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Versions: 00 01 02 03 draft-rosenbergjennings-dispatch-ript

Network Working Group                                       J. Rosenberg
Internet-Draft                                                     Five9
Intended status: Standards Track                             C. Jennings
Expires: January 9, 2020                                   Cisco Systems
                                                            A. Minessale
                                                            J. Livingood
                                                               J. Uberti
                                                            July 8, 2019

                  Real Time Internet Peering Protocol


   This document specifies the Realtime Internet Peering Protocol
   (RIPP).  RIPP is used to provide telephony peering between a trunking
   provider (such as a telco), and a trunking consumer (such as an
   enterprise, cloud PBX provider, cloud contact center provider, and so
   on).  RIPP is an alternative to SIP, SDP and RTP for this use case,
   and is designed as a web application using HTTP/3.  Using HTTP/3
   allows trunking consumers to more easily build their applications on
   top of cloud platforms, such as AWS, Azure and Google Cloud, all of
   which are heavily focused on HTTP based services.  RIPP also
   addresses many of the challenges of traditional SIP-based trunking.
   Most notably, it mandates secure caller ID via STIR, and provides
   automated trunk provisioning as a mandatory protocol component.  RIPP
   supports both direct and "BYO" trunk configurations.  Since it runs
   over HTTP/3, it works through NATs and firewalls with the same ease
   as HTTP does, and easily supports load balancing with elastic cluster
   expansion and contraction, including auto-scaling - all because it is
   nothing more than an HTTP application.  RIPP also provides built in
   mechanisms for migrations of calls between RIPP client and server
   instances, enabling failover with call preservation.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

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   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on January 9, 2020.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2019 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
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   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     1.1.  Background  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     1.2.  Problem Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     1.3.  Solution  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     1.4.  Why Now?  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   2.  Solution Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   3.  Design Approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     3.1.  HBH, not E2E  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     3.2.  Client-Server, not Agent-to-Agent . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     3.3.  Signaling and Media Together  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     3.4.  URIs not IPs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     3.5.  OAuth not MTLS or private IP  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     3.6.  TLS not SRTP or SIPS  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     3.7.  Authenticated CallerID  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     3.8.  Calls Separate from Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     3.9.  Path Validation, not ICE  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   4.  Reference Architecture  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   5.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   6.  Overview of Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
   7.  Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
     7.1.  Inbound Call  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
     7.2.  Outbound Call . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
     7.3.  End of call . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
   8.  Detailed Behaviours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22

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     8.1.  Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
     8.2.  RIPP Trunk Provisioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
     8.3.  Capabilities  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
     8.4.  Initiating Calls  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
     8.5.  Establishing the Signaling Byways . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
     8.6.  The Media Sequence  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
     8.7.  Opening Media Byways  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  29
     8.8.  Sending and Receiving Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  30
     8.9.  Terminating and Re-establishing Connections and  Byways .  31
     8.10. Signaling - Events  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  31
     8.11. Call Termination  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  33
     8.12. GET Transactions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  34
     8.13. Graceful Call Migration: Server . . . . . . . . . . . . .  34
     8.14. Graceful Call Migration: Client . . . . . . . . . . . . .  34
     8.15. Ungraceful Call Migration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  34
   9.  SIP Gateway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  35
     9.1.  RIPP to SIP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  36
     9.2.  SIP to RIPP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  36
   10. RAML API  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  36
   11. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  39
   12. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  39
   13. Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  39
   14. Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  39
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  40

1.  Introduction

1.1.  Background

   Cloud computing platforms, such as those provided by Amazon, Azure,
   and Google, have now become mainstream for the development of
   software applications.  These platforms are targeted at enabling web
   applications, and as such many of their features are based on the
   usage of HTTP.

   One example are HTTP load balancers.  Cloud computing platforms
   provide highly scalable, geographically distributed, redundant load
   balancers.  These load balancers can monitor the state of downstream
   servers and can uniformly distribute load amongst them.  The load
   balancers can compensate for failure of individual nodes and send new
   traffic to other nodes.

   Autoscaling is another example.  The cloud computing platforms can
   automatically add new instances of a server backend, or remove them,
   and automatically configure the load balancers to include them in the
   pool of available servers.

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   Yet another example is Kubernetes, which allows web-based
   applications to be deployed into containers (typically Docker), with
   load balancing, scaling, and HTTP request routing.

   Another example are HTTP tracing tools, which facilitate the tracing
   of requests through distributed microservices.  These tools can
   autogenerate sequence diagrams and facilitate in troubleshooting.

   Yet another example are API gateways (such as APIGee and Kong), which
   provide authentication and authorization, provisioning of
   applications, rate limiting, analytics, sandboxing for testing,
   embedded documentation, and so on.

   And yet another example are denial-of-service prevention techniques,
   typically done using BGP peering and re-routing.  Though in principle
   these techniques can work for VoIP, they are deployed in conjunction
   with the load balancers which represent the entry point into these
   cloud provider networks.  Consequently, the protections these cloud
   providers offer do not extend to applications which merely use these
   platforms for virtual machines.

   A more recent technology are service meshes, such as Istio, which
   utilize sidecar HTTP proxies to facilitate inter-service
   communications.  These systems come with robust control planes which
   enable additional routing features, such as canary deploys,
   percentage based routing, and so on.

1.2.  Problem Statement

   Unfortunately, there are many applications being deployed into these
   cloud platforms which require interconnection with the public
   switched telephone network (PSTN).  Examples of such applications
   include cloud PBXs, cloud contact centers, cloud meetings
   applications, and so on.  Furthermore, commerce websites would like
   to allow customers to call into the telephone network for customer

   In order for these applications to connect to the PSTN, they
   typically deploy Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) [RFC3261] based
   servers - SBCs, SIP proxies, and softswitches, to provide this
   interconnection.  Unfortunately, SIP based applications cannot make
   use of the many capabilities these cloud platforms afford to HTTP
   based applications.  These SIP servers are usually deployed on bare
   metal or VMs at best.  Application developers must build their own
   load balancing, HA, failover, clustering, security, and scaling
   technologies, rather than using the capabilities of these platforms.

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   This has creating a barrier to entry, particularly for applications
   such as websites which are not expert in VoIP technologies.
   Furthermore, it has meant that VoIP applications have been unable to
   take advantage of the many technology improvements that have come to
   networking and protocol design since the publication of RFC 3261 in

   In addition, SIP trunking has suffered from complex provisioning
   operations, oftentimes requiring the exchange of static IPs and
   ports.  These operations are almost never self-service and
   consequently, SIP trunk turn ups can take weeks.  Finally, perhaps
   the biggest challenge with SIP trunking has been its abuse for
   injecting robocalls.

1.3.  Solution

   The goal of RIPP is to enable one administrative domain to send and
   receive voice calls with another domain.  In this regard, RIPP
   replaces the usage of SIP, SDP offer/answer [RFC3264] and RTP
   [RFC3550] for this particular use case.  RIPP does not actually
   deprecate or replace SIP itself, as it covers only a small subset of
   the broader functionality that SIP provides.  It is designed to be
   the minimum protocol required to interconnect voice between a
   trunking provider and a domain wishing to access trunking services.

   In order to make use of new HTTP based technologies as described
   above, RIPP uses HTTP/3 [I-D.ietf-quic-http], but is not an extension
   to it.  The goal is to ride the coattails of advancement in HTTP
   based technologies without requiring them to do anything special for
   the benefit of VoIP.  This means that RIPP inherits the benefits of
   classic HTTP deployments - easy load balancing, easy expansion and
   contraction of clusters (including auto-scaling), standard techniques
   for encryption, authentication, and denial-of-service prevention, and
   so on.

   RIPP also includes a built-in mechanism for provisioning, as a
   mandatory component of the specification.  This enables RIPP trunks
   to be self-provisioned through web portals, and instantly turned on
   in production.  This will help accelerate the adoption of
   telecommunications services across the web.

1.4.  Why Now?

   The idea of re-converging HTTP and SIP is certainly not new, and
   indeed has been discussed in the hallways of IETF for many years.
   However, several significant limitations made this previously

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   1.  HTTP utilized TCP, which meant that it created head-of-line
       blocking which would delay lost packets rather than just discard
       them.  This will often provide intolerable latency for VoIP.

   2.  HTTP was request response, allowing the client to send requests
       and receive a response.  There as no way for a server to
       asynchronously send information to the client in an easy fashion.

