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LISP Working Group                                    A. Rodriguez-Natal
Internet-Draft                                             Cisco Systems
Intended status: Experimental                       A. Cabellos-Aparicio
Expires: April 8, 2017                 Technical University of Catalonia
                                                               S. Barkai
                                              Hewlett Packard Enterprise
                                                              V. Ermagan
                                                                D. Lewis
                                                                F. Maino
                                                           Cisco Systems
                                                            D. Farinacci
                                                             lispers.net
                                                         October 5, 2016


                   LISP support for Multi-Tuple EIDs
             draft-rodrigueznatal-lisp-multi-tuple-eids-02

Abstract

   This document describes extensions for LISP to support EIDs based on
   tuples of multiple elements.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on April 8, 2017.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2016 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of



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   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
     1.1.  Requirements Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Definition of terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  Overview  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   4.  Protocol Operation with Extended-EIDs . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     4.1.  LISP Tunnel Routers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     4.2.  Mapping System  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   5.  Extended-EIDs Encoding  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     5.1.  5-Tuple . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   6.  Extended-EID Lookups  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     6.1.  5-Tuple (Coarse)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     6.2.  5-Tuple (Exact) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   7.  Mapping Databases for Extended-EIDs . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     7.1.  5-Tuple (Coarse)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     7.2.  5-Tuple (Exact) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   8.  A Note on Instance-ID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   9.  Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   10. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   11. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   12. Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8

1.  Introduction

   This document describes how LISP handles lookups based on Extended-
   EIDs, i.e. tuples of n elements.  Particularly it describes how the
   Tunnel Routers and the Mapping System operate when Extended-EIDs are
   in place, the different types of Extended-EIDs defined so far, how
   the lookup is performed for each Extended-EID type and which mapping
   databases are recommended to use depending on the kind of Extended-
   EIDs used.

1.1.  Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].





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2.  Definition of terms

   o  n-tuple: The term n-tuple is used in this document to describe the
      set of n elements present in a data packet (e.g.  IP address,
      port, protocol) that can be used to identify unequivocally a
      packet or a set of packets.

   o  5-tuple: The term 5-tuple is used in this document to describe the
      set comprised by 5 elements, being these the source IP address,
      the destination IP address, the level 4 protocol number, the level
      4 protocol source port and the level 4 protocol destination port
      of a data packet.

   o  Extended-EID: This document uses the term Extended-EID to refer to
      any n-tuple (including a 5-tuple) used in a EID role.  See as well
      [I-D.ietf-lisp-ddt]

   o  Flow: The term flow is used in this document to refer to the
      sequence of packets identified by the same n-tuple.

   o  MT-[xTR, RTR, MS, MR]: A LISP [xTR, RTR, MS, MR] that supports the
      enhanced operation for Multi-Tuple Extended-EIDs described in this
      document.

   o  MT-TR: A LISP tunnel router (e.g. xTR, RTR) that supports the
      enhanced operation for Multi-Tuple Extended-EIDs described in this
      document, e.g.  MT-xTR, MT-RTR.

   The rest of the terms are defined in their respective documents.  See
   the LISP specification [RFC6830] for most of the definitions,
   [I-D.ietf-lisp-lcaf] for LCAF and [I-D.farinacci-lisp-te] for RTR.

3.  Overview

   This document describes extensions for LISP to support Multi-Tuple
   Extended-EIDs.  Protocol operation follows the specification defined
   on [RFC6830] except for the following.  Besides of IP mappings, a
   Mapping System can store Extended-EID mappings.  Being Extended-EID a
   n-tuple identifying a flow.  LISP routers perform look-ups based on
   these Extended-EIDs, instead of on destination IPs.  Apart from using
   n-tuples instead of IPs, retrieving information from the Mapping
   System follows LISP standard mechanisms (i.e.  Map-Request, Map-
   Reply).








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4.  Protocol Operation with Extended-EIDs

4.1.  LISP Tunnel Routers

   LISP tunnel routers with enhanced operation for Multi-Tuple Extended-
   EIDs, or MT-TRs (MT-xTRs and MT-RTRs), behave as specified on
   [RFC6830] and [RFC6833], with the particularity that MT-TRs perform
   mapping lookups based on Extended-EIDs (n-tuples).

