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Network Working Group                                        B. Sarikaya
Internet-Draft                                                Huawei USA
Intended status: Standards Track                            June 3, 2014
Expires: December 5, 2014


                  IPv6 RA Options for Next Hop Routes
                   draft-sarikaya-6man-next-hop-ra-02

Abstract

   This document proposes new Router Advertisement options for
   configuring next hop routes on the mobile or fixed nodes.  Using
   these options, an operator can easily configure nodes with multiple
   interfaces (or otherwise multi-homed) to enable them to select the
   routes to a destination.  Each option is defined together with
   definitions of host and router behaviors.  This document also
   proposes the router advertisement extensions for source address
   dependent routing.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on December 5, 2014.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2014 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must



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   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  Default Route Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   4.  Source Address Dependent Routing  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   5.  Host Configuration  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   6.  Router Configuration  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   7.  RA Packet Size and Router Issues  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   8.  Route Prefix option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   9.  Next Hop Address option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   10. Source Address/Prefix option  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   11. Next Hop Address with Route Prefix option . . . . . . . . . .   8
   12. Next Hop Address with Source Address and Route Prefix option    9
   13. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   14. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   15. Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   16. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     16.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     16.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   Author's Address  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12

1.  Introduction

   IPv6 Neighbor Discovery and IPv6 Stateless Address Autoconfiguration
   protocols can be used to configure fixed and mobile nodes with
   various parameters related to addressing and routing [RFC4861],
   [RFC4862], [RFC4191].  DNS Recursive Server Addresses and Domain Name
   Search Lists are additional parameters that can be configured using
   router advertisements [RFC6106].

   Router Advertisements can also be used to configure fixed and mobile
   nodes in multi-homed scenarios with route information and next hop
   address.  Different scenarios exist such as the node is
   simultaneously connected to multiple access network of e.g.  WiFi and
   3G.  The node may also be connected to more than one gateway.  Such
   connectivity may be realized by means of dedicated physical or
   logical links that may also be shared with other users nodes such as
   in residential access networks.

   Host configuration can be done using DHCPv6 or using router
   advertisements.  A comparison of DHCPv6 and RA based host
   configuration approaches is presented in
   [I-D.yourtchenko-ra-dhcpv6-comparison].



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2.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

3.  Default Route Configuration

   A host, usually a mobile host interested in obtaining routing
   information usually sends a Router Solicitation (RS) message on the
   link.  The router, when configured to do so, provides the route
   information using zero, one or more Next Hop Address and Route
   Information options in the router advertisement (RA) messages sent in
   response.

   The route options are extensible, as well as convey detailed
   information for routes.

   RS and RA exchange is for next hop address and route information
   determination and not for determining the link-layer address of the
   router.  Subsequent Neighbor Solicitation and Neighbor Advertisement
   exchange can be used to determine link-layer address of the router.

   It should be noted that the proposed options in this document will
   need a central site-wide configuration mechanism.  The required
   values can not automatically be derived from routing tables.

   Next hop address and related route information may be provided by
   some other means such as directly by the next hop routers.  In this
   document we assume that next hop routers are not able to provide this
   information.  One solution would be to develop an inter-router
   protocol to instigate the next hop routers to provide this
   information.  However, such a solution has been singled out due to
   the complexities involved.

   A non-trustworthy network may be available at the same time as a
   trustworthy network, with the risk of bad consequences if the host
   gets confused between the two.  These are basically the two models
   for hosts with multiple interfaces, both of which are valid, but
   which are incompatible with each other.  In the first model, an
   interface is connected to something like a corporate network, over a
   Virtual Private Network (VPN).  This connection is trusted because it
   has been authenticated.  Routes obtained over such a connection can
   probably be trusted, and indeed it may be important to use those
   routes.  This is because in the VPN case, you may also be connected
   to a network that's offered you a default route, and you could be
   attacked over that connection if you attempt to connect to resources
   on the enterprise network over it.



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   On the other, non-trustworthy network scenario, none of the networks
   to which the host is connected are meaningfully more or less
   trustworthy.  In this scenario, the untrustworthy network may hand
   out routes to other hosts, e.g. those in the VPN going through some
   malicious nodes.  This will have bad consequences because the host's
   traffic intended for the corporate VPN may be hijacked by the
   intermediate nodes.

