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Routing Working Group                                              N. So
Internet Draft                                                  A. Malis
Intended Status: Informational                                D. McDysan
Expires:                                                         Verizon
                                                                 L. Yong
                                                                  Huawei
                                                               F. Jounay
                                                          France Telecom
                                                               Y. Kamite
                                                                     NTT
                                                            July 9, 2009

           Framework and Requirements for MPLS Over Composite Link
               draft-so-yong-mpls-ctg-framework-requirement-02

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   documents carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with
   respect to this document.

Abstract

   This document states a traffic distribution problem in today's IP/MPLS
   network when multiple links are configured between two routers. The
   document presents motivation, a framework and requirements. It defines a
   composite link as a group of parallel links that can be considered as a
   single traffic engineering link or as an IP link, and used for MPLS.
   The document primarily focuses on MPLS traffic controlled through
   control plane protocols, the advertisement of composite link parameter
   in routing protocols, and the use of composite links in the RSVP-TE and
   LDP signaling protocols. Interactions with the data and management plane
   are also addressed.  Applicability can be between a single pair of MPLS-
   capable nodes, a sequence of MPLS-capable nodes, or a multi-layer
   network connecting MPLS-capable nodes.

Table of Contents


   1. Introduction...................................................3
   2. Conventions used in this document..............................4
      2.1. Acronyms..................................................4
      2.2. Terminology...............................................4
   3. Motivation and Summary Problem Statement.......................5
      3.1. Motivation................................................5
      3.2. Summary of Problems Requiring Solution....................6
   4. Framework......................................................7
      4.1. Single Routing Instance...................................7
         4.1.1. Summary Block Diagram View...........................7
         4.1.2. CTG Interior Functions...............................8
         4.1.3. CTG Exterior Functions...............................8
         4.1.4. Multi-Layer Network Context..........................8
      4.2. Multiple Routing Instances...............................10
   5. CTG Requirements for a Single Routing Instance................11
      5.1. Management and Measurement of CTG Interior Functions.....11
         5.1.1. Configuration as a Routable Virtual Interface.......11
         5.1.2. Traffic Flow and CTG Mapping........................12
            5.1.2.1. Using Control Plane TE Information.............12
            5.1.2.2. When no TE Information is Available (i.e., LDP)12
            5.1.2.3. Handling Bandwidth Shortage Events.............13
         5.1.3. Management of Other Operational Aspects.............13
            5.1.3.1. Resilience.....................................13
            5.1.3.2. Flow/Connection Mapping Change Frequency.......14
            5.1.3.3. OAM Messaging Support..........................14
      5.2. CTG Exterior Functions...................................15
         5.2.1. Signaling Protocol Extensions.......................15
         5.2.2. Routing Advertisement Extensions....................16
         5.2.3. Multi-Layer Networking Aspects......................16
   6. CTG Requirements for Multiple Routing Instances...............16
      6.1. Management and Measurement of CTG Interior Functions.....16
         6.1.1. Appearance as Multiple Routable Virtual Interfaces..16
         6.1.2. Control of Resource Allocation......................16
         6.1.3. Configuration of Prioritization and Preemption......16


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      6.2. CTG Exterior Functions...................................16
         6.2.1. CTG Operation as a Higher-Level Routing Instance....16
   7. Security Considerations.......................................17
   8. IANA Considerations...........................................17
   9. References....................................................17
      9.1. Normative References.....................................17
      9.2. Informative References...................................17
   10. Acknowledgments..............................................18

1. Introduction

   IP/MPLS network traffic growth forces carriers to deploy multiple
   parallel physical/logical links between adjacent routers as the total
   capacity of all aggregated traffic flows exceed the capacity of a single
   link.  The network is expected to carry aggregated traffic flows some of
   which approach the capacity of any single link, and also some flows that
   may be very small compared to the capacity of a single link.

   Operating an MPLS network with multiple parallel links between all
   adjacent routers causes scaling problems in the routing protocols.  This
   issue is addressed in [RFC4201] which defines the notion of a Link
   Bundle -- a set of identical parallel traffic engineered (TE) links
   (called component links) that are grouped together and advertised as a
   single TE link within the routing protocol.

   The Link Bundle concept is somewhat limited because of the requirement
   that all component links must have identical capabilities, and because
   it applies only to TE links.  This document sets out a more generic set
   of requirements for grouping together a set of parallel data links that
   may have different characteristics, and for advertising and operating
   them as a single TE or non-TE link called a Composite Link.

