lwig R. Struik Internet-Draft Struik Security Consultancy Intended status: Informational July 19, 2018 Expires: January 20, 2019 Alternative Elliptic Curve Representations draft-struik-lwig-curve-representations-02 Abstract This document specifies how to represent Montgomery curves and (twisted) Edwards curves as curves in short-Weierstrass form and illustrates how this can be used to implement elliptic curve computations using existing implementations that already implement, e.g., ECDSA and ECDH using NIST prime curves. Requirements Language The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119]. Status of This Memo This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." This Internet-Draft will expire on January 20, 2019. Copyright Notice Copyright (c) 2018 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the document authors. All rights reserved. This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions Relating to IETF Documents Struik Expires January 20, 2019 [Page 1]

Internet-Draft lwig-curve-representations July 2018 (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of publication of this document. Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as described in the Simplified BSD License. Table of Contents 1. Fostering Code Reuse with New Elliptic Curves . . . . . . . . 3 2. Specification of Wei25519 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3. Example Uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3.1. ECDSA-SHA256-25519 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3.2. Other Uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 4. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 5. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 6. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Appendix A. Some (non-Binary) Elliptic Curves . . . . . . . . . 6 A.1. Curves in short-Weierstrass Form . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 A.2. Montgomery Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 A.3. Twisted Edwards Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Appendix B. Elliptic Curve Group Operations . . . . . . . . . . 7 B.1. Group Law for Weierstrass Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 B.2. Group Law for Montgomery Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 B.3. Group Law for Twisted Edwards Curves . . . . . . . . . . 8 Appendix C. Relationship Between Curve Models . . . . . . . . . 8 C.1. Mapping between twisted Edwards Curves and Montgomery Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 C.2. Mapping between Montgomery Curves and Weierstrass Curves 9 C.3. Mapping between twisted Edwards Curves and Weierstrass Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Appendix D. Curve25519 and Cousins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 D.1. Curve Definition and Alternative Representations . . . . 10 D.2. Switching between Alternative Representations . . . . . . 10 D.3. Domain Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Appendix E. Further Mappings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 E.1. Isomorphic Mapping between Weierstrass Curves . . . . . . 14 E.2. Isogeneous Mapping between Weierstrass Curves . . . . . . 15 Appendix F. Further Cousins of Curve25519 . . . . . . . . . . . 15 F.1. Further Alternative Representations . . . . . . . . . . . 15 F.2. Further Switching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 F.3. Further Domain Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Struik Expires January 20, 2019 [Page 2]

Internet-Draft lwig-curve-representations July 2018 1. Fostering Code Reuse with New Elliptic Curves It is well-known that elliptic curves can be represented using different curve models. Recently, IETF standardized elliptic curves that are claimed to have better performance and improved robustness against "real world" attacks than curves represented in the traditional "short" Weierstrass model. This draft specifies an alternative representation of points of Curve25519, a so-called Montgomery curve, and of points of Edwards25519, a so-called twisted Edwards curve, which are both specified in [RFC7748], as points of a specific so-called "short" Weierstrass curve, called Wei25519. The draft also defines how to efficiently switch between these different representations. Use of Wei25519 allows easy definition of signature schemes and key agreement schemes already specified for traditional NIST prime curves, thereby allowing easy integration with existing specifications, such as NIST SP 800-56a [SP-800-56a], FIPS Pub 186-4 [FIPS-186-4], and ANSI X9.62-2005 [ANSI-X9.62] and fostering code reuse on platforms that already implement some of these schemes using elliptic curve arithmetic for curves in "short" Weierstrass form (see Appendix B.1). 2. Specification of Wei25519 For the specification of Wei25519 and its relationship to Curve25519 and Edwards25519, see Appendix D. For further details and background information on elliptic curves, we refer to the other appendices. The use of Wei25519 allows reuse of existing generic code that implements short-Weierstrass curves, such as the NIST curve P256, to also implement the CFRG curves Curve25519 and Ed25519. The draft also caters to reuse of existing code where some domain parameters may have been hardcoded, thereby widening the scope of applicability; see Appendix F. 3. Example Uses 3.1. ECDSA-SHA256-25519 RFC 8032 [RFC8032] specifies the use of EdDSA, a "full" Schnorr signature scheme, with instantiation by Edwards25519 and Ed448, two so-called twisted Edwards curves. These curves can also be used with the widely implemented signature scheme ECDSA [FIPS-186-4], by instantiating ECDSA with the curve Wei25519 and hash function SHA- 256, where "under the hood" an implementation may carry out elliptic curve scalar multiplication routines using the corresponding representations of a point of the curve Wei25519 in Weierstrass form Struik Expires January 20, 2019 [Page 3]

