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SFC working group                                                H. Song
Internet-Draft                                                   L. Yong
Intended status: Standards Track                                Y. Jiang
Expires: October 16, 2014                                         Huawei
                                                          April 14, 2014


                    SFC Header Mapping for Legacy SF
                  draft-song-sfc-legacy-sf-mapping-01

Abstract

   SFC (Service Function Chaining) is used to manipulate service
   functions with easy creation, updating and deletion.  A service
   function chain goes through a list of ordered service function
   instances.  One assumption of this document is that legacy service
   function instances can participate in the service chain.  They are
   not aware of the SFC header, nor interpret it.  This document
   provides a mechanism between a Service Forwarding Entity (SFE) and a
   Service Function Instance (SFI), to identify the SFC header
   associated with a packet that is returned from an SFI, without SFC
   header being explicitly carried in the wired protocol between SFE and
   SFI.

Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on October 16, 2014.





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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2014 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   3.  Mechanisms  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     3.1.  For Transparent Service Functions . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
       3.1.1.  Layer 2 MAC Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
       3.1.2.  VLAN  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
       3.1.3.  QinQ  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
       3.1.4.  VXLAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     3.2.  For Non-transparent Service Functions . . . . . . . . . .   9
   4.  Operation Consideration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   5.  Security considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   6.  Acknowledgement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   7.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11

1.  Introduction

   SFC is used to manipulate service functions with easy creation,
   updating and deletion.  A service function chain goes through a list
   of ordered service functions.  One assumption of this document is
   that certain service functions can be kept as legacy.  They do not
   have to be aware of the SFC header, nor interprets it.  This document
   provides a mechanism between a Service Forwarding Entity and a
   Service Function Instance, to identify the SFC header associated with
   a packet that is returned from an SFI, without anything in the SFC
   header being explicitly carried in the wired protocol between a SFE
   and SFI.







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            +----------------+
            |Service Function|
            |Instance        |
            +----+----+------+
                 ^    |
                 |    |
                 |    |
              (2)|    |(3)
                 |    |
                 |    |
            +----+----V--------+
      (1)   |Service Forwarding| (4)
   -------->|Entity            +------->
            +------------------+
  Figure 1: Procedure of a packet processed by a legacy service function

   The legacy service function (i.e. SFI in the Figure 1) only handles
   packets without SFC header, because it does not understand the SFC
   header.  One advantage is that the existing service functions don't
   need to be upgraded to support SFC.  Otherwise it may be a hindrance
   for the widely adoption of SFC.

   Assuming that for most SFIs, the packet header is transparent to a
   legacy SFI.  SFI will not modify the layer 2 or layer 3 packet
   headers.  If the payload in the SFC encapsulation is layer 3 traffic,
   it will be kept as it is, and a new layer 2 header will be added
   before sending to the SFI.  However if the payload in the SFC
   encapsulation is layer 2 traffic, the SFE may modify the original
   source MAC address and use the new source MAC address for mapping to
   the stored SFC header.  This will not impact the SFI processing.  The
   SFI will send the traffic back after processing.  For the current
   stage, we leave the legacy SFIs which modify the original packet
   headers as an open issue for further study.

   As shown in Figure 1, there are four steps.  The SFE receives a
   packet, and removes its SFC header, which may optionally contain
   metadata, and stores the SFC header locally, and then sends the
   original packet to the SFI.  After SFI processing the packet, the
   traffic will be sent back to the SFE.  The SFE retrieves the pre-
   stored SFC header accordingly, and encapsulates the packet with the
   SFC header, and then sends the packet to next-hop service function.
   The key problem here is how to map the packet to its original SFC
   header.

   If the SFC header is not changed per flow at a certain point, e.g., a
   specific SFE, (i.e. each flow has a specific SFC header in a SFE, but
   in another SFE, the SFC header is different), then the SFE needs to
   find the original SFC header per flow.  If the SFC header is changed



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   per packet for a specific flow at a certain point, then the SFE needs
   to find the original SFC header per packet.  The second case may be
   happened if different packets in a flow carry different metadata
   (e.g. the metadata can be injected to the packet by a DPI appliance).
   It's also the reason why five-tuple cannot be used for the mapping to
   retrieve the original SFC header.

   An expiration time can be used for each mapping entry in the SFE.  If
   the SFC header in that entry has not been retrieved after the
   expiration time, the entry will be deleted from the entry table.

2.  Terminology

   The terminology used in this document is defined below:

      Legacy SF: A conventional service function that does not support
      SFC header.

      Transparent SF: A service function that does not change any bit of
      the original service packet header (Layer 2, layer 3, and layer 4)
      sent to it.

      Non-transparent SF: A service function that changes some part of
      the original service packet header sent to it.

      Original Service Packet: The payload in a SFC encapsulation packet
      or a packet constructed based on the original payload.

3.  Mechanisms

   The mechanisms used in this document require that each forwarding
   entity and its connected service functions in a same layer 2 network.
   The following are considerations mainly for transparent SFIs.  If the
   original payload packet is a layer 2 packet, and the mapping method
   used is layer 2 MAC address, then the assumption is that the SFI does
   not need to look into the layer 2 header.  If it does, other
   mechanisms should be used.

