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Versions: 00

6Lo Working Group                                              MS. Akbar
Internet-Draft                                    Bournemouth University
Intended status: Informational                               R. Bin Rais
Expires: December 15, 2017                              Ajman University
                                                               AR. Sangi
                                                  Individual Contributor
                                                                M. Zhang
                                                     Huawei Technologies
                                                              C. Perkins
                                                               Futurewei
                                                           June 13, 2017


 Transmission of IPv6 Packets over Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs)
                        draft-sajjad-6lo-wban-00

Abstract

   Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) intend to facilitate use cases
   related to medical field.  IEEE 802.15.6 defines PHY and MAC layer
   and is designed to deal with better penetration through the human
   tissue without creating any damage to human tissues with the approved
   MICS (Medical Implant Communication Service) band by USA Federal
   Communications Commission (FCC).  Devices in WBANs conform to this
   IEEE standard.

   This specification defines details to enable transmission of IPv6
   packets, method of forming link-local and statelessly autoconfigured
   IPv6 addresses on WBANs.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on December 15, 2017.





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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Conventions and Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  Use cases for IEEE 802.15.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     3.1.  Hospital Patient Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     3.2.  Patient monitoring for Chronic Diseases . . . . . . . . .   5
     3.3.  Elderly Patient Monitoring  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   4.  Why 6lo is required for IEEE 802.15.6 . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     4.1.  IPv6 Connectivity requirements  . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     4.2.  Limited Packet Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     4.3.  Topology requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   5.  Scope/Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   6.  Layer 2 Overview  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     6.1.  Frame format  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     6.2.  Frequency bands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     6.3.  Channel modes of IEEE 802.15.6  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   7.  --IETF to standardize-- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   8.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   9.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   10. Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   11. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     11.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     11.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   Appendix A.  Patient monitoring use case - Spoke Hub  . . . . . .  13
   Appendix B.  Patient monitoring use case - Connected  . . . . . .  15
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16

1.  Introduction

   Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) are comprised of devices that
   conform to the [IEEE802.15.6], standard by the IEEE.  IEEE 802.15.6
   provides specification for the MAC layer to access the channel.  The



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   coordinator divides the channel into superframe time structures to
   allocate resources [SURVEY-WBAN] [MAC-WBAN].  Superframes are bounded
   by equal length beacons through the coordinator.  Usually beacons are
   sent at beacon periods except inactive superframes or limited by
   regulation.  This standard works under following three channel access
   modes.

   Task group for 802.15.6 was established by IEEE in November 2007 for
   standardisation of WBANs and it was approved in 2012.  This standard
   works in and around human body and focus on operating at lower
   frequencies and short range.  The focus of this standard is to design
   a communication standard for MAC and physical layer to support
   different applications, namely, medical and no-medical applications.
   Medical applications refer to collection of vital information in real
   time (monitoring) for diagnoses and treatment of various diseases
   with help of different sensors (accelerometer, temperature, BP and
   EMG etc.).  It defines a MAC layer that can operate with three
   different PHY layers i.e. human body communication (HBC), ultra-
   wideband (UWB) and Narrowband (NB).  IEEE 802.15.6 provides
   specification for MAC layer to access the channel.  The coordinator
   divides the channel into superframe time structures to allocate
   resources.  Superframes are bounded by equal length beacons through
   coordinator.  The purpose of the draft is to highlight the need of
   IEEE 802.15.6 for WBASNs and its integration issues while connecting
   it with IPv6 network.  The use cases are provided to elaborate the
   scenarios with implantable and wearable biomedical sensors. 6lowpan
   provides IPv6 connectivity for IEEE 802.15.4; however, it will not
   work with IEEE 802.15.6 due to the difference in frame format in
   terms of size and composition.

