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CoRE Working Group                                           G. Selander
Internet-Draft                                                  M. Sethi
Intended Status: Informational                                  Ericsson
Expires: April 24, 2014                                         L. Seitz
                                                        SICS Swedish ICT
                                                        October 21, 2013

         Access Control Framework for Constrained Environments


   The Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) is a light-weight web
   transfer protocol designed to be used in constrained nodes and
   constrained networks.  Communication security support for CoAP,
   including authentication, encryption, integrity protection, is
   specified by means of a DTLS binding for CoAP, but authorization and
   access control are not described in detail.

   This document describes a generic and dynamic access control
   framework suitable for constrained environments e.g. using CoAP.  The
   framework builds on standards and well known paradigms for access
   control, externalizing authorization decision making to unconstrained
   nodes while performing authorization decision enforcement and
   verification of local conditions in constrained devices.

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted to IETF in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups.  Note that
   other groups may also distribute working documents as

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress".

   The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at

   The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at

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Copyright and License Notice

   Copyright (c) 2013 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     1.1  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   2.  Scope and Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     2.1 Resource Authorization and Protocol Authorization  . . . . .  5
     2.2  Requirements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   3  Outline of Access Control Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     3.1 Rationale  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     3.2 Roles  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     3.3 Message flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   4.  Access Tokens  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     4.1 Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     4.2 Access Token Protection  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     4.3  Access Token Transport  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     4.4  Access Token Reception  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     4.5  Access Token Enforcement  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   5. Intermediary processing and notifications . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     5.1 Intermediary nodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     5.2 Mirror Server  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     5.3 Observe  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
   6.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
   7.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
   8.  Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
   9.  References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
     9.1  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
     9.2  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
   Appendix A.  Example Token Syntax  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

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   Appendix B.  Changelog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

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1.  Introduction

   The Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) [I-D.ietf-core-coap] is a
   light-weight web transfer protocol, suitable for applications in
   embedded devices used in services such as smart energy, smart home,
   building automation, remote patient monitoring etc.  Due to the
   nature of the these use cases including critical, unattended
   infrastructure and the personal sphere, security and privacy are
   critical components. Use cases for CoRE security are discussed in [I-

   CoAP message exchanges can be protected with different security
   protocols.  The CoAP specification defines a DTLS binding for CoAP,
   which provides communication security services including
   authentication, encryption, integrity, and replay protection.

   Authorization and access control - i.e. controlling who has access to
   what - is addressed with access control lists, which are assumed to
   have been provisioned to the devices and which contain lists of
   identifiers that may start DTLS sessions with the devices.

   There are some limitations inherent to such an approach:

      1. By restricting the scope of access control to the granularity
         of identifiers of requesting clients, it is not possible to
         give different privileges to different entities that are
         allowed to access the same device.  For example, it may be
         desirable to give some clients the right to GET resources but
         others the right to POST or PUT resources to the same device;
         or to give the same client different access rights for
         different resources on the same device.

      2. There are use cases [I-D.seitz-core-sec-usecases] where the
         granularity of GET/PUT/POST/DELETE is not sufficient to specify
         the relevant access restrictions.  For example, an access
         policy may depend on local conditions of the device such as
         date and time, proximity, geo-location, detected effort (press
         3 times), or other aspects of the current state of the device.

      3. It is not defined how to change access privileges except by re-
         provisioning. How such changes would be authorized is also

   This document proposes a framework that allows fine-grained and
   flexible access control, applicable to a generic setting including
   use cases with constrained devices [I-D.ietf-lwig-terminology].

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1.1  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC
   2119 [RFC2119].

   Certain security-related terms are to be understood in the sense
   defined in [RFC4949].  These terms include, but are not limited to,
   "authentication", "authorization", "access control",
   "confidentiality", "credential", "encryption", "sign", "signature",
   "data integrity", and "verify".