   This document also describes a framework for selecting members of a
   Composite Link, operating the Composite Link in signaling and routing,
   and for distributing through local decisions data flows across the
   component members of a Composite Link to achieve maximal data throughput
   and enable link-level protection schemes.

   Applicability of the work within this document is focused on MPLS
   traffic as controlled through control plane protocols.  Thus, this
   document describes the routing protocols that advertise link parameters
   and the Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP-TE) and the Label
   Distribution Protocol (LDP) signaling protocols that distribute MPLS
   labels and establish Label Switched Paths (LSPs). Interactions between
   the control plane and the data and management planes are also addressed.
   The focus of this document is on MPLS traffic either signaled by RSVP-TE
   or LDP. IP traffic over multiple parallel links is handled relatively
   well by ECMP or LAG/hashing methods. The handling of IP control plane
   traffic is within the scope of the framework and requirements of this
   document.

   The transport functions for TE and non-TE traffic delivery over a
   Composite Link are termed a Composite Transport Group (CTG). In other
   words, the objective of CTG is to solve the traffic sharing problem at a



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   composite link level by mapping labeled traffic flows to component
   links:

   1.  using TE information from the control plane attached to the virtual
      interface when available, or

   2.  using traffic measurements when it is not.

   Specific protocol solutions are outside the scope of this document.

2. Conventions used in this document

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC-2119.

2.1.  Acronyms

      BW: Bandwidth

      CTG: Composite Transport Group

      ECMP: Equal Cost Multi-Path

      FRR: Fast Re-Route

      LAG: Link Aggregation Group

      LDP: Label Distribution Protocol

      LSP: Label Switched Path

      MPLS: Multi-Protocol Label Switching

      OAM: Operation, Administration, and Management

      PDU: Protocol Data Unit

      PE: Provider Edge device

      RSVP: ReSource reserVation Protocol

      RTD: Real Time Delay

      TE: Traffic Engineering

      VRF: Virtual Routing and Forwarding

2.2. Terminology

   Composite Link or Composite Transport Group (CTG): a group of component
   links, which can be considered as a single MPLS TE link or as a single
   IP link used for MPLS.




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   Component Link: a physical link (e.g., Lambda, Ethernet PHY, SONET/ SDH,
   OTN, etc.) with packet transport capability, or a logical link (e.g.,
   MPLS LSP, Ethernet VLAN, MPLS-TP LSP, etc.)

   CTG Connection: An aggregation of traffic flows which are treated
   together as a single unit by the CTG Interior Function for the purpose
   of routing onto a specific component link and measuring traffic volume.

   CTG Interior Functions: Actions performed by the MPLS routers directly
   connected by a composite link. This includes the determination of the
   connection and component link on which a traffic flow is placed.
   Although a local implementation matter, the configuration control of
   certain aspects of these interior functions is an important operational
   requirement.

   CTG Exterior Functions: These are performed by an MPLS router that makes
   a composite link useable by the network via control protocols, or by an
   MPLS router that interacts with other routers to dynamically control a
   component link as part a composite link. These functions are those that
   interact via routing and/or signaling protocols with other routers in
   the same layer network or other layer networks.

   Traffic Flow: A set of packets that with common identifier
   characteristics that the CTG is able to use to aggregate traffic into
   CTG Connections.  Identifiers can be an MPLS label stack or any
   combination of IP addresses and protocol types.

   Virtual Interface: Composite link characteristics advertised in IGP

3. Motivation and Summary Problem Statement

3.1. Motivation

   There are several established approaches to using multiple parallel
   links between a pair of routers.  These have limitations as summarized
   below.

   o  ECMP/Hashing/LAG: IP traffic composed of a large number of flows with
      bandwidth that is small with respect to the individual link capacity
      can be handled relatively well using ECMP/LAG approaches. However,
      these approaches do not make use of MPLS control plane information
      nor traffic volume information. Distribution techniques applied only
      within the data plane can result in less than ideal load balancing
      across component links of a composite link.

   o  Advertisement of each component link into the IGP. Although this
      would address the problem, it has a scaling impact on IGP routing,
      and was an important motivation for the specification of link
      bundling [RFC4201]. However, link bundling does not support a set of
      component links with different characteristics (e.g., bandwidth,
      latency) and only supports RSVP-TE.






