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Versions: 00 01 02 draft-schmitt-ace-twowayauth-for-iot

Network Working Group                                         C. Schmitt
Internet-Draft                                                B. Stiller
Intended status: Standards Track                    University of Zurich
Expires: January 5, 2014                                     T. Kothmayr
                                                             TU Muenchen
                                                                   W. Hu
                                                        CSIRO ICT Centre
                                                            July 4, 2013

        DTLS-based Security with two-way Authentication for IoT


   In this draft the first key idea for a full two-way authentication
   security scheme for the Internet of Things (IoT) based on existing
   Internet standards, specifically the Datagram Transport Layer
   Security (DTLS) protocol, is introduced.  By relying on an
   established standard, existing implementations, engineering
   techniques, and security infrastructure can be reused, which enables
   an easy security uptake.  The proposed security scheme is, therefore,
   based on RSA, the most widely used public key cryptography algorithm.
   It is designed to work over standard communication stacks that offer
   UDP/IPv6 networking for Low power Wireless Personal Area Networks

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted to IETF in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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   This Internet-Draft will expire on January 5, 2014.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2013 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

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   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
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   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
     1.1.  Document structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3

   2.  Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4

   3.  High Level Design Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     3.1.  Implementation of A Standards Based Design . . . . . . . .  4
     3.2.  Focus on Application Layer and End-to-End Security . . . .  4
     3.3.  Support for unreliable transport protocols . . . . . . . .  5

   4.  DTLS Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks . . . . . . . . . .  5
     4.1.  DTLS Standard - RFC 6347 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     4.2.  A Standard Based End-to-End Security Architecture  . . . .  6

   5.  Hardware Requirements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7

   6.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8

   7.  Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8

   8.  Formal Syntax  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9

   9.  References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     9.1.  Norminative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     9.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

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1.  Introduction

   Today, there is a multitude of envisioned and implemented use cases
   for the Internet of Things (IoT) and wireless sensor networks
   (WSNs).In many of these scenarios it is intended to make the
   collected data globally accessible to authorized users and data
   processing units through the Internet.  Most of these data collected
   in such scenarios is of sensitive nature due to the relation to
   location and personal information or IDs.  Even seemingly
   inconspicuous data, such as the energy consumption measured by a
   smart meter, can lead to potential infringements in the users'
   privacy, e.g., by allowing an eavesdropper to conclude whether or not
   a user is currently at home.  From an industry perspective, there is
   also a pressing need for security solutions based on standards as
   pointed out by the market research firm Gartner Inc. [1].  Regarding
   the infrastructure, security risks are aggravated by the trend toward
   a separation of sensor network infrastructure and applications.
   Therefore, a true end-to-end security solution is required to achieve
   an adequate level of security for IoT.  Protecting the data once it
   leaves the scope of the local network is not sufficient.

   A similar scenario in the traditional computing world would be a user
   browsing the Internet over an unsecured WLAN.  Assuming attackers in
   physical proximity of the user it can happen that the attacker can
   capture the traffic between the user and a Web server.
   Countermeasures against such attacks include the establishment of a
   secured connection to the Web server via HTTPS, the use of a VPN
   tunnel to securely connect to a trusted VPN endpoint, and using
   wireless network security such as WPA.

   These solutions are comparable to security approaches in the IoT
   area.  Using WPA is similar to the traditional use of link layer
   encryption.  The VPN solution is equivalent to creating a secure
   connection between a sensor node and a security end-point, which may
   or may not be the final destination of the sensor data.  Establishing
   a HTTPS connection with the server is comparable to the approach
   described in this draft: The use of the DTLS protocol in an end-to-
   end security architecture for IoT is investigated, where DTLS is an
   adaption of the widespread TLS protocol, used to secure HTTPS, for
   unreliable datagram transport.

1.1.  Document structure

   Section 2 mentions conventions used in this draft.  Afterwards the
   assumed high level design requirements are briefly mentioned in
   Section 3.  Section 4 describes idea of bringing DTLS to Wireless
   sensor networks.  Section 5 defines the hardware requirements,
   followed by security considerations.  The draft is concluded in

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   Section 7.

2.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

3.  High Level Design Requirements

   Due to the usage of DTLS for establishing an end-to-end security
   architecture for IoT three high-level design decisions MUST be made.