   HTTP2 [RFC7540] addressed the second of these with the introduction
   of pushes and long running requests.  However, its usage of TCP was
   still a problem.  This has finally been addressed with the arrival of
   QUIC [I-D.ietf-quic-transport] and HTTP/3.  QUIC is based on UDP, and
   it introduces the concept of a stream that can be set up with zero
   RTT.  These streams are carried over UDP, and though are still
   reliable, there is no head of line blocking across streams.  This
   change has made it possible for HTTP to support VoIP applications.

2.  Solution Requirements

   The protocol defined here is based on the following requirements:

   REQ1: The solution shall not require extensions or modifications to

   REQ2: The solution shall work with both L4 and L7 HTTP load balancers

   REQ3: The solution shall work in ways that are compatible with best
   practices for load balancers and proxies supporting HTTP/3, and not
   require any special changes to these load balancers in order to

   REQ4: The solution should hide the number of servers behind the load
   balancer, allow the addition or removal of servers from the cluster
   at will, and not expose any of this information to the peer

   REQ5: The solution shall enable the usage of autoscaling technologies
   used in cloud platforms, without any special consideration for RIPP -
   its just a web app

   REQ6: The solution shall provide call preservation in the face of
   failures of the server or client.  It is acceptable for a brief blip
   of media due to transient packet loss, but thats it

   REQ7: The solution shall support built-in migration, allowing a
   server to quickly shed load in order to be restarted or upgraded,
   without any impact to calls in progress

   REQ8: The solution will be easy to interoperate with SIP

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   REQ9: The solution shall be incrementally deployable - specifically
   it must be designed for easy implementation by SBCs and easy
   deployment by PSTN termination and origination providers who do not
   utilize cloud platforms

   REQ10: The solution shall require authentication and encryption, with
   no opportunity to disable them.  Furthermore, it will require secure
   callerID, with no provision for insecure callerID

   REQ11: The solution shall provide low latency for media

   REQ12: The solution shall support only audio, but be extensible to
   video or other media in the future

   REQ13: The solution must support secure caller ID out of the gate and
   not inherit any of the insecure techniques used with SIP

   REQ14: The solution shall include mandatory-to-implement provisioning

3.  Design Approaches

   To meet the requirements stated above, RIPP makes several fundamental
   changes compared to SIP.  These changes, and their motivations, are
   described in the sections below.

3.1.  HBH, not E2E

   SIP was designed as an end-to-end protocol.  As such, it explicitly
   incorporates features which presume the existence of a network of
   elements - proxies and registrars in particular.  SIP provides many
   features to facilitate this - Via headers, record-routing, and so on.

   HTTP on the other hand - is strictly a hop-by-hop technology.  Though
   it does support the notion of proxies (ala the CONNECT method for
   reverse proxies), the protocol is fundamentally designed to be
   between a client and an authoritative server.  What happens beyond
   that authoritative server is beyond the scope of HTTP, and can (and
   often does) include additional HTTP transactions.

   Consequently, in order to reside within HTTP, RIPP follows the same
   pattern and only concerns itself with HBH behaviours.  Like HTTP, a
   RIPP server can of course act as a RIPP client and further connect
   calls to downstream elements.  However, such behavior requires no
   additional specification and is therefore not discussed by RIPP.

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3.2.  Client-Server, not Agent-to-Agent

   SIP is based fundamentally on the User Agent, and describes the
   communications between a pair of user agents.  Either user agent can
   initiate requests towards the other.  SIP defines the traditional
   role of client and server as bound to a specific transaction.

   HTTP does not operate this way.  In HTTP, one entity is a client, and
   the other is a server.  There is no way for the server to send
   messages asynchronously towards the client.  HTTP/3 does enable two
   distinct techniques that facilitate server messaging towards the
   client.  But to use them, RIPP must abide by HTTP/3 rules, and that
   means distinct roles for clients and servers.  Clients must always
   initiate connections and send requests, not servers.

   To handle this RIPP, specifies that the domain associated with the
   caller implements the RIPP client, and the domain receiving the calls
   is the RIPP server.  For any particular call, the roles of client and
   server do not change.  To facilitate calls in either direction, a
   domain can implement both RIPP client and RIPP server roles.
   However, there is no relationship between the two directions.

3.3.  Signaling and Media Together

   One of the most fundamental design properties of SIP was the
   separation of signalling and media.  This was fundamental to the
   success of SIP, since it enabled high quality, low latency media
   between endpoints inside of an enterprise or consumer domain.

   This design technique is quite hard to translate to HTTP, especially
   when considering load balancing and scaling techniques.  HTTP load
   balancing is effective because it treats each request/response pair
   as an independent action which can route to any number of backends.
   In essence, the request/response transaction is atomic, and
   consequentially RIPP needs to operate this way as well.

   Though SIP envisioned that signalling and media separation would also
   apply to inter-domain calls, in practice this has not happened.
   Inter-domain interconnect - used primarily for interconnection with
   the PSTN - is done traditionally with SBCs which terminate and re-
   originate media.  Since this specification is targeted solely at
   these peering use cases, RIPP fundamentally combines signalling and
   media together on the same connection.  To ensure low latency, it
   uses multiple independent request/response transactions - each
   running in parallel over unique QUIC streams - to transmit media.

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3.4.  URIs not IPs

   SIP is full of IP addresses and ports.  They are contained in Via
   headers, in Route and Record-Route headers.  In SDP.  In Contact
   headers.  The usage of IPs is one of the main reasons why SIP is so
   difficult to deploy into cloud platforms.  These platforms are based
   on the behavior of HTTP which has been baed on TCP connections and
   therefore done most of its routing at the connection layer, and not
   the IP layer.

   Furthermore, modern cloud platforms are full of NATs and private IP
   space, making them inhospitable to SIP based applications which still
   struggle with NAT traversal.

   HTTP of course does not suffer from this.  In general, "addressing",
   to the degree it exists at all, is done with HTTP URIs.  RIPP follows
   this pattern.  RIPP - as a web application that uses HTTP/3 - does
   not use or convey any IP addresses or ports.  Furthermore, the client
   never provides addressing to the server - all traffic is sent in the
   reverse direction over the connection.

3.5.  OAuth not MTLS or private IP

   When used in peering arrangements today, authentication for the SIP
   connections is typically done using mutual TLS.  It is also often the
   case that security is done at the IP layer, and sometimes even via
   dedicated MPLS connections which require pre-provisioning.
   Unfortunately, these techniques are quite incompatible with how
   modern cloud platforms work.

   HTTP - due to its client-server nature, uses asymmetric techniques
   for authentication.  Most notably, certificate based authentication
   is done by the client to verify that it is speaking to the server it
   thinks it should be speaking to.  For the server to identify the
   client, modern platforms make use of OAuth2.0.  Though OAuth is not
   actually an authentication protocol, the use of OAuth has allowed
   authentication to be done out of band via separate identity servers
   which produce OAuth tokens which can then be used for authentication
   of the client.

   Consequently, RIPP follows this same approach.  For each call, one
   domain acts as the client, and the other, as the server.  When acting
   as a server, the domain authenticates itself with TLS and verifies
   the client with OAuth tokens.  For calls in the reverse direction,
   the roles are reversed.

   To make it possible to easily pass calls in both directions, RIPP
   allows one domain to act as the customer of another, the trunking

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   provider.  The customer domain authenticates with the provider and
   obtains an OAuth token using traditional techniques.  RIPP then
   allows the customer domain to automatically create a bearer token for
   inbound calls and pass it to the provider.

3.6.  TLS not SRTP or SIPS

   SIP has provided encryption of both signalling and media, through the
   usage of SIP over TLS and SIPS, and SRTP, respectively.
   Unfortunately, these have not been widely deployed.  The E2E nature
   of SRTP has made keying an ongoing challenge, with multiple
   technologies developed over the years.  SIP itself has seen greater
   uptake of TLS transport, but this remains uncommon largely due to the
   commonality of private IP peering as an alternative.

   Because of the HBH nature of RIPP, security is done fundamentally at
   the connection level - identically to HTTP.  Since media is also
   carrier over the HTTP connection, both signalling and media are
   covered by the connection security provided by HTTP/3.

   Because of the mandatory usage of TLS1.3 with HTTP/3, and the
   expected widespread deployment of HTTP/3, running VoIP on top of
   HTTP/3 will bring built-in encryption of media and signalling between
   peering domains, which is a notable improvement over the current
   deployment situation.  It is also necessary in order to utilize

   Because of this, RIPP does not support SRTP.  If a client receives a
   SIP call with SRTP, it must terminate the SRTP and decrypt media
   before sending it over RIPP.  This matches existing practice in many

3.7.  Authenticated CallerID

   Robocalling is seeing a dramatic rise in volume, and efforts to
   combat it continue.  One of the causes of this problem is the ease of
   which SIP enables one domain to initiate calls to another domain
   without authenticated caller ID.