2.  Conventions and Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

3.  Use cases for IEEE 802.15.6

3.1.  Hospital Patient Monitoring

   In the hospital environment, several levels of patient monitoring
   services are required as different patients needs different
   monitoring services e.g., a patient in Intensive Care Unit (ICU)
   requires high prioritized periodic data services with limited delay
   and high throughput than the patient in a normal ward.  Usually, a
   patient is equipped with multiple sensors that measure vital signals
   like heart activity, muscle movements, blood pressure, body oxygen
   level and brain stimulation via integrated sensors i.e.,



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   (Electrocardiography), BP (Blood Pressure) monitor, EMG
   (Electromyography), pulse oximeter and EEG (Electroencephalography)
   etc.  These sensors are categorized as wearable and implantable
   sensors, hence we are assuming that equipped sensors are mixture of
   wearable and implantable sensors which creates restriction to use
   IEEE 802.15.6 as it is designed to deal with better penetration
   through the human tissue without creating any damage to human tissues
   with the approved MICS band by USA Federal Communications Commission
   (FCC).  In a hospital use case scenario, the initial data generated
   by numerous biomedical sensor nodes is collected by a central
   coordinator.

   In this case, Table 3 presents the summary of traffic patterns for
   different biomedical sensor nodes attached to human body with data
   generation rate, required data rate from channel and QoS
   requirements.

   +----------+----------+---------+-----------+-----------+-----------+
   |  Sensor  | Data Gen | Require | Delay Req | Power Con | Reliabili |
   |  Nodes   | eration  |  d Data |  uirement |  sumption | ty Requir |
   |          | Interval |   Rate  |           |           |   ement   |
   |          |          |  (Kbps) |           |           |           |
   +----------+----------+---------+-----------+-----------+-----------+
   |   ECG    |   4 ms   |    34   |   <125ms  |    Low    |    High   |
   |          |          |         |           |           |           |
   |   EMG    |   6 ms   |   19.6  |   <125ms  |    Low    |    High   |
   |          |          |         |           |           |           |
   |   EEG    |   4 ms   |   19.6  |   <125ms  |    Low    |    High   |
   |          |          |         |           |           |           |
   |   SpO2   |  10 ms   |   13.2  |   <250ms  |    Low    |   Medium  |
   | (Pulse O |          |         |           |           |           |
   | ximeter) |          |         |           |           |           |
   |          |          |         |           |           |           |
   |    BP    |  10 ms   |   13.2  |   <250ms  |   Medium  |   Medium  |
   |          |          |         |           |           |           |
   | Respirat |  40 ms   |   3.2   |   <250ms  |   Medium  |   Medium  |
   |   ion    |          |         |           |           |           |
   |          |          |         |           |           |           |
   | Skin tem |   60 s   |   2.27  |   <250ms  |    Low    |   Medium  |
   | perature |          |         |           |           |           |
   |          |          |         |           |           |           |
   | Glucose  |  250 s   |  0.528  |   <250ms  |   Medium  |   Medium  |
   |  sensor  |          |         |           |           |           |
   +----------+----------+---------+-----------+-----------+-----------+

        Table 1: Traffic patterns and requirements of sensor nodes





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3.2.  Patient monitoring for Chronic Diseases

   For a chronic disease patient, the formal procedure of routine visits
   is required to monitor the progress, development of complications or
   relapse of the disease.  The questions like what, how and when to
   monitor are really crucial for disease treatment.  In this context,
   various biosensors can be used for monitoring the patient's
   physiological conditions which brings relevant information on a
   regular basis.  Appendix A and B shows patient monitoring use case
   scenario for WBAN.

3.3.  Elderly Patient Monitoring

   The fast growth in the elderly population will produce a considerable
   shortage of healthcare experts in the near future.  WBAN delivers a
   highly cost effective solution to monitor the physiological
   parameters of the elderly persons by seamless integration of their
   daily routine activities.  Moreover, the physician can monitor the
   health conditions of an elderly person remotely by the courtesy of
   WBANs.

4.  Why 6lo is required for IEEE 802.15.6

   Based on the characteristics defined in the overview section, the
   following sections elaborate on the main problems with IP for WBANs.

4.1.  IPv6 Connectivity requirements

   The requirement for IPv6 connectivity within WBANs is driven by the
   following:

   o  The number of devices in WBANs makes network auto configuration
      and statelessness highly desirable.  And for this, IPv6 has
      (default auto-configuration as a) ready solutions.

   o  The large number of devices poses the need for a large address
      space, moreover a WBAN may consist of 256 nodes maximum and IPv6
      is helpful to solve addressing issues.

   o  Given the limited packet size of WBANs, the IPv6 address format
      allows subsuming of IEEE 802.15.6 addresses if so desired.

   o  Simple interconnectivity to other IP networks including the
      Internet.

   o  However, given the limited packet size, headers for IPv6 and
      layers above must be compressed whenever possible.




