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Network Working Group                                     P. Saint-Andre
Internet-Draft                                 XMPP Standards Foundation
Intended status: Informational                                  A. Houri
Expires: February 8, 2008                                            IBM
                                                           J. Hildebrand
                                                            Jabber, Inc.
                                                          August 7, 2007


    Basic Messaging and Presence Interworking between the Extensible
 Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP) and Session Initiation Protocol
(SIP) for Instant Messaging and Presence Leveraging Extensions (SIMPLE)
                    draft-saintandre-xmpp-simple-10

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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2007).

Abstract

   This document defines a bi-directional protocol mapping for use by
   gateways that enable the exchange of presence information and single
   instant messages between systems that implement the Extensible



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   Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP) and those that implement the
   basic extensions to the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) for instant
   messaging and presence.


Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
     1.1.  Architectural Assumptions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
     1.2.  Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   2.  Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     2.1.  Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     2.2.  XMPP to SIP  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     2.3.  SIP to XMPP  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   3.  Instant Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     3.1.  Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     3.2.  XMPP to SIP  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     3.3.  SIP to XMPP  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   4.  Presence Subscriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     4.1.  Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     4.2.  XMPP to SIP  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     4.3.  SIP to XMPP  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
   5.  Presence Notifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
     5.1.  Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
     5.2.  XMPP to SIP  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
     5.3.  SIP to XMPP  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
   6.  Content Types  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
     6.1.  Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
     6.2.  Presence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
   7.  Error Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
     7.1.  XMPP to SIP  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
     7.2.  SIP to XMPP  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
   8.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
   9.  Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
   10. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
     10.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
     10.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
   Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 35












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1.  Introduction

   In order to help ensure interworking between instant messaging and
   presence systems that conform to the requirements of RFC 2779
   [IMP-REQS], it is important to clearly define mappings between such
   protocols.  Within the IETF, work has proceeded on two such
   protocols:

   o  Various extensions to the Session Initiation Protocol ([SIP]) for
      instant messaging and presence, as developed within the SIP for
      Instant Messaging and Presence Leveraging Extensions (SIMPLE)
      Working Group; the relevant specifications are [SIP-PRES] for
      presence and [SIP-IM] for instant messaging
   o  The Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP), which
      consists of a formalization of the core XML streaming protocols
      developed originally by the Jabber open-source community; the
      relevant specifications are [XMPP-CORE] for the XML streaming
      layer and [XMPP-IM] for basic presence and instant messaging
      extensions

   One approach to helping ensure interworking between these protocols
   is to map each protocol to the abstract semantics described in [CPIM]
   and [CPP]; that is the approach taken by [SIMPLE-CPIM] and
   [XMPP-CPIM].  The approach taken in this document is to directly map
   semantics from one protocol to another (i.e., from SIP/SIMPLE to XMPP
   and vice-versa).

   The mappings specified in this document cover several areas that
   address basic instant messaging and presence functionality:

   o  Mapping of addresses
   o  Mapping of single instant messages
   o  Mapping of presence subscriptions
   o  Mapping of presence notifications
   o  Handling of content types
   o  Mapping of error conditions

   Mapping of more advanced functionality is out of scope for this
   document; however, the authors will attempt to address such mappings
   in future documents devoted to one-to-one messaging sessions, multi-
   user chat, extended presence, etc.

1.1.  Architectural Assumptions

   Protocol translation between XMPP and SIMPLE could occur in a number
   of different entities, depending on the architecture of presence and
   messaging deployments.  For example, protocol translation could occur
   within a multi-protocol server, within a multi-protocol client, or



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   within a gateway that acts as a dedicated protocol translator.

   This document assumes that the protocol translation will occur within
   a gateway.  (This assumption not meant to discourage protocol
   translation within multi-protocol clients or servers; instead, this
   assumption is followed mainly to clarify the discussion and examples
   so that the protocol translation principles can be more easily
   understood and can be applied by client and server implementors with
   appropriate modifications to the examples and terminology.)
   Specifically, we assume that the protocol translation will occur
   within an "XMPP-to-SIMPLE gateway" that translates XMPP syntax and
   semantics on behalf of an XMPP service when communicating with SIMPLE
   services and/or within a "SIMPLE-to-XMPP gateway" that translates SIP
   syntax and semantics on behalf of a SIMPLE service when communicating
   with XMPP services.

   Although such a gateway could use the [CPIM] and [CPP] specifications
   to define the common formats into which the protocols are translated
   for purposes of interworking (as specified in [SIMPLE-CPIM] and
   [XMPP-CPIM]), this document assumes that a gateway will translate
   directly from one protocol to the other.  We further assume that
   protocol translation will occur within a gateway in the source
   domain, so that messages and presence information generated by the
   user of an XMPP service will be translated by a gateway within the
   trust domain of that XMPP service, and messages and presence
   information generated by the user of a SIMPLE service will be
   translated by a gateway within the trust domain of that SIMPLE
   service.

   An architectural diagram for a typical gateway deployment is shown
   below, where the entities have the following significance and the "#"
   character is used to show the boundary of a trust domain:

   o  romeo@example.net -- a SIMPLE user.
   o  example.net -- a SIMPLE service.
   o  s2x.example.net -- a SIMPLE-to-XMPP gateway.
   o  juliet@example.com -- an XMPP user.
   o  example.com -- an XMPP service.
   o  x2s.example.com -- an XMPP-to-SIMPLE gateway.












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   #####################################################################
   #                               #                                   #
   #         +-- s2x.example.net---#------------- example.com          #
   #         |                     #               |     |             #
   #  example.net -----------------#--- x2s.example.com  |             #
   #       |                       #                     |             #
   #       |                       #                     |             #
   #  romeo@example.net            #               juliet@example.com  #
   #                               #                                   #
   #####################################################################

1.2.  Terminology

   The capitalized key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL",
   "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT
   RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be
   interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [TERMS].


2.  Addresses

2.1.  Overview

   The address formats used to identify XMPP entities are different from
   those used to identify SIP entities.  The XMPP address format is
   specified in [XMPP-CORE]; as specified in [XMPP-IM], instant
   messaging and presence applications of XMPP must also support 'im:'
   and 'pres:' URIs as specified in [CPIM] and [CPP] respectively,
   although such support may simply involve leaving resolution of such
   addresses up to an XMPP server.  The SIP address format for instant
   messaging is specified in [SIP-IM]; it may use either 'sip:' or
   'sips:' URIs as specified in [SIP] or an 'im:' URI as specified in
   [CPIM].  The SIP address format for presence is specified in
   [SIP-PRES]; it may use either 'sip:' or 'sips:' URIs as specified in
   [SIP] or a 'pres:' URI as specified in [CPP].

   In this document we describe mappings for addresses of the form
   <user@domain> only, ignoring (for the purpose of address mapping) any
   protocol-specific extensions such as XMPP resource identifiers or SIP
   telephone numbers and passwords.  In addition, we have ruled the
   mapping of domain names as out of scope for now since that is a
   matter for the Domain Name System; specifically, the issue for
   interworking between SIP and XMPP relates to the translation of fully
   internationalized domain names (which the SIP address format does not
   allow, but which the XMPP address format does allow via [IDNA]) into
   non-internationalized domain names.  Therefore, in the following
   sections we discuss local-part addresses only (these are called
   variously "usernames", "instant inboxes", "presentities", and "node



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   identifiers" in the protocols at issue).

