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Sutton-Slevinski Collaboration                              S. Slevinski
Internet-Draft                                                SignPuddle
Intended status: Informational                              May 12, 2015
Expires: November 13, 2015


              The SignPuddle Standard for SignWriting Text
                  draft-slevinski-signwriting-text-05

Abstract

   For concreteness, because the universal character set is not yet
   universal, and because an international standard for the internet
   community should be documented and stable, this I-D has been released
   with the intention of producing an RFC to document the character use
   and naming conventions of the SignWriting community on the Internet.

   The SignWriting Script is an international standard for writing sign
   languages by hand or with computers.  From education to research,
   from entertainment to religion, SignWriting has proven useful because
   people are using it to write signed languages.  The SignWriting
   Script has two major families: Block Printing for the reader and
   Handwriting for the writer.

   Formal SignWriting uses ASCII strings to name logographic signs.  The
   mathematical names are explained with tokens and regular expression
   patterns.  Symbol keys reference the symbols of the International
   SignWriting Alphabet 2010.  Coordinates define X and Y number values
   for 2-dimensional placement.  Signs are written in a spatial SignBox,
   where each symbol is positioned with a 2-dimension coordinate.  For
   sorting, each sign can have an optional temporal sequence of symbols
   that is outside of the SignBox and the visible text.  To create
   sentences, completed signs are written sequentially, interspersed
   with punctuation symbols.

   The query language of Formal SignWriting uses a lite markup, similar
   to FSW, to define a variety of searching possibilities.  The spatial
   SignBox can be searched for symbols or ranges of symbols.  For each
   symbol or range, the search can specify if the symbol only needs to
   be found somewhere in the SignBox, or if the symbol needs to be found
   near certain coordinates.  The temporal sequence can be searched for
   starting symbols, written as a sequential list of symbols and ranges
   of symbols.  When searching the temporal sequence, the search results
   will be limited to signs that start with a matching temporal
   sequence.  Each query string is transformed into one or more regular
   expressions.  The regular expressions are used to quickly search
   large amounts of data.




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   SignWriting 2010 is the modern implementation and international
   specification of the SignWriting script for the internet community
   that includes TrueType Fonts and a compact JavaScript library.
   SignMaker is a standards based editor, utilizing HTML, CSS,
   JavaScript, SVG, TrueType Fonts, and PNG images.  SignMaker can be
   used to create a private dictionary or to view dozens of sign
   language dictionaries derived from SignPuddle Online.

   For Unicode, there are several encodings possibilities.  Formal
   SignWriting is UTF-8.  The plane 15 encoding is isomorphic with
   Formal SignWriting strings, using 3 characters for each symbol, along
   with structural marker characters and number characters.  The plane
   16 encoding is focused on the symbols only, using 1 character for
   each symbol.  The Unicode 8 specification uses 1 to 3 characters on
   plane 1 to name each symbol of the International SignWriting Alphabet
   2010.

   Three appendices discuss additional topics to the standard.  The
   first discusses the Modern SignWriting theory and example document,
   stable since January 12, 2012.  The second discusses the symbol
   encoding of the International SignWriting Alphabet 2010.  The third
   discusses the SignPuddle Standards: licences, infrastructure, and
   compatibility.

   This memo concretely defines a conceptual character encoding map for
   the Internet community.  It is published for reference, examination,
   implementation, and evaluation.  Distribution of this memo is
   unlimited.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on November 13, 2015.






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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2015 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  SignWriting Script  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     1.1.  2-Dimensional Signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     1.2.  Punctuation and Text  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     1.3.  Block Printing  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     1.4.  Handwriting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   2.  Formal SignWriting  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     2.1.  Symbol Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     2.2.  Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     2.3.  Spatial SignBox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     2.4.  Temporal Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
     2.5.  Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
   3.  Query Language  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
     3.1.  Searching the Spatial Signbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
     3.2.  Searching the Temporal Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
     3.3.  Transformation to Regular Expression  . . . . . . . . . .  23
   4.  SignWriting 2010  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
     4.1.  Font Creation Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
     4.2.  TrueType Fonts  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
     4.3.  JavaScript Library  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
     4.4.  SignMaker Editor  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
   5.  Unicode Integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  25
     5.1.  UTF-8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  25
     5.2.  Private Use Area Plane 15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  25
     5.3.  Private Use Area Plane 16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
     5.4.  Unicode 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
   6.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27
   7.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27
   8.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27
   Appendix A.  Modern SignWriting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  29
   Appendix B.  International SignWriting Alphabet 2010  . . . . . .  30
     B.1.  Grapheme  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  31



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     B.2.  Symbol  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  32
     B.3.  Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  35
     B.4.  Combined Character Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  38
     B.5.  Validity  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  38
   Appendix C.  SignPuddle Standard  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  41
     C.1.  Licenses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  41
     C.2.  Infrastructure  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  42
       C.2.1.  SignPuddle Online . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  42
       C.2.2.  SignWriting Icon Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  42
       C.2.3.  Wikimedia Incubator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  42
     C.3.  Compatibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  42
       C.3.1.  SignTyp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  42
       C.3.2.  SignWriter Studio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  43
       C.3.3.  DELEGS Online . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  44
       C.3.4.  SWift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  44
       C.3.5.  JSPad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  44
   Author's Address  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  44

1.  SignWriting Script

   The SignWriting Script is the universal and complete solution for
   written sign language.  It has been applied to a wide and deep
   international community of sign languages including: American Sign
   Language, Arabian Sign Languages, Australian Sign Language, Bolivian
   Sign Language, Brazilian Sign Language, British Sign Language,
   Catalan Sign Language, Colombian Sign Language, Czech Sign Language,
   Danish Sign Language, Dutch Sign Language, Ethiopian Sign Language,
   Finnish Sign Language, Flemish Sign Language, French-Belgian Sign
   Language, French Sign Language, German Sign Language, Greek Sign
   Language, Irish Sign Language, Italian Sign Language, Japanese Sign
   Language, Malawi Sign Language, Malaysian Sign Language, Maltese Sign
   Language, Mexican Sign Language, Nepalese Sign Language, New Zealand
   Sign Language, Nicaraguan Sign Language, Norwegian Sign Language,
   Peruvian Sign Language, Philippines Sign Language, Polish Sign
   Language, Portugese Sign Language, Quebec Sign Language, South
   African Sign Language, Spanish Sign Language, Swedish Sign Language,
   Swiss Sign Language, Taiwanese Sign Language, and Tunisian Sign
   Language.

   Sign language is vastly different than spoken language.  Instead of
   the sequential sounds of the voice, there is a 3 dimensional space
   with simultaneous action.  The SignWriting Script creates
   2-dimensional writing that is visually icon and full of featural
   information.  This is true on the symbol level and on the sign level.
   A symbol represents phonemic information and is full of featural
   information to better understand the phonemes of the symbols.  A sign
   is a 2-dimensional arrangement of symbols and is full of featural
   information to better understand the morphemes of the signs.



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   The SignWriting Script is an international standard for writing sign
   languages by hand or with computers.  From education to research,
   from entertainment to religion, SignWriting has proven useful because
   people are using it to write signed languages.

   Initially developed in 1974, the script was written exclusively by
   hand for 12 years.  Since then the script has spread around the world
   and continues to be written on paper and chalkboard.

   In 1981, SignWriting Publishing rapidly evolved with Block Printing.
   In 1986, computerization of the SignWriting Block Printing began.
   The current symbol encoding of the ISWA 2010 has been stable since
   the font release on October 20th, 2010.  The larger character
   encoding model has been stable since the initial release of Modern
   SignWriting on January 12th, 2012.

   The 2 families of the SignWriting Script are Handwriting for the
   writer and Block Printing for the reader.  Block Printing uses more
   features and Handwriting often uses less.  Block printing is used in
   education, publishing, and is the basis of the computerized model.

1.1.  2-Dimensional Signs

   A sign is a variably-size logographic word.  It is a 2-dimensional
   combination of symbols inside of a signbox with a tight bounding box
   and an explicit center.  The size of the signbox varies with the
   symbols written inside.

   Inside of a 2-dimensional signbox, the symbols are placed in a
   freeform, 2-dimensional arrangement.  This feature of the script
   expresses spatial relation directly.

   Writing based on vision uses two viewpoints: receptive and
   expressive.  The receptive viewpoint is based on the idea of
   receiving an image.  For the receptive viewpoint, the right hand of a
   signer will be written on the left side of the signbox.  When
   SignWriting is used for transcription, the receptive view is most
   often used.  The related writing systems of DanceWriting and
   MovementWriting normally use the receptive viewpoint.

   The expressive viewpoint is based on the idea of expressing a
   concept.  For the expressive viewpoint, the right hand of a signer
   will be written on the right side of the signbox.  When SignWriting
   is used for authorship, the expressive view is most often used.

   The are two main writing planes: the front wall (Frontal Plane) and
   the floor (Transverse Plane).  The choice of writing plane can affect




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   the shape of the symbols, such as the fill pattern for the hand shape
   palms or the tail for the movement arrows.

   There are two perspectives: front and top.  The front perspective is
   a straight on view of/from the signer.  The top perspective is a top-
   down view of the signer.  Usually, a sign will be written from a
   single perspective.

1.2.  Punctuation and Text

   Logographic signs are mixed with punctuation to form text.

   Punctuation is a single symbol and separates a series of signs into
   structured sentences.  A punctuation symbol is always used alone and
   should not be used in a sign.  Line breaks should not occur before
   punctuation.