Internet-Draft lwig-curve-representations July 2018 as a point of the Montgomery curve Curve25519 or of the twisted Edwards curve Edwards25519. (The corresponding ECDSA-SHA512-448 scheme arises if one were to specify a curve in short-Weierstrass form corresponding to Ed448 and use the hash function SHA512.) Note that, in either case, one can implement these schemes with the same representation conventions as used with existing NIST specifications, including bit/byte-ordering, compression functions, and the-like. This allows implementations of ECDSA with the hash function SHA-256 and with the NIST curve P-256 or with the curve Wei25519 specified in this draft to use the same implementation (instantiated with, respectively, the NIST P-256 elliptic curve domain parameters or with the domain parameters of curve Wei25519 specified in Appendix D). 3.2. Other Uses Any existing specification of cryptographic schemes using elliptic curves in Weierstrass form and that allows introduction of a new elliptic curve (here: Wei25519) is amenable to similar constructs, thus spawning "offspring" protocols, simply by instantiating these using the new curve in "short" Weierstrass form, thereby allowing code and/or specifications reuse and, for implementations that so desire, carrying out curve computations "under the hood" on Montgomery curve and twisted Edwards curve cousins hereof (where these exist). This would simply require definition of a new object identifier for any such envisioned "offspring" protocol. This could significantly simplify standardization of schemes and help keeping the resource and maintenance cost of implementations supporting algorithm agility [RFC7696] at bay. 4. Security Considerations The different representations of elliptic curve points discussed in this draft are all obtained using a publicly known transformation. Since this transformation is an isomorphism, this transformation maps elliptic curve points to equivalent mathematical objects. 5. IANA Considerations There is *currently* no IANA action required for this document. New object identifiers would be required in case one wishes to specify one or more of the "offspring" protocols exemplified in Section 3. 6. Normative References Struik Expires January 20, 2019 [Page 4]

Internet-Draft lwig-curve-representations July 2018 [ANSI-X9.62] ANSI X9.62-2005, "Public Key Cryptography for the Financial Services Industry: The Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA)", American National Standard for Financial Services, Accredited Standards Committee X9, Inc Anapolis, MD, 2005. [FIPS-186-4] FIPS 186-4, "Digital Signature Standard (DSS), Federal Information Processing Standards Publication 186-4", US Department of Commerce/National Institute of Standards and Technology Gaithersburg, MD, July 2013. [GECC] D. Hankerson, A.J. Menezes, S.A. Vanstone, "Guide to Elliptic Curve Cryptography", New York: Springer-Verlag, 2004. [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>. [RFC5639] Lochter, M. and J. Merkle, "Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) Brainpool Standard Curves and Curve Generation", RFC 5639, DOI 10.17487/RFC5639, March 2010, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5639>. [RFC7696] Housley, R., "Guidelines for Cryptographic Algorithm Agility and Selecting Mandatory-to-Implement Algorithms", BCP 201, RFC 7696, DOI 10.17487/RFC7696, November 2015, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7696>. [RFC7748] Langley, A., Hamburg, M., and S. Turner, "Elliptic Curves for Security", RFC 7748, DOI 10.17487/RFC7748, January 2016, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7748>. [RFC8032] Josefsson, S. and I. Liusvaara, "Edwards-Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (EdDSA)", RFC 8032, DOI 10.17487/RFC8032, January 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8032>. [SP-800-56a] NIST SP 800-56a, "Recommendation for Pair-Wise Key Establishment Schemes Using Discrete Log Cryptography, Revision 2", US Department of Commerce/National Institute of Standards and Technology Gaithersburg, MD, June 2013. Struik Expires January 20, 2019 [Page 5]