   Terminology for constrained environments is defined in [I-D.ietf-
   lwig-terminology].  These terms include, but are not limited to,
   "constrained device", "constrained network", and "device class".

2.  Scope and Requirements

   This section defines the scope and gives an overview of the
   requirements that form the basis for the proposed Access Control

2.1 Resource Authorization and Protocol Authorization

   Access control is protection of system resources against unauthorized
   access. There are different kinds of "system resources" that needs
   protection and different kinds of protection mechanisms.

   For the purpose of this memo, we distinguish between two types of
   authorization: "Resource Authorization" and "Protocol

      o Resource Authorization (RA) deals with the question whether the
         server should allow a client requesting GET/PUT/POST/DELETE to
         a resource (where "resource" is as defined in RFC 2616).

      o Protocol Authorization (PA) deals with the question whether the
         server should allow a client to run a certain protocol with it.

   RA is mainly about granting only authorized requests for a resource,
   and protecting resource related communication between authorized
   client and server

   PA is mainly about protecting the device hosting the resource and
   avoiding unnecessary protocol processing e.g. to save battery /
   computing resources or to protect against certain DoS attacks.

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   Although there are overlapping and degenerate cases, we believe this
   distinction is useful to understand the purpose of authorization.

   There may be dependencies between PA and RA:

      o RA typically imply some PA: If a client is authorized to access
         a resource hosted on a server, then the client should be
         allowed to run a protocol (say DTLS) with the server for
         accessing the resource.

      o PA access does not necessarily imply RA: Just because a client
         is authorized to execute a protocol (say DTLS) with the server,
         the client is not necessarily authorized to access any
         resources hosted on the server.

   The CoAP Security Modes [I-D.ietf-core-coap] and the Additional
   Security Modes for CoAP [I-D.seitz-core-security-modes] define Access
   Control Lists with information about what clients are allowed to run
   DTLS with an origin server. This is by definition Protocol
   Authorization. However, PA can be used to define RA: For example, by
   allowing access to all resources for all clients successfully
   executing the protocol.

   The scope of the Access Control Framework defined in this draft is
   primarily RA, but as is noted above, RA implies that complementing PA
   needs to be defined.

2.2  Requirements

   The Access Control Framework SHALL support

      o access control in a constrained environment with constrained
         devices or networks, in particular,
         - additional messages exclusively for performing access control
            SHOULD be kept at a minimum to reduce power consumption on
            the constrained devices.

      o access control applicable to a variety of use cases and access
         purposes, in particular
         - differentiated access rights for different requesting
         - access control at least at the granularity of RESTful
         - access policies based on local conditions (e.g. state of
            device, time, position),

      o changes to access policies without re-provisioning, and

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      o interoperability between different system components and
         providers, which is best achieved by the use of state-of-the-
         art security standards and best practices (in particular end-
         to-end security between resource and authorized client).

   The Access Control Framework SHALL be compatible with a large variety
   of client-server authentication methods, message protection
   mechanisms (communication/object security), device key management
   procedures and trust anchors (secret keys, raw public keys,

3  Outline of Access Control Framework

   In this section we present the rationale leading to our access
   control framework, the resulting roles, the message flow, and the
   access control procedure.

3.1 Rationale

   Consider a generic setting where a CoAP client wants to access a
   resource hosted on a CoAP server, which is potentially a constrained
   device, and where the access rights are determined by the owner of
   the resource. In this section we introduce some of the terms and
   procedures and provide some rationale for those.

   Managing and evaluating arbitrary access control policies is in
   general too heavyweight for constrained devices.  As a consequence
   the main authorization decision is externalized to a less constrained
   node, called the "authorization server", acting on behalf of the
   resource owner.

   On the other hand, access control enforcement should be performed in
   a trusted environment associated to the resource and as close to the
   resource as possible, in order to provide end-to-end security between
   resource and authorized client.