   When written vertically, SignWriting can use 3 different lanes: left,
   middle, and right.  The middle lane is the default lane and
   punctuation is always used in the middle lane.  No matter the lane,
   the center of a sign is aligned with the center of the lane.

   For body weight shifts to one side or the other, the center of the
   sign is aligned with a fixed horizontal offset from the middle lane
   into either the left or right lane.

   The left and right lanes are used to represent body weight shifts and
   are represented by a horizontal offset from the middle lane.  Body
   weight shifts are important to the grammar of sign languages, used
   for two different grammatical aspects: 1) role shifting during sign
   language storytelling, and 2) spatial comparisons of two items under
   discussion.  One "role" or "item" is placed on the right side of the
   body (right lane), and the other on the left side of the body (left
   lane), and the weight shifts back and forth between the two, with the
   narrator in the middle (middle lane).

1.3.  Block Printing

   Valerie Sutton writes, "SignWriting Printing is easy to read.  It is
   designed for the reader.  The Printing can be written by hand as well
   as by computer.  If I am writing a letter to a friend in ASL, I write
   the letter in SignWriting Printing, taking the time to make sure that
   my handwritten-symbols are easy and clear to read.  I try to write as
   clearly as if I were using a computer.  Of course it is slower, but
   it is worth it, knowing that my friend will be able to read my
   letter!"





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   With Block Printing, a sign is a cluster of several symbols arranged
   in 2-dimensions space.  Each symbol has a definite appearance and
   understanding within an established symbol set.  The exact form of
   each symbol is structured, standardized, and highly featural.

   Each symbol can have two aspects.  The first is the line that defines
   the positive shape of the symbol.  The second aspect is the fill (or
   negative space) of the symbol that is sometimes used inside the lines
   for palm facing, and inside some arrow heads and tails.  Not every
   symbol has fill.  Fill matters when symbols overlap.  The negative
   space of the symbol on top will cover part of the symbol underneath.

   The Block Printing family is aimed at the needs of the reader and the
   publisher.  The Block Printing family is ready to standardize with a
   fully developed model.

1.4.  Handwriting

   Valerie Sutton writes, "SignWriting Handwriting is easier to write by
   hand, than the Printing.  It is designed for the writer.  There are
   several variations of Handwriting, and since most of the time, the
   writer is only writing for private notes, some writers create their
   own shortcuts that work just for them...and that is fine!"

   The purpose is not to recreate the iconic symbols of the
   International SignWriting Alphabet exactly by hand, but the purpose
   is to enable the writer to quickly write notes on paper or
   chalkboard.  Handwriting often drops features of the SignWriting
   Script for efficiency and speed.  If too many features are dropped,
   the writing may loose it's clarity over time as the writer is
   distanced from the writing.  This is common for Shorthand.

   A popular form of SignWriting is cursive.  It can be shared among a
   groups of writers or it can be individualized and personal.  Cursive
   writing is designed to have fluid marks and a natural flow.  Cursive
   writing may use fewer features than the iconic symbols, but should be
   related to an iconic symbol in appearance and meaning.  Once
   developed, this style of writing is great for taking notes in a
   class.

   Shorthand is a skill of the proficient writer [SHORTHAND].  In 1982,
   Sign Language Stenographers could record sign language with
   SignWriting Shorthand at normal signing speed [STENOGRAPHY].  To
   develop this skill, practice and special training were required.

   The marks of SignWriting Shorthand are a personal style of quick and
   efficient strokes with a highly developed reception to what signifies
   meaning.  The marks are personal reminders rather than a fully



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   developed text.  The shorthand in and of itself is often an
   incomplete representation of the gestures that were experienced.  The
   shorthand writing can be thought of as a short-term memory device.
   Often shorthand notes must be revised and extended at a later time,
   the sooner the better.

2.  Formal SignWriting

   According to Wikipedia, "In mathematics, computer science, and
   linguistics, a formal language is a set of strings of symbols that
   may be constrained by rules that are specific to it."  [FORMAL]

   Formal SignWriting defines a formal language for the signed languages
   of the world.  Any sign of any sign language can be written as a
   string of ASCII characters.

   Formal SignWriting is a heuristic model.  The first prototypes were
   created in 2008.  Through trial and error, the model was successively
   refactored to reduce the complexity and the computation cost of the
   implementations.  The model has been optimized for common usage and
   processing.  The final model has been stable since January 12th,
   2012.

   The mathematical names of Formal SignWriting are plain text strings
   of characters.  These names are described with regular expressions.
   Formal languages and regular expressions are used to solve
   fundamental problems.
























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   +------------+--------------------------+---------------------------+
   | Characters | Description              | Example                   |
   +------------+--------------------------+---------------------------+
   | *          | Match a literal 0 or     | ABC* matches AB, ABC,     |
   |            | more times               | ABCC, ...                 |
   +------------+--------------------------+---------------------------+
   | +          | Match a literal 1 or     | ABC+ matches ABC, ABCC,   |
   |            | more times               | ABCCC, ...                |
   +------------+--------------------------+---------------------------+
   | ?          | Match a literal 0 or 1   | ABC? matches AB or ABC    |
   |            | times                    |                           |
   +------------+--------------------------+---------------------------+
   | {#}        | Match a literal "#"      | AB{2} matches ABB         |
   |            | times                    |                           |
   +------------+--------------------------+---------------------------+
   | [ ]        | Match any single literal | [ABC] matches A, B, or C  |
   |            | from a list              |                           |
   +------------+--------------------------+---------------------------+
   | [ - ]      | Match any single literal | [A-C] matches A, B, or C  |
   |            | in a range               |                           |
   +------------+--------------------------+---------------------------+
   | ( )        | Creates a group for      | A(BC)+ matches ABC,       |
   |            | matching                 | ABCBC, ABCBCBC, ...       |
   +------------+--------------------------+---------------------------+
   | ( | )      | Matches one of several   | (AB|BC|CD) will match AB, |
   |            | alternatives             | BC, or CD                 |
   +------------+--------------------------+---------------------------+

   Regular Expression Basics

                                  Table 1

   The Formal SignWriting encoding model makes explicit those features
   which can be effectively and efficiently processed.  The mathematical
   names are structured with 11 different tokens.  They can be grouped
   in 4 layers: the 5 structural makers (A, B, L, M, R), the 3 base
   symbol ranges (w, s, P), the 2 modifier indexes (i, o), and the
   numbers (n).













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   +-------+-------------------------------+
   | Token | Description                   |
   +-------+-------------------------------+
   | A     | Sequence Marker               |
   +-------+-------------------------------+
   | B     | SignBox Marker                |
   +-------+-------------------------------+
   | L     | Left Lane Marker              |
   +-------+-------------------------------+
   | M     | Middle Lane Marker            |
   +-------+-------------------------------+
   | R     | Right Lane Marker             |
   +-------+-------------------------------+
   | w     | Writing BaseSymbols           |
   +-------+-------------------------------+
   | s     | Detailed Location BaseSymbols |
   +-------+-------------------------------+
   | P     | Punctuation BaseSymbols       |
   +-------+-------------------------------+
   | i     | Fill Modifiers                |
   +-------+-------------------------------+
   | o     | Rotation Modifiers            |
   +-------+-------------------------------+
   | n     | Number from 250 to 749        |
   +-------+-------------------------------+

   The Tokens of Formal SignWriting

                                  Table 2

   These tokens are used in patterns to form written sign language.  The
   following token patterns fully describe SignWriting Text.

2.1.  Symbol Keys

   Symbol keys can be described with 3 tokens: base symbol, fill
   modifier, and rotation modifier.














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   +---------+---------------------------------------------------------+
   | Token   | Description                                             |
   | Pattern |                                                         |
   +---------+---------------------------------------------------------+
   | w       | Writing BaseSymbols.                                    |
   +---------+---------------------------------------------------------+
   | s       | Detailed Location BaseSymbols.                          |
   +---------+---------------------------------------------------------+
   | P       | Punctuation BaseSymbols.                                |
   +---------+---------------------------------------------------------+
   | i       | Fill Modifiers.                                         |
   +---------+---------------------------------------------------------+
   | o       | Rotation Modifiers.                                     |
   +---------+---------------------------------------------------------+
   | wio     | A writing symbol as 3 tokens of writing base, fill      |
   |         | modifier and rotation modifier.  Writing symbols can be |
   |         | used in the spatial SignBox or the temporal sequence.   |
   +---------+---------------------------------------------------------+
   | [ws]io  | A writing symbol or a detailed location symbol as 3     |
   |         | tokens of base, fill modifier, and rotation modifier.   |
   |         | Writing symbols and detail location symbols can be used |
   |         | in the temporal sequence.                               |
   +---------+---------------------------------------------------------+
   | Pio     | A punctuation symbol as 3 tokens of punctuation base,   |
   |         | fill modifier, and rotation modifier.  Punctuation      |
   |         | symbols divide signs into sentences.                    |
   +---------+---------------------------------------------------------+

   Symbol Key Tokens

                                  Table 3

   Symbol keys are 6 characters long.  The first character of a symbol
   key is always "S".  The next 3 characters identify the symbol base.
   The last two characters identify the fill and rotation modifiers
   respectively.















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   +--------------------------------+-----------------------+
   | Regular Expression             | Description           |
   +--------------------------------+-----------------------+
   | S                              | Start of symbol key   |
   +--------------------------------+-----------------------+
   | [123][0-9a-f]{2}               | Symbol key base       |
   +--------------------------------+-----------------------+
   | [0-5]                          | Fill modifier         |
   +--------------------------------+-----------------------+
   | [0-9a-f]                       | Rotation modifier     |
   +--------------------------------+-----------------------+
   | S[123][0-9a-f]{2}[0-5][0-9a-f] | Symbol key definition |
   +--------------------------------+-----------------------+

   Symbol Key Definition

                                  Table 4

   Symbol keys can be divided between several types.  Each type has a
   starting and ending base value.































