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Versions: 00 01 02 03 04 RFC 4622

Network Working Group                                     P. Saint-Andre
Internet-Draft                                                       JSF
Expires: December 8, 2005                                   June 6, 2005


An Internationalized Resource Identifier (IRI) Scheme for the Extensible
                 Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP)
                      draft-saintandre-xmpp-iri-00

Status of this Memo

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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2005).

Abstract

   This document defines an Internationalized Resource Identifier (IRI)
   scheme for use in identifying or interacting with entities that can
   communicate via the Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol
   (XMPP).







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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
     1.1   Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  Description of xmpp: IRI Scheme  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
     2.1   Rationale  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
     2.2   Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     2.3   Authority Component  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     2.4   Path Component . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     2.5   Query Component  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     2.6   Fragment Identifier Component  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     2.7   Generation of XMPP IRIs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     2.8   Processing of XMPP IRIs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     2.9   Internationalization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   3.  IANA Registration of xmpp: IRI Scheme  . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     3.1   IRI scheme name  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     3.2   IRI scheme syntax  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     3.3   Character encoding considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     3.4   Intended usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     3.5   Applications and/or protocols which use this scheme
           name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     3.6   Security considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     3.7   Relevant publications  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     3.8   Person and email address to contact for further
           information  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     3.9   Author/change controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   4.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   5.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   6.  References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     6.1   Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     6.2   Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
       Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
       Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . 16


















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1.  Introduction

   The Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP) is a streaming
   XML technology that enables any two entities on a network to exchange
   well-defined but extensible XML elements (called "XML stanzas") in
   close to real time.

   As specified in [XMPP-CORE], entity addresses as used in
   communications over an XMPP network must not be prepended with a
   Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) scheme (as specified in [URI]).
   However, applications external to an XMPP network may need to
   identify XMPP entities as URIs or, in a more modern fashion, as
   Internationalized Resource Identifiers (IRIs) as specified in [IRI].
   (Examples of such applications include databases that need to store
   XMPP addresses and non-native user agents such as web browsers and
   calendaring applications that provide interfaces to XMPP services.)

   The format for an XMPP address is defined in [XMPP-CORE].  Such an
   address may contain nearly any character from the Universal Character
   Set (as specified in [UCS2]) and must adhere to various profiles of
   [STRINGPREP].  The result is that an XMPP address is fully
   internationalizable and is essentially an IRI without a scheme.
   Therefore this memo defines an XMPP IRI scheme rather than an XMPP
   URI scheme, enabling applications to re-use the rules for
   transforming IRIs into URIs (specified in [IRI]) if needed.

1.1  Terminology

   This document inherits terminology described in [IRI], [URI], and
   [XMPP-CORE].

   The capitalized key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL",
   "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED",  "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC
   2119 [TERMS].

2.  Description of xmpp: IRI Scheme

2.1  Rationale

   Many applications can be built using XMPP.  As specified in
   [XMPP-IM], instant messaging and presence applications of XMPP must
   handle the im: and pres: URI schemes specified by [CPIM] and [CPP].
   However, it is appropriate to define an XMPP-specific scheme for
   other applications of XMPP (such as network management, workflow
   applications, generic publish-subscribe, remote procedure calls,
   content syndication, gaming, and middleware) since these applications
   do not necessarily implement instant messaging and presence



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   semantics.  Therefore, this document defines a generic scheme that
   will enable applications to address as an IRI any entity that can
   communicate via XMPP.

   The xmpp: scheme is provided mainly for use by non-native interfaces
   and applications, and primarily for the purpose of identification
   rather than interaction (on the latter distinction, see Section 1.2.2
   of [URI]).  In order to ensure interoperability on XMPP networks,
   when data is routed to an XMPP entity (e.g., when an XMPP address is
   contained in the 'to' or 'from' attribute of an XML stanza) or an
   XMPP entity is otherwise identified in standard XMPP protocol
   elements, the entity MUST be addressed as <[node@]domain[/resource]>
   (i.e., without a prepended scheme), where the "node identifier",
   "domain identifier", and "resource identifier" portions of an XMPP
   address conform to the definitions provided in Section 3 of [XMPP-
   CORE].

