5626]  Jennings, C., Mahy, R., and F. Audet, "Managing Client-
              Initiated Connections in the Session Initiation Protocol
              (SIP)", RFC 5626, October 2009.

   [RFC5780]  MacDonald, D. and B. Lowekamp, "NAT Behavior Discovery
              Using Session Traversal Utilities for NAT (STUN)",
              RFC 5780, May 2010.

   [RFC6263]  Marjou, X. and A. Sollaud, "Application Mechanism for
              Keeping Alive the NAT Mappings Associated with RTP / RTP
              Control Protocol (RTCP) Flows", RFC 6263, June 2011.

10.2.  Informative References

   [I-D.binet-v6ops-cellular-host-reqs-rfc3316update]
              Binet, D., Boucadair, M., Ales, V., Byrne, C., and G.
              Chen, "Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) for Cellular
              Hosts",
              draft-binet-v6ops-cellular-host-reqs-rfc3316update-03
              (work in progress), October 2012.

   [I-D.chen-pcp-mobile-deployment]
              Chen, G., Cao, Z., Boucadair, M., Ales, V., and L.
              Thiebaut, "Analysis of Port Control Protocol in Mobile
              Network", draft-chen-pcp-mobile-deployment-02 (work in
              progress), October 2012.

   [I-D.isomaki-rtcweb-mobile]
              Isomaki, M., "RTCweb Considerations for Mobile Devices",



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              draft-isomaki-rtcweb-mobile-00 (work in progress),
              July 2012.

   [RFC2177]  Leiba, B., "IMAP4 IDLE command", RFC 2177, June 1997.

   [RFC3261]  Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., Camarillo, G., Johnston,
              A., Peterson, J., Sparks, R., Handley, M., and E.
              Schooler, "SIP: Session Initiation Protocol", RFC 3261,
              June 2002.

   [RFC3921]  Saint-Andre, P., Ed., "Extensible Messaging and Presence
              Protocol (XMPP): Instant Messaging and Presence",
              RFC 3921, October 2004.

   [RFC4380]  Huitema, C., "Teredo: Tunneling IPv6 over UDP through
              Network Address Translations (NATs)", RFC 4380,
              February 2006.


Appendix A.  Example PHP script
<html>
Connected to <?PHP echo gethostname(); ?> on port <?PHP echo
getenv(SERVER_PORT) ?> on <?PHP echo date("d-M-Y H:i:s"); ?> Pacific Time
<p>
Your IP address is: <?PHP echo getenv(REMOTE_ADDR); ?>,
port <?PHP echo getenv(REMOTE_PORT); ?>
</p>;
</html>


Authors' Addresses

   Tirumaleswar Reddy
   Cisco Systems, Inc.
   Cessna Business Park, Varthur Hobli
   Sarjapur Marathalli Outer Ring Road
   Bangalore, Karnataka  560103
   India

   Email: tireddy@cisco.com











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   Markus Isomaki
   Nokia
   Keilalahdentie 2-4
   FI-02150 Espoo
   Finland

   Email: markus.isomaki@nokia.com


   Dan Wing
   Cisco Systems, Inc.
   170 West Tasman Drive
   San Jose, California  95134
   USA

   Email: dwing@cisco.com


   Prashanth Patil
   Cisco Systems, Inc.
   Cessna Business Park, Varthur Hobli
   Sarjapur Marthalli Outer Ring Road
   Bangalore, Karnataka  560103
   India

   Email: praspati@cisco.com

























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