   The sip:/sips:, im:/pres:, and XMPP address schemes allow different
   sets of characters (although all three allow alphanumeric characters
   and disallow both spaces and control characters).  In some cases,
   characters allowed in one scheme are disallowed in others; these
   characters must be mapped appropriately in order to ensure
   interworking across systems.

   The local-part address in sip:/sips: URIs inherits from the
   "userinfo" rule in [URI] with several changes; here we discuss the
   SIP "user" rule only:

      user             =  1*( unreserved / escaped / user-unreserved )
      user-unreserved  =  "&" / "=" / "+" / "$" / "," / ";" / "?" / "/"
      unreserved       =  alphanum / mark
      mark             =  "-" / "_" / "." / "!" / "~" / "*" / "'"
                          / "(" / ")"

   Here we make the simplifying assumption that the local-part address
   in im:/pres: URIs inherits from the "dot-atom-text" rule in [RFC2822]
   rather than the more complicated "local-part" rule:

      dot-atom-text =  1*atext *("." 1*atext)
      atext         =  ALPHA / DIGIT / ; Any character except controls,
                       "!" / "#" /     ;  SP, and specials.
                       "$" / "%" /     ;  Used for atoms
                       "&" / "'" /
                       "*" / "+" /
                       "-" / "/" /
                       "=" / "?" /
                       "^" / "_" /
                       "`" / "{" /
                       "|" / "}" /
                       "~"

   The local-part address in XMPP addresses allows any US-ASCII
   character except space, controls, and the " & ' / : < > @ characters.

   Therefore, following table lists the allowed and disallowed
   characters in the local-part addresses of each protocol (aside from
   the alphanumeric, space, and control characters), in order by
   hexadecimal character number (where the "A" row shows the allowed
   characters and the "D" row shows the disallowed characters).







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   Table 1: Allowed and disallowed characters

   +---+----------------------------------+
   | SIP/SIPS CHARACTERS                  |
   +---+----------------------------------+
   | A | !  $ &'()*+,-./ ; = ?     _    ~ |
   | D |  "# %          : < > @[\]^ `{|}  |
   +---+----------------------------------+
   | IM/PRES CHARACTERS                   |
   +---+----------------------------------+
   | A | ! #$%&'  *+ - /   = ?    ^_`{|}~ |
   | D |  "     ()  , . :;< > @[\]        |
   +---+----------------------------------+
   | XMPP CHARACTERS                      |
   +---+----------------------------------+
   | A | ! #$%  ()*+,-.  ; = ? [\]^_`{|}~ |
   | D |  "   &'       /: < > @           |
   +---+----------------------------------+

   When transforming a local-part address from one scheme to another, an
   application SHOULD proceed as follows:

   1.  Unescape any escaped characters in the source address (e.g., from
       SIP to XMPP unescape "%2F" to "/" and from XMPP to SIP unescape
       "\27" to "'").
   2.  Leave unmodified any characters that are allowed in the
       destination scheme.
   3.  Escape any characters that are allowed in the source scheme but
       reserved in the destination scheme, as escaping is defined for
       the destination scheme.  In particular:
       *  Where the destination scheme is a URI (i.e., an im:, pres:,
          sip:, or sips: URI), each reserved character MUST be percent-
          encoded to "%hexhex" as specified in Section 2.6 of
          [URL-GUIDE] (e.g., when transforming from XMPP to SIP, encode
          "/" as "%2F").
       *  Where the destination scheme is a native XMPP address, each
          reserved character MUST be encoded to "\hexhex" as specified
          in [XEP-0106] (e.g., when transforming from SIP to XMPP,
          encode "'" as "\27").

2.2.  XMPP to SIP

   The following is a high-level algorithm for mapping an XMPP address
   to a sip:, sips:, im:, or pres: URI:

   1.  Split XMPP address into node identifier (local-part; mapping
       described in remaining steps), domain identifier (hostname;
       mapping is out of scope), and resource identifier (specifier for



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       particular device or connection; discard this for cross-system
       interworking).
   2.  Apply Nodeprep profile of [STRINGPREP] (as specified in
       [XMPP-CORE]) for canonicalization (OPTIONAL).
   3.  Translate "\26" to "&", "\27" to "'", and "\2f" to "/"
       respectively (this is consistent with [XEP-0106]).
   4.  Determine if the foreign domain supports im: and pres: URIs
       (discovered via [SRV] lookup as specified in [XMPP-IM]), else
       assume that the foreign domain supports sip:/sips: URIs.
   5.  If converting into im: or pres: URI, for each byte, if the byte
       is in the set (),.;[\] (i.e., the partial complement from Row 3,
       Column 2 of Table 3 above) or is a UTF-8 character outside the
       US-ASCII range then transform that byte to %hexhex.  If
       converting into sip: or sips: URI, for each byte, if the byte is
       in the set #%[\]^`{|} (i.e., the partial complement from Row 3,
       Column 1 of Table 3 above) or is a UTF-8 character outside the
       US-ASCII range then transform that byte to %hexhex.
   6.  Combine resulting local-part with mapped hostname to form
       local@domain address.
   7.  Prepend with 'im:' scheme (for XMPP <message/> stanzas) or
       'pres:' scheme (for XMPP <presence/> stanzas) if foreign domain
       supports these, else prepend with 'sip:' or 'sips:' scheme
       according to local service policy.

2.3.  SIP to XMPP

   The following is a high-level algorithm for mapping a sip:, sips:,
   im:, or pres: URI to an XMPP address:

   1.  Remove URI scheme.
   2.  Split at the first '@' character into local-part and hostname
       (mapping the latter is out of scope).
   3.  Translate %hexhex to equivalent octets.
   4.  Treat result as a UTF-8 string.
   5.  Translate "&" to "\26", "'" to "\27", and "/" to "\2f"
       respectively in order to properly handle the characters
       disallowed in XMPP addresses but allowed in sip:/sips: URIs and
       im:/pres: URIs as shown in Column 3 of Table 3 above (this is
       consistent with [XEP-0106]).
   6.  Apply Nodeprep profile of [STRINGPREP] (as specified in
       [XMPP-CORE]) for canonicalization (OPTIONAL).
   7.  Recombine local-part with mapped hostname to form local@domain
       address.


3.  Instant Messages





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3.1.  Overview

   Both XMPP and IM-aware SIP systems enable entities (often but not
   necessarily human users) to send "instant messages" to other
   entities.  The term "instant message" usually refers to messages sent
   between two entities for delivery in close to real time (rather than
   messages that are stored and forwarded to the intended recipient upon
   request).  Generally there are three kinds of instant message:

   o  Single messages, which are sent from the sender to the recipient
      outside the context of any one-to-one chat session or multi-user
      text conference.
   o  Chat messages, which are sent from the sender to the recipient in
      the context of a "messaging session" between the two entities.
   o  Groupchat messages, which are sent from a sender to multiple
      recipients in the context of a text conference.

   This document covers single messages only, since they form the
   "lowest common denominator" for instant messaging on the Internet.
   It is likely that future documents will address one-to-one chat
   sessions and multi-user chat.

   Instant messaging using XMPP message stanzas of type "normal" is
   specified in [XMPP-IM].  Instant messaging using SIP requests of type
   MESSAGE (often called "page-mode" messaging) is specified in
   [SIP-IM].

   As described in [XMPP-IM], a single instant message is an XML
   <message/> stanza of type "normal" sent over an XML stream (since
   "normal" is the default for the 'type' attribute of the <message/>
   stanza, the attribute is often omitted).  In this document we will
   assume that such a message is sent from an XMPP client to an XMPP
   server over an XML stream negotiated between the client and the
   server, and that the client is controlled by a human user (this is a
   simplifying assumption introduced for explanatory purposes only; the
   XMPP sender could be a bot-controlled client, a component such as a
   workflow application, a server, etc.).  Continuing the tradition of
   Shakespeare examples in XMPP documentation, we will say that the XMPP
   user has an XMPP address of <juliet@example.com>.