   Any MT-TR must keep an internal map-cache indexed by Extended-EIDs.
   When a MT-TR receives a packet to encapsulate, it extracts the fields
   required by the n-tuple lookup in use and stores them in an Extended-
   EID structure.  In the case of a 5-tuple lookup, it will extract the
   source address, destination address, level 4 protocol, source port
   (if any) and destination port (if any) from the packet.  The MT-TR
   uses the Extended-EID to perform a look-up into the map-cache.  The
   lookup process must follow the procedure described in section
   Section 6.  If there is an entry on the map-cache that matches the
   Extended-EID, the MT-TR retrieves the mapping information, selects a
   destination RLOC and encapsulates the packet as defined in [RFC6830]

   If the map-cache of the MT-TR contains no entry for the Extended-EID,
   the MT-TR sends a Map-Request to a MT-MR.  The MT-TR MUST be
   provisioned with the RLOC of at least one MT-MR.  The Map-Request
   sent carries the Extended-EID (encoded in the specific LCAF for that
   Extended-EID type) in the EID-prefix field of the Map-Request.  This
   Map-Request will eventually trigger a Map-Reply to be sent back the
   requester MT-TR, see section Section 4.2.  This Map-Reply carries an
   Extended-EID on the EID-prefix field.  The MT-TR stores, as defined
   in [RFC6830], the mapping for the Extended-EID.

4.2.  Mapping System

   Mapping System elements (comprising Map Servers and Map Resolvers)
   behave as specified on [RFC6830] and [RFC6833] when implementing
   enhanced Multi-Tuple Extended-EIDs operation, with the particularity
   that MT-MRs resolve Map-Requests based on Extended-EIDs and MT-MSs
   store mappings indexed by Extended-EIDs.

   MT-MRs must be capable of processing Map-Requests with an Extended-
   EID on the EID-prefix field, of finding the appropriate MT-MS for the
   Extended-EID and of forwarding the Map-Request to it.  This is done
   according to the lookup rules described in section Section 6 and
   using the mapping database described in section Section 7 which
   differs depending on the specific Extended-EID.

   LISP elements must perform the mapping update mechanisms defined in
   [RFC6830] (e.g, SMR) using as EID the Extended-EID.



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5.  Extended-EIDs Encoding

   This section describes the Extended-EID types defined so far and the
   LCAFs to support them.

5.1.  5-Tuple

   The 5-tuple LCAF is a combination of Application Data Type 4 and
   Source/Dest Type 12 LCAFs.  Experimental deployment may indicate that
   a specific 5-tuple type LCAF is necessary.

6.  Extended-EID Lookups

   This section describes the lookup process to be followed when using
   Extended-EID.  At this point, this document only covers 5-tuple kind
   of Extended-EID lookups (with options for coarse or exact lookup).
   It is expected to include lookup mechanism for n-tuple lookups with
   more complex protocol combinations.

6.1.  5-Tuple (Coarse)

   When using a coarse lookup for 5-tuple, the encoding described in
   Section 5.1 is used to carry the Extended-EID.  Note that a coarse
   lookup also covers exact lookups.  The lookup is (logically) done at
   steps, one per each element of the tuple.  The lookup MUST follow
   this strict order:

   (1)  Destination address

   (2)  Source address

   (3)  Protocol number

   (4)  Destination port

   (5)  Source port

   This means that for a given 5-tuple, the lookup process will first
   select from the available 5-tuples present in the system, the ones
   that match the destination address.  Among them, those that also
   match the source address.  This is iterated for the rest of the
   elements in the tuple.  If a 5-tuple matches several entries, then
   the one with the longest prefix match or shortest port-range has
   priority.  To clarify the process an example is provided below.

   Suppose that a MT-MS stores the mappings indexed by the tuples (A),
   (B), (C), (D) and (E), and that it receives Map-Request messages
   carrying the Extended-EIDs (T), (U), (V), (W), (X) and (Y).



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                dst-add     src-add    pr   dst-prt    src-prt


          (A) [1.1.1.0/24, 2.2.0.0/16, 17, 1000-3000, 1000-3000]
          (B) [1.1.0.0/16, 2.2.2.0/24, 17, 1000-3000, 1000-3000]
          (C) [3.3.3.0/24, 4.4.4.0/24,  6, 4000-4500, 7000-8000]
          (D) [3.3.3.0/24, 4.4.4.0/24,  6, 4000-6000, 7000-8000]
          (E) [5.5.5.0/24, 6.6.6.0/24, 17,   0-65535,   0-65535]



          (T) [ 1.1.1.8,     2.2.2.9,  17,   2000,      2000   ]
          (U) [ 1.1.8.8,     2.2.9.9,  17,   2000,      2000   ]
          (V) [ 1.1.8.8,     2.2.2.9,  17,   2000,      2000   ]
          (W) [ 3.3.3.3,     4.4.4.4,   6,   4300,      7500   ]
          (X) [ 3.3.3.3,     4.4.4.4,   6,   5000,      7500   ]
          (Y) [ 5.5.5.5,     6.6.6.6,  17,   6000,      6000   ]


                     5-tuple example for coarse lookup

   (1)  When (T) is Map-Requested, the lookup could match both (A) and
        (B), however destination address has preference over source
        address and therefore (A) is returned.

   (2)  When (U) is Map-Requested, the lookup will return that no entry
        exists for the 5-tuple.

   (3)  When (V) is Map-Requested, the lookup will return (B).