3.1.  Implementation of A Standards Based Design

   Standardization has helped the widespread uptake of technologies.
   Radio chips can rely on IEEE 802.15.4 for the physical and the MAC
   layer.  Routing functionality is provided by the so-called 'IPv6
   Routing Protocol for Low power and Lossy Networks' (RPL) [RFC6550] or
   6LoWPAN [RFC4944].  COAP [2] defines the application layer.  So far,
   no such efforts have addressed security in a wider context of IoT.

3.2.  Focus on Application Layer and End-to-End Security

   An end-to-end protocol provides security even if the underlying
   network infrastructure is only partially under the user's control.
   As the infrastructure for Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communication is
   getting increasingly commoditized, this scenario becomes more likely:
   The European Telecommunications Standard Institute (ETSI) plans to
   standardize the transport of local device data to a remote data
   center.  For stationary installations security functionality could be
   provided by the gateway to the higher-level network.  However, such
   gateways MAY present a high-value target for an attacker.  If the
   devices are mobile, as it is possible within a logistic application,
   there may be no gateway to a provider's network that is under the
   user's control, similar to how users of smart phones connect directly
   to their carrier's network.  Another example that favours end-to-end
   security is a multi-tenancy office building being equipped with a
   common infrastructure for metering and climate-control purposes.
   Tenants share the infrastructure but are still able to keep their
   devices' data private from other members of the network.

   DTLS is located between the transport and the application layer.
   Thus, it is not necessary that providers of the infrastructure
   support security mechanisms.  It is purely in the hands of the two
   communicating applications to establish security.  If the security is

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   provided by a network layer protocol (e.g., IPsec) the same is true
   to a lower degree, because network stacks of both devices MUST
   support the same security protocols.

3.3.  Support for unreliable transport protocols

   Reliable transport protocols like TCP incur an overhead over simpler,
   unreliable protocols such as UDP.  Especially for energy starved,
   battery powered devices this overhead is often too costly and TCP has
   been shown to perform poorly in low-bandwidth scenarios [3].  This is
   reflected in the design of the emerging standard COAP, which uses UDP
   transport and defines a binding to DTLS for security [2].  By using
   DTLS in conjunction with UDP this draft does not force the
   application developer to use reliable transport - as it would be the
   application developer to use reliable transport - as it would be the
   case if TLS would be used.  It is still possible to use DTLS over
   transport protocols like TCP, since DTLS only assumes unreliable

   This is a weaker property than the reliability provided by TCP.
   However, adaptations of DTLS for unreliable transport introduce
   additional overhead when compared to TLS.  There MAY be a benefit in
   using TCP during the handshake phase but the DTLS reliability
   mechanism SHOULD be adapted to the special requirements of constraint

4.  DTLS Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

4.1.  DTLS Standard - RFC 6347

   The Datagram Transport Layer Security (DTLS) protocol in version 1.2
   was standardized under the RFC 6347 [RFC6347].  All messages sent via
   DTLS are prepended with a 13 Byte long DTLS record header.  This
   header specifies the content of the message (e.g. application data or
   handshake data), the version of the protocol employed, as well as the
   64 bit sequence number and the record length.  The top two bytes of
   the sequence number are used to specify the epoch of the message,
   which changes once new encryption parameters have been negotiated
   between client and server.

   If no security has been negotiated yet, the DTLS record header is
   followed by the plaintext, otherwise by the DTLS block cipher.  If a
   block cipher is used, the plaintext is prepended by a random
   Initialization Vector (IV), which has the size of the cipher block
   length.  This approach protects against attacks where attackers can
   adaptively choose plaintext.  The plaintext is followed by a Hash-
   based Message Authentication Code (HMAC), which allows the receiver

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   to detect if the DTLS record has been altered.  Finally, the message
   is padded to a multiple of the cipher block length.  Unlike TLS, DTLS
   does not allow for stream ciphers, because they are sensitive to
   message loss and recording.  Instead DTLS uses block ciphers in the
   Cipher-Block Chaining (CBC) mode of operation.

   The key material and cipher suite, consisting of a block cipher and a
   hash algorithm, are negotiated between the client and the server
   during the handshake phase, which commences before any application
   data can be transferred.  Three types of handshake exist:
   unauthenticated, server authenticated, and fully authenticated
   handshakes.  During an unauthenticated handshake neither party
   authenticated with the other.  In contrast, in a server-authenticated
   handshake only the server proves its identity to the client.  In a
   fully authenticated handshake the client has to authenticate itself
   to the server as well.