   Moreover, verifications of any local conditions should be performed
   in conjunction with accessing the resource for the following reasons:

      o Transporting information about local conditions in the device to
         an authorization server for each policy decision (or on a
         regular basis) introduces delays and/or adds additional
         messages exclusively for the purpose of performing access

      o Local conditions may have changed at the time of enforcement.

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   We therefore target enforcement and local decisions to take place in
   the constrained device hosting the resource, or in a proxy-type
   device offloading a severely constrained device hosting the resource.

   We express local conditions as constraints under which an externally
   granted authorization decision is valid, and which are verified at
   the time and location of enforcement.

   In order to convey the authorization decisions (including local
   conditions) from the authorization server to the device where access
   control is enforced, we use integrity protected data objects, which
   we call "access tokens" (or just "tokens").

   Access tokens are acquired from the authorization server and used to
   gain access to the device. We denote by "access manager" the function
   of requesting and receiving access tokens from an authorization
   server. Constrained clients may need support to acquire tokens, in
   which case the access manager is implemented on a separate node.


      1. The authorization server must be trusted by all involved
         parties, in particular by the resource owner.  We assume that
         this trust relationship is manifested through trusted keys
         established a priori in the constrained device and the
         authorization server.

      2. The existence of such a trust relationship, once introduced to
         support authorization and access control, can be utilized to
         optimize key establishment, authentication and message
         protection between a client and the origin server.

3.2 Roles

   The relevant roles involved in this access control framework are:

      o A Resource Owner specifying the policies for access to the

      o An Authorization Server (AS) performing the authorization
         decision making, based on the access control policies, and
         provisioned with one or more trusted keys from the Resource

      o A potentially constrained Resource Server (RS) hosting resources
         and provisioned with one or more trusted keys from the AS.

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      o A potentially constrained Origin Client (OC) wishing to access
         to a resource.  As there may be client intermediaries, e.g.
         forward proxies, the actual CoAP client requesting the RS may
         be different from the origin client.  When there are no other
         clients to confuse with, we refer to the origin client simply
         as "the client".

      o An Access Manager (AM) which requests and receives access tokens
         from an AS. The AM may be a standalone node or integrated/co-
         located with the OC.

3.3 Message flow

         The default procedure for resource access is described in
         Figure 1, and works as follows:

      Origin             Access             Authorization    Resource
      Client             Manager               Server         Server
        +                  +                     +              +
        |---(1) AuthZ ---->|                     |              |
        |     Request      |<-(2) Authenticate ->|              |
        |                  |                     |              |
        |                  |-(3) Request token ->|              |
        |                  |                     | (4)          |
        |                  |                     | Evaluate     |
        |                  |                     | access       |
        |                  |                     | control      |
        |                  |                     | policies     |
        |                  |<---(5) Token, ------|              |
        |                  |   Base Credentials  |              |
        |<---(6) Token, ---|                     |              |
        | Base Credentials |                     |              |
        |                  +                     +              |
        |---------------(7) Store Token Request --------------->|
        |<-------------------- Response ------------------------|
        |                                                       |
        |------------------(8) Resource Request --------------->|
        |<-------------------- Response ------------------------|

            Figure 1: Roles and access control procedure

   The OC sends an authorization request to the AM (1).

   The AM authenticates to the AS (2) on behalf of the OC.  The AM then
   requests an access token and optionally base credentials for a
   specific security mode (3). The request contains the OC's subject

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   identifier which is used to evaluate the access control policies.

   The AS makes the authorization decision on behalf of the resource
   owner (4) and, if granted, responds (5) to the AM with an access
   token bound to the OC's subject identifier. Optionally it also sends
   Base Credentials to be used in the message exchange between OC and
   RS.  A base credential may e.g. be the public key of the RS, a public
   key certificate generated for the OC, or a derived key bootstrapping
   the trust relation between the AS and RS [I-D.seitz-core-security-

   The AM forwards the access token and base credentials to the OC (6).