   With RIPP, we remedy this by requiring the client and servers to
   implement STIR.  Since RIPP is meant for peering between providers
   (and not client-to-server connections), STIR is applicable.  RIPP
   clients must either insert a signed passport, or pass one through if
   it exists.  Similarly, RIPP servers must act as verifying parties and
   reject any calls that omit a passport.

   o  CJ - Need to check we have all the things needed in an Passport.

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3.8.  Calls Separate from Connections

   In SIP, there is a fuzzy relationship between calls and connections.
   In some cases, connection failures cause call terminations, and vice
   a versa.

   HTTP, on the other hand, very clearly separates the state of the
   resource being manipulated, with the state of the HTTP connection
   used to manipulate it.  This design principle is inherited by RIPP.
   Consequently, call state on both client and server exist
   independently from the connections which manipulate them.  This
   allows for greater availability my enabling connections for the same
   call to move between machines in the case of failures.

3.9.  Path Validation, not ICE

   HTTP/3 is designed to work through NAT as a client-server protocol.
   It has built in techniques for dealing with NAT re-bindings, IP
   address changes due to a client moving between networks (e.g., wifi
   to cellular data).  It has built in path validation that ensures that
   HTTP cannot be used for amplification attacks.

   SIP has, over the years, solved these problems to some degree, but
   not efficiently nor completely.  To work with HTTP, RIPP must utilize
   the HTTP approaches for these problems.  Consequently, RIPP does not
   utilize ICE and has no specific considerations for NAT traversal, as
   these are handled by HTTP/3 itself.

4.  Reference Architecture

   The RIPP reference architecture is shown in Figure 1.

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                 Trunk Provider             Trunk Consumer

                +-------------+  From      +-------------+
                |             |  A to B    |             |
                |             |            |             |
                |  Client     | +--------> |  Server     |
                |             |            |             |
                |             |            |             |
                +-------------+            +-------------+

                +-------------+ From       +-------------+
                |             | B to A     |             |
                |             |            |             |
                |  Server     | <--------+ |  Client     |
                |             |            |             |
                |             |            |             |
                +-------------+            +-------------+

   RIPP is used between a RIPP trunk provider and a RIPP trunk consumer.
   Both entities implement the RIPP client and RIPP server roles; the
   latter to receive calls, and the former to send them.

   RIPP is also designed such that all communications between the a RIPP
   client and the RIPP server can easily sit behind a typical HTTP load
   balancer, as shown below:

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                                                    |            |
                                                    |  RIPP      |
                                                   >|  Server    |
                                                  / |            |
                                                 /  |            |
                                                /   +------------+
                            +---------+    /
                            |         |   /
         +------------+     |         |  /          +------------+
         |            |     |         | /           |            |
         | RIPP       |     |  HTTP   |/            |  RIPP      |
         | Client     |---->|  LB     | ----------->|  Server    |
         |            |     |         |\            |            |
         |            |     |         | \           |            |
         +------------+     |         |  \          +------------+
                            +---------+   \
                                               \    +------------+
                                                \   |            |
                                                 \  |  RIPP      |
                                                  > |  Server    |
                                                    |            |
                                                    |            |

   Since both the trunk provider and trunk consumer implement the client
   and server roles, both entities will typically have a load balancer -
   perhaps a server component, or a cloud-based service, used to receive
   incoming calls.  This is not required, of course.  It is worth
   restating that this load balancer is NOT specific to RIPP - it is any
   off-the-shelf HTTP load balancer which supports HTTP/3.  No specific
   support for RIPP is required.  RIPP is just a usage of HTTP.

   Because RIPP clients and servers are nothing more than HTTP/3
   applications, the behavior or RIPP is specified entirely by
   describing how various RIPP procedures map to the core HTTP/3
   primitives available to applications - opening connections, closing
   connections, sending requests and responses, receiving requests and
   responses, and setting header fields and bodies.  That's it.

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5.  Terminology

   This specification follows the terminology of HTTP/3 - specifically:

   RIPP Client: The entity that initiates a call, by acting as an HTTP

   RIPP Server: The entity that receives a call, by acting as an HTTP

   RIPP Connection: An HTTP connection between a RIPP client and RIPP

   RIPP Endpoint: Either a RIPP client or RIPP server.

   RIPP Peer: An endpoint.  When discussing a particular endpoint,
   "peer" refers to the endpoint that is remote to the primary subject
   of discussion.

   This specification defines the following additional terms:

   RIPP Trunk: A container for calls between a trunking provider and
   trunking consumer.  A RIPP trunk is identified by a pair of URI - the
   RIPP Trunk Provider URI (hosted by the trunking provider) and the
   RIPP Trunk Consumer URI (hosted by the trunking consumer).  RIPP
   trunks act as a unit of policy and capabilities, including rules such
   as rate limits, allowed phone numbers, and so on.

   Call: A VoIP session established by a RIPP client for the purposes of
   exchanging audio and signalling information.  A call is always
   associated with a RIPP trunk.

   Trunking Consumer: An administrative entity that utilizes trunking
   services from the trunking provider.  The relationship between the
   trunking consumer and trunking provider is static and does not vary
   from call to call. (e.g., Verizon would be the trunking provider to
   an enterprise consumer, and the enterprise would be the trunking
   consumer of Verizon.  A trunking consumer implements a RIPP client to
   initiate calls to the trunking provider, and a RIPP server to receive

   Trunking Provider: The administrative entity that provides telephony
   trunking services to the trunking consumer.  The relationship between
   the trunking consumer and trunking provider is static and does not
   vary from call to call. (e.g., Verizon would be the trunking provider
   to an enterprise, and the enterprise would be the trunking customer
   of Verizon.  The trunking provider implements a RIPP server to

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   receive calls from the trunking consumer, and a RIPP client to send
   calls to the trunking consumer

   Trunking Customer: The administrative entity which purchases trunking
   services from the trunking provider.  The trunking customer may be
   the same as the trunking consumer - such as an enterprise purchasing
   and then consuming trunking services from a telco.  Or, it can be
   different - such as an enterprise purchasing trunking services from a
   telco, and then authorizing a cloud PBX or cloud contact center
   provider to consume those trunking services on their behalf.

   RIPP Trunk Provider URI: An HTTP URI hosted by the trunking provider,
   which represents the RIPP trunk from its perspective.

   RIPP Trunk Consumer URI: An HTTP URI hosted by the trunking consumer,
   which represents the RIPP trunk from its perspective.

   Byway: A bidirectional byte stream between a RIPP provider and
   consumer.  A Byway passes its data through a long-running HTTP
   request and a long-running HTTP response.  Byways are used for
   signalling and media.

6.  Overview of Operation

   RIPP begins with a configuration phase.  This configuration phase
   occurs when an OAuth2.0 client application (such as a softswitch,
   cloud PBX, cloud contact center, etc) wishes to enable trunking
   customers to provision RIPP trunks against a trunking provider.  The
   trunking provider acts as the resource provider in OAuth2.0 parlance.
   Consequently, The configuration phase is identical to the way in
   which client applications register with resource providers in
   OAuth2.0, the details of which are beyond the scope of this
   specification, but expected to follow existing best practices used by
   web applications.

   The next step is provisioning.  Once a trunking customer has obtained
   access to services from a trunking provider (by purchasing them , for
   example), the trunking customer can perform provisioning.
   Provisioning is the process by which a trunking customer connects a
   RIPP trunk from a trunking provider to trunking consumer.
   Provisioning is accomplished using
   OAuth2.0 code authorization techniques.  In the case of RIPP, the
   OAuth resource owner is the trunking customer.  The OAuth client is
   the RIPP implementation within the trunking consumer.  The resource
   server is the RIPP implementation in the trunking provider.

   To provision a RIPP trunk, the trunking customer will visit a web
   page hosted by the trunking consumer, and typically click on a button

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   labeled with their trunking provider.  This will begin the OAuth 2
   authorization code flow.  The trunking customer will authenticate
   with the trunking provider.  The trunking provider authorizes the
   access, generates an authorization code, and generates a RIPP trunk
   provider URI.  The provider URI is included in a new OAuth parameter
   defined by this specification, and is returned as a parameter in the
   authorization response.  The trunking consumer trades the
   authorization code for a refresh and access token, and stores the
   provider URI.  Finally, the trunking consumer mints a bearer token
   associated with the new RIPP trunk, and also mints a RIPP trunk
   consumer URI for receiving calls from the provider on this trunk.
   Both of these are passed to the trunking provider via a POST
   operation to /consumerTrunk on the RIPP trunk provider URI.