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   +-------------+-------+-----+---------------------------------------+
   | Type        | Start | End | Description                           |
   +-------------+-------+-----+---------------------------------------+
   | all symbols | 100   | 38b | All symbol keys occur in this range.  |
   +-------------+-------+-----+---------------------------------------+
   | writing     | 100   | 37e | Symbols that can be used in the       |
   |             |       |     | spatial SignBox or the temporal       |
   |             |       |     | sequence.                             |
   +-------------+-------+-----+---------------------------------------+
   | hand        | 100   | 204 | Various handshapes                    |
   +-------------+-------+-----+---------------------------------------+
   | movement    | 205   | 2f6 | Contact symbols, small finger         |
   |             |       |     | movements, straight arrows, curved    |
   |             |       |     | arrows and circles.                   |
   +-------------+-------+-----+---------------------------------------+
   | dynamic     | 2f7   | 2fe | Dynamic symbols are used to give the  |
   |             |       |     | "feeling" or "tempo" to movement.     |
   +-------------+-------+-----+---------------------------------------+
   | head        | 2ff   | 36c | Symbols for the head and face.        |
   +-------------+-------+-----+---------------------------------------+
   | hcenter     | 2ff   | 36c | Used to determine the horizontal      |
   |             |       |     | center of a sign.  Same as the head   |
   |             |       |     | type.                                 |
   +-------------+-------+-----+---------------------------------------+
   | vcenter     | 2ff   | 375 | Use to determine the vertical center  |
   |             |       |     | of a sign.  Includes the head an      |
   |             |       |     | trunk types.                          |
   +-------------+-------+-----+---------------------------------------+
   | trunk       | 36d   | 375 | Symbols for torso movement,           |
   |             |       |     | shoulders, and hips.                  |
   +-------------+-------+-----+---------------------------------------+
   | limb        | 376   | 37e | Symbols for limbs and fingers.        |
   +-------------+-------+-----+---------------------------------------+
   | location    | 37f   | 386 | Details location symbols can only be  |
   |             |       |     | used in the temporal sequence.        |
   +-------------+-------+-----+---------------------------------------+
   | punctuation | 387   | 38b | Punctual symbols are used to divide   |
   |             |       |     | signs into sentences.                 |
   +-------------+-------+-----+---------------------------------------+

   Symbol Key Type and Ranges

                                  Table 5








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2.2.  Coordinates

   Coordinates can be described with 2 tokens: number and number.  These
   numbers represent the X and Y coordinates respectively.

   The number characters encode the ruler principle with characters.
   The ruler principle is built in automatically for scripts written
   sequentially in one dimension.  The number characters are needed to
   specify the spatial relationship between symbols.

   +----------------+---------------------------------------------+
   | Token Patterns | Description                                 |
   +----------------+---------------------------------------------+
   | n              | Number from 250 to 749                      |
   +----------------+---------------------------------------------+
   | nn             | Coordinate with X and Y values as 2 numbers |
   +----------------+---------------------------------------------+

   Coordinate Tokens

                                  Table 6

   There are 2 definitions for a coordinate.  The more general
   definition simply defines 3 numbers followed by an "x" followed by 3
   more numbers.  The more explicit definition correctly restricts the
   number range from 250 to 749.  The general coordinate definition is
   adequate for processing.

   General 3 digit number definition:  [0-9]{3}

   General coordinate definition:  [0-9]{3}x[0-9]{3}

   Explicit number definition from 250 to 749:
      (2[5-9][0-9]|[3-6][0-9]{2}|7[0-4][0-9])

   Explicit coordinate definition:  (2[5-9][0-9]|[3-6][0-9]{2}|7[0-4][0-
      9])x(2[5-9][0-9]|[3-6][0-9]{2}|7[0-4][0-9])

2.3.  Spatial SignBox

   The visual image of a logographic sign is a 2-dimension arrangement
   of symbols inside of a signbox.  Each signbox has a defined width,
   height, and 2-dimensional center that can be calculated from the
   plain text.

   Each logographic sign exists on its own 2-dimensional signbox.  Each
   point on the signbox is identified with an X and a Y coordinate.




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   Each signbox has a defined center.  Formal numbers range from 250 to
   749.  Informal number have no limit.

              Y Axis
                | 250
                |
                |
                |
                |
                |
   X Axis       |
     -----------+------------
     250        |         749
                |
                |
                |
                |
                |
                | 749

   Symbols are placed on the signbox with coordinates that represent the
   top-left of the symbol image.  Symbol images may overlap.

   The Spatial SignBox can be described with 8 tokens.



























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   +-----------------+-------------------------------------------------+
   | Token Pattern   | Description                                     |
   +-----------------+-------------------------------------------------+
   | B               | SignBox Marker                                  |
   +-----------------+-------------------------------------------------+
   | L               | Left Lane Marker                                |
   +-----------------+-------------------------------------------------+
   | M               | Middle Lane Marker                              |
   +-----------------+-------------------------------------------------+
   | R               | Right Lane Marker                               |
   +-----------------+-------------------------------------------------+
   | w               | Writing BaseSymbols                             |
   +-----------------+-------------------------------------------------+
   | i               | Fill Modifiers                                  |
   +-----------------+-------------------------------------------------+
   | o               | Rotation Modifiers                              |
   +-----------------+-------------------------------------------------+
   | n               | Number from 250 to 749                          |
   +-----------------+-------------------------------------------------+
   | wio             | A writing symbol as 3 tokens of writing base,   |
   |                 | fill modifier and rotation modifier             |
   +-----------------+-------------------------------------------------+
   | nn              | Coordinate with X and Y values as 2 numbers     |
   +-----------------+-------------------------------------------------+
   | wionn           | A spatial symbol as 5 tokens, with 3 tokens for |
   |                 | a writing symbol and 2 tokens for coordinates   |
   |                 | of top left placement                           |
   +-----------------+-------------------------------------------------+
   | (wionn)*        | Zero or more spatial symbols                    |
   +-----------------+-------------------------------------------------+
   | Bnn(wionn)*     | A signbox with a preprocessed maximum           |
   |                 | coordinate and a list of spatial symbols used   |
   |                 | for horizontal writing                          |
   +-----------------+-------------------------------------------------+
   | [LMR]           | A lane marker: either left, middle or right.    |
   +-----------------+-------------------------------------------------+
   | [LMR]nn(wionn)* | A signbox in either the left, middle, or right  |
   |                 | lane with a preprocessed maximum coordinate and |
   |                 | a list of spatial symbols used for vertical     |
   |                 | writing                                         |
   +-----------------+-------------------------------------------------+

   Spatial SignBox Tokens

                                  Table 7

   The Spatial SignBox is assigned to a lane, has a preprocessed maximum
   coordinate and zero or more writing symbols with X and Y coordinates.



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   Symbol key definition:  S[123][0-9a-f]{2}[0-5][0-9a-f]

   Coordinate definition:  [0-9]{3}x[0-9]{3}

   SignBox definition:  [BLMR]([0-9]{3}x[0-9]{3})(S[123][0-9a-
      f]{2}[0-5][0-9a-f][0-9]{3}x[0-9]{3})*

   2-dimensional space does not have a normative 1-dimensional order.
   When symbols overlap, the relative order of the overlapping symbols
   is important.  Otherwise, the exact string order of the spatial
   symbols is unpredictable.

2.4.  Temporal Sequence

   Signs are written in 2-dimensional space which does not have a
   normative 1-dimensional order.  Any 1-dimensional order of
   2-dimensional space is subjective.  Some 1-dimensional orders may be
   canonical according to a particular theory, but there are a variety
   of theories on setting a 1-dimensional order.

   The temporal sequence describes a 1-dimensional order that is
   separate from the spatial SignBox, rather than ordering the
   2-dimensional space directly.  The temporal sequence is written as an
   optional prefix to a spatial SignBox.  The temporal sequence will use
   the same symbols that are used in the spatial SignBox, but it does
   not need to use all of them and it is not limited to only those
   symbols.  The temporal sequence is a list of writing symbols and/or
   detailed location symbols that identify temporal order and additional
   analysis.  A valid sequence must contain at least one symbol and can
   not contain punctuation.

   The temporal sequence allows for sorting that is universally
   supported through binary string comparison.

   There are several theories on the best way to structure a temporal
   sequence.  The most productive is based on the SignSpelling Sequence
   theory of Valerie Sutton.  A temporal sequence is structured as a
   series of starting handshapes followed by optional movements,
   transitional handshapes, movement, and end handshapes.  Only symbols
   of type "hand" and "movement" should be used in this first section.
   The last section of the temporal sequence should contain symbols of
   of type "dynamic", "head", "trunk", and "limb".

   Detailed location symbols of type "location" can be used in a
   temporal sequence, but are rarely (if ever) needed for general
   writing.

   A temporal sequence can be described with 5 tokens.