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   o  Planning Tool LSP Assignment: Although theoretically optimal, an
      external system that participates in the IGP, measures traffic and
      assigns TE LSPs and/or adjusts IGP metrics has a potentially large
      response time to certain failure scenarios. Furthermore, such a
      system could make use of more information than provided by link
      bundling IGP advertisements and could make use of mechanisms that
      would allow pinning MPLS traffic to a particular component link in a
      CTG.

   o  In a multi-layer network, the characteristics of a component link can
      be altered by a lower layer network and this can create significant
      operational impact in some cases. For example, if a lower layer
      network performs restoration and markedly increases the latency of a
      link in a link bundle, the traffic placed on this longer latency link
      may generate user complaints and/or exceed the parameters of a
      Service Level Agreement (SLA).

   o  In the case where multiple routing instances could share a composite
      link, inefficiency can result if either 1) specific component links
      are assigned to an individual routing instance, or 2) if statically
      assigned capacity is made to a logical/sub interface in each
      component link of a CTG for each routing instance. In other words,
      the issue is that unused capacity in one routing instance cannot be
      used by another in either of these cases.

3.2. Summary of Problems Requiring Solution

   The following bullets highlight aspects of CTG-related solution for
   which detailed requirements are stated in Section 5.

   o  Ensure the ability to transport both RSVP-TE and LDP signaled non-TE
      LSPs on the same composite link (i.e., a single set of component
      links) while maintaining acceptable service quality for both RSVP-TE
      and LDP signaled LSPs.

   o  Extend a link bundling type function to scenarios with groups of
      links having different characteristics (e.g., bandwidth, latency).

   o  When an end-to-end LSP signaled by RSVP-TE uses a composite link, the
      CTG must select a component link that meets the end-to-end
      requirements for the LSP. To perform this function, the CTG must be
      made aware of the required, desired, and acceptable link
      characteristics (e.g., latency, optimization frequency) for each CTG
      hop in the path.

   o  Support sets of component links between routers across intermediate
      nodes at the same and/or lower layers where the characteristics
      (e.g., latency) of said links may change dynamically. The solution
      should support the case where the changes in characteristics of these
      links are not communicated by the IGP (e.g., a link in a lower layer
      network has a change in latency or QoS due to a restoration action).






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   o  In the case where multiple routing instances could share a composite
      link, a means to reduce or manage the potential inefficiency is
      highly desirable. A local implementation by the same router type at
      each end of a CTG could address this issue. However, in the case of
      different routers at each end of a CTG there is a need to specify the
      operational configuration commands and measurements to ensure
      interoperability.  Alternatively, the case of multiple routing
      instances sharing a CTG could be viewed as an instance of multi-layer
      routing. In this case, some lower-layer instance of routing
      associated with the CTG can be viewed as a server. This CTG server
      controls the composite link and arbitrates between the signaled
      requests and measured load offered by the higher level, client
      instances of routing (i.e., users of the CTG). The CTG server assigns
      resources on component links to these client level routing instances
      and communicates this via routing messages into each of the client
      instances, which then communicate this to their peers in the domain
      of each routing instance. This server level function is a way to meet
      operational requirements where flows from one routing instance need
      to preempt flows from another routing instance, as detailed in the
      requirements in section 6.1.3.

4. Framework

4.1. Single Routing Instance

4.1.1. Summary Block Diagram View

   The CTG framework for a single routing instance is illustrated in Figure
   1, where a composite link is configured between routers R1 and R2.  In
   this example, the composite link has three component links.  A composite
   link is defined in ITU-T [ITU-T G.800] as a single link that bundle
   comprises multiple parallel component links between the two routers.
   Each component link in a composite link is supported by a separate
   server layer trail.  A component link can be implemented by different
   transport technologies such as wavelength, SONET/SDH, OTN, Ethernet PHY,
   Ethernet VLAN, or can be a logical link [LSP Hierarchy] for example,
   MPLS, or MPLS-TP.  Even if the transport technology implementing the
   component links is identical, the characteristics (e.g., bandwidth,
   latency) of the component links may differ.

   An important framework concept is that of a CTG connection shown in
   Figure 1. Instead of simply mapping the incoming traffic flows directly
   to the component links, aggregating multiple flows into a connection
   makes the measurement of actual bandwidth usage more scalable and
   manageable. Then the CTG can place connections in a 1:1 manner onto the
   component links. Although the mapping of flows to connections and then
   to a component link is a local implementation matter, the management
   plane configuration and measurement of this mapping is an important
   external operational interface necessary for interoperability. Note that
   a special case of this model is where a single flow is mapped to a
   single connection.