   The OC stores the token on the RS (7). The RS provides a well-known
   resource for submitting and storing tokens used to authorize future
   requests. After the token is verified by the RS it is stored and the
   RS responds appropriately to the OC.

   The OC submits Resource Request(s) (8), which are verified against
   the stored tokens by the RS. If the RS finds a matching token, and
   all local conditions are met, the request is processed and a response
   is sent.

   Request and Response messages need to be protected, either using
   communication security, such as DTLS [RFC6347], or object security,
   such as JWE [I-D.ietf-jose-json-web-encryption] and JWS [I-D.ietf-
   jose-json-web-signature]. The base credentials that AS optionally
   provides, can be used to establish the cryptographic keys for the
   message protection scheme, and protocol authorization for
   communication security establishment.

4.  Access Tokens

   The access token is a secure object containing authorization
   information passed from the AS via the AM and OC to the RS.  In this
   section the content, protection and transport of an access token is

4.1 Requirements

   In order to enable the RS to enforce the authorization decision, the
   access token MUST provide the following information:

      o Which resource does the decision apply to.

      o Which action (GET, PUT, POST, DELETE) does the decision apply

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      o Which OC does the decision apply to (subject identifier), and
         how can this OC be authenticated (if necessary).

      o Which AS has created this access token (issuer).  This
         information MAY be implicit from the signature of the token.

      o Under what other conditions is the access token valid (local
         conditions evaluated by the resource server at access time,
         e.g. expiration, number of uses).

   The access token SHALL include a sequence number which together with
   the issuer, is unique for a given RS. The token MAY state a specific
   allowed payload value, where applicable (e.g. for PUT/POST requests).

   The access token MUST be integrity protected by the AS such that it
   can be verified by the RS using a trusted key.  An access token MAY
   be protected with a message authentication code.  The corresponding
   symmetric key is then called the Access token Key (AK).  An access
   token MAY be signed with a private key in an asymmetric signature
   scheme, for example the AS's private key (PrivK_AS).  The RS, or
   other nodes verifying the access token, MUST have access to the
   relevant key (AK or PubK_AS) at the time of performing the

   Using an asymmetric signature scheme is RECOMMENDED if intermediary
   nodes, between OC and RS, are expected to verify the access token,
   since it is less security critical to provision PubK_AS to the
   intermediary nodes, rather than AK.

4.2 Access Token Protection

   Since access tokens are to be consumed by constrained devices, the
   protection of the access token must be lightweight and compact.  This
   specification RECOMMENDS the use of JSON Web Signatures (JWS) [I-
   D.ietf-jose-json-web-signature] as a means of signing access tokens.
   It is furthermore RECOMMENDED to use the JWS Compact Serialization in
   order to further reduce the size of the protected access token

   In an object security setting, where the token may be transferred
   over an insecure channel, it can be encrypted and integrity protected
   using JWE [I-D.ietf-jose-json-web-encryption].

4.3  Access Token Transport

   The access token can be transported from the OC to the RS in

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   different ways.

      A. One possibility is to extend the communication security
         establishment protocol (e.g. using TLS authorization extensions
         [RFC5878] in the DTLS/TLS handshake).

      B. Another possibility is to use the application protocol (e.g.
         CoAP) and send the tokens as regular requests.

   In either case the access token is verified upon reception, and if it
   is valid (see 4.4), stored for being used in a subsequent resource
   request.  If the access token is not valid (see Section 4.4) the RS
   aborts the corresponding protocol to avoid unnecessary processing.
   This saves resources in the case A above, since the communication
   between RS and OC is still in a very early stage.  However, early
   abort of communication establishment can also be achieved by protocol
   authorization, see e.g. [I-D.seitz-core-security-modes]. Moreover one
   drawback with case A. is that a new session has to be established if
   the same OC needs to submit a new access token to the RS.