   As described in [SIP-IM], a single instant message is a SIP MESSAGE
   request sent from a SIP user agent to an intended recipient who is
   most generally referenced by an Instant Message URI of the form
   <im:user@domain> but who may be referenced by a SIP or SIPS URI of
   the form <sip:user@domain> or <sips:user@domain> Here again we
   introduce the simplifying assumption that the user agent is
   controlled by a human user, whom we shall dub <romeo@example.net>.




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3.2.  XMPP to SIP

   When Juliet wants to send an instant message to Romeo, she interacts
   with her XMPP client, which generates an XMPP <message/> stanza.  The
   syntax of the <message/> stanza, including required and optional
   elements and attributes, is defined in [XMPP-IM].  The following is
   an example of such a stanza:

   Example: XMPP user sends message:

   |  <message from='juliet@example.com/balcony'
   |           to='romeo@example.net'>
   |    <body>Art thou not Romeo, and a Montague?</body>
   |  </message>

   Upon receiving such a stanza, the XMPP server to which Juliet has
   connected either delivers it to a local recipient (if the hostname in
   the 'to' attribute matches one of the hostnames serviced by the XMPP
   server) or attempts to route it to the foreign domain that services
   the hostname in the 'to' attribute.  Naturally, in this document we
   assume that the hostname in the 'to' attribute is an IM-aware SIP
   service hosted by a separate server.  As specified in [XMPP-IM], the
   XMPP server needs to determine the identity of the foreign domain,
   which it does by performing one or more [SRV] lookups.  For message
   stanzas, the order of lookups recommended by [XMPP-IM] is to first
   try the "_xmpp-server" service as specified in [XMPP-CORE] and to
   then try the "_im" service as specified in [IMP-SRV].  Here we assume
   that the first lookup will fail but that the second lookup will
   succeed and return a resolution "_im._simple.example.net.", since we
   have already assumed that the example.net hostname is running a SIP
   instant messaging service.  (Note: The XMPP server may have
   previously determined that the foreign domain is a SIMPLE server, in
   which case it would not need to perform the SRV lookups; the caching
   of such information is a matter of implementation and local service
   policy, and is therefore out of scope for this document.)

   Once the XMPP server has determined that the foreign domain is
   serviced by a SIMPLE server, it must determine how to proceed.  We
   here assume that the XMPP server contains or has available to it an
   XMPP-SIMPLE gateway.  The XMPP server would then deliver the message
   stanza to the XMPP-SIMPLE gateway.

   The XMPP-SIMPLE gateway is then responsible for translating the XMPP
   message stanza into a SIP MESSAGE request from the XMPP user to the
   SIP user:






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   Example: XMPP user sends message (SIP transformation):

   |  MESSAGE sip:romeo@example.net SIP/2.0
   |  Via: SIP/2.0/TCP x2s.example.com;branch=z9hG4bK776sgdkse
   |  Max-Forwards: 70
   |  From: sip:juliet@example.com;tag=49583
   |  To: sip:romeo@example.net
   |  Call-ID: Hr0zny9l3@example.com
   |  CSeq: 1 MESSAGE
   |  Content-Type: text/plain
   |  Content-Length: 35
   |
   |  Art thou not Romeo, and a Montague?

   The mapping of XMPP syntax elements to SIP syntax elements SHOULD be
   as shown in the following table.  (Mappings for elements not
   mentioned are undefined.)

   Table 4: Message syntax mapping from XMPP to SIP

      +-----------------------------+--------------------------+
      |  XMPP Element or Attribute  |  SIP Header or Contents  |
      +-----------------------------+--------------------------+
      |  <body/>                    |  body of MESSAGE         |
      |  <subject/>                 |  Subject                 |
      |  <thread/>                  |  Call-ID                 |
      |  from                       |  From                    |
      |  id                         |  (no mapping)            |
      |  to                         |  To                      |
      |  type                       |  (no mapping)            |
      |  xml:lang                   |  Content-Language        |
      +-----------------------------+--------------------------+

3.3.  SIP to XMPP

   When Romeo wants to send an instant message to Juliet, he interacts
   with his SIP user agent, which generates a SIP MESSAGE request.  The
   syntax of the MESSAGE request is defined in [SIP-IM].  The following
   is an example of such a request:












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   Example: SIP user sends message:

   |  MESSAGE sip:juliet@example.com SIP/2.0
   |  Via: SIP/2.0/TCP s2x.example.net;branch=z9hG4bKeskdgs677
   |  Max-Forwards: 70
   |  From: sip:romeo@example.net;tag=38594
   |  To: sip:juliet@example.com
   |  Call-ID: M4spr4vdu@example.net
   |  CSeq: 1 MESSAGE
   |  Content-Type: text/plain
   |  Content-Length: 44
   |
   |  Neither, fair saint, if either thee dislike.

   Section 5 of [SIP-IM] stipulates that a SIP User Agent presented with
   an im: URI should resolve it to a sip: or sips: URI.  Therefore we
   assume that the To header of a request received by a SIMPLE-XMPP
   gateway will contain a sip: or sips: URI.  The gateway SHOULD resolve
   that address to an im: URI for SIP MESSAGE requests, then follow the
   rules in [IMP-SRV] regarding the "_im" SRV service for the target
   domain contained in the To header.  If SRV address resolution fails
   for the "_im" service, the gateway MAY attempt a lookup for the
   "_xmpp-server" service as specified in [XMPP-CORE] or MAY return an
   error to the sender (the SIP "502 Bad Gateway" error seems most
   appropriate; see Section 7 for details).  If SRV address resolution
   succeeds, the gateway is responsible for translating the request into
   an XMPP message stanza from the SIP user to the XMPP user and
   returning a SIP "200 OK" message to the sender:

   Example: SIP user sends message (XMPP transformation):

   |  <message from='romeo@example.net'
   |           to='juliet@example.com'>
   |    <body>Neither, fair saint, if either thee dislike.</body>
   |  </message>

   The mapping of SIP syntax elements to XMPP syntax elements SHOULD be
   as shown in the following table.  (Mappings for elements not
   mentioned in the foregoing table are undefined.)












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   Table 5: Message syntax mapping from SIP to XMPP

      +--------------------------+-----------------------------+
      |  SIP Header or Contents  |  XMPP Element or Attribute  |
      +--------------------------+-----------------------------+
      |  Call-ID                 |  <thread/>                  |
      |  Content-Language        |  xml:lang                   |
      |  CSeq                    |  (no mapping)               |
      |  From                    |  from                       |
      |  Subject                 |  <subject/>                 |
      |  To                      |  to                         |
      |  body of MESSAGE         |  <body/>                    |
      +--------------------------+-----------------------------+

   Note: When transforming SIP page-mode messages, a SIMPLE-XMPP gateway
   SHOULD specify no XMPP 'type' attribute or a 'type' attribute whose
   value is "normal" (alternatively, the value of the 'type' attribute
   MAY be "chat", although it SHOULD NOT be "headline" and MUST NOT be
   "groupchat").

   Note: See the Content Types (Section 6) of this document regarding
   handling of SIP message bodies that contain content types other than
   plain text.