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   However, given the limited packet size, headers for IPv6 and layers
   above must be compressed whenever possible.

4.2.  Limited Packet Size

   Applications within WBANs are expected to originate small packets.
   Adding all layers for IP connectivity should still allow transmission
   in one frame, without incurring excessive fragmentation and
   reassembly.  Furthermore, protocols must be designed or chosen so
   that the individual "control/protocol packets" fit within a single
   802.15.6 frame.  Along these lines, IPv6's requirement of sub-IP
   reassembly may pose challenges for low-end WBANs healthcare devices
   that do not have enough RAM or storage for a 1280-octet packet
   [RFC2460].

4.3.  Topology requirements

   The IEEE 802.15.6 working group has considered WBANs to operate in
   either a one-hop or two-hop star topology with the node in the centre
   of the star being placed on a location like the waist.  Two feasible
   types of data transmission exist in the one-hop star topology:
   transmission from the device to the coordinator and transmission from
   the coordinator to the device.  The communication methods that exist
   in the star topology are beacon mode and non-beacon mode.  In a two-
   hop start WBAN, a relay-capable node may be used to exchange data
   frames between a node and the hub.

5.  Scope/Purpose

   This is a standard for short-range, wireless communication in the
   vicinity of, or inside, a human body (but not limited to humans).  It
   uses existing industrial scientific medical (ISM) bands as well as
   frequency bands approved by national medical and/or regulatory
   authorities.  Support for quality of service (QoS), extremely low
   power, and data rates from 10Kbps to 10 Mbps is required while
   simultaneously complying with strict non-interference guidelines
   where needed.  The Table 1 shows a comparison of WBAN and other
   available technologies in terms of data rate and power consumption.













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   +----------------+---------------+-----------------+----------------+
   |    Standard    | Provided data |      Power      |    Battery     |
   |                |      rate     |   requirement   |    lifetime    |
   +----------------+---------------+-----------------+----------------+
   |   802.11 ac    |    700 Mbps   |  100 mW - 1000  |  Hours - days  |
   |     (WiFi)     |               |        mW       |                |
   |                |               |                 |                |
   |   Bluetooth    |   1Mbps - 10  |  4 mW - 100 mW  |  Days - weeks  |
   |                |      Mbps     |                 |                |
   |                |               |                 |                |
   |     Wibree     |    600 Kbps   |   2 mW - 10 mW  | Weeks - months |
   |                |    maximum    |                 |                |
   |                |               |                 |                |
   |     ZigBee     |    250 Kbps   |   3 mW - 10 mW  | Weeks - months |
   |                |               |                 |                |
   |    802.15.4    |    250 Kbps   |   3 mW - 10 mW  | Weeks - months |
   |                |    maximum    |                 |                |
   |                |               |                 |                |
   |    802.15.6    |   1Kbps - 10  |  0.1 mW - 2 mW  | Months - years |
   |                |      Mbps     |                 |                |
   +----------------+---------------+-----------------+----------------+

                        Table 2: Comparison of WBAN

   The purpose of this document is to provide an international standard
   for a short-range (i.e., about human body range), low power, and
   highly reliable wireless communication for use in close proximity to,
   or inside, a human body.  Data rates, typically up to 10Mbps, can be
   offered to satisfy an evolutionary set of entertainment and
   healthcare services.  Current personal area networks (PANs) do not
   meet the medical (proximity to human tissue) and relevant
   communication regulations for some application environments.  They
   also do not support the combination of reliability, QoS, low power,
   data rate, and non-interference required to broadly address the
   breadth of body area network (BAN) applications.