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            Management Plane
        Configuration and Measurement <----------------+
                    ^                                  |
                    |                                  |
                    |                                  |
                    v                                  v
                +---------+                           +---------+
        Control |      R1 |                           |      R2 |   Control
        Plane ====>       |                           |       ====> Plane
                |     +---+     Component Link 1      +---+     |
                |     |   |===========================|   |     |
                |     |   |~~~~~~ CTG Connections ~~~~|   |     |
              ~~|~~>~~|   |===========================|   |~~>~~|~~
              ~~|~~>~~| C |    Component Link 2       | C |~~>~~|~~
      Traffic ~~|~~>~~|   |===========================|   |~~>~~|~~ Traffic
      Flows   ~~|~~>~~| T |~~~~~~ CTG Connections ~~~~| T |~~>~~|~~  Flows
              ~~|~~>~~|   |===========================|   |~~>~~|~~
              ~~|~~>~~| G |     Component Link 3      | G |~~>~~|~~
              ~~|~~>~~|   |===========================|   |~~>~~|~~
                |     |   |~~~~~~ CTG connections ~~~~|   |     |
                |     |   |===========================|   |     |
                |     +---+                           +---+     |
                +---------+                           +---------+
                        ! !                           ! !
                        ! !<---- Component Links ---->! !
                        !<------ Composite Link ------->!

             Figure 1: Composite Transport Group Architecture Model

   CTG functions can be grouped into two major categories, as described in
   the following subsections.

4.1.2. CTG Interior Functions

   CTG Interior Functions: implemented within the interior of MPLS routers
   connected via a composite link. This includes the local data plane
   functions of determining the component link on which a traffic flow is
   placed. Management configuration for some aspects of these interior
   functions is important to achieve operational consistency and this is
   the focus of requirements in this document for interior functions.

4.1.3. CTG Exterior Functions

   CTG Exterior Functions have aspects that are applicable exterior to the
   CTG connected MPLS routers.  In other words, functions that are used by
   other routers, such as routing advertisements and signaling messages
   related to specific characteristics of a composite link.

4.1.4. Multi-Layer Network Context

   The model of Figure 1 applies to at least the scenarios illustrated in
   Figure 2.  The component links may be physical or logical, and the
   composite link may be made up of a mixture of physical and logical links
   supported by different technologies. Figure 2 and the following
   description provide a contextual framework for the multi-layer


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   networking related problem described in section 3.2. In the first
   scenario, a set of physical links connect adjacent (P) routers (R1/R2).

   In the second scenario, a set of logical links connect adjacent (P or
   PE) routers over other equipment (i.e., R3/R4) that may implement RSVP-
   TE signaled MPLS tunnels which may be in the same IGP as R1/R2 or in a
   different IGP. . When R3 and R4 are not part of R1/R2's IGP (e.g., they
   may implement MPLS-TP) R3/R4 can have a signaling but not a routing
   interface with R1/R2. In other words, R3/R4 offers connectivity to R1/R2
   in an overlay model. Another case is where R3/R4 provide a TE-LSP
   segment of TE-LSP from R1 and R2.



    +----+---+                 1. Physical Link             +---+----+
    |    |   |----------------------------------------------|   |    |
    |    |   |                                              |   |    |
    |    |   |     +------+                     +------+    | C |    |
    |    | C |     | MPLS |    2. Logical Link  | MPLS |    |   |    |
    |    |   |.... |......|.....................|......|....|   |    |
    |    |   |-----|  R3  |---------------------|  R4  |----|   |    |
    |    | T |     +------+                     +------+    | T |    |
    |    |   |                                              |   |    |
    |    |   |                                              |   |    |
    |    | G |     +------+                     +------+    | G |    |
    |    |   |     |GMPLS | 3. Lower Layer Link |GMPLS |    |   |    |
    |    |   |. ...|......|.....................|......|....|   |    |
    |    |   |-----|  R5  |---------------------|  R6  |----|   |    |
    |    |   |     +------+                     +------+    |   |    |
    | R1 |   |                                              |   | R2 |
    +----+---+                                              +---+----+
              |<---------- Composite Link ----------------->|

                Figure 2: Illustration of Component Link Types

   In the third scenario, GMPLS lower layer LSPs (e.g., Fiber, Wavelength,
   TDM) as determined by a lower layer network in a multi-layer network
   deployment as illustrated by R5/R6. In this case, R5 and R6 would
   usually not be part of the same IGP as R1/R2 and may have a static
   interface, or may have a signaling but not a routing association with R1
   and R2. Note that in scenarios 2 and 3 when the intermediate routers are
   not part of the same IGP as R1/R2 (i.e., can be viewed as operating at a
   lower layer) that the characteristics of these links (e.g., latency) may
   change dynamically, and there is an operational desire to handle this
   type of situation in a more automated fashion than is currently possible
   with existing protocols. Note that this problem currently occurs with a
   single lower-layer link in existing networks and it would be desirable
   for the solution to handle the case of a single lower-layer component
   link as well. Note that the interfaces at R1 and R2 are associated with
   these different component links can be configured with IP addresses or
   use unnumbered links as an interior, local function since the individual
   component links are not advertised as the CTG virtual interface.