4.  Presence Subscriptions

4.1.  Overview

   Both XMPP and presence-aware SIP systems enable entities (often but
   not necessarily human users) to subscribe to the presence of other
   entities.  XMPP presence subscriptions are specified in [XMPP-IM].
   Presence subscriptions using a SIP event package for presence are
   specified in [SIP-PRES].

   As described in [XMPP-IM], XMPP presence subscriptions are managed
   using XMPP presence stanzas of type "subscribe", "subscribed",
   "unsubscribe", and "unsubscribed".  The main subscription states are
   "none" (neither the user nor the contact is subscribed to the other's
   presence information), "from" (the user has a subscription from the
   contact), "to" (the user has a subscription to the contact's presence
   information), and "both" (both user and contact are subscribed to
   each other's presence information).

   As described in [SIP-PRES], SIP presence subscriptions are managed
   through the use of SIP SUBSCRIBE events sent from a SIP user agent to
   an intended recipient who is most generally referenced by an Instant
   Message URI of the form <pres:user@domain> but who may be referenced



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   by a SIP or SIPS URI of the form <sip:user@domain> or
   <sips:user@domain>.

   The subscription models underlying XMPP and SIP are quite different.
   For instance, XMPP presence subscriptions are long-lived (indeed
   permanent if not explicitly cancelled), whereas SIP presence
   subscriptions are short-lived (the default time to live of a SIP
   presence subscription is 3600 seconds, as specified in Section 6.4 of
   [SIP-PRES]).  These differences are addressed below.

4.2.  XMPP to SIP

4.2.1.  Establishing

   An XMPP user initiates a subscription by sending a subscription
   request to another entity (conventionally called a "contact"), which
   request the contact either accepts or declines.  If the contact
   accepts the request, the user will have a subscription to the
   contact's presence information until (1) the user unsubscribes or (2)
   the contact cancels the subscription.  The subscription request is
   encapsulated in a presence stanza of type "subscribe":

   Example: XMPP user subscribes to SIP contact:

   |  <presence from='juliet@example.com'
   |            to='romeo@example.net'
   |            type='subscribe'/>

   Upon receiving such a stanza, the XMPP server to which Juliet has
   connected needs to determine the identity of the foreign domain,
   which it does by performing one or more [SRV] lookups.  For presence
   stanzas, the order of lookups recommended by [XMPP-IM] is to first
   try the "_xmpp-server" service as specified in [XMPP-CORE] and to
   then try the "_pres" service as specified in [IMP-SRV].  Here we
   assume that the first lookup will fail but that the second lookup
   will succeed and return a resolution "_pres._simple.example.net.",
   since we have already assumed that the example.net hostname is
   running a SIP presence service.

   Once the XMPP server has determined that the foreign domain is
   serviced by a SIMPLE server, it must determine how to proceed.  We
   here assume that the XMPP server contains or has available to it an
   XMPP-SIMPLE gateway.  The XMPP server would then deliver the presence
   stanza to the XMPP-SIMPLE gateway.

   The XMPP-SIMPLE gateway is then responsible for translating the XMPP
   subscription request into a SIP SUBSCRIBE request from the XMPP user
   to the SIP user:



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   Example: XMPP user subscribes to SIP contact (SIP transformation):

   |  SUBSCRIBE sip:romeo@example.net SIP/2.0
   |  Via: SIP/2.0/TCP x2s.example.com;branch=z9hG4bKna998sk
   |  From: <sip:juliet@example.com>;tag=ffd2
   |  To: <sip:romeo@example.net>
   |  Call-ID: l04th3s1p@example.com
   |  Event: presence
   |  Max-Forwards: 70
   |  CSeq: 123 SUBSCRIBE
   |  Contact: <sip:sipgate.example.com;transport=tcp>
   |  Accept: application/pidf+xml
   |  Expires: 3600
   |  Content-Length: 0

   The SIP user then SHOULD send a response indicating acceptance of the
   subscription request:

   Example: SIP accepts subscription request:

   |  SIP/2.0 200 OK
   |  Via: SIP/2.0/TCP s2x.example.net;branch=z9hG4bKna998sk
   |  From: <sip:romeo@example.net>;tag=ffd2
   |  To: <sip:juliet@example.com>;tag=j89d
   |  Call-ID: l04th3s1p@example.com
   |  CSeq: 234 SUBSCRIBE
   |  Contact: <sip:simple.example.net;transport=tcp>
   |  Expires: 3600
   |  Content-Length: 0

   In accordance with [SIP-EVENT], the XMPP-SIMPLE gateway should
   consider the subscription state to be "neutral" until it receives a
   NOTIFY message.  Therefore the SIP user or SIP-XMPP gateway at the
   SIP user's domain SHOULD immediately send a NOTIFY message containing
   a "Subscription-State" header whose value contains the string
   "active" (see Section 5).















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   Example: SIP user sends presence notification:

   |  NOTIFY sip:192.0.2.1 SIP/2.0
   |  Via: SIP/2.0/TCP simple.example.net;branch=z9hG4bKna998sk
   |  From: <sip:romeo@example.net>;tag=yt66
   |  To: <sip:juliet@example.com>;tag=bi54
   |  Call-ID: l04th3s1p@example.com
   |  Event: presence
   |  Subscription-State: active;expires=499
   |  Max-Forwards: 70
   |  CSeq: 8775 NOTIFY
   |  Contact: <sip:simple.example.net;transport=tcp>
   |  Content-Type: application/pidf+xml
   |  Content-Length: 193
   |
   |  <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
   |  <presence xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf'
   |            entity='pres:romeo@example.net'>
   |    <tuple id='orchard'>
   |      <status>
   |        <basic>open</basic>
   |      </status>
   |    </tuple>
   |  </presence>

   Upon receiving the first NOTIFY with a subscription state of active,
   the XMPP-SIMPLE gateway MUST generate a presence stanza of type
   "subscribed":

   Example: XMPP user receives acknowledgement from SIP contact:

   |  <presence to='romeo@example.net'
   |            from='juliet@example.com'
   |            type='subscribed'/>

   For information about handling of the NOTIFY message, see Section 5.

4.2.2.  Refreshing

   It is the responsibility of the XMPP-SIMPLE gateway to set the value
   of the "Expires" header and to periodically renew the subscription on
   the SIMPLE side of the gateway so that the subscription appears to be
   permanent to the XMPP user (e.g., the XMPP-SIMPLE gateway SHOULD send
   a new SUBSCRIBE request to the SIP user whenever the XMPP user sends
   initial presence to its XMPP server, i.e., upon initiating a presence
   session with the XMPP server).  See the Security Considerations
   (Section 8) of this document for important information and
   requirements regarding the security implications of this



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   functionality.