Internet-Draft lwig-curve-representations July 2018 Appendix A. Some (non-Binary) Elliptic Curves A.1. Curves in short-Weierstrass Form Let GF(q) denote the finite field with q elements, where q is an odd prime power and where q is not divisible by three. Let W_{a,b} be the Weierstrass curve with defining equation y^2 = x^3 + a*x + b, where a and b are elements of GF(q) and where 4*a^3 + 27*b^2 is nonzero. The points of W_{a,b} are the ordered pairs (x, y) whose coordinates are elements of GF(q) and that satisfy the defining equation (the so-called affine points), together with the special point O (the so-called "point at infinity").This set forms a group under addition, via the so-called "chord-and-tangent" rule, where the point at infinity serves as the identity element. See Appendix B.1 for details of the group operation. A.2. Montgomery Curves Let GF(q) denote the finite field with q elements, where q is an odd prime power. Let M_{A,B} be the Montgomery curve with defining equation B*v^2 = u^3 + A*u^2 + u, where A and B are elements of GF(q) with A unequal to (+/-)2 and with B nonzero. The points of M_{A,B} are the ordered pairs (u, v) whose coordinates are elements of GF(q) and that satisfy the defining equation (the so-called affine points), together with the special point O (the so-called "point at infinity").This set forms a group under addition, via the so-called "chord-and-tangent" rule, where the point at infinity serves as the identity element. See Appendix B.2 for details of the group operation. A.3. Twisted Edwards Curves Let GF(q) denote the finite field with q elements, where q is an odd prime power. Let E_{a,d} be the twisted Edwards curve with defining equation a*x^2 + y^2 = 1+ d*x^2*y^2, where a and d are distinct nonzero elements of GF(q). The points of E_{a,d} are the ordered pairs (x, y) whose coordinates are elements of GF(q) and that satisfy the defining equation (the so-called affine points). It can be shown that this set forms a group under addition if a is a square in GF(q), whereas d is not, where the point (0, 1) serves as the identity element. (Note that the identity element satisfies the defining equation.) See Appendix B.3 for details of the group operation. An Edwards curve is a twisted Edwards curve with a=1. Struik Expires January 20, 2019 [Page 6]

Internet-Draft lwig-curve-representations July 2018 Appendix B. Elliptic Curve Group Operations B.1. Group Law for Weierstrass Curves For each point P of the Weierstrass curve W_{a,b}, the point at infinity O serves as identity element, i.e., P + O = O + P = P. For each affine point P:=(x, y) of the Weierstrass curve W_{a,b}, the point -P is the point (x, -y) and one has P + (-P) = O. Let P1:=(x1, y1) and P2:=(x2, y2) be distinct affine points of the Weierstrass curve W_{a,b} and let Q:=P1 + P2, where Q is not the identity element. Then Q:=(x, y), where x + x1 + x2 = lambda^2 and y + y1 = lambda*(x1 - x), where lambda = (y2 - y1)/(x2 - x1). Let P:= (x1, y1) be an affine point of the Weierstrass curve W_{a,b} and let Q:=2P, where Q is not the identity element. Then Q:= (x, y), where x + 2*x1 = lambda^2 and y + y1 = lambda*(x1 - x), where lambda=(3*x1^2 + a)/(2*y1). B.2. Group Law for Montgomery Curves For each point P of the Montgomery curve M_{A,B}, the point at infinity O serves as identity element, i.e., P + O = O + P = P. For each affine point P:=(x, y) of the Montgomery curve M_{A,B}, the point -P is the point (x, -y) and one has P + (-P) = O. Let P1:=(x1, y1) and P2:=(x2, y2) be distinct affine points of the Montgomery curve M_{A,B} and let Q:=P1 + P2, where Q is not the identity element. Then Q:=(x, y), where x + x1 + x2 = B*lambda^2 - A and y + y1 = lambda*(x1 - x), where lambda=(y2 - y1)/(x2 - x1). Let P:= (x1, y1) be an affine point of the Montgomery curve M_{A,B} and let Q:=2P, where Q is not the identity element. Then Q:= (x, y), where x + 2*x1 = B*lambda^2 - A and y + y1 = lambda*(x1 - x), where lambda=(3*x1^2 + 2*A*x1+1)/(2*y1). Alternative and more efficient group laws exist, e.g., when using the so-called Montgomery ladder. Details are out of scope. Struik Expires January 20, 2019 [Page 7]