   (4)  When (W) is Map-Requested, the lookup will return (C) and not
        (D), although both could match the tuple, since the destination
        port range is shorter in (C).

   (5)  When (X) is Map-Requested, the lookup will return (D).

   (6)  When (Y) is Map-Requested, the lookup will return (E).  A port
        range of 0-65535 means any port.

6.2.  5-Tuple (Exact)

   In scenarios where 5-tuple coarse lookup is not required, the lookup
   can be optimized to only account for exact matchs.  When using a
   exact lookup for 5-tuple, the encoding described in Section 6.1 is
   used to carry the Extended-EID.  The exact match lookup is performed
   by serializing the elements of the 5-tuple as a single vector of
   bits.  The order to serialize the elements is the same that is




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   described in Section 5.1 This (unique) vector of bits is then used as
   the key to perform a exact match lookup over the available entries.

7.  Mapping Databases for Extended-EIDs

   The mapping database, i.e. the system to interconnect (MT-)MRs and
   (MT-)MSs should be optimal for each one of the different Extended-
   EIDs types.  This section covers recommended mapping databases for
   each of the Extended-EIDs described in this document.

7.1.  5-Tuple (Coarse)

   The mapping database to be used for a coarse lookup of 5-tuples can
   leverage on the LISP-DDT mapping database [I-D.ietf-lisp-ddt] since
   it supports multi-tuple lookups.  Note that a LISP-DDT based database
   can support also a exact lookup.

7.2.  5-Tuple (Exact)

   Although a LISP-DDT based mapping database supports both coarse and
   exact lookups, the particularities of the latter benefit of using a
   mapping database optimized for flat namespaces rather than one
   optimized for hierarchical data.  In that sense, the exact match
   mechanism should be supported by a DHT-like mapping database, such
   [I-D.cheng-lisp-shdht] or [LISP-DHT].

8.  A Note on Instance-ID

   Instance-ID is a special case to be considered.  If it is in use, its
   lookup is resolved before the lookup for the Extended-EID begins
   (regardless of the Extended-EID type).  In terms of implementation
   this means that if the Instance-ID is present, it will have always
   more priority that any other field within the multi-tuple EID.  In
   other words, Instance-ID is the high-order parts of the destination
   and source addresses and a longest match lookup should be applied to
   it before looking up the address itself.

9.  Acknowledgments

10.  IANA Considerations

   This memo includes no request to IANA.

11.  Security Considerations

   Security Considerations TBD





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12.  Normative References

   [I-D.cheng-lisp-shdht]
              Cheng, L. and J. Wang, "LISP Single-Hop DHT Mapping
              Overlay", draft-cheng-lisp-shdht-04 (work in progress),
              July 2013.

   [I-D.farinacci-lisp-te]
              Farinacci, D., Kowal, M., and P. Lahiri, "LISP Traffic
              Engineering Use-Cases", draft-farinacci-lisp-te-11 (work
              in progress), September 2016.

   [I-D.ietf-lisp-ddt]
              Fuller, V., Lewis, D., Ermagan, V., Jain, A., and A.
              Smirnov, "LISP Delegated Database Tree", draft-ietf-lisp-
              ddt-08 (work in progress), September 2016.

   [I-D.ietf-lisp-lcaf]
              Farinacci, D., Meyer, D., and J. Snijders, "LISP Canonical
              Address Format (LCAF)", draft-ietf-lisp-lcaf-16 (work in
              progress), October 2016.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC6830]  Farinacci, D., Fuller, V., Meyer, D., and D. Lewis, "The
              Locator/ID Separation Protocol (LISP)", RFC 6830,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6830, January 2013,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6830>.

   [RFC6833]  Fuller, V. and D. Farinacci, "Locator/ID Separation
              Protocol (LISP) Map-Server Interface", RFC 6833,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6833, January 2013,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6833>.

Authors' Addresses

   Alberto Rodriguez-Natal
   Cisco Systems
   170 Tasman Drive
   San Jose, CA
   USA

   Email: albrodr2@cisco.com





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   Albert Cabellos-Aparicio
   Technical University of Catalonia
   Barcelona
   Spain

   Email: acabello@ac.upc.edu


   Sharon Barkai
   Hewlett Packard Enterprise
   3000 Hanover Street
   Palo Alto, CA
   USA

   Email: sharon.barkai@hpe.com


   Vina Ermagan
   Cisco Systems
   170 Tasman Drive
   San Jose, CA
   USA

   Email: vermagan@cisco.com


   Darrel Lewis
   Cisco Systems
   170 Tasman Drive
   San Jose, CA
   USA

   Email: darlewis@cisco.com


   Fabio Maino
   Cisco Systems
   170 Tasman Drive
   San Jose, CA
   USA

   Email: fmaino@cisco.com









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   Dino Farinacci
   lispers.net
   San Jose, CA
   USA

   Email: farinacci@gmail.com













































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