4.2.3.  Cancelling

   At any time after subscribing, the XMPP user may unsubscribe from the
   contact's presence.  This is done by sending a presence stanza of
   type "unsubscribe":

   Example: XMPP user unsubscribes from SIP contact:

   |  <presence from='juliet@example.com'
   |            to='romeo@example.net'
   |            type='unsubscribe'/>

   The XMPP-SIMPLE gateway is responsible for translating the
   unsubscribe command into a SIP SUBSCRIBE request with the "Expires"
   header set to a value of zero:

   Example: XMPP user unsubscribes from SIP contact (SIP
   transformation):

   |  SUBSCRIBE sip:romeo@example.net SIP/2.0
   |  Via: SIP/2.0/TCP s2x.example.net;branch=z9hG4bKna998sk
   |  From: <sip:juliet@example.com>;tag=j89d
   |  To: <sip:romeo@example.net>;tag=xfg9
   |  Call-ID: 1ckm32@example.com
   |  Event: presence
   |  Max-Forwards: 70
   |  CSeq: 789 SUBSCRIBE
   |  Contact: <sip:x2s.example.com;transport=tcp>
   |  Accept: application/pidf+xml
   |  Expires: 0
   |  Content-Length: 0

   Upon sending the transformed unsubscribe, the XMPP-SIMPLE gateway
   SHOULD a presence stanza of type "unsubscribed" to the XMPP user:

   Example: XMPP user receives unsubscribed notification:

   |  <presence to='romeo@example.net'
   |            from='juliet@example.com'
   |            type='unsubscribed'/>

4.3.  SIP to XMPP







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4.3.1.  Establishing

   A SIP user initiates a subscription to a contact's presence
   information by sending a SIP SUBSCRIBE request to the contact.  The
   following is an example of such a request:

   Example: SIP user subscribes to XMPP contact:

   |  SUBSCRIBE sip:juliet@example.com SIP/2.0
   |  Via: SIP/2.0/TCP s2x.example.net;branch=z9hG4bKna998sk
   |  From: <sip:romeo@example.net>;tag=xfg9
   |  To: <sip:juliet@example.com>;tag=ur93
   |  Call-ID: 4wcm0n@example.net
   |  Event: presence
   |  Max-Forwards: 70
   |  CSeq: 263 SUBSCRIBE
   |  Contact: <sip:simple.example.net;transport=tcp>
   |  Accept: application/pidf+xml
   |  Content-Length: 0

   Upon receiving such a request, a SIMPLE-XMPP gateway is responsible
   for translating it into an XMPP subscription request from the SIP
   user to the XMPP user:

   Example: SIP user subscribes to XMPP contact (XMPP transformation):

   |  <presence from='romeo@example.net'
   |            to='juliet@example.com'
   |            type='subscribe'/>

   Notice that the "Expires" header was not included in the SUBSCRIBE
   request; this means that the default value of 3600 (i.e., 3600
   seconds = 1 hour) applies.

4.3.2.  Refreshing

   It is the responsibility of the SIMPLE-XMPP gateway to properly
   handle the difference between short-lived SIP presence subscriptions
   and long-lived XMPP presence subscriptions.  The gateway has two
   options when the SIP user's subscription expires:

   o  Cancel the subscription (i.e., treat it as temporary) and send an
      XMPP presence stanza of type "unsubscribe" to the XMPP contact;
      this honors the SIP semantic but will seem rather odd to the XMPP
      contact.
   o  Maintain the subscription (i.e., treat it as long-lived) and (1)
      send a SIP NOTIFY request to the SIP user containing a PIDF
      document specifying that the XMPP contact now has a basic status



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      of "closed", including a Subscription-State of "terminated" and
      (2) send an XMPP presence stanza of type "unavailable" to the XMPP
      contact; this violates the letter of the SIP semantic but will
      seem more natural to the XMPP contact.

   Which of these options the SIMPLE-XMPP gateway chooses is up to the
   implementation.

   If the implementation chooses the first option, the protocol
   generated would be as follows:

   Example: SIP subscription expires (treated as temporary by gateway):

   |  <presence from='romeo@example.net'
   |            to='juliet@example.com'
   |            type='unsubscribe'/>

   If the implementation chooses the second option, the protocol
   generated would be as follows:

   Example: SIP subscription expires (treated as long-lived by gateway):

   |  NOTIFY sip:192.0.2.2 SIP/2.0
   |  Via: SIP/2.0/TCP s2x.example.net;branch=z9hG4bKna998sk
   |  From: <sip:juliet@example.com>;tag=ur93
   |  To: <sip:romeo@example.net>;tag=pq72
   |  Call-ID: j4s0h4vny@example.com
   |  Event: presence
   |  Subscription-State: terminated;reason=timeout
   |  Max-Forwards: 70
   |  CSeq: 232 NOTIFY
   |  Contact: <sip:sipgate.example.com;transport=tcp>
   |  Content-Type: application/pidf+xml
   |  Content-Length: 194
   |
   |  <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
   |  <presence xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf'
   |            entity='pres:juliet@example.com'>
   |    <tuple id='balcony'>
   |      <status>
   |        <basic>closed</basic>
   |      </status>
   |    </tuple>
   |  </presence>







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   Example: SIP subscription expires (treated as long-lived by gateway):

   |  <presence from='romeo@example.net'
   |            to='juliet@example.com'
   |            type='unavailable'/>

4.3.3.  Cancelling

   At any time, the SIP user may cancel the subscription by sending a
   SUBSCRIBE message whose "Expires" header is set to a value of zero
   ("0"):

   Example: SIP user cancels subscription:

   |  SUBSCRIBE sip:192.0.2.1 SIP/2.0
   |  Via: SIP/2.0/TCP simple.example.net;branch=z9hG4bKna998sk
   |  From: <sip:romeo@example.net>;tag=yt66
   |  To: <sip:juliet@example.com>;tag=bi54
   |  Call-ID: 1tsn1ce@example.net
   |  Event: presence
   |  Max-Forwards: 70
   |  CSeq: 8775 SUBSCRIBE
   |  Contact: <sip:simple.example.net;transport=tcp>
   |  Expires: 0
   |  Content-Length: 0

   As above, upon receiving such a request, a SIMPLE-XMPP gateway is
   responsible for doing one of the following:

   o  Cancel the subscription (i.e., treat it as temporary) and send an
      XMPP presence stanza of type "unsubscribe" to the XMPP contact.
   o  Maintain the subscription (i.e., treat it as long-lived) and (1)
      send a SIP NOTIFY request to the SIP user containing a PIDF
      document specifying that the XMPP contact now has a basic status
      of "closed", (2) send a SIP SUBSCRIBE request to the SIP user with
      an "Expires" header set to a value of "0" (zero) when it receives
      XMPP presence of type "unavailable" from the XMPP contact, and (3)
      send an XMPP presence stanza of type "unavailable" to the XMPP
      contact.


5.  Presence Notifications

5.1.  Overview

   Both XMPP and presence-aware SIP systems enable entities (often but
   not necessarily human users) to send presence notifications to other
   entities.  At a minimum, the term "presence" refers to information



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   about an entity's availability for communication on a network (on/
   off), often supplemented by information that further specifies the
   entity's communications context (e.g., "do not disturb").  Some
   systems and protocols extend this notion even further and refer to
   any relatively ephemeral information about an entity as a kind of
   presence; categories of such "extended presence" include geographical
   location (e.g., GPS coordinates), user mood (e.g., grumpy), user
   activity (e.g., walking), and ambient environment (e.g., noisy).  In
   this document, we focus on the "least common denominator" of network
   availability only, although future documents may address broader
   notions of presence, including extended presence.

   Presence using XMPP presence stanzas of type "available" or
   "unavailable" is specified in [XMPP-IM].  SIP presence using a SIP
   event package for presence is specified in [SIP-PRES].

   As described in [XMPP-IM], presence information about an entity is
   communicated by means of an XML <presence/> stanza sent over an XML
   stream.  In this document we will assume that such a presence stanza
   is sent from an XMPP client to an XMPP server over an XML stream
   negotiated between the client and the server, and that the client is
   controlled by a human user (again, this is a simplifying assumption
   introduced for explanatory purposes only).  In general, XMPP presence
   is sent by the user to the user's server and then broadcasted to all
   entities who are subscribed to the user's presence information.