Internet-Draft lwig-curve-representations July 2018 B.3. Group Law for Twisted Edwards Curves Note: The group laws below hold for twisted Edwards curves E_{a,d} where a is a square in GF(q), whereas d is not. In this case, the addition formulae below are defined for each pair of points, without exceptions. Generalizations of this group law to other twisted Edwards curves are out of scope. For each point P of the twisted Edwards curve E_{a,d}, the point O=(0,1) serves as identity element, i.e., P + O = O + P = P. For each point P:=(x, y) of the twisted Edwards curve E_{a,d}, the point -P is the point (-x, y) and one has P + (-P) = O. Let P1:=(x1, y1) and P2:=(x2, y2) be points of the twisted Edwards curve E_{a,d} and let Q:=P1 + P2. Then Q:=(x, y), where x = (x1*y2 + x2*y1)/(1 + d*x1*x2*y1*y2) and y = (y1*y2 - a*x1*x2)/(1 - d*x1*x2*y1*y2). Let P:=(x1, y1) be a point of the twisted Edwards curve E_{a,d} and let Q:=2P. Then Q:=(x, y), where x = (2*x1*y1)/(1 + d*x1^2*y1^2) and y = (y1^2 - a*x1^2)/(1 - d*x1^2*y1^2). Note that one can use the formulae for point addition to implement point doubling, taking inverses and adding the identity element as well (i.e., the point addition formulae are uniform and complete (subject to our Note above)). Appendix C. Relationship Between Curve Models The non-binary curves specified in Appendix A are expressed in different curve models, viz. as curves in short-Weierstrass form, as Montgomery curves, or as twisted Edwards curves. These curve models are related, as follows. C.1. Mapping between twisted Edwards Curves and Montgomery Curves One can map points of the Montgomery curve M_{A,B} to points of the twisted Edwards curve E_{a,d}, where a:=(A+2)/B and d:=(A-2)/B and, conversely, map points of the twisted Edwards curve E_{a,d} to points of the Montgomery curve M_{A,B}, where A:=2(a+d)/(a-d) and where B:=4/(a-d). For twisted Edwards curves we consider (i.e., those where a is a square in GF(q), whereas d is not), this defines a one- to-one correspondence, which - in fact - is an isomorphism between Struik Expires January 20, 2019 [Page 8]

Internet-Draft lwig-curve-representations July 2018 M_{A,B} and E_{a,d}, thereby showing that, e.g., the discrete logarithm problem in either curve model is equally hard. For the Montgomery curves and twisted Edwards curves we consider, the mapping from M_{A,B} to E_{a,d} is defined by mapping the point at infinity O and the point (0, 0) of order two of M_{A,B} to, respectively, the point (0, 1) and the point (0, -1) of order two of E_{a,d}, while mapping each other point (u, v) of M_{A,B} to the point (x, y):=(u/v, (u-1)/(u+1)) of E_{a,d}. The inverse mapping from E_{a,d} to M_{A,B} is defined by mapping the point (0, 1) and the point (0, -1) of order two of E_{a,d} to, respectively, the point at infinity O and the point (0, 0) of order two of M_{A,B}, while each other point (x, y) of E_{a,d} is mapped to the point (u, v):=((1+y)/(1-y), (1+y)/((1-y)*x)) of M_{A,B}. Implementations may take advantage of this mapping to carry out elliptic curve group operations originally defined for a twisted Edwards curve on the corresponding Montgomery curve, or vice-versa, and translating the result back to the original curve, thereby potentially allowing code reuse. C.2. Mapping between Montgomery Curves and Weierstrass Curves One can map points of the Montgomery curve M_{A,B} to points of the Weierstrass curve W_{a,b}, where a:=(3-A^2)/(3*B^2) and b:=(2*A^3-9*A)/(27*B^3). This defines a one-to-one correspondence, which - in fact - is an isomorphism between M_{A,B} and W_{a,b}, thereby showing that, e.g., the discrete logarithm problem in either curve model is equally hard. The mapping from M_{A,B} to W_{a,b} is defined by mapping the point at infinity O of M_{A,B} to the point at infinity O of W_{a,b}, while mapping each other point (u, v) of M_{A,B} to the point (x, y):=(u/ B+A/(3*B), v/B) of W_{a,b}. Note that not all Weierstrass curves can be injectively mapped to Montgomery curves, since the latter have a point of order two and the former may not. In particular, if a Weierstrass curve has prime order, such as is the case with the so- called "NIST curves", this inverse mapping is not defined. This mapping can be used to implement elliptic curve group operations originally defined for a twisted Edwards curve or for a Montgomery curve using group operations on the corresponding elliptic curve in short-Weierstrass form and translating the result back to the original curve, thereby potentially allowing code reuse. Note that implementations for elliptic curves with short-Weierstrass form that hard-code the domain parameter a to a= -3 (which value is known to allow more efficient implementations) cannot always be used this way, Struik Expires January 20, 2019 [Page 9]