   Router advertisement extensions described in this document can be
   used to install the routes.  However, the use of such a technique
   makes sense only in the former case above, i.e. trusted network.  So
   the host MUST have an authenticated connection to the network it
   connects so that the router advertisements can be trusted before
   establishing routes.

4.  Source Address Dependent Routing

   In multihomed networks there is a need to do source address based
   routing if some providers are performing the ingress filtering
   defined in BCP38 [RFC2827].  This requires the routers to consider
   the source addresses as well as the destination addresses in
   determining the next hop to send the packet to.

   The routers may be informed about the source addresses to use in
   routing using extensions to the routing protocols like IS-IS defined
   in [ISO.10589.1992] [I-D.baker-ipv6-isis-dst-src-routing] and OSPF
   defined in [RFC5340] [I-D.baker-ipv6-ospf-dst-src-routing].  In this
   document we define the router advertisement extensions for source
   address dependent routing.

   Routing protocol extensions for source address dependent routing does
   not avoid a host using a source address that may be subject to
   ingress filtering when sending a packet to one of the next hops.  In
   that case the host receives an ICMP source address failed ingress/
   egress policy error message in which case the host must resend the
   packet trying a different source address.  The extensions defined in
   this document aims at avoiding this inefficiency in packet forwarding
   at the host.

5.  Host Configuration

   Router advertisement options defined in this document are used by
   Type C hosts.

   As defined in [RFC4191] Type C host uses a Routing Table instead of a
   Default Router List.





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   The hosts set up their routing tables based on the router
   advertisement extensions defined in this document.  The routes
   established are used in forwarding the packets to a next hop based on
   the destination prefix/address using the longest match algorithm.

   In case the host receives Next Hop Address with Source Address and
   Route Prefix option, the host uses source and destination prefix/
   address using the longest match algorithm in order to select the next
   hop to forward the packet to.

6.  Router Configuration

   The router MAY send one or more Next Hop Address that specify the
   IPv6 next hop addresses.  Each Next Hop Address may be associated
   with one or more Route Prefix options that represent the IPv6
   destination prefixes reachable via the given next hop.  Router
   includes Route Prefix option in message to indicate that given prefix
   is available directly on-link.  When router sends Next Hop Address
   that is associated with Router Prefix option, the router MUST use
   Next Hop Address with Route Prefix option defined in Section 11.  The
   Route Prefix MAY contain ::/0, i.e. with Prefix Length set to zero to
   indicate available default route.

   The router MAY send one or more Next Hop Address options that specify
   the IPv6 next hop addresses and source address.  Each Next Hop
   Address may be associated with zero, one or more Source Prefix that
   represent the source addresses that are assigned from the prefixes
   that belong to this next hop.  The option MAY contain Route Prefix
   options that represent the IPv6 destination prefixes reachable via
   the given next hop as defined in Figure 4.  Router includes Next Hop
   Address with Route Prefix option and Source Prefix in the message to
   indicate that given prefix is available directly on-link and that any
   source addresses derived from the source prefix will not be subject
   to ingress filtering on these routes supported by these next hops.

   The router MAY send one or more Next Hop Address that specify the
   IPv6 next hop addresses and source address.  Each Next Hop Address
   option may be associated with zero, one or more Source Address that
   represent the source addresses that are assigned from the prefixes
   that belong to this next hop.  The option MAY contain Route Prefix
   options that represent the IPv6 destination prefixes reachable via
   the given next hop defined in Figure 5.  Router includes Next Hop
   Address with Source Address and Route Prefix option in the message to
   indicate that given prefix is available directly on-link and that the
   source address will not be subject to ingress filtering.  For the
   Source Address, Source Prefix option is used with prefix length set
   to 128.




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   Each Next Hop Address may be associated with zero, one or more Source
   Prefix that represent the source addresses that are assigned from the
   prefixes that belong to this next hop.  The option MAY contain Route
   Prefix options that represent the IPv6 destination prefixes reachable
   via the given next hop.  Router includes Next Hop Address with Route
   Prefix option defined in Section 11 in the message to indicate that
   given prefix is available directly on-link.  Next Hop Address with
   Route Prefix option MUST be followed by a Source Prefix option
   defined in Section 10 to indicate that any source addresses derived
   from the source prefix will not be subject to ingress filtering on
   these routes supported by these next hops.