6.  Layer 2 Overview

   All nodes and hubs (coordinator in 802.15.4) are to be organized into
   logical sets, referred to as body area networks (BANs) in this
   specification, and coordinated by their respective hubs for medium
   access and power management as illustrated in Table 1.  There is to
   be one and only one hub in a BAN, whereas the number of nodes in a
   BAN is to range from zero to mMaxBANSize.  In a one-hop star BAN
   [SURVEY-WBAN][RFC7326], frame exchanges are to occur directly between
   nodes and the hub of the BAN.  In a two-hop extended star BAN, the
   hub and a node are to exchange frames optionally via a relay-capable
   node.  Some of the characteristics of WBANs are as follows:



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6.1.  Frame format

   Figure 1 shows the general MAC frame format consisting of a 56-bit
   header, variable length frame body, and 18-bit FrameCheck Sequence
   (FCS).  The maximum length of the frame body is 255 octets.  The MAC
   header further consists of 32-bit frame control, 8-bit recipient
   Identification (ID), 8-bit sender ID, and 8-bit WBAN ID fields.  The
   frame control field carries control information including the type of
   frame, that is, beacon, acknowledgement, or other control frames.
   The recipient and sender ID fields contain the address information of
   the recipient and the sender of the data frame, respectively.  The
   WBAN ID contains information on the WBAN in which the transmission is
   active.  The first 8-bit field in the MAC frame body carries message
   freshness information required for nonce construction and replay
   detection.  The frame payload field carries data frames, and the last
   32-bit Message Integrity Code (MIC) carries information about the
   authenticity and integrity of the frame.

                       Octets      7          0-255            2
                              +--------+------------------+--------+
                              |  MAC   |  MAC frame body  |        |
                              | header |Variable length:  |   FCS  |
                              |        |  0-255 bytes     |        |
                              +--------+------------------+--------+
                              <--MHR--><--------X--------><---FTR-->
                               /       \
                              /         \
                             /           \
            +---------+------------+-------------+--------------+
            |  Frame  | Recipitent |   Sender    |      Ban     |
            | control |     ID     |     ID      |       ID     |
            +---------+------------+-------------+--------------+
     Octets <--------><-----------><------------><-------------->

          Figure 1: The general MAC frame format of IEEE 802.15.6

6.2.  Frequency bands

   The USA Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and communication
   authorities of other countries have allocated the MICS band at
   402-405 MHz with 300 KHz channels to enable wireless communication
   with implanted medical devices [[[REFERENCE TO BE ADDED]]].  This
   leads to better penetration through the human tissue compared to
   higher frequencies, high level of mobility, comfort and better
   patient care in implant to implant (S1), implant to body surface (S2)
   and implant to external (S3) scenarios.  Additionally, the 402-405
   MHz frequencies offers conducive propagation characteristics for the
   transmission of radio signals in the human body and do not cause



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   severe interference for other radio operations in the same band.  In
   fact, the MICs band is an unlicensed, ultra-low power, mobile radio
   service for transmitting data to support therapeutic or diagnostic
   operation related to implant medical devices and is internationally
   available.  It is specifically chosen to provide low-power, small
   size, fast data transfer as well as a long communication range
   [SURVEY-WBAN][MAC-WBAN].  The frequency range of the MICS band allows
   high-level integration with the radio frequency IC (RFIC) technology,
   which leads to miniaturization and low power consumption.  The PHY
   layer of IEEE 802.15.6 is responsible for the following tasks:
   activation and deactivation of the radio transceiver, Clear channel
   assessment (CCA) within the current channel and data transmission and
   reception.  The choice of the physical layer depends on the target
   application: medical/non-medical, in, on and off-body.  The PHY layer
   provides a procedure for transforming a physical layer service data
   unit (PSDU) into a physical layer protocol data unit (PPDU).  IEEE
   802.15.6 has specified three different physical layers: Human Body
   Communication (HBC), Narrow Band (NB) and Ultra-Wide Band (UWB).
   Various frequency bands are supported and shown in Table 2.

              +---------------+-----------------+-----------+
              | Communication |    Frequency    | Bandwidth |
              +---------------+-----------------+-----------+
              |      HBC      |      16 MHz     |   4 MHz   |
              |               |                 |           |
              |      HBC      |      27 MHz     |   4 MHz   |
              |               |                 |           |
              |       NB      |   402-405 MHz   |  300 KHz  |
              |               |                 |           |
              |       NB      |   420-450 MHz   |  300 KHz  |
              |               |                 |           |
              |       NB      |   863-870 MHz   |  400 KHz  |
              |               |                 |           |
              |       NB      |   902-928 MHz   |  500 KHz  |
              |               |                 |           |
              |       NB      |   956-956 MHz   |  400 KHz  |
              |               |                 |           |
              |       NB      |  2360-2400 MHz  |   1 MHz   |
              |               |                 |           |
              |       NB      | 2400-2438.5 MHz |   1 MHz   |
              |               |                 |           |
              |      UWB      |   13.2-4.7 GHz  |  499 MHz  |
              |               |                 |           |
              |      UWB      |   6.2-10.3 GHz  |  499 MHz  |
              +---------------+-----------------+-----------+