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   +---------------+---------------------------------------------------+
   | Token         | Description                                       |
   | Patterns      |                                                   |
   +---------------+---------------------------------------------------+
   | A             | Sequence Marker                                   |
   +---------------+---------------------------------------------------+
   | w             | Writing BaseSymbols                               |
   +---------------+---------------------------------------------------+
   | s             | Detailed Location BaseSymbols                     |
   +---------------+---------------------------------------------------+
   | i             | Fill Modifiers                                    |
   +---------------+---------------------------------------------------+
   | o             | Rotation Modifiers                                |
   +---------------+---------------------------------------------------+
   | (A([ws]io)+)? | An optional temporal sequence to be used as a     |
   |               | prefix for a SignBox                              |
   +---------------+---------------------------------------------------+

   Temporal Sequence Tokens

                                  Table 8

   The temporal prefix starts with a sequence marker and includes an
   ordered list of writing symbols and detailed locations.

   +---------------------------------------+---------------------------+
   | Regular Expression                    | Description               |
   +---------------------------------------+---------------------------+
   | (A(S[123][0-9a-f]{2}[0-5][0-9a-f])+)? | An optional temporal      |
   |                                       | sequence as a sequence    |
   |                                       | marker followed by one or |
   |                                       | more symbols.             |
   +---------------------------------------+---------------------------+

   Temporal Sequence Definition

                                  Table 9

2.5.  Sentences

   General signs are written as a spatial SignBox of symbols in
   2-dimensional space.  Sortable signs include a temporal sequence as a
   1-dimensional prefix to the spatial SignBox.

   Signs are mixed with punctuation to form text.  Punctuation is a
   single symbol and separates a series of signs into structured
   sentences.  A punctuation symbol is always used alone and should not
   be used in a sign.  Line breaks should not occur before punctuation.



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   When written vertically, SignWriting can use 3 different lanes: left,
   middle, and right.  The middle lane is the default lane and
   punctuation is always used in the middle lane.  No matter the lane,
   the center of a sign is aligned with the center of the lane.

   For body weight shifts to one side or the other, the center of the
   sign is aligned with a fixed horizontal offset from the middle lane
   into either the left or right lane.

   The left and right lanes are used to represent body weight shifts and
   are represented by a horizontal offset from the middle lane.  Body
   weight shifts are important to the grammar of sign languages, used
   for two different grammatical aspects: 1) role shifting during sign
   language storytelling, and 2) spatial comparisons of two items under
   discussion.  One "role" or "item" is placed on the right side of the
   body (right lane), and the other on the left side of the body (left
   lane), and the weight shifts back and forth between the two, with the
   narrator in the middle (middle lane).

   +-----------------------------------------+-------------------------+
   | Regular Expression                      | Description             |
   +-----------------------------------------+-------------------------+
   | Pionn                                   | a punctuation symbol as |
   |                                         | a punctuation base      |
   |                                         | symbol with a           |
   |                                         | preprocessed minimum    |
   |                                         | coordinate              |
   +-----------------------------------------+-------------------------+
   | (((A([ws]io)+)?Bnn(wionn)*)|Pionn)+     | a sign text for         |
   |                                         | horizontal writing as a |
   |                                         | string of signboxes     |
   |                                         | (with optional          |
   |                                         | prefixes) and           |
   |                                         | punctuation             |
   +-----------------------------------------+-------------------------+
   | (((A([ws]io)+)?[LMR]nn(wionn)*)|Pionn)+ | a sign text for         |
   |                                         | vertical writing as a   |
   |                                         | string of signboxes in  |
   |                                         | lanes (with optional    |
   |                                         | prefixes) and           |
   |                                         | punctuation             |
   +-----------------------------------------+-------------------------+

   Sentence Token Patterns

                                 Table 10

   Sentences mix signs with punctuation to form text.



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   Punctuation definition:  S38[7-9ab][0-5][0-9a-f][0-9]{3}x[0-9]{3}

   Formal SignWriting text definition:  ((A(S[123][0-9a-f]{2}[0-5][0-9a-
      f])+)?[BLMR]([0-9]{3}x[0-9]{3})(S[123][0-9a-f]{2}[0-5][0-9a-
      f][0-9]{3}x[0-9]{3})*|S38[7-9ab][0-5][0-9a-f][0-9]{3}x[0-9]{3})(
      (A(S[123][0-9a-f]{2}[0-5][0-9a-
      f])+)?[BLMR]([0-9]{3}x[0-9]{3})(S[123][0-9a-f]{2}[0-5][0-9a-
      f][0-9]{3}x[0-9]{3})*| S38[7-9ab][0-5][0-9a-f][0-9]{3}x[0-9]{3})*

3.  Query Language

   The query language is a lite ASCII markup similar to Formal
   SignWriting.  Any Formal SignWriting string can easily be converted
   into several different query string, depending on the search
   parameters.

   The query string is a concise representation for a much larger and
   detailed set of regular expressions.  The regular expressions can be
   used to quickly and accurately search large files and databases
   containing Formal SignWriting.

   A filter and repeat pattern of searching is used as a series of match
   criteria.  A file, database, or text input is searched using a
   sequence of steps.  Each step applies a single match criteria.
   Matching results are collated and the next search criteria is
   applied.  The pattern of searching the previous results continues
   until all regular expressions have been used.

   There are two main sections of a query string.  The first searches
   the spatial signbox.  The second searches the temporal sequence.
   Both sections use the same definition for a symbol or a range.  The
   symbol search can match an exact symbol, or a set of related symbols.
   For the fill and rotation modifiers, the "u" character is a wildcard.
   The "u" stands for unknown and will match all values rather than a
   specific character.  The range search can match a range of base
   symbols.  The base symbol range consists of 2 values: the starting
   base symbol and the ending base symbol.  Every symbol between these 2
   base symbols will be matched.

   Symbol Search:  S[123][0-9a-f]{2}[0-5u][0-9a-fu]

   Range Search:  R[123][0-9a-f]{2}t[123][0-9a-f]{2}

   The full query string definition allows for the possibility of
   searching the temporal sequence and the spatial signbox at the same
   time.





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   Query String:  Q((A(S[123][0-9a-f]{2}[0-5u][0-9a-fu]|R[123][0-9a-
      f]{2}t[123][0-9a-f]{2})+)?T)?(S[123][0-9a-f]{2}[0-5u][0-9a-
      fu]([0-9]{3}x[0-9]{3})?|R[123][0-9a-f]{2}t[123][0-9a-
      f]{2}([0-9]{3}x[0-9]{3})?)*(V[0-9]+)?

3.1.  Searching the Spatial Signbox

   The spatial signbox is a list of symbols with 2-dimensional
   placement.  The query "Q" will find all signs regardless of the
   symbols used or their placement.

   It is possible to specify one or more symbols (or ranges of symbols)
   that must be included in the signbox to indicate a match.  The order
   of the symbols is not important.  Each symbol (or range) can include
   an optional coordinate.  The coordinate is a restriction on the
   match, such that a symbol must be used within a certain variance of
   the coordinate to qualify as a match.

   The variance is a number value, 0 or greater with a default value of
   20.  A variance of 0 will only find symbols used at an exact
   coordinate.  A variance of 5 will match the symbols used at a
   coordinate, plus or minus 5 for both X and Y numbers.

   Symbol Search with Optional Coordinate:  S[123][0-9a-f]{2}[0-5u][0-
      9a-fu]([0-9]{3}x[0-9]{3})?

   Range Search with Optional Coordinate:  R[123][0-9a-f]{2}t[123][0-9a-
      f]{2}([0-9]{3}x[0-9]{3})?

   Variance:  (V[0-9]+)?

   Spatial Signbox Search Query:  Q(S[123][0-9a-f]{2}[0-5u][0-9a-
      fu]([0-9]{3}x[0-9]{3})?|R[123][0-9a-f]{2}t[123][0-9a-
      f]{2}([0-9]{3}x[0-9]{3})?)*(V[0-9]+)?

















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   +------------------+------------------------------------------------+
   | Query            | Description                                    |
   +------------------+------------------------------------------------+
   | Q                | All signs                                      |
   +------------------+------------------------------------------------+
   | QS100uu          | Signs with the index handshape in the spatial  |
   |                  | order                                          |
   +------------------+------------------------------------------------+
   | QS100uu480x480   | Signs with the index handshape in the spatial  |
   |                  | order used near coordinate (480,480)           |
   +------------------+------------------------------------------------+
   | QS100uu480x480V0 | Signs with the index handshape in the spatial  |
   |                  | order used at the exact coordinate (480,480)   |
   +------------------+------------------------------------------------+
   | QS100uuR2fft36c  | Signs with the index handshape and a symbol    |
   |                  | from the head & face range                     |
   +------------------+------------------------------------------------+

   Spatial Signbox Query Examples

                                 Table 11

3.2.  Searching the Temporal Sequence

   The temporal sequence is a list of symbol keys.  The query "QT" will
   find all signs that include a temporal sequence.

   It is possible to specify the start of the temporal sequence by
   identifying a series of symbols and/or ranges.  The query will start
   with an "QA" and end with a "T", such as "QA...T".  Between the "QA"
   and "T", a series of symbol searches and/or range searches will
   specify the desired start of the temporal sequence.  The order of the
   symbols and ranges is important.

   Temporal Sequence Search Query:  Q((A(S[123][0-9a-f]{2}[0-5u][0-9a-
      fu]|R[123][0-9a-f]{2}t[123][0-9a-f]{2})+)?T)?















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   +-------------------------+-----------------------------------------+
   | Query                   | Description                             |
   +-------------------------+-----------------------------------------+
   | QT                      | All signs that include the temporal     |
   |                         | sequence                                |
   +-------------------------+-----------------------------------------+
   | QAS100uuT               | Signs with a temporal sequence that     |
   |                         | starts with the index handshape         |
   +-------------------------+-----------------------------------------+
   | QAS100uuR100t204S20500T | Signs with a temporal sequence that     |
   |                         | starts with the index handshape,        |
   |                         | followed by any handshape, followed by  |
   |                         | the single contact                      |
   +-------------------------+-----------------------------------------+

   Temporal Sequence Query Examples

                                 Table 12

3.3.  Transformation to Regular Expression

   The conversion from query string to regular expressions has been
   fully implemented in the SignWriting 2010 JavaScript Library and the
   SignWriting Icon Server.