   (Note: For historical reasons, the term "resource identifier" is used
   in XMPP to refer to the optional portion of an XMPP address that
   follows the domain identifier and the "/" separator character (for
   details, refer to Section 3.4 of [XMPP-CORE]); this use of the term
   "resource identifier" is not to be confused with the meanings of
   "resource" and "identifier" provided in Section 1.1 of [URI].)

2.2  Form

   As described in [XMPP-CORE], an XMPP address used natively on an XMPP
   network is a string of Unicode characters that (1) conforms to a
   certain set of [STRINGPREP] profiles and [IDNA] restrictions, (2)
   follows a certain set of syntax rules, and (3) is encoded as [UTF-8].
   The form of such an address can be represented using Augmented
   Backus-Naur Form ([ABNF]) as:

      [ node "@" ] domain [ "/" resource ]

   The "node" and "resource" rules rely on distinct profiles of
   [STRINGPREP] and the "domain" rule relies on the concept of an
   internationalized domain name as described in [IDNA].  In addition,
   it is desirable to take advantage of more advanced aspects of URI
   syntax and semantics in XMPP IRIs, such as authority components,
   query components, and fragment identifier components.  Therefore, the
   ABNF syntax for an XMPP IRI is defined as shown in the IRI scheme
   syntax (Section 3.2) section of this document (see below under "IANA
   Registration").

   (Note: There is no need to refer to punycode in the IRI syntax
   itself, since any punycode representation would occur only inside an
   XMPP application in order to represent internationalized domain



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   names.)

   The following is an example of a basic XMPP IRI used for purposes of
   identifying a node associated with an XMPP server (an IM user is one
   type of such a node, but by no means the only type):

      xmpp:node@example.com

   Descriptions of the various components of an XMPP IRI are provided in
   the following sections.

2.3  Authority Component

   As explained in Section 2.8 of this memo, in the absence of an
   authority component the processing application would authenticate as
   a configured user at a configured XMPP server.  The presence of an
   authority component (always preceded by "//") signals the processing
   application to authenticate as the node@domain specified in the
   authority component, rather than as a configured node@domain.  (While
   it is unlikely that the authority component will be included in most
   XMPP IRIs, the scheme allows for its inclusion if appropriate.)
   Thus, the following XMPP IRI indicates to authenticate as
   "guest@example.com":

      xmpp://guest@example.com

   Note well that this is quite different from the following XMPP IRI,
   which identifies a node "guest@example.com" but does not signal the
   processing application to authenticate as that node:

      xmpp:guest@example.com

   Similarly, using a possible query component of "?message" to trigger
   an interface for sending a message, the following XMPP IRI signals
   the processing application to authenticate as "guest@example.com" and
   send a message to "support@example.com":

      xmpp://guest@example.com/support@example.com?message

   By contrast, the following XMPP IRI signals the processing
   application to authenticate as its configured default account and
   send a message to "support@example.com":

      xmpp:support@example.com?message







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2.4  Path Component

   The path component of an XMPP IRI identifies an XMPP address or
   specifies the XMPP address to which an XML stanza shall be directed
   at the end of IRI processing.

   For example, the following XMPP IRI identifies a node associated with
   an XMPP server:

      xmpp:random-node@example.com

   The following XMPP IRI identifies a node associated with an XMPP
   server along with a particular XMPP resource identifier associated
   with that node:

      xmpp:random-node@example.com/some-resource

   Inclusion of a node is optional in XMPP addresses, so that the
   following XMPP IRI simply identifies an XMPP server:

      xmpp:example.com


2.5  Query Component

   There are many potential use cases for encapsulating information in
   the query component of an XMPP IRI; examples include but are not
   limited to:

   o  Sending an XMPP message stanza (see [XMPP-IM]).
   o  Adding a roster item (see [XMPP-IM]).
   o  Sending a presence subscription (see [XMPP-IM]).
   o  Probing for current presence information (see [XMPP-IM]).
   o  Joining an XMPP-based text chat room (see [JEP-0045]).
   o  Registering with another entity (see [JEP-0077]).
   o  Triggering a remote procedure call (see [JEP-0009]).
   o  Providing a SOAP interface (see [JEP-0072]).
   o  Discovering the identity or capabilities of another entity (see
      [JEP-0030]).
   o  Interacting with publish-subscribe channels (see [JEP-0060]).