      Table 3: Frequency bands and Channel bandwidth of IEEE 802.15.6




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6.3.  Channel modes of IEEE 802.15.6

   o Beacon Mode with Beacon Period Superframe Boundaries:

   Beacons are sent at beacon periods by the coordinator and the
   superframe structure is managed by the coordinator by using beacon
   frames.  The Physical Protocol Data Unit (PPDU) frame of Narrowband
   (NB) consists of a PHY Service Data Unit (PSDU) and Physical Layer
   Convergence Procedure (PLCP).  PLCP preamble supports the receiver
   for synchronization process and considers as first module being send
   at given symbol rate.  PLCP header sends decoding information for the
   receiver and it is transmitted after PLCP preamble.  PSDU is last
   module of PPDU and consists of MAC header, Frame Check Sequence (FCS)
   and MAC frame body.  PSDU is transmitted after PLCP with help of
   available frequency band with specific data rates.  Different
   modulations schemes can be used with NB, namely, Differential Binary
   Phase-shift Keying (DBPSK), Differential Quadrature Phase-shift
   Keying (DQPSK) and Differential 8-Phase-shift Keying (D8PSK).  NB
   uses seven frequency bands and operates under different data rates
   and modulation schemes.  Medical Implant Communication Service (MICS)
   is the first licensed band of NB and used for implant communication
   with range of 402-405 MHz in most countries.  Lower frequencies
   possess less attenuation and shadowing effect from body.  Wireless
   Telemetry Medical Services (WMTS) is another license band and used
   for telemetry services.  Although, Industrial, Scientific and Medical
   (ISM) band is free worldwide but it generates high probability of
   interference for IEEE 802.15.4 and IEEE 802.15.6 devices and
   considered as 7th license-free band.  The 6th band (2360-2400 MHz) is
   used for medical devices instead of ISM band and offers less
   interference.

   The superframe structure consists of several phases: exclusive access
   phase 1 (EAP 1), random access phase 1 (RAP1), type I/II phase, an
   EAP 2, RAP 2 and contention access phase (CAP).  CSMA/CA or slotted
   Aloha is used by EAPs, RAPs and CAPs.  For emergency services and
   high priority data, the EAP 1 and EAP 2 are used, whereas, CAP, RAP 1
   and RAP 2 are used for regular data traffic.  Type I/II are used for
   bi-link allocation intervals, up-link and down-link allocation
   intervals and delay bi-link intervals.  For resource allocation, the
   type I/II polling is used.

   A node's backoff counter value is set to a random integer number in
   the range [1,CW (Contention Window)], where CW (default value is
   CWmin) belongs to CWmin and CWmax which is dependent on user
   priority.  When the algorithm starts, node begins counter decrement
   by one for every idle CSMA/CA slot duration (slot duration is equal
   to Pcsma/CA slot length).  A node considers a CSMA/CA slot idle if
   the channel has been idle between start of slot and pCCATime.  When



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   the backoff counter reaches zero, the node transmits the data frame.
   In case the channel is busy because of some other frame transmission,
   then node locks its backoff counter until the channel gets idle.  The
   value of CW get double in case of even number of failures until it
   reaches CWmax [CHALLENGES-WBAN] [RFC7548].

   o Beacon Mode with Superframe Boundaries:

   For this mode, the coordinator provides an unscheduled polled
   allocation and each node establishes its own schedule.  Different
   access mechanisms are used in superframe phases: schedule access
   (connection oriented and contention-free access), improvised and
   unscheduled access (connectionless and contention free access) and
   random access (CSMA/CA or slotted Aloha based).

   o Beacon Mode without Superframe Boundaries:

   In this channel access mode, beacons are not transmitted and channel
   is assigned by using polling mechanism.