   For these reasons implementations SHALL at least support the
   transport of access tokens in the application protocol.  For this to
   work, there needs to be a well-known location on the RS to which the
   OC can send the access token. This resource SHALL have the local URI-
   path './well-known/core/authz/'.  Writing to this location SHALL NOT
   require Resource Authorization (i.e. no access token is required).

4.4  Access Token Reception

   Upon receiving an access token which is not already stored the RS
   SHALL perform the following processing:

       o Verify if the token is revoked

      o Verify if the token is from a trusted issuer (i.e. the AS known
         to the RS)

      o Verify the signature of the token

   In order to support token revocation the RS SHALL maintain a list of
   sequence numbers per issuer, specifying the revoked tokens. If the
   access token passes the verifications, we denote it 'valid'. The RS
   SHALL only store valid access tokens. Revoked tokens SHALL be removed
   from storage.

   Optionally the RS can use the sequence number of the token, to
   enforce token expiration. This can be done by rejecting sequence

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   numbers that are significantly lower than the highest sequence number
   the RS has received so far.

   Optionally the RS can use the time lapse since received to enforce
   token expiration. This can be done by storing together with the token
   the local time as measured by the RS upon reception.

4.5  Access Token Enforcement

   Upon receiving a request, the RS SHALL perform the following
   processing on the relevant stored token:

      o If there is information about expiry, verify if the stored token
         has expired

      o Verify that the stored token is bound to the requesting subject

      o Verify that the stored token authorizes the received request
         (including local conditions)

   If no matching token is found, the request MUST be rejected using the
   response code 4.03 Forbidden.

   Keys or identifiers established in the communication security
   protocol can be used to support subject binding verification. Table 1
   shows examples of token subject identifiers based on different CoAP
   security modes (see also section 9 of [I-D.ietf-core-coap], [RFC4279]
   and [I-D.seitz-core-security-modes]).

           | CoAP security mode  | Token subject identifier|
           | PreSharedKey        |  psk_identity           |
           | RawPublicKey        |  public key fingerprint |
           | Certificate         |  Subject DN             |
           | DerivedKey          |  psk_identity           |
           | AuthorizedPublicKey |  public key fingerprint |
         Table 1: DTLS parameters as token subject identifiers

5. Intermediary processing and notifications

   This section describes the security implications of intermediary
   processing and notifications for access control.

5.1 Intermediary nodes

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   There may be intermediary nodes between OC and RS, including forward
   proxies, reverse proxies, cross-proxies, gateways, etc.  From an
   access control point of view the RS SHOULD be able to verify that a
   received CoAP request is originating from the OC referenced in the
   received access token.  This has implications on the access token and
   message protection profiles.

   We distinguish between the end-to-end security setting where no
   intermediary nodes need be trusted and the hop-by-hop security
   setting where at least one intermediary node must be trusted.

   DTLS generally needs to be hop-by-hop in case of proxies, this
   requires some degree of trust in a proxy which may not be acceptable
   for some applications.  A RS sending back the response via the
   forward proxy trusts the forward proxy with the plain text response
   (e.g. a GET response) and that the proxy has established secure
   communication with the OC.

   In the hop-by-hop case, neither DTLS nor CoAP offers any means for RS
   to authenticate the OC.

   If the RS has established DTLS with a forward proxy which proxies
   requests from an OC, then the access token MUST be signed by the OC
   in addition to the AS integrity protection.  The RS can not
   authenticate the OC directly, but it can infer from a correctly
   signed valid and fresh access token that the OC is authorized and has
   an intent to perform the request.

