[Docs] [txt|pdf] [Tracker] [Email] [Nits]

Versions: 00

Network Working Group                                        E. Rescorla
Internet-Draft                                         Network Resonance
Expires:  June 16, 2007                                        M. Salter
                                                National Security Agency
                                                       December 13, 2006


                       Opaque PRF Inputs for TLS
               draft-rescorla-tls-opaque-prf-input-00.txt

Status of this Memo

   By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any
   applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she is aware
   have been or will be disclosed, and any of which he or she becomes
   aware will be disclosed, in accordance with Section 6 of BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups.  Note that
   other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-
   Drafts.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt.

   The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.

   This Internet-Draft will expire on June 16, 2007.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2006).

Abstract

   This document describes a mechanism for using opaque PRF inputs with
   Transport Layer Security (TLS) and Datagram TLS (DTLS).








Rescorla & Salter         Expires June 16, 2007                 [Page 1]


Internet-Draft            TLS Opaque PRF Inputs            December 2006


Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
   2.  Conventions Used In This Document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
   3.  The OpaquePRFInput Extension  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
     3.1.  Negotiating the OpaquePRFInput Extension  . . . . . . . . . 4
     3.2.  PRF Modifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
   4.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
     4.1.  Threats to TLS  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
     4.2.  New Security Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
     4.3.  Scope of Randomness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
   5.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
   6.  Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
   7.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
     7.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
     7.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
   Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements  . . . . . . . . . . 8

































Rescorla & Salter         Expires June 16, 2007                 [Page 2]


Internet-Draft            TLS Opaque PRF Inputs            December 2006


1.  Introduction

   TLS [RFC4346] and DTLS [RFC4347] use a 32-byte "Random" value
   consisting of a 32-bit time value time and 28 randomly generated
   bytes:

         struct {
            uint32 gmt_unix_time;
            opaque random_bytes[28];
         } Random;

   The client and server each contribute a Random value which is then
   mixed with secret keying material to produce the final per-
   association keying material.

   In a number of United States Government applications, it is desirable
   to have some material with the following properties:

   1.  It is contributed both by client and server.
   2.  It is arbitrary-length.
   3.  It is mixed into the eventual keying material.
   4.  It is structured and decodable by the receiving party.

   These requirements are incompatible with the current Random
   mechanism, which supports a short, fixed-length value.  This document
   describes a mechanism called "Opaque PRF Inputs for TLS" that meets
   these requirements.


2.  Conventions Used In This Document

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].


3.  The OpaquePRFInput Extension

   The OpaquePRFInput is carried in a new TLS extension called
   "OpaquePRFInput".

        struct {
            opaque opaque_prf_input_value<0..2^16-1>;
        } OpaquePRFInput;

   The opaque_prf_input_value is an opaque byte-string which is
   generated in an implementation-dependent fashion.  It MAY be
   generated by and/or made available to the TLS/DTLS-using application.



Rescorla & Salter         Expires June 16, 2007                 [Page 3]


Internet-Draft            TLS Opaque PRF Inputs            December 2006


3.1.  Negotiating the OpaquePRFInput Extension

   The client requests support for the opaque PRF input feature by
   sending an "opaque_prf_input" extension in its ClientHello.  The
   "extension_data" field contains an OpaquePRFInput value.

   When a server which does not recognize the "opaque_prf_input"
   extension receives one, it will ignore it as required by [RFC4366].
   A server which recognizes the extension MAY choose to ignore it, in
   which case it SHOULD continue with the exchange as if it had not
   received the extension.

   If the server wishes to use the opaque PRF input feature, it MUST
   send its own "opaque_prf_input" extension with an
   opaque_prf_input_value equal in length to the client's
   opaque_prf_input_value.  Clients SHOULD check the length of the
   server's opaque_prf_input_value and generate a fatal
   "illegal_parameter" error if it is present but does does not match
   the length that was transmitted in the ClientHello.

   Because RFC 4366 does not permit servers to request extensions which
   the client did not offer, the client may not offer the
   "opaque_prf_input" extension even if the server requires it.  In this
   case, the server should generate a fatal "handshake_failure" alert.

   Because there is no way to mark extensions as critical, the server
   may ignore the "opaque_prf_input" extension even though the client
   requires it.  If a client requires the opaque PRF input feature but
   the server does not negotiate it, the client SHOULD generate a fatal
   "handshake_failure" alert.

3.2.  PRF Modifications

   When the opaque PRF input feature is in use, the opaque PRF input
   values MUST be mixed into the PRF along with the client and server
   random values during the PMS->MS conversion.  Thus, the PRF becomes:

          master_secret = PRF(pre_master_secret, "master secret",
                              ClientHello.random +
                              ClientHello.opaque_prf_input_value +
                              ServerHello.random +
                              ServerHello.opaque_prf_input_value)[0..47];

   Because new extensions may not be introduced in resumed handshakes,
   mixing in the opaque PRF inputs during the MS->keying material
   conversion would simply involve mixing in the same material twice.
   Therefore, the opaque PRF inputs are only used when the PMS is
   converted into the MS.