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4.2. Multiple Routing Instances

   In the case where the routers connected via a CTG support multiple
   routing instances there is additional context as described in this
   section. In general, each routing instance can have its own instances of
   control plane, IGP, and/or routing/signaling protocols.  In general,
   they need not be aware of the existence of the other routing instances.
   However, it is operationally desirable for efficiency reasons for these
   routing instances to share the resources of a composite link and have
   the capability for a higher level of control logic to allocate resources
   amongst the instances based upon configured policy and the current state
   of at least the local composite link, but potentially that of other
   composite links in the network. Figure 3 shows the model where a
   composite link appears as a routable virtual interface to each routing
   instance.

       +-----+---+       Component Link1                  +---+-----+
       |     |   |----------------------------------------|   |     |
       |RIA.1|   |                                        |   |RIA.2|
       |     | C |        Virtual Interface               | C |     |
       |IGPA====================================================IGPA|
       |_____| T |       Component Link2                  | T |_____|
       |     |   |----------------------------------------|   |     |
       |RIB.1| G |                                        | G |RIB.2|
       |     |   |       Component Link3                  |   |     |
       |     |   |----------------------------------------|   |     |
       |IGPB====================================================IGPB|
       +-----+---+        Virtual Interface               +---+-----+
             |                                                |
             |<------------- Composite Link ----------------->|
               Figure 3: Routing Instances Sharing Composite Link



   In Figure 3, the router on the left side is configured with two routing
   instances (RI) RIA.1 and RIB.1.  Another router on the right side is
   configured with two routing instances RIA.2 and RIB.2.  Routing instance
   A belongs to IGPA network and routing instance B belongs to IGPB
   network. In this example the composite link contains three component
   links. IGPA and IGPB can be TE and/or non-TE enabled. In this case,
   there are additional CTG related functions related to the dynamic
   allocation of resources in the component links to each of the multiple
   routing instances. Furthermore, there are operational scenarios where in
   response to certain failure scenarios and/or load conditions that the
   multi-routing instance CTG function may preempt certain LSPs and/or
   cause changes in the routing information communicated by the IGPs as
   detailed in the section on multi-instance CTG exterior function
   requirements.

   The multiple routing instance case of CTG appears to have a number of
   requirements and context in common with the single routing instance of
   CTG, and hence it is retained within the same document in this version.
   The structure of this framework section, as well as the following
   requirements section, is to place the multiple routing instance CTG



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   requirements at the end and to only describe aspects unique to the
   multiple routing instance case.

   The larger view of CTG as a higher level instance in the context of
   multiple lower level routing instances may be sufficiently different and
   broad enough in scope to justify elaboration in a separate document.
   However, an objective should be to use the framework and as many common
   requirements from the single routing instance CTG framework and
   requirements as possible.

5. CTG Requirements for a Single Routing Instance

5.1. Management and Measurement of CTG Interior Functions

5.1.1. Configuration as a Routable Virtual Interface

   The operator SHALL be able to configure a "virtual interface"
   corresponding to a composite link and component link characteristics as
   a TE link or an IP link in IP/MPLS network.

   The solution SHALL allow configuration of virtual interface parameters
   for a TE link (e.g., available bandwidth, maximum bandwidth, maximum
   allowable LSP bandwidth, TE metric, and resource classes (i.e.,
   administrative groups) or link colors).

   The solution SHALL allow configuration of virtual interface parameters
   for an IP link used for MPLS (e.g., administrative cost or weight).

   The solution SHALL support configuration of a composite link composed of
   set of component links that may be logical or physical, with each
   component link potentially having at least the following characteristics
   which may differ:

   o  Logical/Physical

   o  Bandwidth

   o  Latency

   o  QoS characteristics (e.g., jitter, error rate)

   The "virtual interface" SHALL appear as a fully-featured routing
   adjacency in each routing instance, not just as an FA [RFC4206]. In
   particular, it needs to work with at least the following IP/MPLS
   control protocols: OSPF/IS-IS, LDP, IGPOSPF-TE/ISIS-TE, and RSVP-TE.