   Many of these potential use cases are application-specific, and the
   full range of such applications cannot be foreseen in advance given
   the continued expansion in XMPP development; however, there is
   agreement within the Jabber/XMPP developer community that all of the
   uses envisioned to date can be encapsulated via a "query type",
   optionally supplemented by one or more "key-value" pairs (this is
   similar to the "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" MIME type



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   described in [HTML]).

   As an example, an XMPP IRI intended to launch an interface for
   sending a message to the XMPP entity "random-node@example.com" might
   be represented as follows:

      xmpp:random-node@example.com?message

   Similarly, an XMPP IRI intended to launch an interface for sending a
   message to the XMPP entity "random-node@example.com" with a
   particular subject might be represented as follows:

      xmpp:random-node@example.com?message;subject=Hello%20World

   If included, the query component MUST first be encoded as a [UTF-8]
   string.

   If the processing application does not understand query components,
   it MUST ignore the query component and treat the IRI as consisting
   of, for example, <xmpp:random-node@example.com> rather than
   <xmpp:random-node@example.com?query>.  If the processing application
   does not understand a particular key within the query component, it
   MUST ignore that key and its associated value.

   In pursuit of interoperability, it may be valuable to maintain a
   registry of query types and perhaps even of keys for use in the query
   component portion of XMPP IRIs.  Given that such values will most
   likely be specific to particular applications of XMPP rather than
   core to XMPP itself, it seems reasonable that such a registry, if
   created, would be maintained by the Jabber Registrar function of the
   Jabber Software Foundation as described in [JEP-0053], rather than by
   the IANA.  A proposal for creating such a registry can be found in
   [JEP-0147].

2.6  Fragment Identifier Component

   As stated in Section 3.5 of [URI], "The fragment identifier component
   of a URI allows indirect identification of a secondary resource by
   reference to a primary resource and additional identifying
   information."  Because the resource identified by an XMPP IRI does
   not make available any media type (see [MIME]) and therefore (in the
   terminology of [URI]) no representation exists at an XMPP resource,
   the semantics of the fragment identifier component in XMPP IRIs are
   to be "considered unknown and, effectively, unconstrained" (ibid.).
   Particular XMPP applications MAY make use of the fragment identifier
   component for their own purposes.  However, if a processing
   application does not understand fragment identifier components or the
   syntax of a particular fragment identifier component included in an



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   XMPP IRI, it MUST ignore the fragment identifier component.

   If included, the fragment identifier component MUST first be encoded
   as a [UTF-8] string.

2.7  Generation of XMPP IRIs

2.7.1  IRI Generation Method

   In order to form an XMPP IRI from an XMPP node identifier, domain
   identifier, and resource identifier, the generating application MUST
   concatenate:

   1.  the "xmpp:" scheme
   2.  optionally (if an authority component is to be included), the
       characters "//", an authority component of the form node@domain,
       and the character "/"
   3.  optionally (if the XMPP address contained an XMPP "node
       identifier"), a string of Unicode characters that conforms to the
       "nodeid" rule, followed by the "@" character
   4.  a string of Unicode characters that conforms to the "ihost" rule
   5.  optionally (if the XMPP address contained an XMPP "resource
       identifier"), the character "/" and a string of Unicode
       characters that conforms to the "resid" rule
   6.  optionally (if a query component is to be included), the "?"
       character and query component
   7.  optionally (if a fragment identifier component is to be
       included), the "#" character and fragment identifier component

2.7.2  IRI Generation Example

   Consider the following XMPP address:

         <ji&#x159;i@&#x10D;echy.example/v Praze>

   (Note: The string "&#x159;" stands for the Unicode character LATIN
   SMALL LETTER R WITH CARON and the string "&#x10D;" stands for the
   Unicode character LATIN SMALL LETTER C WITH CARON, following the "XML
   Notation" used in [IRI] to represent characters that cannot be
   rendered in ASCII-only  documents.  The '<' and '>' characters are
   not part of the address itself, but are provided to set off the
   address for legibility.  For those who do not read Czech, this
   example could be Anglicized as "george@czech-lands.example/In
   Prague".)