Rescorla & Salter         Expires June 16, 2007                 [Page 4]


Internet-Draft            TLS Opaque PRF Inputs            December 2006


4.  Security Considerations

4.1.  Threats to TLS

   When this extension is in use it increases the amount of data that an
   attacker can inject into the PRF.  This potentially would allow an
   attacker who had partially compromised the PRF greater scope for
   influencing the output.  Hash-based PRFs like the one in TLS are
   designed to be fairly indifferent to the input size (the input is
   already greater than the block size of most hash functions), however
   there is currently no proof that a larger input space would not make
   attacks easier.

   Another concern is that bad implementations might generate low
   entropy opaque PRF input values.  TLS is designed to function
   correctly even when fed low-entropy random values because they are
   primarily used to generate distinct keying material for each
   connection.

4.2.  New Security Issues

   As noted in Section 3 it is anticipated that applications may want to
   have access to the opaque PRF input values and that they may contain
   data that is meaningful at a higher layer.  Because the values are
   covered by the TLS Finished message, they are integrity-protected by
   TLS.  However, the application must independently provide any
   confidentiality necessary for those values.

4.3.  Scope of Randomness

   RFC 4366 specifies that when a session is resumed the extensions from
   the original connection are used:

         If, on the other hand, the older session is resumed, then the
         server MUST ignore the extensions and send a server hello
         containing none of the extension types.  In this case, the
         functionality of these extensions negotiated during the original
         session initiation is applied to the resumed session.

   This motivates why the the opaque PRF input does not get mixed into
   the PRF when generating the keying material from the master secret.
   Because the same opaque PRF inputs would be used for every connection
   in a session, they would not provide any differentiation in the
   keying material between the connections.


5.  IANA Considerations




Rescorla & Salter         Expires June 16, 2007                 [Page 5]


Internet-Draft            TLS Opaque PRF Inputs            December 2006


   This document defines an extension to TLS, in accordance with
   [RFC4366]:

     enum { opaque_prf_input (??) } ExtensionType;

   [[ NOTE:  These values need to be assigned by IANA ]]


6.  Acknowledgements

   This work was supported by the US Department of Defense.


7.  References

7.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC4366]  Blake-Wilson, S., Nystrom, M., Hopwood, D., Mikkelsen, J.,
              and T. Wright, "Transport Layer Security (TLS)
              Extensions", RFC 4366, April 2006.

   [RFC4346]  Dierks, T. and E. Rescorla, "The Transport Layer Security
              (TLS) Protocol Version 1.1", RFC 4346, April 2006.

   [RFC4347]  Rescorla, E. and N. Modadugu, "Datagram Transport Layer
              Security", RFC 4347, April 2006.

   [I-D.ietf-tls-rfc4346-bis]
              Dierks, T. and E. Rescorla, "The TLS Protocol Version
              1.2", draft-ietf-tls-rfc4346-bis-02 (work in progress),
              October 2006.

7.2.  Informative References















Rescorla & Salter         Expires June 16, 2007                 [Page 6]


Internet-Draft            TLS Opaque PRF Inputs            December 2006


Authors' Addresses

   Eric Rescorla
   Network Resonance
   2483 E. Bayshore #212
   Palo Alto, CA  94303
   USA

   Email:  ekr@networkresonance.com


   Margaret Salter
   National Security Agency
   9800 Savage Rd.
   Fort Meade  20755-6709
   USA

   Email:  msalter@restarea.ncsc.mil

































Rescorla & Salter         Expires June 16, 2007                 [Page 7]


Internet-Draft            TLS Opaque PRF Inputs            December 2006


Intellectual Property Statement

   The IETF takes no position regarding the validity or scope of any
   Intellectual Property Rights or other rights that might be claimed to
   pertain to the implementation or use of the technology described in
   this document or the extent to which any license under such rights
   might or might not be available; nor does it represent that it has
   made any independent effort to identify any such rights.  Information
   on the procedures with respect to rights in RFC documents can be
   found in BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Copies of IPR disclosures made to the IETF Secretariat and any
   assurances of licenses to be made available, or the result of an
   attempt made to obtain a general license or permission for the use of
   such proprietary rights by implementers or users of this
   specification can be obtained from the IETF on-line IPR repository at
   http://www.ietf.org/ipr.

   The IETF invites any interested party to bring to its attention any
   copyrights, patents or patent applications, or other proprietary
   rights that may cover technology that may be required to implement
   this standard.  Please address the information to the IETF at
   ietf-ipr@ietf.org.


Disclaimer of Validity

   This document and the information contained herein are provided on an
   "AS IS" basis and THE CONTRIBUTOR, THE ORGANIZATION HE/SHE REPRESENTS
   OR IS SPONSORED BY (IF ANY), THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET
   ENGINEERING TASK FORCE DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED,
   INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE
   INFORMATION HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED
   WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.


Copyright Statement

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2006).  This document is subject
   to the rights, licenses and restrictions contained in BCP 78, and
   except as set forth therein, the authors retain all their rights.


Acknowledgment

   Funding for the RFC Editor function is currently provided by the
   Internet Society.




Rescorla & Salter         Expires June 16, 2007                 [Page 8]


Html markup produced by rfcmarkup 1.121, available from https://tools.ietf.org/tools/rfcmarkup/