   CTG SHALL accept a new component link or remove an existing component
   link by operator provisioning or in response to signaling at a lower
   layer (e.g., using GMPLS).

   The solution SHALL support derivation of the advertised interface
   parameters from configured component link parameters based on operator
   policy.




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   A composite link SHALL be configurable as a numbered or unnumbered link
   (virtual interface in IP/MPLS).

   A component link SHALL be configurable as a numbered link or unnumbered
   link. A component link should be not advertised in IGP.

5.1.2. Traffic Flow and CTG Mapping

   CTG SHALL support operator assignment of traffic flows to specific
   connections.

   CTG SHALL support operator assignment of connections to specific
   component links.

   CTG shall support separation of resources for traffic flows mapped to
   connections that have access to TE information (e.g., RSVP-TE signaled
   flows) from those that do not have access to TE information (e.g., LDP-
   signaled flows).

   The solution SHALL support transport IP packets across a composite link
   for control plane (signaling, routing) and management plane functions.

   In order to prevent packet loss, CTG must employ make-before-break when
   a change in the mapping of a CTG connection to a component link mapping
   change has to occur.

5.1.2.1. Using Control Plane TE Information

   The following requirements apply to the case of RSVP-TE signaled LSPs.

   The solution SHALL support the admission control by RSVP-TE that is
   signaled from the routers outside the CTG. Note that RSVP-TE signaling
   need not specify the actual component link because the selection of
   component link is the local matter of two adjacent routers based upon
   signaled and locally configured information.

   CTG shall be able to receive, interpret and act upon at least the
   following RSVP-TE signaled parameters: bandwidth setup priority, and
   holding priority [RFC 3209, RFC 2215] preemption priority and traffic
   class [RFC 4124], and apply them to the CTG connections where the LSP is
   mapped.

   CTG shall support configuration of at least the following parameters on
   a per composite link basis:

   o  Local Bandwidth Oversubscription factor

5.1.2.2. When no TE Information is Available (i.e., LDP)

   The following requirements apply to the case of LDP signaled LSPs when
   no signaled TE information is available.

   CTG shall map LDP-assigned labeled packets based upon local
   configuration (e.g., label stack depth) to define a CTG connection that
   is mapped to one of the component links by the CTG.


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   The solution SHALL map LDP-assigned labeled packets that identify the
   outer label's FEC.

   The solution SHALL support entropy labels [Entropy Label] to map more
   granular flows to connections.

   The solution SHALL be able to measure the bandwidth actually used by a
   particular connection and derive proper local traffic TE information for
   the connection.

   When the connection bandwidth exceeds the component link capacity, the
   solution SHALL be able to reassign the traffic flows to several
   connections.

   The solution SHALL support management plane controlled parameters that
   define at least a minimum bandwidth, maximum bandwidth, preemption
   priority, and holding priority for each connection without TE
   information (i.e., LDP signaled flows).

5.1.2.3. Handling Bandwidth Shortage Events

   The following requirements apply to a virtual interface that supports
   the traffic flows both with and without TE information, in response to a
   bandwidth shortage event. A "bandwidth shortage" can arise in CTG if the
   total bandwidth of the connections with provisioned/signaled TE
   information and those signaled without TE information (but with measured
   bandwidth) exceeds the bandwidth of the composite link that carries the
   CTG connections.

   CTG shall support a policy-based preemption capability such that, in the
   event of such a "bandwidth shortage", the signaled or configured
   preemption and holding parameters can be applied to the following
   treatments to the connections:

   o  For a connection that has RSVP-TE LSPs, signal the router that the
      LSP has been preempted.  CTG shall support soft preemption (i.e.,
      notify the preempted LSP source prior to preemption). [Soft
      Preemption]

   o  For a connection that has LDP(s), where the CTG is aware of the LDP
      signaling involved to the preempted label stack depth, signal release
      of the label to the router

   o  For a connection that has non-re-routable RSVP-TE LSPs or non-
      releasable LDP labels, signal the router or operator that the LSP or
      LDP label has been lost.

5.1.3. Management of Other Operational Aspects

5.1.3.1. Resilience

   Component links in a composite link may fail independently.  The failure
   of a component link may impact some CTG connections.  The impacted CTG
   connections shall be transferred to other active component links using



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   the same rules as for the original assignment of CTG connections to
   component links.

   The component link recovery scheme SHALL perform equal to or better than
   existing local recovery methods.  A short service disruption may occur
   during the recovery period.

   Fast ReRoute (FRR) SHALL be configurable for a composite link.