   As described in [SIP-PRES], presence information about an entity is
   communicated by means of a SIP NOTIFY event sent from a SIP user
   agent to an intended recipient who is most generally referenced by an
   Instant Message URI of the form <pres:user@domain> but who may be
   referenced by a SIP or SIPS URI of the form <sip:user@domain> or
   <sips:user@domain>.  Here again we introduce the simplifying
   assumption that the user agent is controlled by a human user.

5.2.  XMPP to SIP

   When Juliet interacts with her XMPP client to modify her presence
   information (or when her client automatically updates her presence
   information, e.g. via an "auto-away" feature), her client generates
   an XMPP <presence/> stanza.  The syntax of the <presence/> stanza,
   including required and optional elements and attributes, is defined
   in [XMPP-IM].  The following is an example of such a stanza:

   Example: XMPP user sends presence notification:

   |  <presence from='juliet@example.com/balcony'/>

   Upon receiving such a stanza, the XMPP server to which Juliet has



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   connected broadcasts it to all subscribers who are authorized to
   receive presence notifications from Juliet (this is similar to the
   SIP NOTIFY method).  For each subscriber, broadcasting the presence
   notification involves either delivering it to a local recipient (if
   the hostname in the subscriber's address matches one of the hostnames
   serviced by the XMPP server) or attempting to route it to the foreign
   domain that services the hostname in the subscriber's address.
   Naturally, in this document we assume that the hostname is a SIP
   presence service hosted by a separate server.  As specified in
   [XMPP-IM], the XMPP server needs to determine the identity of the
   foreign domain, which it does by performing one or more [SRV]
   lookups.  For presence stanzas, the order of lookups recommended by
   [XMPP-IM] is to first try the "_xmpp-server" service as specified in
   [XMPP-CORE] and to then try the "_pres" service as specified in
   [IMP-SRV].  Here we assume that the first lookup will fail but that
   the second lookup will succeed and return a resolution
   "_pres._simple.example.net.", since we have already assumed that the
   example.net hostname is running a SIP presence service.  (Note: The
   XMPP server may have previously determined that the foreign domain is
   a SIMPLE server, e.g., when it sent a SIP SUBSCRIBE to the SIP user
   when Juliet sent initial presence to the XMPP server, in which case
   it would not need to perform the SRV lookups; the caching of such
   information is a matter of implementation and local service policy,
   and is therefore out of scope for this document.)

   Once the XMPP server has determined that the foreign domain is
   serviced by a SIMPLE server, it must determine how to proceed.  We
   here assume that the XMPP server contains or has available to it an
   XMPP-SIMPLE gateway.  The XMPP server would then deliver the presence
   stanza to the XMPP-SIMPLE gateway.

   The XMPP-SIMPLE gateway is then responsible for translating the XMPP
   presence stanza into a SIP NOTIFY request and included PIDF document
   from the XMPP user to the SIP user.

















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   Example: XMPP user sends presence notification (SIP transformation):

   |  NOTIFY sip:192.0.2.2 SIP/2.0
   |  Via: SIP/2.0/TCP x2s.example.com;branch=z9hG4bKna998sk
   |  From: <sip:juliet@example.com>;tag=gh19
   |  To: <sip:romeo@example.net>;tag=yt66
   |  Call-ID: j4s0h4vny@example.com
   |  Event: presence
   |  Subscription-State: active;expires=599
   |  Max-Forwards: 70
   |  CSeq: 157 NOTIFY
   |  Contact: <sip:sipgate.example.com;transport=tcp>
   |  Content-Type: application/pidf+xml
   |  Content-Length: 192
   |
   |  <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
   |  <presence xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf'
   |            entity='pres:juliet@example.com'>
   |    <tuple id='balcony'>
   |      <status>
   |        <basic>open</basic>
   |      </status>
   |    </tuple>
   |  </presence>

   The mapping of XMPP syntax elements to SIP syntax elements SHOULD be
   as shown in the following table.  (Mappings for elements not
   mentioned are undefined.)

   Table 6: Presence syntax mapping from XMPP to SIP

      +-----------------------------+---------------------------+
      |  XMPP Element or Attribute  |  SIP Header or PIDF Data  |
      +-----------------------------+---------------------------+
      |  <presence/> stanza         |  "Event: presence" [1]    |
      |  XMPP resource identifer    |  tuple 'id' attribute     |
      |  from                       |  From                     |
      |  id                         |  Call-ID                  |
      |  to                         |  To                       |
      |  type                       |  basic status [2][3]      |
      |  xml:lang                   |  Content-Language         |
      |  <priority/>                |  PIDF priority for tuple  |
      |  <show/>                    |  (no mapping)             |
      |  <status/>                  |  note [4]                 |
      +-----------------------------+---------------------------+

   Note the following regarding these mappings:




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   1.  Only a presence stanza that lacks a 'type' attribute or whose
       'type' attribute has a value of "unavailable" should be mapped by
       an XMPP-SIMPLE gateway to a SIP NOTIFY request, since those are
       the only presence stanzas that represent notifications.
   2.  Because the lack of a 'type' attribute indicates that an XMPP
       entity is available for communications, the gateway SHOULD map
       that information to a PIDF <basic/> status of "open".  Because a
       'type' attribute with a value of "unavailable" indicates that an
       XMPP entity is not available for communications, the gateway
       SHOULD map that information to a PIDF <basic/> status of
       "closed".
   3.  When the XMPP-SIMPLE gateway receives XMPP presence of type
       "unavailable" from the XMPP contact, it SHOULD (1) send a SIP
       NOTIFY request to the SIP user containing a PIDF document
       specifying that the XMPP contact now has a basic status of
       "closed" and (2) send a SIP SUBSCRIBE request to the SIP user
       with an "Expires" header set to a value of "0" (zero).
   4.  The character data of the XMPP <status/> element MAY be mapped to
       the character data of the PIDF <note/> element.

5.3.  SIP to XMPP

   When Romeo changes his presence, his SIP user agent generates a SIP
   NOTIFY request for any active subscriptions.  The syntax of the
   NOTIFY request is defined in [SIP-PRES].  The following is an example
   of such a request:

























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   Example: SIP user sends presence notification:

   |  NOTIFY sip:192.0.2.1 SIP/2.0
   |  Via: SIP/2.0/TCP simple.example.net;branch=z9hG4bKna998sk
   |  From: <sip:romeo@example.net>;tag=yt66
   |  To: <sip:juliet@example.com>;tag=bi54
   |  Call-ID: j0sj4sv1m@example.net
   |  Event: presence
   |  Subscription-State: active;expires=499
   |  Max-Forwards: 70
   |  CSeq: 8775 NOTIFY
   |  Contact: <sip:simple.example.net;transport=tcp>
   |  Content-Type: application/pidf+xml
   |  Content-Length: 193
   |
   |  <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
   |  <presence xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf'
   |            entity='pres:romeo@example.net'>
   |    <tuple id='orchard'>
   |      <status>
   |        <basic>open</basic>
   |      </status>
   |    </tuple>
   |  </presence>

   Upon receiving such a request, a SIMPLE-XMPP gateway is responsible
   for translating it into an XMPP presence stanza from the SIP user to
   the XMPP user:

   Example: SIP user sends presence notification (XMPP transformation):

   |  <presence from='romeo@example.net'
   |            to='juliet@example.com/balcony'
   |            type='unavailable'/>

   The mapping of SIP syntax elements to XMPP syntax elements SHOULD be
   as shown in the following table.  (Mappings for elements not
   mentioned are undefined.)