7.  --IETF to standardize--

   This draft intend to standardize IEEE 802.15.6 for WBANs,
   specifically for implantable and wearable sensors.  By standardizing
   means that integration of frame format need to be done i.e., how the
   IEEE 802.15.6 frame format will communicate with IPv6?  How 6LoWPAN
   can accommodate this different frame format?  The purpose of the
   mentioned use cases is to highlight the importance of the standard.

   The 6LoWPAN is used to provide integration between IEEE 802.15.4 and
   IPv6.  The details are mentioned in [RFC7548].  The 6LoWPAN concept
   originated with the purpose of connectivity of internet protocol with
   low-power smaller devices so they could claim to be part of Internet
   of Things (IoT) Networks.

   The 6LoWPAN group has defined encapsulation and header compression
   mechanisms that allow ipv6 packets to be sent and received over IEEE
   802.15.4 based networks, similarly the draft intent to define these
   mechanisms for IEEE 802.15.6.  The 6LoWPAN can not be used with IEEE
   802.15.6 due to frame size differences of IEEE 802.15.4 and IEEE
   802.15.6.

8.  IANA Considerations

   [TBD]






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9.  Security Considerations

   IPv6 over WBAN's applications often require confidentiality and
   integrity protection.  This can be provided at the application,
   transport, network, and/or at the link.

10.  Acknowledgements

   [TBD]

11.  References

11.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC7548]  Ersue, M., Ed., Romascanu, D., Schoenwaelder, J., and A.
              Sehgal, "Management of Networks with Constrained Devices:
              Use Cases", RFC 7548, DOI 10.17487/RFC7548, May 2015,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7548>.

   [RFC7326]  Parello, J., Claise, B., Schoening, B., and J. Quittek,
              "Energy Management Framework", RFC 7326,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7326, September 2014,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7326>.

   [RFC2460]  Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6
              (IPv6) Specification", RFC 2460, DOI 10.17487/RFC2460,
              December 1998, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2460>.

   [RFC4944]  Montenegro, G., Kushalnagar, N., Hui, J., and D. Culler,
              "Transmission of IPv6 Packets over IEEE 802.15.4
              Networks", RFC 4944, DOI 10.17487/RFC4944, September 2007,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4944>.

11.2.  Informative References

   [I-D.ietf-6tisch-6top-sf0]
              Dujovne, D., Grieco, L., Palattella, M., and N. Accettura,
              "6TiSCH 6top Scheduling Function Zero (SF0)", draft-ietf-
              6tisch-6top-sf0-02 (work in progress), October 2016.







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   [I-D.satish-6tisch-6top-sf1]
              Anamalamudi, S., Zhang, M., Sangi, A., Perkins, C., and S.
              Anand, "Scheduling Function One (SF1) for hop-by-hop
              Scheduling in 6tisch Networks", draft-satish-6tisch-6top-
              sf1-02 (work in progress), August 2016.

   [IEEE802.15.6]
              "IEEE Standard, 802.15.6-2012 - IEEE Standard for Local
              and metropolitan area networks - Part 15.6: Wireless Body
              Area Networks", 2012,
              <https://standards.ieee.org/findstds/
              standard/802.15.6-2012.html>.

   [SURVEY-WBAN]
              Diffie, W., Samaneh Movassaghi, Mehran Abolhasan, Justin
              Lipman, David Smith, and Abbas Jamalipour, "Wireless body
              area networks: A survey", Communications Surveys and
              Tutorials, IEEE , vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 1658-1686, 2014.

   [MAC-WBAN]
              Minglei Shu, Dongfeng Yuan, Chongqing Zhang, Yinglong
              Wang, and Changfang Chen, "A MAC Protocol for Medical
              Monitoring Applications of Wireless Body Area Networks.",
              Sensors , vol. 15, no. 6, 2015.

   [CHALLENGES-WBAN]
              Riccardo Cavallari, Flavia Martelli, Ramona Rosini, Chiara
              Buratti, and Roberto Verdone, "A Survey on Wireless Body
              Area Networks: Technologies and Design Challenges.", IEEE
              Communications Surveys and Tutorials , vol. 16, no. 3,
              pp. 1635-1657, 2014.