   The usage of the OAuth2.0 flows enables the trunking consumer and
   trunking customer to be the same (i.e., a cloud PBX provider
   purchases services from a telco), or different (i.e., an enterprise
   customer has purchased trunking services from a telco, and wishes to
   provision them into a cloud contact center that acts as the trunking
   consumer).  The latter is often referred to informally as "BYOSIP" in
   traditional SIP trunking and is explicitly supported by RIPP using

   Once provisioned, both sides obtain capability declarations for the
   RIPP trunk by performing a GET to /capAdv of its peers trunk URI.
   The capabilities declaration is a simple document, whose syntax is
   described in Section Section 10.  It conveys the receive capabilities
   of the entity sending it, and includes parameters like maximum
   bitrate for audio.  This process is optional, and each parameter has
   a default.  Either side can update its capabilities for the RIPP
   trunk at any time, and trigger a fresh GET via an HTTP push.
   Capability declarations occur outside of a call, are optional, and
   convey static receive capabilities which are a fixed property of the
   RIPP trunk.  Consequently, capability declaration is significantly
   different from SDP offer/answer.

   Either the trunking consumer or provider can initiate calls by
   posting to the /calls on RIPP trunk URI of its peer.  The request
   contains the target phone number in the request URI and an Identity
   header field in the HTTP Request.  The Identity header field is
   identical in syntax and semantics to the SIP Identity header field
   defined in [RFC8224], just carried in HTTP instead of SIP.  This
   request returns a globally unique call URI in the Location header
   field of a 201 response sent by the server.  Typically the response
   will also include a session cookie, bound to the call, to facilitate
   sticky session routing in HTTP proxies.  This allows all further
   signalling and media to reach the same RIPP server that handled the

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   initial request, while facilitating failover should that server go

   Once a call has been created, a pair of long-lived HTTP transactions
   is initiated from the client to the server for purposes of
   signalling.  One is a GET, retrieving call events from its peer.  THe
   other is a PUT, sending call events to its peer.  Each of these
   produces a unidirectional data stream, one in the forwards direction,
   one in the reverse.  These are called byways.  HTTP/3 ensures zero
   RTT for setup of these byways.

   Signaling commands are encoded into the signalling byway using
   streaming JSON in both directions.  Each JSON object encodes an event
   and its parameters.  Events are defined for alerting, connected,
   ended, migrate, keepalive, and transfer-and-takeback.

   The media byways carry a simple binary encoding in both directions.
   Even though data can flow in both directions, a media byway is
   unidirectional in terms of media transmission.  A forward media byway
   carries media from the client to the server, and a reverse byway
   carries media from the server to the client.  To eliminate HOL
   blocking for media, a media packet is sent on a media byway when it
   is first established.  After the first packet, the client cannot be
   sure a subsequent packet will be delayed due to the ordering
   guarantees provided by HTTP/3 within a stream.  To combat this, both
   sides acknowledge the receipt of each packet using an ACK message
   sent over the media byways, in the opposite direction of the media.
   Consequently, in a forward media byway, ACK messages are carried from
   server to client, and in a reverse media byway, they are carried from
   client to server.  Once a media packet is acknowledged, the media
   byway can be used once again without fear of HOL blocking.  Because
   each media packet is acknowledged independently, each side can
   compute statistics on packet losses and delays.  Consequently, the
   equivalent of RTCP sender and receiver reports are not needed.

   RIPP defines some basic requirements for congestion control at the
   client side.  Specifically, clients drop media packets if there are
   too many media byways in the blocked state.

   RIPP provides a simple technique for allowing a call to seamlessly
   migrate from one client instance to another on a different host, or
   from one server instance to another on a different host.  For a
   client, it need only end the byways in use for the call and re-
   initiate from a different instance.  Similarly, a server can request
   migration, and this triggers the client to perform this same action.
   The call state persists independently of the state of the HTTP
   connection or the byways embedded in HTTP transactions, so that a
   reconnect can continue where things left off.

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   Finally, RIPP trunks can be destroyed by a trunking consumer by
   issuing a DELETE against the RIPP trunk provider URI.

7.  Example

   This section describes a typical example where one company, Acme, is
   using a cloud calling service - Webex - and gets PSTN trunking from
   the provider Comcast.

   The sequence diagram for the outbound call flow is here:

+-----------+                                               +-----------+
| consumer  |                                               | provider  |
+-----------+                                               +-----------+
      |                                                           |
      | PUT /trunks/123/consumerTrunk                             |
      | --------------------------------\                         |
      |-| consumer trunk is /trunks/abc |                         |
      | |-------------------------------|                         |
      |                                                           |
      |                                    GET /trunks/abc/capAdv |
      |                                                           |
      | 200 OK w. consumer caps                                   |
      |                                                           |
      | GET /trunks/123/capAdv                                    |
      |                                                           |
      |                                   200 OK w. provider caps |
      |                                                           |
      | POST /trunks/123/calls&target=14085551212@e164.arpa       |
      |                                                           |
      |                                              202 Created  |
      | ----------------------\                                   |
      |-| Location: /call/xyz |                                   |
      | |---------------------|                                   |
      |                                                           |
      | GET /call/xyz/event                                       |
      | ----------------------\                                   |
      |-| signaling byway s2c |                                   |
      | |---------------------|                                   |
      |                                                           |

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      |                                                    200 OK |
      |                                                           |
      | POST /call/xyz/media-forward                              |
      | ------------------\                                       |
      |-| media byway c2s |                                       |
      | |-----------------|                                       |
      |                                                           |
      |                                                    200 OK |
      |                                                           |
      | POST /call/xyz/media-reverse                              |
      | ------------------\                                       |
      |-| media byway s2c |                                       |
      | |-----------------|                                       |
      |                                                           |
      |                                                    200 OK |
      |                                   ----------------------\ |
      |                                   | ringing eg. SIP 180 |-|
      |                                   |---------------------| |
      |                                                           |
      |                                             ringing event |
      |                                  -----------------------\ |
      |                                  | accepted eg. SIP 200 |-|
      |                                  |----------------------| |
      |                                                           |
      |                                                  accepted |
      | ------------------\                                       |
      |-| caller hangs up |                                       |
      | |-----------------|                                       |
      |                                                           |
      | PUT /call/xyz/event                                       |
      | ------------\                                             |
      |-| end event |                                             |
      | |-----------|                                             |
      |                                                           |
      |                                                    200 OK |
      |                                                           |

   The first stage is for Webex to set up their service to be able to
   work as an OAuth Resource Server, working with Comcast as the

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   Authorization Server, and to obtain the baseURI that Comcast uses for
   RIPP authorization.  Assume that this is "https://ripp.comcast.com".
   The next stage is the admin from ACME logs on to their Webex account
   and selects Comcast as the RIPP provider.  This will cause the OAUTH
   dance and the admin will end up having approved Webex to use Acme's
   account at Comcast for RIPP.  Webex will have received an OAuth
   access and refresh token from Comcast and be passed the new Provider
   Trunk URI.  At this point, provisioning is complete and calls can
   start.  Assume the provider trunk URI returned is

   Webex will start by setting up for incoming calls at
   "https://ripp.webex/trunks/abc" with an opaque security token of
   "secret1234".  This is done by making a HTTP PUT to
   https://ripp.comcast.com/trunks/123/consumerTrunk with a JSON body

           "consumerTrunkURI":"https://ripp.webex/trunks/abc " ,

   The Comcast server will then find out the advertised capability of
   the Webex trunk by doing a GET to https://ripp.webex/trunks/abc/
   capAdv and using the secret1234 as an authorization token.  Webex
   supports the default values but also support G.729 as an additional
   codec.  It returns a JSON body of:

                          {  "audio/g729": true }

   Similarly, the Webex server will find out the advertised capability
   of the trunk by doing a GET to https:://ripp.comcast.com/trunks/123/
   capAdv, using its OAuth token.  In this case, the response is empty,
   indicating that the capabilities are all default.

   At this point we are ready for inbound or outbound calls.