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   Table 7: Presence syntax mapping from SIP to XMPP

      +---------------------------+-----------------------------+
      |  SIP Header or PIDF Data  |  XMPP Element or Attribute  |
      +---------------------------+-----------------------------+
      |  basic status             |  type [1]                   |
      |  Content-Language         |  xml:lang                   |
      |  CSeq                     |  id (OPTIONAL)              |
      |  From                     |  from                       |
      |  priority for tuple       |  <priority/>                |
      |  To                       |  to                         |
      |  body of MESSAGE          |  <body/>                    |
      +---------------------------+-----------------------------+

   Note the following regarding these mappings:

   1.  A PIDF basic status of "open" SHOULD be mapped to no 'type'
       attribute, and a PIDF basic status of "closed" SHOULD be mapped
       to a 'type' attribute whose value is "unavailable".


6.  Content Types

   SIP requests of type MESSAGE may contain essentially any content type
   and SIP requests of type NOTIFY normally contain presence information
   encapsulated using the "application/pidf+xml" content type.  The
   recommended procedures for SIMPLE-to-XMPP gateways to use in handling
   these content types are specified in the following sections.

6.1.  Messages

   A SIMPLE-to-XMPP gateway MUST process SIP messages that contain
   message bodies of type "text/plain" and MUST encapsulate such message
   bodies as the XML character data of the XMPP <body/> element.

   A SIMPLE-to-XMPP gateway SHOULD process SIP messages that contain
   message bodies of type "text/html"; if so, a gateway MUST transform
   the "text/html" content into XHTML content that conforms to the XHTML
   1.0 Integration Set specified in [XEP-0071].

   A SIMPLE-to-XMPP gateway MAY process SIP messages that contain
   message bodies of types other than "text/plain" and "text/html" but
   handling of such content types is a matter of implementation.

6.2.  Presence

   The "application/pidf+xml' content type is specified in [PIDF].  The
   Presence Information Data Format defines a common data format for



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   presence protocols that conform to the Common Profile for Presence
   ([CPP]), enabling presence information to be transferred across CPP-
   compliant protocol boundaries without modification, with attendant
   benefits for end-to-end encryption and performance.  Because the
   syntax for the "application/pidf+xml" content type is Extensible
   Markup Language ([XML]), it is straightforward to send PIDF data over
   the Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol ([XMPP-CORE]), since
   XMPP is simply an XML streaming protocol.

   In addition to following the syntax mappings specified in Section 5,
   a SIMPLE-to-XMPP gateway MAY encapsulate PIDF data within an
   "extended namespace" contained in an XMPP presence stanza.  The
   RECOMMENDED method is to include the PIDF <presence/> element as a
   child of the XMPP <presence/> stanza.  Although it may appear that
   this would be potentially confusing, the inclusion of the
   'urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf' namespace ensures that PIDF data is
   kept separate from XMPP presence data (in accordance with
   [XML-NAMES]).  The following is a simple example of encapsulating
   PIDF data within an "extended namespace" in XMPP:

   A basic example of PIDF over XMPP:

   <presence from='romeo@example.net/orchard' xml:lang='en'>
     <show>dnd</show>
     <status>Wooing Juliet</status>
     <presence xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf'
               entity='pres:romeo@example.net'>
       <tuple id='orchard'>
         <status>
           <basic>open</basic>
         </status>
       </tuple>
     </presence>
   </presence>


7.  Error Conditions

   SIP response codes are specified in [SIP] and XMPP error conditions
   are specified in [XMPP-CORE].











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7.1.  XMPP to SIP

   Table 8: Mapping of XMPP error conditions to SIP response codes

      +------------------------------+---------------------+
      |  XMPP Error Condition        |  SIP Response Code  |
      +------------------------------+---------------------+
      |  <bad-request/>              | 400                 |
      |  <conflict/>                 | 400                 |
      |  <feature-not-implemented/>  | 501                 |
      |  <forbidden/>                | 403                 |
      |  <gone/>                     | 410                 |
      |  <internal-server-error/>    | 500                 |
      |  <item-not-found/>           | 404                 |
      |  <jid-malformed/>            | 484                 |
      |  <not-acceptable/>           | 406                 |
      |  <not-allowed/>              | 405                 |
      |  <not-authorized/>           | 401                 |
      |  <payment-required/>         | 402                 |
      |  <recipient-unavailable/>    | 480                 |
      |  <redirect/>                 | 300                 |
      |  <registration-required/>    | 407                 |
      |  <remote-server-not-found/>  | 502                 |
      |  <remote-server-timeout/>    | 504                 |
      |  <resource-constraint/>      | 500                 |
      |  <service-unavailable/>      | 503                 |
      |  <subscription-required/>    | 407                 |
      |  <undefined-condition/>      | 400                 |
      |  <unexpected-request/>       | 491                 |
      +------------------------------+---------------------+

7.2.  SIP to XMPP

   The mapping of SIP response codes to XMPP error conditions SHOULD be
   as follows (note that XMPP does not include 100-series or 200-series
   response codes, only error conditions):

   Table 9: Mapping of SIP response codes to XMPP error conditions













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      +---------------------+------------------------------+
      |  SIP Response Code  |  XMPP Error Condition        |
      +---------------------+------------------------------+
      |  300                |  <redirect/>                 |
      |  301                |  <gone/>                     |
      |  302                |  <redirect/>                 |
      |  305                |  <redirect/>                 |
      |  380                |  <not-acceptable/>           |
      |  400                |  <bad-request/>              |
      |  401                |  <not-authorized/>           |
      |  402                |  <payment-required/>         |
      |  403                |  <forbidden/>                |
      |  404                |  <item-not-found/>           |
      |  405                |  <not-allowed/>              |
      |  406                |  <not-acceptable/>           |
      |  407                |  <registration-required/>    |
      |  408                |  <service-unavailable/>      |
      |  410                |  <gone/>                     |
      |  413                |  <bad-request/>              |
      |  414                |  <bad-request/>              |
      |  415                |  <bad-request/>              |
      |  416                |  <bad-request/>              |
      |  420                |  <bad-request/>              |
      |  421                |  <bad-request/>              |
      |  423                |  <bad-request/>              |
      |  480                |  <recipient-unavailable/>    |
      |  481                |  <item-not-found/>           |
      |  482                |  <not-acceptable/>           |
      |  483                |  <not-acceptable/>           |
      |  484                |  <jid-malformed/>            |
      |  485                |  <item-not-found/>           |
      |  486                |  <service-unavailable/>      |
      |  487                |  <service-unavailable/>      |
      |  488                |  <not-acceptable/>           |
      |  491                |  <unexpected-request/>       |
      |  493                |  <bad-request/>              |
      |  500                |  <internal-server-error/>    |
      |  501                |  <feature-not-implemented/>  |
      |  502                |  <remote-server-not-found/>  |
      |  503                |  <service-unavailable/>      |
      |  504                |  <remote-server-timeout/>    |
      |  505                |  <not-acceptable/>           |
      |  513                |  <bad-request/>              |
      |  600                |  <service-unavailable/>      |
      |  603                |  <service-unavailable/>      |
      |  604                |  <item-not-found/>           |
      |  606                |  <not-acceptable/>           |
      +---------------------+------------------------------+



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8.  Security Considerations

   Detailed security considerations for instant messaging and presence
   protocols are given in [IMP-REQS], specifically in Sections 5.1
   through 5.4.  Detailed security considerations for XMPP are given in
   [XMPP-CORE].  Detailed security considerations for SIP-based
   messaging are given in [SIP-IM] and for SIP-based presence are given
   in [SIP-PRES] (see also the security considerations for the Session
   Initiation Protocol given in [SIP]).