   The query language to regular expressions generator uses the
   following regular expression structures as building blocks.

   Temporal Sequence Prefix:  (A(S[123][0-9a-f]{2}[0-5][0-9a-f])+)

   SignBox Prefix:  [BLMR]([0-9]{3}x[0-9]{3})

   Spatial Symbols:  (S[123][0-9a-f]{2}[0-5][0-9a-f][0-9]{3}x[0-9]{3})*

   The Temporal Sequence Prefix is a structural marker followed by one
   or more symbols.  For the query string "QT", the prefix is required.
   For the general "Q", the prefix is optional so "?" is appended to the
   Temporal Sequence Prefix regular expression.

   The SignBox Prefix is a combination of structural marker and
   preprocessed maximum coordinate.  Every constructed regular
   expression will include the SignBox Prefix.

   The Spatial Symbols is zero or more symbol definitions and associated
   coordinates.  The Spatial Symbols regular expression is used for
   every search.  For both "Q" and "QT", it is the only symbol matching
   used.  When searching for specific symbols and ranges, the general




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   Spatial Symbols definition will sandwich the specific search
   definitions.

   Searching for number ranges with regular expressions requires a
   unique technique.  This technique was described to the LinkedIn
   Regular Expression Experts at the end of 2011 [DIGIT_SEARCH].
   Searching for number ranges in hexadecimal with regular expressions
   is slightly more complicated but uses the same solution.

4.  SignWriting 2010

   SignWriting 2010 is the modern implementation and international
   specification of the SignWriting script for the internet community
   that includes TrueType Fonts and a compact JavaScript library.

4.1.  Font Creation Tools

   The SignWriting 2010 Tools [SW10_TOOLS] is a collection of text files
   and python scripts used to build TrueType fonts using FontForge.  The
   source SVG are available in the SignWriting 2010 Fonts project.

4.2.  TrueType Fonts

   The SignWriting 2010 Fonts [SW10_FONTS] are available for download in
   SVG format and TrueType fonts.  The TrueType fonts can be installed
   on Windows, Linux, Mac, and iOS.  Android is not currently supported
   because the fonts can not be installed due to OS limitations.

   The fonts have been tailored for the SignWriting 2010 JavaScript
   library.

4.3.  JavaScript Library

   The SignWriting 2010 JavaScript Library [SW10_JS] provides support
   for SignWriting images and queries.  It leverages the TrueType fonts
   without any additional requirements.  The SignWriting 2010 JavaScript
   library is contained in a single file and can be included in any HTML
   page or JavaScript environment.  The library includes a guide, API
   documentation, and a testing suite.

4.4.  SignMaker Editor

   SignMaker [SIGNMAKER] is a standards based editor, utilizing HTML,
   CSS, JavaScript, SVG, TrueType Fonts, and PNG images.

   SignMaker is browser based without the need for a server connection.
   It can be used online or it can be downloaded [SM_DOWNLOAD] and run
   directly from the user's computer.



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   The primary online website on SignBank [SM_SIGNBANK] can be used to
   create a private dictionary in the browser's LocalStorage or view
   dozens of sign language dictionaries from around the world.

   The secondary online website on GitHub.io [SM_GITHUB] can be used to
   create a private dictionary in the browser's LocalStorage.

5.  Unicode Integration

   SignWriting Text is integrated with Unicode in a varieties of ways.
   The TrueType fonts of SignWriting 2010 are compatible with each of
   the varieties.

5.1.  UTF-8

   Formal SignWriting is based on ASCII, so it can be supported anywhere
   ASCII is supported.  ASCII is a subset of UTF-8, with a one-to-one
   character correspondence.  Anywhere UTF-8 is supported, the size of
   the Formal SignWriting strings is equal to the ASCII encoding of 8
   bits per character.  With UTF-32, the size of the string is 4 times
   that of the ASCII encoding, requiring 32 bits for each character.

   The Formal SignWriting strings have an equivalent encoding on plane
   15 of the Private Use Area.

5.2.  Private Use Area Plane 15

   The x-Character-SignWriting coded character set is isomorphic with
   Formal SignWriting strings.  Instead of ASCII characters, x-
   Character-SignWriting uses code points on Plane 15 of Unicode.
   Symbols are defined using 3 characters.  Structural markers are
   defined using 1 character each.  Number characters are defined using
   1 character each.


















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   +--------------------+--------------------+-------------------------+
   | Description        | Formal SignWriting | x-Character-SignWriting |
   +--------------------+--------------------+-------------------------+
   | Sequence Marker    | A                  | U+FD800                 |
   +--------------------+--------------------+-------------------------+
   | SignBox Markers    | B, L, M, R         | U+FD801 to U+FD804      |
   +--------------------+--------------------+-------------------------+
   | Fill Modifiers     | 0 to 5             | U+FD810 to U+FD815      |
   +--------------------+--------------------+-------------------------+
   | Rotation Modifiers | 0 to 9 and a to f  | U+FD820 to U+FD82F      |
   +--------------------+--------------------+-------------------------+
   | Symbol Base        | S100 to S38b       | U+FD830 to U+FDABB      |
   +--------------------+--------------------+-------------------------+
   | Numbers            | 250 to 749         | U+FDE06 to U+FDFF9      |
   +--------------------+--------------------+-------------------------+

                    x-Character-SignWriting Definition

                                 Table 13

5.3.  Private Use Area Plane 16

   The x-ISWA-2010 is a 16-bit coded character set that has a unique
   codepoint for each symbol of the ISWA 2010.  The coded character set
   can be mapped to plane 16 by adding value U+100000 to any codepoint.

   A simple formula transforms a symbol key into a codepoint.  Given a
   symbol key as variable "key", in JavaScript the function is defined
   as:

      var code = ((parseInt(key.slice(1,4),16) - 256) * 96) +
      ((parseInt(key.slice(4,5),16))*16) + parseInt(key.slice(5,6),16) +
      1;

5.4.  Unicode 8

   The symbols of the International SignWriting Alphabet 2010 have been
   approved for Unicode 8, which will be between June and August of 2015
   [UNICODE8].  Every symbol of the ISWA 2010 can be described with 1 to
   3 characters.

   Due to the variable size of the symbol description, both sorting and
   searching have been compromised.  The sorting issue has been
   reported, but not yet resolved.  The searching issue either
   complicates the routines or makes it impossible to resolve ambiguity.
   It should be noted that a basic search and replace of symbol names
   could corrupt the text.




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6.  IANA Considerations

   This section provides guidance to the Internet Assigned Numbers
   Authority (IANA) regarding registration of values related to the code
   spaces of the Center for Sutton Movement Writing, in accordance with
   [RFC2978].  protocol, in accordance with BCP 26, [RFC2434].

   See IANA: http://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc2978.txt

   Conforms with RFC 2040.

   There are two name spaces for the Center for Sutton Movement Writing
   that require definition and extension: x-ISWA-2010 and x-Character-
   SignWriting

   SignWriting Text is an international standard with several coded
   character sets.  These sets may require additional hand and mouth
   shapes.

   The following terms are used here with the meanings defined in BCP
   26: "name space", "assigned value", "registration".

   The following policies are used here with the meanings defined in BCP
   26: "Private Use", "First Come First Served", "Expert Review",
   "Specification Required", "IETF Consensus", "Standards Action".

7.  Security Considerations

   None.

8.  References

   [CODING_SYSTEM]
              Butler, C. and R. Channon, "Transcription systems as input
              to coding systems: SignWriting & SignTyp",
              <http://www.signwriting.org/archive/docs7/
              sw0623_TISLR_2010_SignWriting_SignTyp_Poster.pdf>.

   [DELEGS]   "DELEGS Editor", <http://www.delegs.com/DelegsPage>.

   [DIGIT_SEARCH]
              Slevinski, S., "3 Digit Number Searching",
              <https://www.linkedin.com/grp/post/1066587-85595980>.

   [FEATURES]
              Hulst, H. and R. Channon, "Why dynamic features?",
              <http://www.purdue.edu/tislr10/pdfs/
              van%20der%20Hulst%20Channon.pdf>.



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   [FORMAL]   "Formal Language on Wikipedia",
              <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Formal_language>.

   [ISWA_FONT]
              Slevinski, S., "International SignWriting Alphabet 2010
              Font Reference", <http://signpuddle.net/iswa>.

   [ISWA_REF]
              Slevinski, S., "International SignWriting Alphabet 2010
              HTML Reference", <http://signbank.org/iswa>.

   [JSPAD]    "JSPad", <http://www.mat.info.gifu-u.ac.jp/jspad/>.

   [MSW]      Slevinski, S., "Modern SignWriting",
              <https://github.com/Slevinski/msw>.

   [NOTATION]
              Hulst, H. and R. Channon, "Notation Systems",
              <http://homepage.uconn.edu/~hdv02001/
              Articles-pdfs/131%20-%20Notation%20Systems.pdf>.

   [SHORTHAND]
              Sutton, V., "SignWriting Shorthand",
              <http://www.signwriting.org/lessons/cursive/shorthand>.

   [SIGNMAKER]
              Slevinski, S., "SignMaker Editor",
              <https://github.com/Slevinski/signmaker>.