   In accordance with the process specified above, the generating
   application would do the following to generate a valid XMPP IRI from
   this address:



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   1.  Ensure that the XMPP address conforms to the rules specified in
       [XMPP-CORE], including application of the relevant [STRINGPREP]
       profiles and encoding as a [UTF-8] string.
   2.  Concatenate the following:
       1.  the "xmpp:" scheme
       2.  an "authority component" if included (not shown in this
           example)
       3.  a string of Unicode characters that represents the XMPP
           address
       4.  the "?" character followed by a "query component" if
           appropriate to the application (not shown in this example)
       5.  the "#" character followed by a "fragment identifier
           component" if appropriate to the application (not shown in
           this example)

   The result is this XMPP IRI:

       <xmpp:ji&#x159;i@&#x10D;echy.example/v Praze>


2.8  Processing of XMPP IRIs

2.8.1  IRI Processing Method

   In order to decompose an XMPP IRI, a processing application MUST
   separate:

   1.  the "xmpp:" scheme
   2.  optionally (if the XMPP IRI contains an authority component), the
       authority component (the string of US-ASCII characters between
       the "//" characters and the first "/" character or the end of the
       IRI)
   3.  a string of Unicode characters that represents an XMPP address
   4.  optionally the query component (if any), using the "?" character
       as a separator
   5.  optionally the fragment identifier component (if any), using the
       "#" character as a separator

   At this point, the processing application would either (1) complete
   further XMPP handling itself or (2) invoke a helper application to
   complete XMPP handling; such XMPP handling would most likely consist
   of the following steps:

   1.  Authenticating either as the user specified in the authority
       component or as the configured user at the configured XMPP server
       if not already so authenticated.





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   2.  Optionally determining the nature of the intended recipient
       (e.g., via [JEP-0030]).
   3.  Optionally presenting an appropriate interface to a user based on
       the nature of the intended recipient and/or the contents of the
       query component.
   4.  Generating an XMPP stanza that translates any user or application
       inputs into their corresponding XMPP equivalents.
   5.  Sending the XMPP stanza via the authenticated server connection
       for delivery to the intended recipient.

   Note: It may help implementors to note that the first two steps of
   "further XMPP handling" are similar to HTTP authentication ([HTTP-
   AUTH]), while the next three steps are similar to the handling of
   mailto: URIs ([MAILTO]).

2.8.2  IRI Processing Example

   Consider the XMPP IRI that resulted from the previous example:

       <xmpp:ji&#x159;i@&#x10D;echy.example/v Praze>

   In accordance with the process specified above, the processing
   application would remove the "xmpp:" scheme to extract the XMPP
   address from this XMPP IRI.

   The result is this XMPP address:

       <ji&#x159;i@&#x10D;echy.example/v Praze>


2.9  Internationalization

   Because XMPP addresses are [UTF-8] strings and because the non-US-
   ASCII octets in XMPP addresses can be easily converted to percent-
   encoded octets, XMPP addresses are designed to work well with
   Internationalized Resource Identifiers ([IRI]).  In particular, with
   the exception of stringprep verification and the conversion of
   syntax-relevant US-ASCII characters (e.g., "?"), an XMPP IRI can be
   constructed directly by prepending "xmpp:" to an XMPP address.

3.  IANA Registration of xmpp: IRI Scheme

   This section provides the information required to register the xmpp:
   IRI scheme.