7.1.  Inbound Call

   A PSTN calls arrives at Comcast that is routed to the this trunk via
   a Comcast SBC that will convert it from SIP to RIPP.  The SBC knows
   which codecs the trunk supports (G.729, Opus and G.711) and can
   immediately send the SIP answer in a 183.  It can then can make an
   HTTP post to the consumer trunk URI to set up the incoming call.
   This is does by doing a POST to "https://ripp.webex/trunks/acme123/
   calls&target=14085551212@e164.arpa" using the authorization token
   "secret1234".  This will return a new call URI for this call of

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   At this point the SBC can make a long poll GET and PUT to
   "https://ripp.webex/call/xyz/events" to receive and send signaling
   events for this call.  The SBC will also open a number of media
   byways by making POST requests to "https://ripp.webex/call/xyz/media-
   forward" and "https://ripp.webex/call/xyz/media-reverse" to send and
   receive media.

   For each of the media-forward byways, the Comcast SBC will send a
   BywayPreamble that tells the other side meta data about what will be
   sent on this byway.  For the media-reverse byways, the Webex server
   will send the BywayPreamble.  The BywayPreamble contains the name of
   the codec, the base sequence number, frameTime, and baseTime.  After
   this BywayPreamble, media frames can be sent that contain a seqOffset
   number, media length, and then the media data.  The receiver compute
   the time sequence number for the frame by adding the baseSeqNum for
   the byway to the seqOffset for the frame.  The timestamp for the
   media is computed using the baseTime for the byway plus the packeTime
   multiplied by the seqNum.

   The data from the https://ripp.webex/call/xyz/events request will be
   an infinite JSON array of Events.  When the Webex server answers the
   call, the event returned would look like:

                           { "name":"accepted" }

7.2.  Outbound Call

   For Webex to make it outbound call, it is the same as the inbound
   call other than the provider trunk URI is used.  The Webex server
   would act as a client and do a HTTP POST to
   calls&target=14085551212@e164.arpa" to create a call URI of
   "http\s://ripp.comcast.com/call/c789".  From that point the flow is
   roughly the same as inbound with the client and server roles

7.3.  End of call

   If the call is ended on the server side, server sends a terminated
   event with the ended flag set to true then waits a small time for
   client to close the connection then closes the connection.

   If the call is ended on the client side, the client sends a
   terminated event with the ended flag set to true and then closes the
   connection.  In either case the even looks like:

                  { "name":"terminated", "ended": true }

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8.  Detailed Behaviours

   This section provides an overview of the operation of RIPP.

8.1.  Configuration

   RIPP configuration happens when a trunking consumer wishes to be able
   to provision, on demand, new RIPP trunks with a trunking provider.

   One example use case is that of an enterprise, which has deployed an
   IP PBX of some sort within its data centers.  Once deployed, the
   enterprise needs to enable the PBX to place and receive calls towards
   the PSTN.  The enterprise contracts with a RIPP trunking provider.
   All of this happens as a precursor to configuration.  At the end of
   the contracting process, the enterprise administrator will visit the
   configuration web page, and be able to register their enterprise PBX.
   This process will typically return a client-ID, client-secret, and
   authorization endpoint URL.  The administrator manually enters these
   into the configuration of their PBX.  [[OPEN ISSUE: OpenID connect?]]

   As another example use case, a cloud contact center, cloud PBX
   provider, or any other saas application which wishes to obtain
   trunking services, can contract with a RIPP trunking provider.  In a
   similar process to the enterprise case above, the administrator
   obtains a clientID, client-secret, and authorization endpoint URL
   which are configured into their service.

   In the final use case, an enterprise administrator has purchased
   trunking services from a RIPP trunking provider.  They separately
   have purchased cloud PBX, cloud contact center, or another saas
   service which requires connectivity to a RIPP trunk.  In this case,
   the cloud PBX, cloud contact center, or other saas service acts as
   the RIPP trunk consumer.  The RIPP trunk consumer would configure
   itself as a client with a variety of RIPP trunking providers, and for
   each, obtain the clientID, client-secret and authorization URL.  This
   will allow the customers of the RIPP trunking consumer to provision
   RIPP trunks automatically, and point them to the RIPP trunking

8.2.  RIPP Trunk Provisioning

   Once a RIPP consumer has been configured as an OAuth client
   application with a RIPP provider, a RIPP customer can provision a
   RIPP trunk on-demand using a web form.  RIPP consumers will typically
   provide a self-service web form for such provisioning, since self-
   service and instant provisioning are key goals of RIPP.

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   The RIPP customer visits this web form, and selects their provider.
   The RIPP consumer would then initiate an OAuth2.0 authorization code
   flow.  This utilizes the clientID, client-secret and authorization
   endpoint URL configured previously.  The RIPP customer will
   authenticate to the RIPP provider, and authorize creation of a new
   RIPP trunk.

   Once the RIPP customer authorizes creation of a RIPP trunk, the RIPP
   provider MUST generate an authorization code and follow the
   procedures defined in [RFC6749] for the authorization code grant
   flow.  Furthermore, the RIPP provider MUST mint a new URI identifying
   this new RIPP trunk.  This URI MUST contain a path component, and
   MUST NOT contain any URI parameters.  This URI MUST be an HTTPS URI,
   and HTTP/3 MUST be supported for this URI.  The path component MUST
   be a globally unique identifier for this trunk, and not depend on the
   authority component as part of the namespace for purposes of

   As an example, the following is a valid RIPP trunk URI:


   This URI MUST be returned in the OAuth2.0 parameter "ripp-trunk", and
   MUST be base64 encoded.

   The RIPP consumer MUST follow the procedures defined in [RFC6749] for
   an OAuth client, trade in its authorization code for both a refresh
   and access token.  The RIPP provider MUST issue both refresh and
   access tokens.  It is expected that the refresh token will last a
   long time, in order to avoid the resource owner needing to manually
   re-authorize.  The trunk consumer MUST be prepared for its access and
   refresh tokens to be invalidated at any time.  The RIPP consumer MUST
   extract the "ripp-trunk" OAuth parameter from the authorization
   response, decode, and persist it.

   Once the RIPP consumer has obtained an access token, it MUST initiate
   an HTTPS PUT request towards /consumerTrunk on the provider trunk
   URI.  This request MUST contain an Authorization header field
   utilizing the access token just obtained.  It MUST include a RIPP
   provisioning object in the body.  This object is specified in
   Section Section 10.

   The RIPP provisioning object MUST contain a RIPP trunk consumer URI
   and a RIPP bearer token.  The RIPP consumer MUST mint an HTTPS URI
   for the RIPP Trunk consumer URI.  This URI MUST support HTTP/3, and
   MUST implement the behaviours associated with capabilities and new
   call operations as defined below.  This URI MUST have a path

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   component, MUST NOT contain any URI parameters, and MUST have a path
   segment which is globally unique.

   In addition, the RIPP consumer MUST mint a bearer token to be used by
   the RIPP provider when performing operations against the RIPP Trunk
   Client URI.  The bearer token MAY be constructed in any way desired
   by the RIPP consumer.  The token and URI SHOULD remain valid for at
   least one day, however, a security problem could cuase them to be
   invalidated.  The RIPP consumer MUST refresh the provisioning against
   the RIPP trunk at least one hour in advance of the expiration, in
   order to ensure no calls are delayed.

   At this point, the RIPP trunk is provisioned.  Both the RIPP provider
   and RIPP consumer have a RIPP trunk URI and an Authorization token to
   be used for placing calls in each direction.

8.3.  Capabilities

   Once provisioned, each side obtains receive capabilities about the
   trunk from its peer.  To do that, each client performs an HTTP GET to
   /capAdv on its peer's RIPP trunk URI.  The response body MUST be a
   RIPP capabilities object as defined in Section Section 10.

   Once established, either side MAY update the capabilities by sending
   an HTTP push to trigger its peer to fetch a fresh capability
   document.  Due to race conditions, it is possible that the client may
   receive calls compliant to the old capabilities document for a brief
   interval.  It MUST be prepared for this.

   When the trunk resource is destroyed, its associated capabilities are
   also destroyed.

   The RIPP capabilities document is a list of name-value pairs, which
   specify a capability.  Every capability has a default, so that if no
   document is posted, or it is posted but a specific capability is not
   included, the capability for the peer is understood.  Capabilities
   are receive only, and specify what the entity is willing to receive.
   Capabilities are bound to the RIPP trunk, and are destroyed when the
   RIPP trunk is destroyed.