3.1.  For Transparent Service Functions

   If the service function is transparent to packet headers, the
   following methods can be used for SFC header mapping.

3.1.1.  Layer 2 MAC Address

   The layer 2 MAC address is used to associate a SFC header between SFE
   and SFI, i.e. each SFC header will be assigned a source MAC address
   on the SFE.  If SFC header can be changed per packet, then SFE



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   assigns a new source MAC address for each packet it received,
   otherwise, it assigns a new MAC address for each flow it received.

   When SFE received the returned packet from the SFI, it retrieves the
   packet's original SFC header by using the MAC address as a key.  And
   then it encapsulates the packet with that SFC header and sends to the
   next hop.

        0                   1                   2                   3
        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1

    Outer Ethernet Header:

       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |             SFI Destination MAC Address                       |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |SFI Destination MAC Address    | SFE Source MAC Address        |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |             SFE Source MAC Address                            |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |    Ethertype = 0x0800         |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

    Original IP Payload:

       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |           Original Payload                                    |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

3.1.2.  VLAN

   If the network between the SFE and SFI is a layer 2 network, and in
   the case that a SFI need to look into the MAC address of the packet,
   then VLAN can be used for the mapping between them.  The SFE removes
   the SFC header and sends the packet to the SFI, with encapsulating a
   certain VLAN ID.  It locally maintains the mapping between VLAN ID
   and the SFC header.  When it gets the returned packet from the SFI,
   it removes the VLAN part from the packet and retrieves the
   corresponding SFC header according to the VLAN ID, and then
   encapsulates SFC header into that packet before sending to the next
   service function.

   The VLAN ID can be used for mapping per flow, i.e. each flow will be
   assigned a new VLAN ID.  If SFC header could be changed per packet,
   the length of VLAN ID is not enough for mapping.






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        0                   1                   2                   3
        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1

    Outer Ethernet Header:

       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |             SFI Destination MAC Address                       |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |SFI Destination MAC Address    | SFE Source MAC Address        |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |             SFE Source MAC Address                            |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |OptnlEthtype = C-Tag 802.1Q    |Outer.VLAN Tag Information     |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |    Ethertype = 0x0800         |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

    Original IP Payload:

       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |           Original Payload                                    |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

3.1.3.  QinQ

   If the network between the SFE and SFI is already a VLAN network, and
   the SFI needs to look into the MAC address, then QinQ is used for the
   communication between SFE and SFI.  The SFE remove the SFC header and
   send the original traffic to SFI with a certain outer VLAN ID.  It
   locally maintains the mapping between outer VLAN ID and the SFC
   header.

   If the network between SFE and SFI is not a VLAN network, then QinQ
   can be used for either per flow mapping or per packet mapping, using
   two layer VLAN fields.  If the network between SFE and SFI is a VLAN
   network, then QinQ can only be used for per flow mapping, using one
   VLAN field.














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        0                   1                   2                   3
        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1

    Outer Ethernet Header:

       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |             SFI Destination MAC Address                       |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |SFI Destination MAC Address    | SFE Source MAC Address        |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |             SFE Source MAC Address                            |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |OptnlEthtype = S-Tag 802.1Q    |Outer.VLAN Tag Information     |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |Ethertype = C-Tag 802.1Q       |Inner.VLAN Tag Information     |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |    Ethertype = 0x0800         |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

    Original IP Payload:

       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |           Original Payload                                    |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

3.1.4.  VXLAN

   If the SFE and SFI are already deployed in a QinQ network, then VXLAN
   [I-D.mahalingam-dutt-dcops-vxlan] can be used for the mapping, i.e.
   VNI can be used for the mapping between them.  This tunneling
   technology is only used when the original packet type is at layer 2
   and the SFI has to look into the layer 2 MAC header.

   The drawback of this mechanism is that it requires both SFE and SFI
   to support VXLAN.
















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       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1

   Outer Ethernet Header:

      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |             SFI Destination MAC Address                       |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |SFI Destination MAC Address    | SFE Source MAC Address        |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |             SFE Source MAC Address                            |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |OptnlEthtype = C-Tag 802.1Q    |Outer.VLAN Tag Information     |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |    Ethertype = 0x0800         |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

    Outer IP Header:

       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |Version|  IHL  |Type of Service|          Total Length         |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |         Identification        |Flags|      Fragment Offset    |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |Time to Live |Protocol=17(UDP) |   Header Checksum             |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |               Outer Source IPv4 Address                       |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |               Outer Destination IPv4 Address                  |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

    Outer UDP Header:

       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |       Source Port = xxxx      |       Dest Port = VXLAN Port  |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |           UDP Length          |        UDP Checksum           |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

    VXLAN Header:

       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |R|R|R|R|I|R|R|R|            Reserved                           |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |              VXLAN Network Identifier (VNI) |   Reserved      |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+





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3.2.  For Non-transparent Service Functions

   Non transparent service functions including NAT (Network Address
   Translation), WOC (WAN Optimization Controller) and etc, are more
   complicated, as they may change any part of the original packet sent
   to them.  It is better to analyze case by case, to utilize a specific
   filed that the SFI does not change for the mapping and retrieving the
   SFC header.  We would like to leave it for open discussion.