3.1  IRI scheme name

   xmpp



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3.2  IRI scheme syntax

   The syntax for an xmpp: IRI is defined below using Augmented Backus-
   Naur Form as specified by [ABNF].  (The "ifragment", "ihost", and
   "iunreserved" rules are defined in [IRI]; the "pct-encoded" and "sub-
   delims" rules are defined in [URI].)

      xmppiri   = "xmpp:" hier-xmpp [ "?" querycomp ] [ "#" ifragment ]
      hier-xmpp = authpath / path-xmpp
      authpath  = "//" auth-xmpp [ "/" path-xmpp ]
      auth-xmpp = nodeid "@" ihost
      path-xmpp = [ nodeid "@" ] ihost [ "/" resid ]
      nodeid    = *( iunreserved / pct-encoded / nodeallow )
      nodeallow = "!" / "$" / "(" / ")" / "*" / "+" / ","
                  / ";" / "=" / "^" / "`" / "{" / "|" / "}"
      resid     = *( iunreserved / pct-encoded / sub-delims )
      querycomp = querytype [ *pair ]
      querytype = *iunreserved
      pair      = ";" key "=" value
      key       = *iunreserved
      value     = *( iunreserved / pct-encoded )


3.3  Character encoding considerations

   Prior to any conversion into a IRI and in accordance with [XMPP-
   CORE], an Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP) address
   MUST be represented as [UTF-8] by the generating application (e.g.,
   by transforming an application's internal representation of the
   address as a UTF-16 string into a UTF-8 string).  The UTF-8 string
   MUST then be prepended with an xmpp: scheme.

3.4  Intended usage

   The xmpp: IRI identifies entities that natively communicate using the
   Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP), and is mainly used
   for identification rather than processing.  However, an application
   that processes an xmpp: IRI SHOULD reconstruct the encapsulated XMPP
   address, authenticate with the appropriate XMPP server, and send an
   appropriate XMPP "stanza" (XML fragment) to the XMPP address.  There
   is no MIME type associated with this IRI.

3.5  Applications and/or protocols which use this scheme name

   The xmpp: IRI is intended to be used by interfaces to an XMPP network
   from non-native user agents such as web browsers, as well as by non-
   native applications that need to identify XMPP entities as full IRIs.




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3.6  Security considerations

   See Security Considerations (Section 5) of XXXX.

3.7  Relevant publications

   [XMPP-CORE]

3.8  Person and email address to contact for further information

   Peter Saint-Andre [mailto:stpeter@jabber.org]

3.9  Author/change controller

   This scheme is registered under the IETF tree.  As such, the IETF
   maintains change control.

4.  IANA Considerations

   This document registers a IRI scheme.  The registration template can
   be found in Section 3 of this document.

5.  Security Considerations

   The security considerations discussed in [URI], [IRI] , and [XMPP-
   CORE] apply to XMPP IRIs.

   Providing an interface to XMPP services from non-native applications
   introduces new security concerns.  For example, the ability to
   interact with XMPP entities via a web browser may expose sensitive
   information to attacks that are not possible or that are unlikely on
   a native XMPP network.  Due care must be taken in deciding what
   information is appropriate for representation in XMPP IRIs.  Care
   must also be taken in exposing XMPP addresses in the authority and
   path components of XMPP IRIs that are publicly accessible.

6.  References

6.1  Normative References

   [ABNF]     Crocker, D. and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for Syntax
              Specifications: ABNF", RFC 2234, November 1997.

   [IRI]      Duerst, M. and M. Suignard, "Internationalized Resource
              Identifiers (IRIs)", RFC 3987, January 2005.

   [TERMS]    Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.



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   [UCS2]     International Organization for Standardization,
              "Information Technology - Universal Multiple-octet coded
              Character Set (UCS) - Amendment 2: UCS Transformation
              Format 8 (UTF-8)", ISO Standard 10646-1 Addendum 2,
              October 1996.

   [URI]      Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, "Uniform
              Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax", STD 66,
              RFC 3986, January 2005.