   This specification defines the following capability set.  This set is
   extensible through an IANA registry.

   o  max-bitrate: The maximum bitrate for receiving voice.  This is
      specified in bits per second.  It MUST be greater than or equal to

      1.  Its default is 64000.

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   o  max-samplerate: The maximum sample rate for audio.  This is
      specified in Hz.  It MUST be greater than or equal to 8000.  Its
      default is 8000.

   o  max-samplesize: The maximum sample size for audio.  This is
      specified in bits.  It MUST be greater than or equal to 8.  The
      default is 16.

   o  force-cbr: Indicates whether the entity requires CBR media only.
      It MUST be either "true" or "false".  The default is "false".  If
      "true", the sender MUST send constant rate audio.

   o  two-channel: Indicates whether the entity supports receiving two
      audio channels or not.  Two channel audio is specifically used for
      RIPP trunks meant to convey listen-only media for the purposes of
      recording, similar to SIPREC [RFC7866].  It MUST be either "true"
      or "false".  The default is "false".

   o  tnt: Indicates whether the entity supports the takeback-and-
      transfer command.  Telcos supporting this feature on a trunk would
      set it to "true".  The value MUST be "true" or "false".  The
      default is "false".

   In addition, codecs can be listed as capabilities.  This is done by
   using the media type and subtype, separated by a "/", as the
   capability name.  Media type and subtype values are taken from the
   IANA registry for RTP payload format media types, as defined in
   [RFC4855].  The value of the capability is "true" if the codec is
   supported, "false" if it is not.  The default is "false" for all
   codecs except for "audio/PCMU", "audio/opus", "audio/telephone-event"
   and "audio/CN", for which the default is "true".  Because codec
   capabilities are receive-only, it is possible, and totally
   acceptable, for there to be different audio codecs used in each

   In general, an entity MUST declare a capability for any
   characteristic of a call which may result in the call being rejected.
   This requirement facilitates prevention of call failures, along with
   clear indications of why calls have failed when they do.  For
   example, if a RIPP trunk provider provisions a trunk without support
   for G.729, but the consumer configures their to utilize this codec,
   this will be known as a misconfiguration immediately.  This enables
   validation of trunk configurations in an automated fashion, without
   placing test calls or calling customer support.

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8.4.  Initiating Calls

   HTTP connections are completely independent of RIPP trunks or calls.
   As such, RIPP clients SHOULD reuse existing HTTP connections for any
   request targeted at the same authority to which an existing HTTP
   connection is open.  RIPP clients SHOULD also utilize 0-RTT HTTP
   procedures in order to speed up call setup times.

   To initiate a new call, a RIPP client creates an HTTPS POST request
   to /calls endpoint on the RIPP trunk URI of its peer.  For a trunking
   consumer, this is the RIPP trunk URI provisioned during the OAuth2.0
   flow.  For the trunking provider, it is the RIPP trunk consumer URI
   learned through the provisioning POST operation.  This MUST be an
   HTTP/3 transaction.  The client MUST validate that the TLS
   certificate that is returned matches the authority component of the
   RIPP trunk URI.

   This request MUST contain the token that the client has obtained out-
   of-band.  For the RIPP trunk consumer, this is the OAuth token.  For
   the RIPP trunk provider, it is the bearer token learned through the
   provisioning POST operation.

   The client MUST also add the "target" URI parameter.  This parameter
   MUST be of the form user@domain.  If the target is a phone number on
   the PSTN, this must take the form @e164.arpa, where is a valid E.164
   number.  RIPP also supports private trunks, in which case the it MUST
   take the form @, where the number is a non-E164 number scoped to be
   valid within the domain.  This form MUST NOT be used for E.164
   numbers.  Finally, RIPP can be used to place call to application
   services - such as a recorder - in which case the parameter would
   take the form of an RFC822 email address.

   The client MUST add an HTTP Identity header field.  This header field
   is defined in Section Section 11 as a new HTTP header field.  Its
   contents MUST be a valid Identity header field as defined by
   [RFC8224].  This ensures that all calls utilize secure caller ID.  A
   RIPP client MUST NOT place the caller ID in any place except for the
   Identity header field in this request.  Specifically, a "From",
   "Contact", or "P-Asserted-ID" header field MUST NOT ever appear.

   o  CJ - I would prefer to add this another way without using a

   The server MUST validate the OAuth token, MUST act as the verifying
   party to verify the Identity header field, and then authorize the
   creation of a new call, and then either accept or reject the request.
   If accepted, it indicates that the server is willing to create this
   call.  The server MUST return a 201 Created response, and MUST

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   include a Location header field containing an HTTPS URI which
   identifies the call that has been created.  The URI identifying the
   call MUST include a path segment which contains a type 4 UUID,
   ensuring that call identifiers are globally unique.

   The server MAY include HTTP session cookies in the 201 response.  The
   client MUST support receipt of cookies [RFC6265].  It MUST be
   prepared to receive up to 10 cookies per call.  The client MUST
   destroy all cookies associated with a call, when the call has ended.
   Cookies MUST NOT be larger the 5K.

   The usage of an HTTP URI to identify the call itself, combined with
   session cookies, gives the terminating RIPP domain a great deal of
   flexibility in how it manages state for the call.  In traditional
   softswitch designs, call and media state is held in-memory in the
   server and not placed into databases.  In such a design, a RIPP
   server can use the session cookie in combination with sticky session
   routing in the load balancers to ensure that subsequent requests for
   the same call go to the same call server.  Alternatively, if the
   server is not using any kind of HTTP load balancer at all, it can use
   a specific hostname in the URI to route all requests for this call to
   a specific instance of the server.  This technique is particularly
   useful for telcos who have not deployed HTTP infrastructure, but do
   have SBCs that sit behind a single virtual IP address.  The root URI
   can use a domain whose A record maps to this IP.  Once a call has
   landed on a particular SBC, the call URI can indicate the specific IP
   of the SBC.

   For example, the RIPP trunk URI for such a telco operator might be:


   which always resolves to, the VIP shared amongst the SBC
   farm.  Consequently, a request to this RIPP trunk would hit a
   specific SBC behind the VIP.  This SBC would then create the call and
   return a call URL which points to its actual IP, using DNS


   However, the HTTP URI for the call MUST NOT contain an IP address; it
   MUST utilize a valid host or domain name.  This is to ensure that TLS
   certificate validation functions properly without manual
   configuration of certificates (a practice which is required still for
   SIP based peering).

   Neither the request, nor the response, contain bodies.

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8.5.  Establishing the Signaling Byways

   To perform signalling for this call, the client MUST initiate an HTTP
   GET and PUT request towards the call URI that it just obtained,
   targeted at the /event endpoint.

   The signaling is accomplished by a long running HTTP transaction,
   with a stream of JSON in the PUT request, and a stream of JSON in the
   GET response.

   The body begins with an open curly bracket, and after that is a
   series of JSON objects, each starting with a curly bracket, and
   ending with a curly bracket.  Consequently, each side MUST
   immediately send their respective open brackets after the HTTP header
   fields.  We utilize streaming JSON in order to facilitate usage of
   tools like CURL for signalling operations.

8.6.  The Media Sequence

   In RIPP, media is represented as a continuous sequence of RIPP media
   frames embedded in a media byway.  Each ripp media frame encodes a
   variable length sequence number offset, followed by a variable length
   length field, followed by a codec frame equal to that length.  The
   media byway itself, when created, includes properties that are shared
   across all media frames within that byway.  These parameters include
   the sequence number base, the timestamp base, the codec type, and the
   frame size in milliseconds for the codec.

   This is a significantly different design than RTP, which conveys many
   repeated parameters (such as the payload type and timestamp) in every
   packet.  Instead, RIPP extracts information that will be shared
   across many packets and associates it with the byway itself.  This
   means the media frames only contain the information which varies -
   the sequence number and length.  [[OPEN ISSUE: we could maybe even
   eliminate the sequence number by computing it from offset in the
   stream.  Worried about sync problems though?]]

   Consequently, each media frame has the following properties:

   o  The sequence number, which is equal to the sequence number base
      associated with the media byway, PLUS the value of the sequence
      number offset

   o  The timestamp, which is equal to the timestamp base from the
      byway, PLUS the sequence number offset TIMES the frame size in
      milliseconds.  Note that this requires that frame size must remain
      fixed for all media frames in a byway.

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   o  The codec type, which is a fixed property of the byway.  There are
      no payload type numbers in RIPP.

   RIPP does not support gaps in the media sequence due to silence.
   Something must be transmitted for each time interval.  If a RIPP
   implementation wishes to change codecs, it MUST utilize a different
   byway for that codec.