5.1.3.2. Flow/Connection Mapping Change Frequency

   The solution requires methods to dampen the frequency of flow to
   connection mapping change, connection bandwidth change, and/or
   connection to component link mapping changes (e.g., for re-
   optimization).  Operator imposed control policy SHALL be supported.

   The solution SHALL support latency and delay variation sensitive traffic
   and limit the mapping change for these flows, and place them on
   component links that have lower latency.

   The determination of latency sensitive traffic SHALL be determined by
   any of the following methods:

   o  Use of a pre-defined local policy setting at composite link ingress

   o  A manually configured setting at composite link ingress

   o  MPLS traffic class in a RSVP-TE signaling message (i.e., Diffserv-TE
      traffic class [RFC 4124])

   The determination of latency sensitive traffic SHOULD be determined (if
   possible) by any of the following methods:

   o  Pre-set bits in the Payload (e.g., DSCP bits for IP or Ethernet user
      priority for Ethernet payload) which are typically assigned by end-
      user

   o  MPLS Traffic-Class Field (aka EXP) which is typically mapped by the
      LER/LSR on the basis that its value is given for differentiating
      latency-sensitive traffic of end-users

5.1.3.3. OAM Messaging Support

   Fault management requirement

   There are two aspects of fault management in the solution.  One is about
   composite link between two local adjacent routers.  The other is about
   the individual component link.

   OAM protocols for fault management from the outside routers (e.g., LSP-
   Ping/Trace, IP-ping/Trace) SHALL be transparently treated.

   For example, it is expected that LSP-ping/trace message is able to
   diagnose composite link status and its associated virtual interface
   information; however, it is not required to directly treat individual


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   component link and CTG-connection because they are local matter of two
   routers.

   The solution SHALL support fault notification mechanism (e.g., syslog,
   SNMP trap to the management system/operators) with the granularity level
   of affected part as detailed below:

   o  Data-plane of component link level

   o  Data-plane of composite link level (as a whole)

   o  Control-plane of the virtual interface level (i.e., routing/signaling
      on it)

   o  o A CTG that believes that the underlying server layer might not
      efficiently report failures, can run Bidirectional Forwarding
      Detection (BFD) over a component link.

   CTG shall support configuration of timers so that lower layer methods
   have time to detect/restore faults before a CTG function would be
   invoked.

   The solution SHALL allow operator or control plane to query which
   component link a LSP is assigned to.

5.2. CTG Exterior Functions

5.2.1. Signaling Protocol Extensions

   The solution SHALL support signaling a composite link between two
   routers (e.g., P, P/PE, or PE).

   The solution SHALL support signaling a component link as part of a
   composite link.

   The solution SHALL support signaling a composite link and automatically
   injecting it into the IGP LSP Hierarchy or a private link for
   connected two routers.

   The solution SHALL support signaling of at least the following
   additional parameters for component link:

   o  Minimum and Maximum (estimated or measured) latency

   o  Bandwidth of the highest and lowest speed

   The solution SHOULD support signaling of at least the following
   additional parameters for component link:

   o  Delay Variation

   o  Loss rate





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5.2.2. Routing Advertisement Extensions

   It shall be possible to represent multiple values, or a range of values,
   for the composite link interface parameters in order to communicate
   information about differences in the constituent component links in an
   exterior function route advertisement. For example, a range of latencies
   for the component links that comprise the composite links could be
   advertised.

Multi-Layer Networking Aspects

   The solution SHALL support derivation of the advertised interface
   parameters from signaled component link parameters from a lower layer
   (e.g., latency) based on operator policy.

6. CTG Requirements for Multiple Routing Instances

   This section covers requirements conditioned on the case where the
   solution supports multiple routing instances. Unless otherwise stated,
   all requirements for a single routing instance from section 5 apply
   individually to each of the multiple routing instances.

6.1. Management and Measurement of CTG Interior Functions

6.1.1. Appearance as Multiple Routable Virtual Interfaces

   CTG SHALL support multiple routing instances that see a single separate
   "virtual interface" to a shared composite link composed of parallel
   physical/logical component links between a pair of routers.

6.1.2. Control of Resource Allocation

   The operator SHALL be able to statically assign resources (e.g.,
   component link, or bandwidth to a sub/logical interface) to each routing
   instance virtual interface.

6.1.3. Configuration of Prioritization and Preemption

   The solution SHALL support a policy based local to the CTG preemption
   capability across all routing instances and a set of requirements
   similar to those listed in section 5.1.2.3. Note that this requirement
   applies across the multiple routing instances.