   The use case below is just one example that SFE can learn the
   behavior of the SFI changing the packet.  In this example, the
   following method is used for SFC header mapping.  The SFI needs to
   report its mapping rules (e.g. 5-tuple mapping rules) to the control
   plane (step 1), and then the control plane can notify the SFE the
   mapping information (step 2).  According to the mapping information,
   the SFE can establish a mapping table for the SFC header, the
   original header, and the processed header of the packet.  After
   receiving the packet from the SFI (step 5), the SFE retrieves the SFC
   header from the mapping table by using the processed header as a key.

        +-------------+
        |Control Plane|
        +--+-----+----+
           ^     ^
           |     |
           |     |(1)    +----------------+
           |     +------->Service Function|
        (2)|             |Instance        |
           |             +-----+---+------+
           |                (4)^   |(5)
           +---------------+   |   |
                           |   |   |
                        +--V---+---V-------+
                 (3)    |Service Forwarding| (6)
              --------->+Entity            +------->
                        +------------------+

4.  Operation Consideration

   The following table shows all the methods and the conditions to use.











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                     Table 1: Operation Consideration
+-----------+--------+-----------------+-------------+-------------------+
|           |Methods |Ingress Flow     |Egress Flow  |Application        |
|           |        |Mapping          |Mapping      |Condition          |
+-----------+--------+-----------------+-------------+-------------------+
|           |MAC     |1.5-tuple->Source|Source MAC   |L2 header won't    |
|For Trans- |Address |MAC address      |address->SFC |be modified by     |
|parent SF  |        |2.Any SFC        |header       |the SFI.           |
|           |        |packet->Source   |             |                   |
|           |        |MAC address      |             |                   |
|           +--------+-----------------+-------------+-------------------+
|           |VLAN    |5-tuple->VLAN ID |VLAN ID->SFC |L2 header won't    |
|           |        |                 |header       |be modified by     |
|           |        |                 |             |the SFI.           |
|           +--------+-----------------+-------------+-------------------+
|           |QinQ    |5-tuple->Outer   |Outer VLAN   |The SFI is required|
|           |        |VLAN ID          |ID->SFC      |to support QinQ.   |
|           |        |                 |header       |L2 header won't    |
|           |        |                 |             |be modified by     |
|           |        |                 |             |the SFI.           |
|           +--------+-----------------+-------------+-------------------+
|           |VXLAN   |5-tuple->VNI     |VNI->SFC     |The SFI is required|
|           |        |                 |header       |to support VXLAN.  |
|           |        |                 |             |L2 header won't    |
|           |        |                 |             |be modified by     |
|           |        |                 |             |the SFI.           |
+-----------+--------+-----------------+-------------+-------------------+
|           |TBD     |e.g. 5-tuple     |e.g. 5-tuple'|The SFE must be    |
|For        |        |->5-tuple'       |->SFC header |configured or be   |
|Non-trans- |        |                 |             |able to obtain the |
|parent SF  |        |                 |             |mapping rules of   |
|           |        |                 |             |the SFI. The SFI   |
|           |        |                 |             |only changes the   |
|           |        |                 |             |5-tuple mapping    |
|           |        |                 |             |rules of the       |
|           |        |                 |             |original packet.   |
+-----------+--------+-----------------+---------------------------------+

5.  Security considerations

   When the layer 2 header of the original packet is modified and sent
   to the SFI, if the SFI needs to look into the layer 2 header, it may
   cause security threats.  It also provides diagrams of the main
   entities that the information model is comprised of.







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6.  Acknowledgement

7.  Informative References

   [I-D.jiang-sfc-arch]
              Jiang, Y. and L. Hongyu, "An Architecture of Service
              Function Chaining", draft-jiang-sfc-arch-01 (work in
              progress), February 2014.

   [I-D.mahalingam-dutt-dcops-vxlan]
              Mahalingam, M., Dutt, D., Duda, K., Agarwal, P., Kreeger,
              L., Sridhar, T., Bursell, M., and C. Wright, "VXLAN: A
              Framework for Overlaying Virtualized Layer 2 Networks over
              Layer 3 Networks", draft-mahalingam-dutt-dcops-vxlan-09
              (work in progress), April 2014.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

Authors' Addresses

   Haibin Song
   Huawei
   101 Software Avenue, Yuhua District
   Nanjing, Jiangsu  210012
   China

   Email: haibin.song@huawei.com


   Lucy Yong
   Huawei
   5340 Legacy Drive
   Plano, TX  75025
   U.S.A.

   Email: lucy.yong@huawei.com


   Yuanlong Jiang
   Huawei
   Bantian, Longgang district
   Shenzhen  518129
   China

   Email: jiangyuanlong@huawei.com





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