   [SM_DOWNLOAD]
              Slevinski, S., "SignMaker Download Link",
              <https://github.com/Slevinski/signmaker/archive/gh-
              pages.zip>.

   [SM_GITHUB]
              "SignMaker on GitHub.io",
              <http://slevinski.github.io/signmaker>.

   [SM_SIGNBANK]
              "SignMaker on SignBank",
              <http://signbank.org/signmaker.html>.

   [SPML]     "SignPuddle Markup Language Source Files",
              <http://signbank.org/signpuddle2.0/data/spml>.

   [SP_ONLINE]
              "SignPuddle Online", <http://signpuddle.org>.




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   [STENOGRAPHY]
              Sutton, V., "Sign Language Stenography",
              <http://www.signwriting.org/lessons/cursive/byhand5.html>.

   [STUDIO]   "SignWriter Studio", <http://signwriterstudio.com>.

   [SW10_FONTS]
              Slevinski, S., "SignWriting 2010 Fonts",
              <https://github.com/Slevinski/signwriting_2010_fonts>.

   [SW10_JS]  Slevinski, S., "SignWriting 2010 JavaScript Library",
              <https://github.com/Slevinski/sw10js>.

   [SW10_TOOLS]
              Slevinski, S., "SignWriting 2010 Tools",
              <https://github.com/Slevinski/signwriting_2010_tools>.

   [SWIFT]    "SignWriting improved fast transcriber",
              <http://www.researchgate.net/publication/230720646_SWift_a
              _SignWriting_improved_fast_transcriber>.

   [SWIS]     Slevinski, S., "SignWriting Icon Server source",
              <https://github.com/Slevinski/swis>.

   [SWIS_LABS]
              "SignWriting Icon Server on Wikimedia Labs",
              <http://swis.wmflabs.org>.

   [SWIS_SIGNBANK]
              "SignWriting Icon Server on SignBank",
              <http://signbank.org/swis>.

   [UNICODE8]
              "Unicode 8", <http://unicode.org/versions/Unicode8.0.0/>.

Appendix A.  Modern SignWriting

   This Internet Draft is in complete agreement with the theory and
   example workbook released on January 12th, 2012 called Modern
   SignWriting [MSW].  Modern SignWriting has example text and
   concretely defines the processes available.  It fully documented the
   text encoding with regular expressions.

   The Formal SignWriting strings are exactly the same as they appear in
   the Modern SignWriting document.  The query language is nearly the
   same, with a compatible improvement for searching the temporal
   sequence.




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Appendix B.  International SignWriting Alphabet 2010

   The International SignWriting Alphabet 2010 [ISWA_REF] is a
   collection of visually iconic symbols that exists in a layered
   hierarchy (Appendix B.3).  The ISWA 2010 is a product of the
   collaboration between SignWriting inventor, Valerie Sutton, and
   SignWriting encoder Stephen E Slevinski Jr.  Special thanks to Adam
   Frost's excellent work on the SVG refinement and more.

   The ISWA 2010 fonts [ISWA_FONT] have been stable since their initial
   release on October 20th, 2010.

   Valerie Sutton

   o  hand crafted and organized 30K plus individual glyphs

   o  created a 2 dimension PNG of 3 colors for each

   o  named each individual glyph with 6 degrees of significance

   o  font name: ISWA 2010 Sutton

   Steve Slevinski

   o  counted and numbered the glyphs

   o  created mathematical names

   o  analyzed PNGs for line and fill

   o  refactored glyphs - font name: ISWA 2010 PNG Standard

   o  extended glyphs - font names: ISWA 2010 PNG Inverse, Shadow,
      Colorized

   o  traced glyphs - font names: ISWA 2010 SVG Line Trace, Shaddow
      Trace, Smooth, and Angular

   o  refactored and extended Adam's SVG work - font name: ISWA 2010 SVG
      Refinement

   Adam Frost

   o  manually traced each and every glyph that could not be
      automatically rotated

   o  font name: ISWA 2010 SVG Refinement




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   o  physically performed and photographed every hand shape

   o  font name: ISWA 2010 Hand Photo

   o  consulted with Valerie in places of ambiguity

B.1.  Grapheme

   The grapheme is the fundamental unit of writing for the SignWriting
   script.  Many graphemes of SignWriting are visually iconic.  The main
   writing graphemes of SignWriting represent a visual conception:
   either hands, movement, dynamics, timing, head, face, trunk, or limb.
   The body concept is a combination of trunk and limb.  The specific
   size and shape of each grapheme is designed to balance and complement
   other graphemes.

   The writing graphemes are extensive and specifically organized for
   written sign language and sign gestures.  The writing graphemes do
   not include the specific graphemes of DanceWriting or the general
   graphemes of MovementWriting.

   The writing graphemes are used in clusters.  A cluster is a spatial
   grouping of graphemes written as a single unit.  The graphemes can
   overlap and obscure graphemes underneath.  A cluster can represents a
   sign of a sign language or a visual performance of a sign gesture.

   Detailed location graphemes are separate from the main writing
   graphemes.  Detailed location graphemes are used individually or
   sequentially.  They represent isolated analysis that is written
   outside the cluster.

   Punctuation graphemes are used when writing sentences.  They are used
   individually, between clusters.

   When written by hand, lines are drawn to form each grapheme.
   Different styles draw different types of lines: either for personal
   taste, speed, or quality.  The main types of handwriting are formal,
   cursive, and shorthand.  Formal handwriting, equivalent to block
   printing, includes defined lines for all grapheme features, specific
   palm facings for hand shapes, and detailed arrow heads and tails.
   Cursive handwriting is more fluid and less detailed.  Handwriting for
   personal use can omit palm facings, generalize arrows, and other
   liberties of personal consumption.  Shorthand is a further reduction
   of detail, written for speed.  Shorthand is a memory aid to a written
   record and should be rewritten soon after the notes were taken.






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   Understanding the ratios of size and shape for the graphemes improves
   hand writing.  SignWriting was an exclusively handwritten script for
   7 years before publishing formalized the Block Printing model.

B.2.  Symbol

   There are 37,811 symbols, each with a unique ID.  A symbol ID is a
   sequence of six formatted numbers of increasing detail.  The first
   dashed number defines the category (11).  The first two dashed
   numbers define the group (11-22).  The first four dashed numbers
   define a base (11-22-333-44).  The fifth number represents the fill
   (55).  The sixth number represents the rotation (66).  A symbol ID is
   a combination of base ID with a valid fill and a valid rotation.  A
   symbol ID has the format "nn-nn-nnn-nn-nn-nn", where each "n" is a
   digit from 0 to 9.

   The fill modifier can best be understood through the palm facing of
   the hand graphemes.  The palm facing is based on planes.  The
   SignWriting script uses two planes: the Front Wall (Frontal Plane)
   and the Floor (Transverse Plane).  There are 6 palm facings.  The
   first three palm facings are parallel with the Front Wall.  The
   second three palm facings are parallel with the Floor.  The reader
   can view the signer from different viewpoints (expressive or
   receptive) and can view the hands from different perspectives (front
   or top), but no matter what the viewpoint or perspective, the first
   three Fills represent the palm facing parallel to the Front Wall and
   the second three Fills represent the palm facing parallel to the
   Floor.























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   +------+------------------------------+-----------------------------+
   | Fill | Indicator                    | Meaning                     |
   +------+------------------------------+-----------------------------+
   | 01   | grapheme with white palm     | reader sees palm of hand    |
   |      |                              | parallel Front Wall         |
   +------+------------------------------+-----------------------------+
   | 02   | grapheme with half black     | reader sees side of hand    |
   |      | palm                         | parallel Front Wall         |
   +------+------------------------------+-----------------------------+
   | 03   | grapheme with black palm     | reader sees back of hand    |
   |      |                              | parallel Front Wall         |
   +------+------------------------------+-----------------------------+
   | 04   | grapheme with white palm and | reader sees palm of hand    |
   |      | broken line                  | parallel Floor              |
   +------+------------------------------+-----------------------------+
   | 05   | grapheme with half black     | reader sees side of hand    |
   |      | palm and broken line         | parallel Floor              |
   +------+------------------------------+-----------------------------+
   | 06   | grapheme with black palm and | reader sees palm of hand    |
   |      | broken line                  | parallel Floor              |
   +------+------------------------------+-----------------------------+

                                 Table 14

   The fill modifier is redefined for the movement arrows of category 2.

   +------+---------------------+--------------------------------------+
   | Fill | Indicator           | Meaning                              |
   +------+---------------------+--------------------------------------+
   | 01   | a grapheme with a   | movement of the right hand           |
   |      | black arrow head    |                                      |
   +------+---------------------+--------------------------------------+
   | 02   | a grapheme with a   | movement of the left hand            |
   |      | white arrow head    |                                      |
   +------+---------------------+--------------------------------------+
   | 03   | a grapheme with a   | spatial overlapping  of movement     |
   |      | thin, unconnected   | arrows for the left and right hands  |
   |      | arrow head          | when they move as a unit             |
   +------+---------------------+--------------------------------------+
   | 04   | Irregular arrow     | building blocks for complex movement |
   |      | stems               |                                      |
   +------+---------------------+--------------------------------------+

                                 Table 15

   The rest of the other bases use a fill modifier for grouping and
   visual organization that is meaningful only for a particular base
   symbol or small set.



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   The rotation modifier can best be understood through the hand
   symbols.  The first 8 rotations progress 45 degrees counter
   clockwise.  The last 8 rotations are a mirror of the first 8 and
   progress 45 degrees clockwise.  Zero (0) degrees is understood to
   point to the top of the grapheme.