   [UTF-8]    Yergeau, F., "UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO
              10646", STD 63, RFC 3629, November 2003.

   [XMPP-CORE]
              Saint-Andre, P., "Extensible Messaging and Presence
              Protocol (XMPP): Core", RFC 3920, October 2004.

6.2  Informative References

   [CPIM]     Peterson, J., "Common Profile for Instant Messaging
              (CPIM)", RFC 3860, August 2004.

   [CPP]      Peterson, J., "Common Profile for Presence (CPP)",
              RFC 3859, August 2004.

   [HTML]     Raggett, D., "HTML 4.0 Specification", W3C REC REC-html40-
              19980424, April 1998.

   [HTTP-AUTH]
              Franks, J., Hallam-Baker, P., Hostetler, J., Lawrence, S.,
              Leach, P., Luotonen, A., and L. Stewart, "HTTP
              Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication",
              RFC 2617, June 1999.

   [IDNA]     Faltstrom, P., Hoffman, P., and A. Costello,
              "Internationalizing Domain Names in Applications (IDNA)",
              RFC 3490, March 2003.

   [IMP-MODEL]
              Day, M., Rosenberg, J., and H. Sugano, "A Model for
              Presence and Instant Messaging", RFC 2778, February 2000.

   [IMP-REQS]
              Day, M., Aggarwal, S., and J. Vincent, "Instant Messaging
              / Presence Protocol Requirements", RFC 2779,
              February 2000.

   [JEP-0009]



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              Adams, D., "Jabber-RPC", JSF JEP 0009, December 2002.

   [JEP-0030]
              Hildebrand, J., Millard, P., Eatmon, R., and P. Saint-
              Andre, "Service Discovery", JSF JEP 0030, March 2005.

   [JEP-0045]
              Saint-Andre, P., "Multi-User Chat", JSF JEP 0045,
              April 2005.

   [JEP-0053]
              Saint-Andre, P., "Jabber Registrar", JSF JEP 0053,
              May 2004.

   [JEP-0060]
              Millard, P., Saint-Andre, P., and R. Meijer, "Publish-
              Subscribe", JSF JEP 0060, March 2005.

   [JEP-0072]
              Forno, F. and P. Saint-Andre, "SOAP Over XMPP", JSF
              JEP 0072, April 2005.

   [JEP-0077]
              Saint-Andre, P., "In-Band Registration", JSF JEP 0077,
              August 2004.

   [JEP-0147]
              Saint-Andre, P., "XMPP URI Query Components", JSF
              JEP 0147, June 2005.

   [MAILTO]   Hoffman, P., Masinter, L., and J. Zawinski, "The mailto
              URL scheme", RFC 2368, July 1998.

   [MIME]     Freed, N. and N. Borenstein, "Multipurpose Internet Mail
              Extensions (MIME) Part Two: Media Types", RFC 2046,
              November 1996.

   [NAMEPREP]
              Hoffman, P. and M. Blanchet, "Nameprep: A Stringprep
              Profile for Internationalized Domain Names (IDN)",
              RFC 3491, March 2003.

   [STRINGPREP]
              Hoffman, P. and M. Blanchet, "Preparation of
              Internationalized Strings ("STRINGPREP")", RFC 3454,
              December 2002.

   [URL-GUIDE]



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              Masinter, L., Alvestrand, H., Zigmond, D., and R. Petke,
              "Guidelines for new URL Schemes", RFC 2718, November 1999.

   [URL-REG]  Petke, R. and I. King, "Registration Procedures for URL
              Scheme Names", BCP 35, RFC 2717, November 1999.

   [US-ASCII]
              American National Standards Institute, "Coded Character
              Set - 7-bit American Standard Code for Information
              Interchange", ANSI X3.4, 1986.

   [XMPP-IM]  Saint-Andre, P., "Extensible Messaging and Presence
              Protocol (XMPP): Instant Messaging and Presence",
              RFC 3921, October 2004.


Author's Address

   Peter Saint-Andre
   Jabber Software Foundation

   Email: stpeter@jabber.org





























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