5.2 Mirror Server

   The access control framework can also be applied to the scenario
   where a mirror server as defined in [I-D.vial-core-mirror-proxy] is
   present.  In such a scenario, each RS behaves as a client of the
   mirror server.  The access control enforcement in this case, would be
   made at the mirror server instead of in a constrained RS, and the
   trusted AS keys would have to be provisioned to the mirror server.
   However, to a client wishing to access a resource, the mirror server
   behaves as any other RS and is indistinguishable (transparent),
   thereby requiring no change for the communication between client and
   the mirror server.  The communication between the mirror server and
   the constrained RS may or may not be secured, and is oblivious to the
   protocols used between the client and the mirror server.

5.3 Observe

   The access control framework can also be applied, as it is, in the
   case where the CoAP observe option [I-D.ietf-core-observe] is used.
   With the observe option, clients can register an interest in a

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   particular resource by sending a CoAP request containing the observe
   option to a RS.  The RS would in this case maintain the state
   information for this expressed interest and send responses on state
   changes only as long as the access token and local conditions
   presented in the original interest request are valid.  The local
   conditions may need to be verified at each state change.  Once the
   access token expires, the RS will remove any state information for
   the interest expressed.  The OC would then have to send a new CoAP
   request with an observe option expressing interest and a new access
   token for demonstrating that it is allowed access.

6.  Security Considerations

   The present framework aims to protect the resources on RS, the
   servers themselves, and the services offered.  The means proposed to
   protect these assets is to enforce granular access restrictions on
   accessing the devices.  Due to the setup of the framework, there is
   also a need to protect the authorization decisions and the keys used
   to protect the entire resource access procedure.

   The AS is a Trusted Third Party from the point of view of the
   resource owner.  If the AS is compromised, it could e.g. issue access
   tokens to unauthorized parties.

   Since the AM requests tokens on behalf of the OC, the AS must be able
   to verify that it really represents the OC.

   In order to enforce a policy decision, the RS must authenticate the
   OC, and match the identifier of the authenticated entity with the
   subject identifier of the access token.

   While DTLS offers bundled encryption and integrity protection of both
   payload and headers, an object security approach allows for a trade-
   off between protection against performance.  Depending on the trust
   model, access token and payload may need to be encrypted because
   eavesdropping will reveal information about the OC's request, which
   may be privacy sensitive.  Wrapping of the payloads as secure objects
   allows differentiated protection of the content based on its

   A typical access token has a size in the order of hundreds of bytes.
   If tokens can be sent to the RS by unauthenticated clients, care must
   be taken to prevent that the processing and storage of the token
   opens for Denial of Service attacks.

7.  IANA Considerations

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   <TBD: IANA considerations text>

8.  Acknowledgements

   The authors would like to thank Stefanie Gerdes, Mats Naeslund, and
   John Mattsson for contributions and helpful comments.

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9.  References

9.1  Normative References

              Shelby, Z., Hartke, K., Bormann, C., and B. Frank,
              "Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP)", draft-ietf-
              core-coap-18 (work in progress), June 2013.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

9.2  Informative References

              Seitz, L., Gerdes, S., and Selander, G., "Use cases for
              CoRE security", draft-seitz-core-sec-usecases-00 (work in
              progress), September 2013.

              Bormann, C., Ersue, M., and Keranen, A., "Terminology for
              Constrained Node Networks", draft-ietf-lwig-terminology-05
              (work in progress), July 2013.

              Seitz, L., and Selander G., "Additional Security Modes for
              CoAP", draft-seitz-core-security-modes-00 (work in
              progress), October 2013

              Jones, M., Rescorla, E., and Hildebrand J., "JSON Web
              Encryption (JWE)", draft-ietf-jose-json-web-encryption-17
              (work in progress), October 2013.

              Jones, M., Bradley, J., and Sakimura N., "JSON Web
              Signature (JWS)", draft-ietf-jose-json-web-signature-17
              (work in progress), October 2013.

              Vial, M., "CoRE Mirror Server", draft-vial-core-mirror-
              proxy-01 (work in progress), July 2012.

              Hartke, K., "Observing Resources in CoAP", draft-ietf-

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              core-observe-11 (work in progress), Octobe 2013.