Appendix A.  Patient monitoring use case - Spoke Hub

   Refer following diagram:
















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                                 ########
                               # @ EEG    #
                             ##   |      @ # Hearing
                             #    |      | #
                              #   |      |#
                               #  |     #|
                         #####    |      |## ###
                      #           |      |   @   ## Motion Sensor
          Positioning#  @         |      /  /     #
                    #    \        |ECG /  /       #
                    #     \       |  @ | /         #
                   #         \    | / / /           #
                  #      ##   \   |/ //      ##      #
                  #      ##    \  ||//       ##      #
                 #      # #     \ ||||      # #  @   # BP
                #       # #      \||||      # # /    ##
                #      ## #       ||||      # #/      ##
           SPO2# @    ##  #   Coordinator   # /##      #
              #   \  ##  ##       +-+        /  ##     ##
             #     ------+--------| |-------/ #   #      #
          ##     ##      #        +-+         ##     #    ##
        ##      ##      #         //\         #      #      ##
     ###       #        #        //  \        #      ##        ###
       ##      #        #       //    \       #       #      ## ##
       #      #        #       //      \      #        #      #
      ###   # #        #      //  ##    \     #        #     ###
        #  ###         #     //   # #    \    #         # #  ###
        ###            #    //   # #     |    #          # ###
                       #   //    # ##    |    #
        Glucose Sensor # @ /     #  #    |   #
                       ##  |     ##  #    |   #
                        # /      #   #    |   #
                        #/     #      #  |   #
                    Emg#@      #      #  |   #
                       #      #       ## |   #
                       ##              # |   #
                        #    #         # |   #
                        #    #          #\   #
                       #     #          # |   #
                       #     #          # @   # Motion Sensor
                        ##  #            ## ##
                          ##               #

             Figure 2: Patient monitoring use case - Spoke Hub







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Appendix B.  Patient monitoring use case - Connected

   Refer following diagram:

                                 ########
                              #   @ EEG    #
                             ##   |\-----@ # Hearing
                             #     |      \#
                              #    |     # |
                               #    |   ##  |Motion Sensor
                       #######      |     ##|####
                      #              |       |   ##
          Positioning#   @            |      @    #
                    #    /\        ECG|       \   #
                    #   /  \----------@        \   #
                   #   /                        |  #
                  #  /   ##                 ##   |  #
                 # /    # #                 # #  @   # BP
                #/     ## #                 # ##  |   ##
           SPO2# @    ##  #                 #  ## |    #
             #    \ #    #                   #   #|     #
          ##     ## \    #                   ##   | #    ##
       ##      #      \ #                     #  |    #      ## ##
      ###   # #        # \        ##          #  |     #     ###
        #  ###         #   \      # #          # |       # #  ###
        ###            #   |     # #          # |        # ###
                       #   |     # ##         # |
        Glucose Sensor #   @     #  #        #  |
                        # /     #    #       # /
                        #|    ##      #      #/
                        #/     #      #      #|
                    Emg#@      #      #      #|
                       #  \    #      #      #|
                       #    \  #      #      #|
                       #     \#       ##     #|
                       ##     \        #     #|
                        #     #\       #     #|
                        #    #  \      #     #|
                        #    #    \    #     #|
                        #    #     \   ##    #/
                        #    #       \ ##    /
                        #    #        \ ##  /#
                       ##    #          \  |  #
                       #     #          # \/  #
                        #    #           # @ # Motion Sensor
                          ##               #

             Figure 3: Patient monitoring use case - Connected



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Authors' Addresses

   Muhammad Sajjad Akbar
   Bournemouth University
   Fern Barrow, Dorset
   Poole  BH12 5BB
   United Kingdom

   Email: makbar@bournemouth.ac.uk


   Naveed Bin Rais
   Ajman University
   University Street,Al jerf 1
   Ajman  346
   United Arab Emirates

   Email: naveedbinrais@gmail.com


   Abdur Rashid Sangi
   Individual Contributor

   Email: sangi_bahrian@yahoo.com


   Mingui Zhang
   Huawei Technologies
   No. 156 Beiqing Rd. Haidian District
   Beijing  100095
   China

   Email: zhangmingui@huawei.com


   Charles E. Perkins
   Futurewei
   2330 Central Expressway
   Santa Clara  95050
   Unites States

   Email: charliep@computer.org









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