6.2. CTG Exterior Functions

6.2.1. CTG Operation as a Higher-Level Routing Instance

   The following requirements apply to the case where CTG exterior
   functions supporting multiple routing instances communicate with each
   other.

   CTG exterior functions shall be able to advertise parameters such as
   reserved capacity, measured capacity usage, and available resources for
   the CTGs of which they perform CTG interior functions.



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   CTG exterior functions shall be able to signal and respond to requests
   for a change in allocation of the CTG interior function resources.

7. Security Considerations

   The solution is a local function on the router to support traffic
   engineering management over multiple parallel links.  It does not
   introduce a security risk for control plane and data plane.

   The solution could change the frequency of routing update messages and
   therefore could change routing convergence time. The solution MUST
   provide controls to dampen the frequency of such changes so as to not
   destabilize routing protocols.

8. IANA Considerations

   IANA actions to provide solutions are for further study.

9. References

9.1. Normative References

   [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
             Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC2215] S. Shenker, J. Wroclawski, "General Characterization
             Parameters for Integrated Service Network Elements."
             September 1997

   [RFC3209]  D. Awduche, L. Berger, D. Gan, T. Li, V. Srinivasan, G.
   Swallow, "RSVP-TE: Extensions to RSVP for LSP Tunnels,"   December 2001

   [RFC3477]  Kompella, K., "Signalling Unnumbered Links in Resource
   ReSerVation Protocol - Traffic Engineering (RSVP-TE)", RFC 3477, January
   2003.

   [RFC4206] Label Switched Paths (LSP) Hierarchy with Generalized Multi-
   Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) Traffic Engineering (TE)  K. Kompella,
   Y. Rekhter October 2005

   [RFC4090]  Pan, P., "Fast Reroute Extensions to RSVP-TE for LSP
   Tunnels", RFC 4090, May 2005.

   [RFC4124] Protocol Extensions for Support of Diffserv-aware MPLS Traffic
   Engineering  F. Le Faucheur, Ed. June 2005

   [RFC4201]  Kompella, K., "Link Bundle in MPLS Traffic Engineering", RFC
   4201, March 2005.

9.2. Informative References

   [Entropy Label] Kompella, K. and S. Amante, "The Use of Entropy Labels
   in MPLS Forwarding", November 2008, Work in Progress




So, et al.             Expires January 9, 2010                [Page 17]


   [LSP Hierarchy] Shiomoto, K. and A. Farrel, "Procedures for Dynamically
   Signaled Hierarchical Label Switched Paths", November 2008, Work in
   Progress

   [Soft Preemption] Meyer, M. and J. Vasseur, "MPLS Traffic Engineering
   Soft Preemption", February 2009, Work in Progress

10. Acknowledgments

   Authors would like to thank Adrian Farrel from Olddog for his extensive
   comments and suggestions, Ron Bonica from Juniper, Nabil Bitar from
   Verizon, Eric Gray from Ericsson, Lou Berger from LabN, and Kireeti
   Kompella from Juniper, for their reviews and great suggestions.

   This document was prepared using 2-Word-v2.0.template.dot.



   Copyright (c) 2009 IETF Trust and the persons identified as authors of
   the code. All rights reserved.

   THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS
   IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED
   TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A
   PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT OWNER
   OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL,
   EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO,
   PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR
   PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF
   LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING
   NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS
   SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.

   This code was derived from IETF RFC [insert RFC number]. Please
   reproduce this note if possible.






















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Authors' Addresses

      So Ning
      Verizon
      2400 N. Glem Ave.,
      Richerdson, TX  75082
      Phone: +1 972-729-7905
      Email: ning.so@verizonbusiness.com


      Andrew Malis
      Verizon
      117 West St.
      Waltham, MA  02451
      Phone: +1 781-466-2362
      Email: andrew.g.malis@verizon.com

      Dave McDysan
      Verizon
      22001 Loudoun County PKWY
      Ashburn, VA  20147
      Email: dave.mcdysan@verizon.com


      Lucy Yong
      Huawei USA
      1700 Alma Dr. Suite 500
      Plano, TX  75075
      Phone: +1 469-229-5387
      Email: lucyyong@huawei.com

      Frederic Jounay
      France Telecom
      2, avenue Pierre-Marzin
      22307 Lannion Cedex,
      FRANCE
      Email: frederic.jounay@orange-ftgroup.com

      Yuji Kamite
      NTT Communications Corporation
      Granpark Tower
      3-4-1 Shibaura, Minato-ku
      Tokyo  108-8118
      Japan
      Email: y.kamite@ntt.com












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