7.  RA Packet Size and Router Issues

   The options defined in this document are to be used on multi-homed
   hosts.  A mobile host would typically have two interfaces, Wi-Fi and
   3G but hosts with 3 or 4 interfaces may also exist.  Configuring such
   hosts using the options defined in this document brings up the RA
   packet size issue, i.e. the packet size should not exceed the maximum
   transmission unit (MTU) of the link.

   Total size of all options defined in this document is 160 octets.
   Considering that 1500 bytes is the minimum MTU configured by the vast
   majority of links in the Internet the hosts with 3-4 interfaces or
   links can be easily configured by a single router advertisement
   message carrying the options defined here.

   The router before sending the RA SHOULD check if it fits in one
   frame, i.e. the size does not exceed the path MTU, the router should
   send a single RA message.  If it does not then sending the options in
   consecutive RA messages should be considered, avoiding any re-
   assembly issues.

   The routes advertised have route lifetime values.  The host considers
   the routes in its routing table stale when the lifetime expires.  The
   router MUST refresh these routes periodically in order to avoid stale
   routing table entries in the hosts.

   In some cases the mobile devices with multiple interfaces become
   routers.  Such devices may configure their routing tables using
   routing protocols such as RIPng or OSPFv3 [RFC7157].  RA based
   approach described in this document can also be used to configure
   such hosts.








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8.  Route Prefix option

        0                   1                   2                   3
        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |     Type      |    Length     | Prefix Length |    Metric     |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                        Route Lifetime                         |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                   Prefix (Variable Length)                    |
       .                                                               .
       .                                                               .
       .                                                               .
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                       Figure 1: Route Prefix option

   Fields:

   Type: TBD.

   Length: The length of the option (including the Type and Length
   fields) in units of 8 octets.

   Other fields are as in [RFC4191] except:

   Metric: Route Metric. 8-bit signed integer.  The Route Metric
   indicates whether to prefer the next hop associated with this prefix
   over others, when multiple identical prefixes (for different next
   hops) have been received.

9.  Next Hop Address option

        0                   1                   2                   3
        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |     Type      |    Length     |  Prefix Length|  Reserved     |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                        Reserved                               |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                       Next Hop Address                        |
       .                                                               .
       .                                                               .
       .                                                               .
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                     Figure 2: Next Hop Address option




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   Fields:

   Type: TBD.

   Length: The length of the option (including the type and length
   fields) in units of 8 octets.  It's value is 3.

   Prefix Length: 128

   Next Hop Address: An IPv6 address that specifies IPv6 address of the
   next hop.  It is 16 octets in length.

10.  Source Address/Prefix option

        0                   1                   2                   3
        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |     Type      |    Length     |  Prefix Length|  Reserved     |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                        Reserved                               |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                   Prefix (Variable Length)                    |
       .                                                               .
       .                                                               .
       .                                                               .
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                  Figure 3: Source Address/Prefix option

   Fields:

   Type: TBD.

   Length: The length of the option (including the type and length
   fields) in units of 8 octets.  It's value is 3.

   Prefix Length: An IPv6 prefix length in bits, from 0 to 128.

   Prefix: An IPv6 prefix that specifies the source IPv6 prefix.  It is
   16 octets or less in length.  Note that when the prefix length is set
   to 128, this option becomes a source address option.

11.  Next Hop Address with Route Prefix option








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        0                   1                   2                   3
        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |     Type      |    Length     | Prefix Length |    Metric     |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                        Route Lifetime                         |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                     Next Hop Address                          |
       .                                                               .
       .                                                               .
       .                                                               .
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                   Prefix (Variable Length)                    |
       .                                                               .
       .                                                               .
       .                                                               .
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

            Figure 4: Next Hop Address with Route Prefix option

   Fields:

   Type: TBD.

   Length: The length of the option (including the type and length
   fields) in units of 8 octets.  For example, the length for a prefix
   of length 16 is 5.

   Other fields are as in Section 8 and Section 9.

12.  Next Hop Address with Source Address and Route Prefix option




















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        0                   1                   2                   3
        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |     Type      |    Length     | Prefix Length |    Metric     |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                        Route Lifetime                         |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                     Next Hop Address                          |
       .                                                               .
       .                                                               .
       .                                                               .
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                    Source Address                             |
       .                                                               .
       .                                                               .
       .                                                               .
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                   Prefix (Variable Length)                    |
       .                                                               .
       .                                                               .
       .                                                               .
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      Figure 5: Next Hop Address with Source Address and Route Prefix
                                  option

   Fields:

   Type: TBD.