8.7.  Opening Media Byways

   The client bears the responsibility for opening media byways - both
   forward and reverse.  Consequently, the server is strongly dependent
   on the client opening reverse byways; it cannot send media unless
   they've been opened.

   A client MUST open a new forward byway whenever it has a media frame
   to send, all existing forward byways (if any) are in the blocked
   state, and the client has not yet opened 20 byways.

   Furthermore, the client MUST keep a minimum of 10 reverse byways open
   at all times.  This ensures the server can send media.  The client
   MUST open these byways immediately, in parallel.

   The use of multiple media byways in either direction is essential to
   low latency operation of RIPP.  This is because, as describe below,
   media frames are sprayed across these byways in order to ensure that
   there is never head-of-line blocking.  This is possible because, in
   HTTP/3, each transaction is carried over a separate QUIC stream, and
   QUIC streams run on top of UDP.  Furthermore, a QUIC stream does not
   require a handshake to be established - creation of new QUIC streams
   is a 0-RTT process.

   The requests to create these transactions MUST include Cookie headers
   for any applicable session cookies.

   To open a forward media byway, the client MUST initiate a POST
   request to the /media-forward endpoint on the call URI, and MUST
   include a RIPP-Media header field in the request headers.  Similarly,
   to open a reverse media byway, the client MUST initiate a POST
   request to the /media-reverse endpoint of the call URI.  It MUST NOT
   include a RIPP-Media header field in the request headers.  The server
   MUST include the RIPP-Media header in the response headers.  The
   RIPP-Media header contains the properties for the byway - the
   sequence number base, the timestamp base, and the name of the codec.

   RIPP supports multiple audio channels, meant for SIPREC use cases.
   Each channel MUST be on a separate byway.  When multi-channel audio

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   is being used, the client MUST include the multi-channel parameter
   and MUST include the channel number, starting at 1.

   All RIPP implementations MUST support G.711 and Opus audio codecs.
   All implementations MUST support [RFC2833] for DTMF, and MUST support
   [RFC3389] for comfort noise, for both sending and receiving.

   The sequence number space is unique for each direction, channel, and
   call (as identified by the call URI).  Each side MUST start the
   sequence number at zero, and MUST increment it by one for each
   subsequent media frame.  The sequence number base is represented as a
   string corresponding to a 32 bit unsigned integer, and the sequence
   number offset in the media frame is variable length, representing an
   unsigned integer.  Consequently, the sequence number space for a
   media stream within a call has a total space of 32 bits.  With a
   minimum frame size of 10ms, RIPP can support call durations as long
   as 11,930 hours.  Rollover of the sequence number is not permitted,
   the client or server MUST end the call before rollover.  This means
   that the combination of call URI, direction (client to server, or
   server to client), channel number, and sequence number represent a
   unique identifier for media packets.

8.8.  Sending and Receiving Media

   The approach for media is media striping.

   To avoid HOL blocking, we cannot send a second media packet on a
   byway until we are sure the prior media packet was received.  This is
   why the client opens multiple media byways.

   When either the client or server sends a media frame on a byway, it
   immediately marks the byway as blocked.  At that point, it SHOULD NOT
   send another media frame on that byway.  The client or server notes
   the sequence number and channel number for that media frame.  Once it
   receives an acknowledgement for that corresponding media frame, it
   marks the byway as UNBLOCKED.  A client or server MAY send a media
   frame on any unblocked byway.

   The sequence number for the media frame is computed based on the
   rules described above.

   Per the logic described above, the client will open additional byways
   once the number of blocked byways goes above a threshold.  If a the
   number of blocked byways in either direction hits 75% of the total
   for that direction, this is a signal that congestion has occurred.
   In such a case, the client or server MUST either drop packets at the
   application layer, or buffer them for later transmission.  [[TODO:

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   can we play with QUIC priorities to prioritize newer media frames
   over older?]]

   When a client or server receives a media frame, it MUST send an
   acknowledge message.  This message MUST be sent on the same byway on
   which the media was received.  This acknowledgement message MUST
   contain the full sequence number and channel number for the media
   packet that was received.  It MUST also contain the timestamp,
   represented as wallclock time, at which the media packet was

   If the server has marked 75% of the reverse media byways as blocked,
   it MUST send a signaling event instructing the client to open another
   reverse media byway.  Once this command is received, the client MUST
   open a new reverse byway, unless the total number of byways has
   reached 20.

   A client MAY terminate media byways gracefully if they have not sent
   or received packets on that byway for 5 or more seconds.  This is to
   clean up unused byways.

   There is no need for sender or receiver reports.  The equivalent
   information is knowable from the application layer acknowledgements.

8.9.  Terminating and Re-establishing Connections and Byways

   The state of the connection, the QUIC streams, and byways, is
   separate from the state of the call.  The client MAY terminate an
   HTTP connection or byway at any time, and re-establish it.
   Similarly, the server or client may end the a byway at any time.

   If a byway ends or the connection breaks or is migrated, the client
   MUST re-initiate the byways immediately, or risk loss of media and
   signalling events.  However, to deal with the fact that re-
   establishment takes time, both client and server MUST buffer their
   signalling and media streams for at least 5 seconds, and then once
   the connections and byways are re-established, it sends all buffered
   data immediately.

   Note that it is the sole responsibility of the client to make sure
   byways are re-established if they fail unexpectedly.

8.10.  Signaling - Events

   Signaling is performed by having the client and server exchange
   events.  Each event is a JSON object embedded in the signalling
   stream, which conveys the event as perceived by the client or server.
   Each event has a sequence number, which starts at zero for a call,

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   and increases by one for each event.  The sequence number space is
   unique in each direction.  The event also contains a direction field,
   which indicates whether the event was sent from client to server, or
   server to client.  It also contains a timestamp field, which
   indicates the time of the event as perceived by the sender.  This
   timestamp is not updated when retransmissions happen; the timestamp
   exists at the RIPP application layer and RIPP cannot directly observe
   HTTP retransmits.

   It also contains a call field, which contains the URI of the call in

   Finally, there is an event type field, which conveys the type of
   event.  This is followed by additional fields which are specific to
   the event type.

   This structure means that each event carried in the signalling is
   totally self-describing, irregardless of the enclosing connection and
   stream.  This greatly facilitates logging, debugging,
   retransmissions, retries, and other race conditions which may deliver
   the same event multiple times, or deliver an event to a server which
   is not aware of the call.

   Events are also defined so that the resulting state is uniquely
   defined by the event itself.  This ensures that knowing the most
   recent event is sufficient to determine the state of the call.

   This specification defines the following events:

   alerting: Passed from server to client, indicating that the recipient
   is alerting.

   accepted: Passed from server to client, indicating that the call was

   rejected: Passed from server to client, indicating that the call was
   rejected by the user.

   failed: Passed from server to client, indicating that the call was
   rejected by server or downstream servers, not by the user, but due to
   some kind of error condition.  This event contains a response code
   and reason phrase, which are identical to the response codes and
   reason phrases in SIP.

   noanswer: Passed from server to client, indicating that the call was
   delivered to the receiving user but was not answered, and the server
   or a downstream server timed out the call.

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   end: initiated by either client or server, it indicates that the call
   is to be terminated.  Note that this does NOT delete the HTTP
   resource, it merely changes its state to call end.  Furthermore, a
   call cannot be ended with a DELETE against the call URI; DELETE is
   not permitted and MUST be rejected by the server.  The call end event
   SHOULD contain a reason, using the Reason codes defined for SIP.

   o  CJ - Not keen on SIP reason codes - they did not conatin enough
      info for all the Q950 stuff and were not particually extensible.
      I think it would be better to define a set here with clear mapping
      to SIP and SIP +Q950 reasons.

   migrate: sent from server to client, it instructs the client to
   terminate the connections and re-establish them to a new URI which
   replaces the URI for the call.  The event contains the new URI to
   use.  This new URI MUST utilize the same path components, and MUST
   have a different authority component.

   open-reverse: sent from server to client, it instructs the client to
   open an additional set of reverse media byways.

   o  CJ - would it work to have this all far simplier and just have the
      trunk cap advertisemtn say how many to open up ?

   tnt: send from consumer to provider, it invokes a takeback-and-
   transfer operation.  It includes the phone number to which the call
   should be transferred.  The provide will then transfer the call to
   the target number.  This event is meant to invoke the feature as it
   has been implemented by the provider.  RIPP does not define
   additional behaviors.