   [I-D.bormann-cbor] Bormann, C., and Hoffman P., "Concise Binary
              Object Representation (CBOR)", draft-bormann-cbor-09 (work
              in progress), September 2013.

   [RFC4949]  Shirey, R., "Internet Security Glossary, Version 2", FYI
              36, RFC 4949, August 2007.

   [RFC6347]  Rescorla, E. and N. Modadugu, "Datagram Transport Layer
              Security Version 1.2", RFC 6347, January 2012.

   [RFC5878]  Brown, M. and R. Housley, "Transport Layer Security (TLS)
              Authorization Extensions", RFC 5878, May 2010.

   [RFC4279]  Eronen, P., Ed., and H. Tschofenig, Ed., "Pre-Shared Key
              Ciphersuites for Transport Layer Security (TLS)",
              RFC 4279, December 2005.

Appendix A.  Example Token Syntax

   In this section we give an example of an access token using a compact
   JSON notation.

      01 {
      02   "SN": "081d5ff7bb2c2d08",
      03   "IS": "6f",
      04   "SI": "435143a1b5fc8bb70a3aa9b10f6673a8",
      05   "LCO": {
      06      "NB":"09:00:00Z",
      07      "NA":"17:00:00Z"
      08   },
      09   "ACT": "POST",
      10   "VAL": "open",
      11   "RES": "node346/doorLock"
      12 }

         | Token element         | Encoding |
         | Sequence number       |  SN      |
         | Issuer                |  IS      |

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         | Subject identifier    |  SI      |
         | Local conditions      |  LCO     |
         | Action                |  ACT     |
         | Allowed payload value |  VAL     |
         | Resource              |  RES     |
          Table 2: Token elements encoding

   In this example the issuer is identified by a single byte, this is
   possible because the token is for a specific RS, which is not
   expected to have more than 256 distinct trusted AS.

   The subject identifier is a public key fingerprint binding the token
   to the corresponding public key, which in turn could be used to
   establish a DTLS connection to the RS using the RawPublicKey security
   mode (see section 9 of [I-D.ietf-core-coap]).

   The local condition specifies a time frame during which the token is
   valid (NB = not before, NA = not after).  The syntax and semantics of
   such conditions must be pre-defined on the consuming RS so that it
   can parse and enforce them.

   The action specifies the RESTful action (DELETE, GET, POST, PUT) that
   this token authorizes, while the resource specifies the URI host and
   URI path from the CoAP requests.

   For actions including a payload (typically PUT and POST), the token
   can specify a restriction on the allowed payload value.

   Note that JSON is used here because it gives a human readable token
   format, for production deployments one should consider using a more
   compact representation format such as CBOR [I-D.bormann-cbor] to
   reduce the token size.

Appendix B.  Changelog

   Changes from -00 to -01:

       o The draft is significantly shortened, content is moved to
         separate drafts and much informational content has been

      o The limited use case descriptions are greatly expanded and moved
         into a separate draft [I-D.seitz-core-sec-usecases].

      o The key provisioning schemes are generalized to alternate CoAP
         security modes and described in a separate draft [I-D.seitz-

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      o The ACL categories are replaced by the distinction between
         protocol authorization and resource authorization.

      o The Access Manager functionality originally defined in draft-
         gerdes-core-dcaf-authorize-00 is introduced.

      o The communication security profile description is removed.  For
         a detailed DTLS based access control setting see [I-D.draft-

      o The object security profile is planned for a future draft.

Authors' Addresses

   Goeran Selander
   Farogatan 6
   16480 Kista

   EMail: goran.selander@ericsson.com

   Mohit Sethi
   Hirsalantie 11
   02420 Jorvas

   EMail: mohit.m.sethi@ericsson.com

   Ludwig Seitz
   SICS Swedish ICT AB
   Scheelevagen 17
   22370 Lund

   EMail: ludwig@sics.se

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