   +----------+-------------------+------------------+
   | Rotation | Direction         | Degrees from top |
   +----------+-------------------+------------------+
   | 01       | Counter Clockwise | 0                |
   +----------+-------------------+------------------+
   | 02       | Counter Clockwise | 45               |
   +----------+-------------------+------------------+
   | 03       | Counter Clockwise | 90               |
   +----------+-------------------+------------------+
   | 04       | Counter Clockwise | 135              |
   +----------+-------------------+------------------+
   | 05       | Counter Clockwise | 180              |
   +----------+-------------------+------------------+
   | 06       | Counter Clockwise | 225              |
   +----------+-------------------+------------------+
   | 07       | Counter Clockwise | 270              |
   +----------+-------------------+------------------+
   | 08       | Counter Clockwise | 315              |
   +----------+-------------------+------------------+
   | 09       | Clockwise         | 0                |
   +----------+-------------------+------------------+
   | 10       | Clockwise         | 45               |
   +----------+-------------------+------------------+
   | 11       | Clockwise         | 90               |
   +----------+-------------------+------------------+
   | 12       | Clockwise         | 135              |
   +----------+-------------------+------------------+
   | 13       | Clockwise         | 180              |
   +----------+-------------------+------------------+
   | 14       | Clockwise         | 225              |
   +----------+-------------------+------------------+
   | 15       | Clockwise         | 270              |
   +----------+-------------------+------------------+
   | 16       | Clockwise         | 315              |
   +----------+-------------------+------------------+

                                 Table 16








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B.3.  Hierarchy

   The symbols of the ISWA 2010 are placed in a layered hierarchy for
   organization and access.  There are 4 levels to the ISWA 2010
   hierarchy: category, group, base, and symbol.

   There are 7 categories.  The first number of the symbol ID identifies
   the category.  The first 5 categories contain writing symbols for use
   in clusters: 1) Hands, 2) Movement, 3) Dynamics & Timing, 4) Head &
   Face, and 5) Body.  The Body category can be broken into 2
   subcategories: 5.1) Trunk and 5.2) Limb.

   The 6th category is Detailed Location that contains symbols used
   alone or in sequence, always outside the cluster.  The 7th category
   is Punctuation that contains symbols used between clusters for text.

   +-----+-------------+-------------+---------------------------------+
   | Cat | Purpose     | Name        | Description                     |
   +-----+-------------+-------------+---------------------------------+
   | 1   | Writing     | Hands       | Handshapes from over 40 Sign    |
   |     |             |             | Languages are placed in 10      |
   |     |             |             | groups based on the numbers     |
   |     |             |             | 1-10 in American Sign Language. |
   +-----+-------------+-------------+---------------------------------+
   | 2   | Writing     | Movement    | Contact symbols, small finger   |
   |     |             |             | movements, straight arrows,     |
   |     |             |             | curved arrows and circles are   |
   |     |             |             | placed into 10 groups based on  |
   |     |             |             | planes: The Front Wall Plane    |
   |     |             |             | includes movement that is       |
   |     |             |             | "parallel to the front wall"    |
   |     |             |             | and the Floor Plane includes    |
   |     |             |             | movement that is "parallel to   |
   |     |             |             | the floor".                     |
   +-----+-------------+-------------+---------------------------------+
   | 3   | Writing     | Dynamics &  | Dynamics Symbols are used to    |
   |     |             | Timing      | give the "feeling" or "tempo"   |
   |     |             |             | to movement. They provide       |
   |     |             |             | emphasis on a movement or       |
   |     |             |             | expression, and combined with   |
   |     |             |             | Punctuation Symbols become the  |
   |     |             |             | equivalent to Exclamation       |
   |     |             |             | Points. The Tension Symbol,     |
   |     |             |             | combined with Contact Symbols,  |
   |     |             |             | provides the feeling of         |
   |     |             |             | "pressure", and combined with   |
   |     |             |             | facial expressions can place    |
   |     |             |             | emphasis or added feeling to an |



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   |     |             |             | expression. Timing symbols are  |
   |     |             |             | used to show alternating or     |
   |     |             |             | simultaneous movement.          |
   +-----+-------------+-------------+---------------------------------+
   | 4   | Writing     | Head & Face | Starting with the head and then |
   |     |             |             | from the top of the face and    |
   |     |             |             | moving down.                    |
   +-----+-------------+-------------+---------------------------------+
   | 5   | Writing     | Body        | Torso movement, shoulders,      |
   |     |             |             | hips, and the limbs are used in |
   |     |             |             | Sign Languages as a part of     |
   |     |             |             | grammar, especially when        |
   |     |             |             | describing conversations        |
   |     |             |             | between people, called Role     |
   |     |             |             | Shifting, or making spatial     |
   |     |             |             | comparisons between items on    |
   |     |             |             | the left and items on the       |
   |     |             |             | right.                          |
   +-----+-------------+-------------+---------------------------------+
   | 6   | Detailed    | Detailed    | Detailed Location symbols used  |
   |     | Location    | Location    | are used alone or in sequence   |
   |     |             |             | outside of the cluster.  They   |
   |     |             |             | may be useful for sorting large |
   |     |             |             | dictionaries, refining          |
   |     |             |             | animation, simplifying          |
   |     |             |             | translation between scripts and |
   |     |             |             | notation systems, and for       |
   |     |             |             | detailed analysis of location   |
   |     |             |             | sometimes needed in linguistic  |
   |     |             |             | research.                       |
   +-----+-------------+-------------+---------------------------------+
   | 7   | Punctuation | Punctuation | Punctuation symbols are used    |
   |     |             |             | when writing complete sentences |
   |     |             |             | or documents in SignWriting.    |
   +-----+-------------+-------------+---------------------------------+

   The 7 Categories of the ISWA 2010

                                 Table 17

   There are 30 groups.  The first 2 dashed numbers in the symbol ID
   identify the group.  The 30 groups can be divided into 3 sets of 10.
   The first ten are hands, category 1.  The second ten are movements,
   category 2.  The third ten are categories 3 thru 7.  In order, 1
   group for the Dynamics & Timing category, 1 for Head, 4 for Face, 1
   for Trunk, 1 for Limb, 1 for Detailed Location, and 1 for
   Punctuation.




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   +-------------------+------------------------+----------------------+
   | First Set         | Second Set             | Third Set            |
   +-------------------+------------------------+----------------------+
   | 01-01 Index       | 02-01 Contact          | 03-01 Dynamics &     |
   |                   |                        | Timing               |
   +-------------------+------------------------+----------------------+
   | 01-02 Index       | 02-02 Finger Movement  | 04-01 Head           |
   | Middle            |                        |                      |
   +-------------------+------------------------+----------------------+
   | 01-03 Index       | 02-03 Straight Wall    | 04-02 Brow Eyes      |
   | Middle Thumb      | Plane                  | Eyegaze              |
   +-------------------+------------------------+----------------------+
   | 01-04 Four        | 02-04 Straight         | 04-03 Cheeks Ears    |
   | Fingers           | Diagonal Plane         | Nose Breath          |
   +-------------------+------------------------+----------------------+
   | 01-05 Five        | 02-05 Straight Floor   | 04-04 Mouth Lips     |
   | Fingers           | Plane                  |                      |
   +-------------------+------------------------+----------------------+
   | 01-06 Baby Finger | 02-06 Curves Parallel  | 04-05 Tongue Teeth   |
   |                   | Wall Plane             | Chin Neck            |
   +-------------------+------------------------+----------------------+
   | 01-07 Ring Finger | 02-07 Curves Hit Wall  | 05-01 Trunk          |
   |                   | Plane                  |                      |
   +-------------------+------------------------+----------------------+
   | 01-08 Middle      | 02-08 Curves Hit Floor | 05-02 Limbs          |
   | Finger            | Plane                  |                      |
   +-------------------+------------------------+----------------------+
   | 01-09 Index Thumb | 02-09 Curves Parallel  | 06-01 Detailed       |
   |                   | Floor Plane            | Location             |
   +-------------------+------------------------+----------------------+
   | 01-10 Thumb       | 02-10 Circles          | 07-01 Punctuation    |
   +-------------------+------------------------+----------------------+

   The 30 groups with symbol ID segment.

                                 Table 18

   There are 652 bases.  The first 4 dashed numbers of a symbol ID
   identify the base.  The 652 bases are divided between the 30 groups.
   For each group, there are less than 60 bases.  The bases are often
   displayed in columns of 10.

   Each base can have up to 96 symbols.  All 6 dashed numbers of the
   symbol ID are required to identify a symbol.  Each symbol is a
   combination of a base, fill, and rotation.  The fill is identified by
   the 5th number of the symbol ID with possible values from 01 to 06.
   The rotation is identified by the 6th number of the symbol ID with
   possible values from 01 to 16.



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B.4.  Combined Character Sequence

   Each symbol of the ISWA 2010 can be expressed with a combination of 3
   characters.  The first character represents the base of the symbol.
   The next character represents the fill of the symbol.  The last
   character represents the rotation of the symbol.

   The combined character sequence is used in Formal SignWriting and the
   x-Character-SignWriting coded character set.

B.5.  Validity

   Although there are 6 possible fills and 16 possible rotations, not
   every combination of base, fill, and rotation is valid.  Each base
   has a set of valid fills and a set of valid rotation.  These validity
   sets contain one or more values from the defined range.

   For each value, the inclusion in the validity set can be expressed
   with a value of "0" or "1".  For fill values, lining up the digit
   from left to right, will result in a string 6 digits long.  The value
   of the 6 digit number is 2 ^ (value -1).