8.11.  Call Termination

   Signaling allows an application layer call end to be sent.  This will
   also cause each side to terminate the the outstanding transactions
   using end flags per HTTP/3 specs.  However, the opposite is not true
   - ending of the transactions or connection does not impact the call

   A server MUST maintain a timer, with a value equal to one second, for
   which it will hold the call in its current state without any active
   signalling byway.  If the server does not receive a signalling byway
   before the expiration of this timer, it MUST consider the call as
   ended.  Once the call has ended, the call resource SHOULD be

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   If the server receives a signalling or media byway for a call that is
   TERMINATED, it MUST reject the transaction with an 404 response code,
   since the resource no longer exists.

8.12.  GET Transactions

   A client MAY initiate a GET request against the call URI at any time.
   This returns the current state of the resource.  This request returns
   the most recent event, either sent by the server or received by the

   o  CJ - lets call this previosEvent as the event part waits till the
      next event on a long poll.  Be good to say something about how
      this is used as it is not clear to me it is needed.

8.13.  Graceful Call Migration: Server

   To facilitate operational maintenance, the protocol has built in
   support for allowing a server instance to drain all active calls to
   another server instance.

   The server can issue a migrate event over the signalling byway, which
   includes a new call URI that the peer should use.  Once received, the
   client closes all transactions to the current call URI.  It then
   establishes new signalling, media and media control byways to the URI
   it just received.  All media that the client wishes to transmit, but
   was unable to do so during the migration, is buffered and then sent
   in a burst once the media byways are re-established.  This ensures
   there is no packet loss (though there will be jitter) during the
   migration period.

   We don't use QUIC layer connection migration, as that is triggered by
   network changes and not likely to be exposed to applications.

8.14.  Graceful Call Migration: Client

   Clients can move a call from one client instance to another easily.
   No commands are required.  The client simply ends the in-progress
   transactions for signalling and media, and then reinitiates them to
   the existing call URI from whatever server is to take over.  Note
   that the client MUST do this within 1s or the server will end the

8.15.  Ungraceful Call Migration

   Since all media packets are acknowledged at the application layer, it
   is possible for endpoints to very quickly detect remote failures,
   network failures, and other related problems.

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   Failure detection falls entirely at the hands of the client.  A
   failure situation is detected when any one of the following happens:

   1.  The QUIC connection closes unexpectedly

   2.  Any outstanding signalling or media byway is reset by the peer

   3.  No media packets are received from the peer for 1s

   4.  No acknowledgements are received for packets that have been sent
       in the last 1s

   If the client detects such a failure, it MUST abort all ongoing
   transactions to the server, terminate the QUIC connection, and then
   establish a new connection using 0-RTT, and re-establish signalling
   and media transactions.  If this retry fails, the client MUST
   consider the call terminated.  It SHOULD NOT a further attempt to re-
   establish the call.

   o  CJ - Note there is no way to know if it can use 0-RTT or not, all
      depends on cached state so the best it can do is hope it might

9.  SIP Gateway

   RIPP is designed to be easy to gateway from SIP.  The expectation is
   that RIPP will be implemented in SBCs and softswitches.  A SIP to
   RIPP gateway has to be call-stateful, acting as a B2BUA, in order to
   gateway to RIPP.  Furthermore, a SIP to RIPP gateway has to act as a
   media termination point in SIP.  It has to perform any SRTP
   decryption and encryption, and it must de-packetize RTP packets to
   extract their timestamps, sequence numbers, and codec types.

   SIP to RIPP gateways are not transparent.  SIP header fields which
   are unknown or do not map to RIPP functionality as described here,
   MUST be discarded.

   Any configuration and provisioning for RIPP happens ahead of receipt
   or transmission of SIP calls.  Consequently, the logic described here
   applies at the point that a gateway receives a SIP INVITE on the SIP
   side, or receives a POST to the RIPP trunk URI on the RIPP side.

   This specification does define some normative procedures for the
   gateway function in order to maximize interoperability.

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9.1.  RIPP to SIP

9.2.  SIP to RIPP


#%RAML 1.0
title: RIPP
baseUri: http://ripp.example.net/{version}
version: v1
protocols: [ HTTPS ]
securedBy: [ oauth_2_0 ]
  oauth_2_0: !include securitySchemes/oauth_2_0.raml

        type: object
            consumerTrunkURI: string
            consumerToken: string
        type: object
                enum: [ alerting, accepted, rejected, failed, tnt, migrate, end,open-reverse ]
                enum: [c2s, s2c]
            sequence number:
                type: number
                type: number
                type: boolean
                type: datetime
                type: string
                note: only in events with name tnt
                type: string
                note: only in events with name migrate
        type object
            max-bitrate: number
            max-samplerate: number

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            max-channels: number
            non-e164: boolean
            force-cbr: boolean
            tnt: boolean
        seqNumOffset: number
        dataLen: number
        data: string
        seqNum: number
        baseSeqNum: number
        baseTime: number
        frameTime: number
            enum: [ opus, g711, dtmf, cn, ack ]
        mediaFrames: array

            description: Set the URI and security token for consumer trunk URI
            securedBy: [oauth_2_0]
            description: Get the Capability Advertisement for this trunk
            securedBy: [oauth_2_0]
                            type: Advertisement
            securedBy: [oauth_2_0]
            description: Create a new call. Returns a Call URI


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                description: Retreive the previous event from server
                                type: Event
                description: Wait for next event then retreive the most recent event from server
                                type: Event
                description: Tell server about recent event
                        type: Event
                 description: Starts an infinite flow of media frames from client to server
                        type: BywayFlow
                            type: BywayFlow
                 description: Starts an infinite flow of media frames from server to client
                        type: BywayFlow
                            type: BywayFlow

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11.  IANA Considerations

12.  Security Considerations

13.  Acknowledgements

14.  Informative References

              Bishop, M., "Hypertext Transfer Protocol Version 3
              (HTTP/3)", draft-ietf-quic-http-20 (work in progress),
              April 2019.

              Iyengar, J. and M. Thomson, "QUIC: A UDP-Based Multiplexed
              and Secure Transport", draft-ietf-quic-transport-20 (work
              in progress), April 2019.

   [RFC2833]  Schulzrinne, H. and S. Petrack, "RTP Payload for DTMF
              Digits, Telephony Tones and Telephony Signals", RFC 2833,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2833, May 2000,

   [RFC3261]  Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., Camarillo, G., Johnston,
              A., Peterson, J., Sparks, R., Handley, M., and E.
              Schooler, "SIP: Session Initiation Protocol", RFC 3261,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3261, June 2002,

   [RFC3264]  Rosenberg, J. and H. Schulzrinne, "An Offer/Answer Model
              with Session Description Protocol (SDP)", RFC 3264,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3264, June 2002,

   [RFC3389]  Zopf, R., "Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) Payload for
              Comfort Noise (CN)", RFC 3389, DOI 10.17487/RFC3389,
              September 2002, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3389>.

   [RFC3550]  Schulzrinne, H., Casner, S., Frederick, R., and V.
              Jacobson, "RTP: A Transport Protocol for Real-Time
              Applications", STD 64, RFC 3550, DOI 10.17487/RFC3550,
              July 2003, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3550>.

   [RFC4855]  Casner, S., "Media Type Registration of RTP Payload
              Formats", RFC 4855, DOI 10.17487/RFC4855, February 2007,

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   [RFC6265]  Barth, A., "HTTP State Management Mechanism", RFC 6265,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6265, April 2011,

   [RFC6749]  Hardt, D., Ed., "The OAuth 2.0 Authorization Framework",
              RFC 6749, DOI 10.17487/RFC6749, October 2012,

   [RFC7540]  Belshe, M., Peon, R., and M. Thomson, Ed., "Hypertext
              Transfer Protocol Version 2 (HTTP/2)", RFC 7540,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7540, May 2015,

   [RFC7866]  Portman, L., Lum, H., Ed., Eckel, C., Johnston, A., and A.
              Hutton, "Session Recording Protocol", RFC 7866,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7866, May 2016,

   [RFC8224]  Peterson, J., Jennings, C., Rescorla, E., and C. Wendt,
              "Authenticated Identity Management in the Session
              Initiation Protocol (SIP)", RFC 8224,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8224, February 2018,

Authors' Addresses

   Jonathan Rosenberg

   Email: jdrosen@jdrosen.net

   Cullen Jennings
   Cisco Systems

   Email: fluffy@iii.ca

   Anthony Minessale

   Email: anthm@signalwire.com

   Jason Livingood

   Email: jason_livingood@comcast.com

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   Justin Uberti

   Email: justin@uberti.name

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