4.2.  A Standard Based End-to-End Security Architecture

   The proposed system architecture in this draft is following the IoT
   model.  It is assumed that IPv6 connects the Internet and parts of it
   run 6LoWPAN.  The transport layer in 6LoWPAN is UDP, which can be
   considered unreliable; the routing layer is RPL or Hydro [[3].  Both
   routing protocols are similar enough and, therefore, a change SHOULD
   have negligible impact on the results.  IEEE 802.15.4 is used for the
   physical and MAC layer.  Based on this protocol stack DTLS was
   selected as the security protocol and placed in the application layer
   on top of the UDP transportation layer.  Figure 1 shows the network
   stack used in this draft [6], while BLIP is a special 6LoWPAN
   implementation including several IP protocols [7].

                            +----------------------+    +---------------------+
                            |  Application L.      |    | COAP, XML, ...      |
                            |                              |    |                             |
                            |   +-------------+    |    | +------------+      |
                            |   | Security L. |    |    | |   DTLS     |      |
                            |   +-------------+    |    | +------------+      |
                            +----------------------+    +---------------------+
                            |  Transport L.            |    |   UDP-|             |
                            |                              |    |           |->BLIP,RPL   |
                            |  Network L.          |    |  IPv6-|                 |
                            +----------------------+    +---------------------+
                            |  Medium Access L.    |    |  IEEE 802.15.4      |
                            +----------------------+    +---------------------+
                            |  Physical L.             |    |  IEEE 802.15.4      |
                            +----------------------+    +---------------------+

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                      Figure 1: Assumed Network Stack

   In order to support end-to-end communication security the need for
   proper authentication of data publishing devices and access control
   throughout the network is required.  Thus, an Access Control (AC)
   server is integrated in the assumed system architecture.  The AC is a
   trusted entity and a resource-rich server, on which access rights for
   the publisher (= sensor nodes) of the secured network are stored.
   The identity of a default subscriber is usually preconfigured on a
   publisher before it is deployed.  If any additional subscribers want
   to initialize a connection with the publisher, they first have to
   obtain an access ticket from the AC.  The AC verifies that the
   subscriber has the right to access the information available from the
   publisher.  In the next step the publisher only has to evaluate the
   identity of the subscriber and has to verify the ticket it has
   received from the AC.  This requires a unique identity for a
   publisher in the network.  In the Internet, identities are usually
   established via public key cryptography (PKC) and identifiers are
   provided through X.509 certificates.  An X.509 certificate contains,
   among other information, the public key of an entity and its common
   name.  A trusted third party, called the Certificate Authority (CA),
   signs the certificate.  The CA serves two purposes: Firstly, the
   signature allows the receiver to detect modifications to the
   certificate.  Secondly, it also states that the CA has verified the
   identity of the entity that requested the certificate.

5.  Hardware Requirements

   Hu et al. showed that RSA, the most commonly used public key
   algorithm in the Internet, can be used in sensor networks with
   theassistance of a Trusted Platform Module (TPM), which costs less
   than 5% of a common sensor node [4].  A TPM is an embedded chip that
   provides tamper proof generation and storage of RSA keys as well as
   hardware support for the RSA algorithm.  The certificate of a TPM
   equipped publisher and the certificate of a trusted CA MUST be stored
   on the publisher prior to deployment.

   For publishers that are not equipped with TPM chips the
   authentication can be proposed via the DTLS pre-shared key cipher-
   suite, which requires a small number of random bytes, from which the
   actual key is derived, to be preloaded to the publisher before
   deployment.  This secret MUST also be made available to the AC
   server, which will disclose the key to devices with sufficient

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6.  Security Considerations

   The following security goals are addressed by the key idea presented
   in this draft:


      Recipients of a message can identify their communication partners
      and can detect if the sender information has been forged.


      Communication partners can detect changes to a message during


      Attackers cannot gain knowledge about the content of a secured

   By choosing DTLS as the security protocol those goals can be
   achieved.  DTLS is a modification of TLS for the unreliable UDP and
   inherits its security properties [5].

7.  Conclusion

   In this draft the key idea of a standard-based security architecture
   with two-way authentication for the IoT was introduced.  During a
   fully authenticated DTLS handshake authentication can be performed,
   while the handshake is based on an exchange of X.509 certificates
   containing RSA keys.  The proposed architecture provides message
   integrity, confidentiality, and authenticity with affordable energy,
   end-to-end latency, and memory overhead [6].  Thus, it can be assumed
   that DTLS is a feasible security solution for the emerging IoT.  A
   fully authenticated handshake with strong security through 2048 bit
   RSA keys is considered as feasible for sensor nodes equipped with a
   TPM chip, since a fully authenticated, RSA-based handshake consumes
   as little as 488 mJ [6].  These additional memory requirements of
   fewer than 20 kB RAM are well below the 48 kB of memory offered by
   the sensor node used [6].