       +------------+---+---+---+---+---+---+--------+------------+
       | Fill Value | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | Binary | Power of 2 |
       +------------+---+---+---+---+---+---+--------+------------+
       |     1      | X |   |   |   |   |   | 100000 |     1      |
       +------------+---+---+---+---+---+---+--------+------------+
       |     2      |   | X |   |   |   |   | 010000 |     2      |
       +------------+---+---+---+---+---+---+--------+------------+
       |     3      |   |   | X |   |   |   | 001000 |     4      |
       +------------+---+---+---+---+---+---+--------+------------+
       |     4      |   |   |   | X |   |   | 000100 |     8      |
       +------------+---+---+---+---+---+---+--------+------------+
       |     5      |   |   |   |   | X |   | 000010 |     16     |
       +------------+---+---+---+---+---+---+--------+------------+
       |     6      |   |   |   |   |   | X | 000001 |     32     |
       +------------+---+---+---+---+---+---+--------+------------+

                                 Table 19

   The value of any fill validity set is equal to the sum of the power
   of 2 for each fill value in the set.  The empty set is invalid and
   has a sum of zero (0).  The full set of all possible fills has a sum
   of 63.







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      +---------------+---+---+---+---+---+---+--------+------------+
      |    Fill Set   | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | Binary | Power of 2 |
      +---------------+---+---+---+---+---+---+--------+------------+
      |       {}      |   |   |   |   |   |   | 000000 |     0      |
      +---------------+---+---+---+---+---+---+--------+------------+
      | {1,2,3,4,5,6} | X | X | X | X | X | X | 111111 |     63     |
      +---------------+---+---+---+---+---+---+--------+------------+

                                 Table 20

   Each base has a defined validity set for fills.

   The rotation validity sets have a larger range than the fills.  The
   possible rotation values range from 1 to 16.  The power of 2 numbers
   are 16-bit.




































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   +-------+--------+------------+
   | Value | Binary | Power of 2 |
   +-------+--------+------------+
   |     1 | 2^0    | 1          |
   +-------+--------+------------+
   |     2 | 2^1    | 2          |
   +-------+--------+------------+
   |     3 | 2^2    | 4          |
   +-------+--------+------------+
   |     4 | 2^3    | 8          |
   +-------+--------+------------+
   |     5 | 2^4    | 16         |
   +-------+--------+------------+
   |     6 | 2^5    | 32         |
   +-------+--------+------------+
   |     7 | 2^6    | 64         |
   +-------+--------+------------+
   |     8 | 2^7    | 128        |
   +-------+--------+------------+
   |     9 | 2^8    | 256        |
   +-------+--------+------------+
   |    10 | 2^9    | 512        |
   +-------+--------+------------+
   |    11 | 2^10   | 1024       |
   +-------+--------+------------+
   |    12 | 2^11   | 2048       |
   +-------+--------+------------+
   |    13 | 2^12   | 4096       |
   +-------+--------+------------+
   |    14 | 2^13   | 8192       |
   +-------+--------+------------+
   |    15 | 2^14   | 16384      |
   +-------+--------+------------+
   |    16 | 2^15   | 32768      |
   +-------+--------+------------+

                                 Table 21

   The value of a rotation validity set is the summation of the power of
   2 numbers.  The minimum summation is 1.  The largest possible
   summation is 65,535 where all 16 rotations are valid.

   Each base has a defined validity set for rotations.

   Interestingly enough, there are only 12 possible validity sets in the
   ISWA 2010.





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   +-------+------------------+----------------------------------------+
   |   Sum | Binary           | Set                                    |
   +-------+------------------+----------------------------------------+
   |     1 | 100000           | {1}                                    |
   +-------+------------------+----------------------------------------+
   |     2 | 010000           | {2}                                    |
   +-------+------------------+----------------------------------------+
   |     3 | 110000           | {1, 2}                                 |
   +-------+------------------+----------------------------------------+
   |     7 | 111000           | {1, 2, 3}                              |
   +-------+------------------+----------------------------------------+
   |    15 | 111100           | {1, 2, 3, 4}                           |
   +-------+------------------+----------------------------------------+
   |    31 | 111110           | {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}                        |
   +-------+------------------+----------------------------------------+
   |    63 | 111111           | {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}                     |
   +-------+------------------+----------------------------------------+
   |   187 | 11011101         | {1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 8}                     |
   +-------+------------------+----------------------------------------+
   |   255 | 11111111         | {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8}               |
   +-------+------------------+----------------------------------------+
   |   511 | 1111111110000000 | {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9}            |
   +-------+------------------+----------------------------------------+
   | 48059 | 1101110111011101 | {1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 14,  |
   |       |                  | 16}                                    |
   +-------+------------------+----------------------------------------+
   | 65535 | 1111111111111111 | {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11,    |
   |       |                  | 12, 13, 14, 15, 16}                    |
   +-------+------------------+----------------------------------------+

                                 Table 22

Appendix C.  SignPuddle Standard

   The SignPuddle Standard for SignWriting text has been stable since
   January 12th, 2012.

C.1.  Licenses

   The font software is available under SIL's Open Font License.

   The reference material is licensed under Creative Commons
   attribution, share alike (by-sa).

   The previous generation of open source projects are licensed under
   the GPL 2 for MediaWiki and GPL 3 for the general software on Github.





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   The current generation of open source projects on GitHub are licensed
   under the MIT License.

C.2.  Infrastructure

C.2.1.  SignPuddle Online

   SignPuddle Online [SP_ONLINE] is the current home of the
   international community of online writers of the SignWriting Script.
   Online tools make it possible to create SignWriting dictionaries and
   documents directly on the web.  Each collection is freely available
   as a small XML file [SPML].  Dozens of sign languages from around the
   world are represented.  Each language can have several collections of
   SignWriting.

C.2.2.  SignWriting Icon Server

   The SignWriting Icon Server is the previous generation SignWriting
   server code for SVG, PNG, and other image formats.  The image
   creation is stable and fully implemented.  The API is a proof of
   concept with only an initial level of support.

   The main server is available on Wikimedia Labs [SWIS_LABS] for all
   SignWriting projects.

   A backup server is available on SignBank [SWIS_SIGNBANK].

   Each SignWriting Icon Server provides the SignWriting Thin Viewer as
   a site script and as a bookmark.

   Additional SignWriting Icon Servers can be created directly from the
   GitHub source [SWIS].

C.2.3.  Wikimedia Incubator

   The SignWriting Script has been enabled on Wikimedia Incubator using
   the SignWriting Gadget.

C.3.  Compatibility

   SignTyp, SignWriter Studio, the DELEGS Editor, SWift, and more.

C.3.1.  SignTyp

   This standard is being integrated with the SignTyp linguistic coding
   system developed by Rachel Channon through an NSF grant.





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      Notation Systems by Harry van der Hulst and Rachel Channon.
      [NOTATION]

      Why dynamic features? by Harry van der Hulst and Rachel Channon.
      [FEATURES]

      Transcription systems as input to coding systems: SignWriting &
      SignTyp by Charles Butler and Rachel Channon.  [CODING_SYSTEM]

C.3.2.  SignWriter Studio

   SignWriter Studio [STUDIO] is a Windows-only compatible application
   by Jonathan Duncan.  It has an alternate symbol selection technique.
   According to Valerie Sutton, it illustrates a unique insight into the
   hand shapes of the ISWA.

   Jonathan Duncan writes:

      SignWriter Studio has 4 ways to get the basic symbol base, and 3
      ways to modify the selected base.

      1) Select the base symbol from a complete list of base symbols
      organized in a tree view 2) Search for a hand symbol in hand
      search section by hand feature.  3) Select a symbol already
      present in the signbox.  4) Select a symbol from a Favorites
      section.

      Then one of three chooser to define the fill and rotation will
      become available.  1)The hand chooser.  2)The arrow chooser.
      3)The general chooser.

      The Hand chooser is to quickly find the symbol for a certain,
      hand, plain(wall or floor), palm facing and rotation.  The Hand
      Chooser also extends add a fourth palm facing to logically show
      all possible symbols in their most common uses.  This chooser
      resembles the instruction manual explaining the use of hand
      shapes.

      The Arrow Chooser is to quickly find arrows for a certain hand,
      plain(wall or floor) and rotation.This chooser resembles the
      instruction manual explaining the use of arrows.

      The General Chooser is for symbols for which the two previous
      chooser do not work well and gives a grouped list of symbols for
      the base group.






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C.3.3.  DELEGS Online

   The DELEGS Editor [DELEGS] from the University of Hamburg and C1 WPS
   GmbH in Germany is designed for Deaf Education.  It is a tool for
   writing translation texts between spoken and signed languages.

   Spoken language text is used to display horizontal SignWriting Text
   from left to right.  The spoken language can appear beneath the sign
   or it can be hidden.

C.3.4.  SWift

   SWift is a SignWriting improved fast transcriber [SWIFT] from Claudia
   Savina Bianchini, Fabrizio Borgia, and Maria De Marsico.  SWift is
   under active development.  The design "guides and simplifies the
   editing process".

   SWift uses an alternate symbol hierarchy than the ISWA 2010.  A
   conversion library is planned in the future to support Formal
   SignWriting strings.

C.3.5.  JSPad

   JSPad [JSPAD] is Windows and Mac OS X software for editing the words
   and sentences of sign language, created by the Matsumoto Laboratory
   of Gifu University in Japan.

Author's Address

   Stephen E Slevinski Jr
   SignPuddle

   Email: slevin@signpuddle.net


















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