   Length: The length of the option (including the type and length
   fields) in units of 8 octets.  For example, the length for a prefix
   of length 16 is 7.

   Other fields are as in Section 8, Section 9 and Section 10.  Note
   that when prefix length is set to 128, the source prefix field refers
   to the source address.

13.  Security Considerations

   Neighbor Discovery is subject to attacks that cause IP packets to
   flow to unexpected places.  Because of this, neighbor discovery
   messages SHOULD be secured, possibly using Secure Neighbor Discovery
   (SEND) protocol [RFC3971].







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14.  IANA Considerations

   Authors of this document request IANA to assign the following new RA
   options:

     +-------------------------------------------------------+-------+
     | Option Name                                           | Type  |
     +-------------------------------------------------------+-------+
     | Route Prefix                                          |       |
     | Next Hop Address                                      |       |
     | Source Address/Prefix                                 |       |
     | Next Hop Address and Route Prefix                     |       |
     | Next Hop Address with Source Address and Route Prefix |       |
     +-------------------------------------------------------+-------+

                                 Table 1:

15.  Acknowledgements

   Dan Luedtke, Brian Carpenter, Ray Hunter provided many comments that
   have been incorporated into the document.

16.  References

16.1.  Normative References

   [ISO.10589.1992]
              International Organization for Standardization,
              "Intermediate system to intermediate system intra-domain-
              routing routine information exchange protocol for use in
              conjunction with the protocol for providing the
              connectionless-mode Network Service (ISO 8473), ISO
              Standard 10589", ISO ISO.10589.1992, 1992.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC2629]  Rose, M., "Writing I-Ds and RFCs using XML", RFC 2629,
              June 1999.

   [RFC2827]  Ferguson, P. and D. Senie, "Network Ingress Filtering:
              Defeating Denial of Service Attacks which employ IP Source
              Address Spoofing", BCP 38, RFC 2827, May 2000.

   [RFC3971]  Arkko, J., Kempf, J., Zill, B., and P. Nikander, "SEcure
              Neighbor Discovery (SEND)", RFC 3971, March 2005.





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   [RFC4191]  Draves, R. and D. Thaler, "Default Router Preferences and
              More-Specific Routes", RFC 4191, November 2005.

   [RFC4605]  Fenner, B., He, H., Haberman, B., and H. Sandick,
              "Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) / Multicast
              Listener Discovery (MLD)-Based Multicast Forwarding
              ("IGMP/MLD Proxying")", RFC 4605, August 2006.

   [RFC4861]  Narten, T., Nordmark, E., Simpson, W., and H. Soliman,
              "Neighbor Discovery for IP version 6 (IPv6)", RFC 4861,
              September 2007.

   [RFC4862]  Thomson, S., Narten, T., and T. Jinmei, "IPv6 Stateless
              Address Autoconfiguration", RFC 4862, September 2007.

   [RFC5340]  Coltun, R., Ferguson, D., Moy, J., and A. Lindem, "OSPF
              for IPv6", RFC 5340, July 2008.

   [RFC7157]  Troan, O., Miles, D., Matsushima, S., Okimoto, T., and D.
              Wing, "IPv6 Multihoming without Network Address
              Translation", RFC 7157, March 2014.

16.2.  Informative References

   [I-D.baker-ipv6-isis-dst-src-routing]
              Baker, F., "IPv6 Source/Destination Routing using IS-IS",
              draft-baker-ipv6-isis-dst-src-routing-01 (work in
              progress), August 2013.

   [I-D.baker-ipv6-ospf-dst-src-routing]
              Baker, F., "IPv6 Source/Destination Routing using OSPFv3",
              draft-baker-ipv6-ospf-dst-src-routing-03 (work in
              progress), August 2013.

   [I-D.yourtchenko-ra-dhcpv6-comparison]
              Yourtchenko, A., "A comparison between the DHCPv6 and RA
              based host configuration", draft-yourtchenko-ra-
              dhcpv6-comparison-00 (work in progress), November 2013.

   [RFC6106]  Jeong, J., Park, S., Beloeil, L., and S. Madanapalli,
              "IPv6 Router Advertisement Options for DNS Configuration",
              RFC 6106, November 2010.

Author's Address







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   Behcet Sarikaya
   Huawei USA
   5340 Legacy Dr. Building 175
   Plano, TX  75024

   Email: sarikaya@ieee.org













































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