   Sensor nodes without a TPM chip forego protection against physical
   tampering, but can still perform a DTLS handshake based on Elliptic
   Curve Cryptography (ECC), which could be performed on the same
   platform with little more than 100 mJ of energy usage [6].

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   For the future it MAY be possible to apply these techniques to DTLS
   together with an Authenticated Encryption with Associated Data (AEAD)
   mode of operation.  Another focus MAY be the inclusion of more
   constrained nodes without a TPM in the proposed architecture, for
   which a variant of the DTLS pre-shared key cipher suites SHALL be

8.  Formal Syntax

   6LoWPAN - IPv6 over Low power Wireless Personal Area Network (RFC

   AC - Access Control Server

   BLIP - Berkeley Low-power IP stack

   CA - Certificate Authority

   CBC - Cipher-Block Chaining

   COAP - Constrained Application Protocol

   DTLS - Datagram Transport Layer Security protocol (RFC 6347)

   ECC - Elliptic Curve Cryptography

   ETSI - European Telecommunications Standard Institute

   HMAC - Hash-based Message Authentication Code

   IoT - Internet of Things

   IV - Initialization Vector

   PKC - Public Key Cryptography

   RPL - Routing Protocol for Low power and Lossy Networks (RFC 6550)

   TCP - Transmission Control Protocol (RFC 793)

   TLS - The Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocol Version 1.2 (RFC

   TPM - Trusted Platform Module

   UDP - User Datagram Protocol (RFC 768)

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   WSN - Wireless Sensor Network

9.  References

9.1.  Norminative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC6550]  Winter, T., Thubert, P., Brandt, A., Hui, J., Kelsey, R.,
              Levis, P., Pister, K., Struik, R., Vasseur, JP., and R.
              Alexander, "RPL: IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-Power and
              Lossy Networks", RFC 6550, March 2012.

   [RFC6347]  Rescorla, E. and N. Modadugu, "Datagram Transport Layer
              Security Version 1.2", RFC 6347, January 2012.

   [RFC4944]  Montenegro, G., Kushalnagar, N., Hui, J., and D. Culler,
              "Transmission of IPv6 Packets over IEEE 802.15.4
              Networks", RFC 4944, September 2007.

   [2]        Shelby et al., Z., "Constrained Application Protocol
              March 2013.

   [3]        Dawson-Haggerty et al., S., "Hydro: a hybrid routing
              protocol for low-power and lossy networks", In Proceedings
              of the 1st IEEE International Conference on Smart Grid
              Communications, SmartGridComm, Gaithersburg, Maryland,
              U.S.A.. , 2010.

   [5]        Modadugu et al., N., "The Design and Implementation of
              Datagram TLS", In Proceedings of the Network and
              Distributed System Security Symposium (NDSS), San Diego,
              California, U.S.A.. , 2004.

9.2.  Informative References

   [1]        LeHong, H., "Hype Cycle for the Internet of Things", Tech.
              rep., Gartner Inc. , 2012.

   [4]        Hu, W., "Toward trusted wireless sensor networks", ACM
              Transactions on Sensor Networks, Vol. 7, No.5. , 2010.

   [6]        Kothmayr et al., T., "DTLS based security and two-way
              authentication for the Internet of Things", Elsevier,

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              Journal Ad Hoc Networks , 2013.

   [7]        Dawson-Haggerty, S. and D. Culler, "Berkeley IP
              Information, Berkeley WEBS Wireless Embedded Systems,

Authors' Addresses

   Corinna Schmitt
   Univerity of Zurich
   Department for Informatics
   Communication Systems Group
   Binzmuehlestrasse 14
   Zurich  8050

   Email: schmitt@ifi.uzh.ch

   Burkhard Stiller
   Univerity of Zurich
   Department for Informatics
   Communication Systems Group
   Binzmuehlestrasse 14
   Zurich  8050

   Email: stiller@ifi.uzh.ch

   Thomas Kothmayr
   Technische Universitaet Muenchen
   Department of Informatics
   Datenbanksysteme (Informatik 3)
   Boltzmannstr. 3
   Garching  85748

   Email: kothmayr@in.tum.de

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   Wen Hu
   CSIRO ICT Centre
   1 Technology Court
   Pullenvale  QLD 4069

   Email: Wen.Hu@csiro.au

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