   This document specifies methods for exchanging instant messages and
   presence information through a gateway that translates between SIP
   and XMPP.  Such a gateway MUST be compliant with the minimum security
   requirements of the instant messaging and presence protocols for
   which it translates (i.e., SIP and XMPP).  The introduction of
   gateways to the security model of instant messaging and presence
   specified in [IMP-REQS] introduces some new risks.  In particular,
   end-to-end security properties (especially confidentiality and
   integrity) between instant messaging and presence user agents that
   interface through a SIMPLE-XMPP gateway can be provided only if
   common formats are supported.  Specification of those common formats
   is out of scope for this document, although it is recommended to use
   [MSGFMT] for instant messages and [PIDF] for presence.

   [IMP-REQS] requires that conformant technologies shall include
   methods for blocking communications from unwanted addresses.  Such
   blocking is the responsibility of conformant technology (e.g., XMPP
   or SIP) and is out of scope for this memo.

   The mismatch between long-lived XMPP presence subscriptions and
   short-lived SIP presence subscriptions introduces the possibility of
   an amplification attack launched from the XMPP network against a SIP
   presence server.  To help prevent such an attack, access to an XMPP-
   SIMPLE gateway that is hosted on the XMPP network SHOULD be
   restricted to XMPP users associated with a single domain or trust
   realm (e.g., a gateway hosted at simple.example.com should allow only
   users within the example.com domain to access the gateway, not users
   within example.org, example.net, or any other domain); if a SIP
   presence server receives communications through an XMPP-SIMPLE
   gateway from users who are not associated with a domain that is so
   related to the hostname of the gateway, it MAY (based on local
   service provisioning) refuse to service such users or refuse to
   communicate with the gateway.  Furthermore, whenever an XMPP-SIMPLE
   gateway seeks to refresh an XMPP user's long-lived subscription to a
   SIP user's presence, it MUST first send an XMPP <presence/> stanza of
   type "probe" from the address of the gateway to the "bare JID"
   (user@domain.tld) of the XMPP user, to which the user's XMPP server
   MUST respond in accordance with [XMPP-IM]; however, the administrator



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   of an XMPP-SIMPLE gateway MAY (based on local service provisioning)
   exempt "known good" XMPP servers from this check (e.g., the XMPP
   server associated with the XMPP-SIMPLE gateway as described above).


9.  Acknowledgements

   The authors wish to thank Nathaniel Borenstein and Rohan Mahy for
   suggestions and encouragement; Daniel-Constantin Mierla for earlier
   work on SIMPLE-XMPP interworking; Jack Erwin, Tory Patnoe, and
   Sandeep Sharma for feedback based on implementation experience; and
   Dave Cridland, Johann Daigremont, Alan Johnston, Benny Prijono, and
   Adam Roach for their helpful comments.


10.  References

10.1.  Normative References

   [IMP-SRV]  Peterson, J., "Address Resolution for Instant Messaging
              and Presence", RFC 3861, August 2004.

   [PIDF]     Sugano, H., Fujimoto, S., Klyne, G., Bateman, A., Carr,
              W., and J. Peterson, "Presence Information Data Format
              (PIDF)", RFC 3863, August 2004.

   [SIP]      Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., Camarillo, G., Johnston,
              A., Peterson, J., Sparks, R., Handley, M., and E.
              Schooler, "SIP: Session Initiation Protocol", RFC 3261,
              June 2002.

   [SIP-EVENT]
              Roach, A., "Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)-Specific
              Event Notification", RFC 3265, June 2002.

   [SIP-IM]   Campbell, B., Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., Huitema, C.,
              and D. Gurle, "Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Extension
              for Instant Messaging", RFC 3428, December 2002.

   [SIP-PRES]
              Rosenberg, J., "A Presence Event Package for the Session
              Initiation Protocol (SIP)", RFC 3856, August 2004.

   [SRV]      Gulbrandsen, A., Vixie, P., and L. Esibov, "A DNS RR for
              specifying the location of services (DNS SRV)", RFC 2782,
              February 2000.

   [STRINGPREP]



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              Hoffman, P. and M. Blanchet, "Preparation of
              Internationalized Strings ("STRINGPREP")", RFC 3454,
              December 2002.

   [TERMS]    Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [URI]      Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, "Uniform
              Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax", STD 66,
              RFC 3986, January 2005.

   [URL-GUIDE]
              Hansen, T., Hardie, T., and L. Masinter, "Guidelines and
              Registration Procedures for New URI Schemes", RFC 4395,
              February 2006.

   [XML]      Bray, T., Paoli, J., Sperberg-McQueen, C., and E. Maler,
              "Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0 (2nd ed)", W3C REC-
              xml, October 2000, <http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-xml>.

   [XML-NAMES]
              Bray, T., Hollander, D., and A. Layman, "Namespaces in
              XML", W3C REC-xml-names, January 1999,
              <http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-xml-names>.

   [XMPP-CORE]
              Saint-Andre, P., "Extensible Messaging and Presence
              Protocol (XMPP): Core", RFC 3920, October 2004.

   [XMPP-IM]  Saint-Andre, P., "Extensible Messaging and Presence
              Protocol (XMPP): Instant Messaging and Presence",
              RFC 3921, October 2004.

10.2.  Informative References

   [CPIM]     Peterson, J., "Common Profile for Instant Messaging
              (CPIM)", RFC 3860, August 2004.

   [CPP]      Peterson, J., "Common Profile for Presence (CPP)",
              RFC 3859, August 2004.

   [IDNA]     Faltstrom, P., Hoffman, P., and A. Costello,
              "Internationalizing Domain Names in Applications (IDNA)",
              RFC 3490, March 2003.

   [IMP-REQS]
              Day, M., Aggarwal, S., and J. Vincent, "Instant Messaging
              / Presence Protocol Requirements", RFC 2779,



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              February 2000.

   [RFC2822]  Resnick, P., "Internet Message Format", RFC 2822,
              April 2001.

   [XEP-0071]
              Saint-Andre, P., "XHTML-IM", XSF XEP 0071, January 2006.

   [XEP-0106]
              Saint-Andre, P. and J. Hildebrand, "JID Escaping", XSF
              XEP 0106, May 2005.

   [MSGFMT]   Klyne, G. and D. Atkins, "Common Presence and Instant
              Messaging (CPIM): Message Format", RFC 3862, August 2004.

   [SIMPLE-CPIM]
              Rosenberg, J. and B. Campbell, "CPIM Mapping of SIMPLE
              Presence and Instant Messaging",
              draft-ietf-simple-cpim-mapping-01 (work in progress),
              June 2002.

   [XMPP-CPIM]
              Saint-Andre, P., "Mapping the Extensible Messaging and
              Presence Protocol (XMPP) to Common Presence and Instant
              Messaging (CPIM)", RFC 3922, October 2004.


Authors' Addresses

   Peter Saint-Andre
   XMPP Standards Foundation
   P.O. Box 1641
   Denver, CO  80201
   USA

   Email: stpeter@jabber.org


   Avshalom Houri
   IBM
   Building 18/D, Kiryat Weizmann Science Park
   Rehovot  76123
   Israel

   Email: avshalom@il.ibm.com






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   Joe Hildebrand
   Jabber, Inc.
   1899 Wynkoop Street, Suite 600
   Denver, CO  80202
   USA

   Email: jhildebrand@jabber.com












































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