Internet-Draft lwig-curve-representations July 2018 since the curve W_{a,b} may not always be expressed in terms of a Weierstrass curve with a=-3 via a coordinate transformation. C.3. Mapping between twisted Edwards Curves and Weierstrass Curves One can map points of the twisted Edwards curve E_{a,d} to points of the Weierstrass curve W_{a,b}, via function composition, where one uses the isomorphic mapping between twisted Edwards curve and Montgomery curves of Appendix C.1 and the one between Montgomery and Weierstrass curves of Appendix C.2. Obviously, one can use function composition (now using the respective inverses) to realize the inverse of this mapping. Appendix D. Curve25519 and Cousins D.1. Curve Definition and Alternative Representations The elliptic curve Curve25519 is the Montgomery curve M_{A,B} defined over the prime field GF(p), with p:=2^{255}-19, where A:=486662 and B:=1. This curve has order h*n, where h=8 and where n is a prime number. For this curve, A^2-4 is not a square in GF(p), whereas A+2 is. The quadratic twist of this curve has order h1*n1, where h1=4 and where n1 is a prime number. For this curve, the base point is the point (Gu,Gv), where Gu=9 and where Gv is an odd integer in the interval [0, p-1]. This curve has the same group structure as (is "isomorphic" to) the twisted Edwards curve E_{a,d} defined over GF(p), with as base point the point (Gx,Gy), where parameters are as specified in Appendix D.3. This curve is denoted as Edwards25519. For this curve, the parameter a is a square in GF(p), whereas d is not, so the group laws of Appendix B.3 apply. The curve is also isomorphic to the elliptic curve W_{a,b} in short- Weierstrass form defined over GF(p), with as base point the point (Gx',Gy'), where parameters are as specified in Appendix D.3. This curve is denoted as Wei25519. D.2. Switching between Alternative Representations Each affine point (u,v) of Curve25519 corresponds to the point (x,y):=(u + A/3,y) of Wei25519, while the point at infinity of Curve25519 corresponds to the point at infinity of Wei25519. (Here, we used the mapping of Appendix C.2.) Under this mapping, the base point (Gu,Gv) of Curve25519 corresponds to the base point (Gx',Gy') of Wei25519. The inverse mapping maps the affine point (x,y) of Wei25519 to (u,v):=(x - A/3,y) of Curve25519, while mapping the point at infinity of Wei25519 to the point at infinity of Curve25519. Note Struik Expires January 20, 2019 [Page 10]

Internet-Draft lwig-curve-representations July 2018 that this mapping involves a simple shift of the first coordinate and can be implemented via integer-only arithmetic as a shift of (p+A)/3 for the isomorphic mapping and a shift of -(p+A)/3 for its inverse, where delta=(p+A)/3 is the element of GF(p) defined by delta 19298681539552699237261830834781317975544997444273427339909597 334652188435537 (=0x2aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaad2 451) The curve Edwards25519 is isomorphic to the curve Curve25519, where the base point (Gu,Gv) of Curve25519 corresponds to the base point (Gx,Gy) of Edwards25519 and where the point at infinity and the point (0,0) of order two of Curve25519 correspond to, respectively, the point (0, 1) and the point (0, -1) of order two of Edwards25519 and where each other point (u, v) of Curve25519 corresponds to the point (c*u/v, (u-1)/(u+1)) of Edwards25519, where c is the element of GF(p) defined by c sqrt(-(A+2)) 51042569399160536130206135233146329284152202253034631822681833788 666877215207 (=0x70d9120b 9f5ff944 2d84f723 fc03b081 3a5e2c2e b482e57d 3391fb55 00ba81e7) (Here, we used the mapping of Appendix C.1.) The inverse mapping from Edwards25519 to Curve25519 is defined by mapping the point (0, 1) and the point (0, -1) of order two of Edwards25519 to, respectively, the point at infinity and the point (0,0) of order two of Curve25519 and having each other point (x, y) of Edwards25519 correspond to the point ((1 + y)/(1 - y), c*(1 + y)/((1-y)*x)). The curve Edwards25519 is isomorphic to the Weierstrass curve Wei25519, where the base point (Gx,Gy) of Edwards25519 corresponds to the base point (Gx',Gy') of Wei25519 and where the identity element (0,1) and the point (0,-1) of order two of Edwards25519 correspond to, respectively, the point at infinity O and the point (A/3, 0) of order two of Wei25519 and where each other point (x, y) of Edwards25519 corresponds to the point (x', y'):=((1+y)/(1-y)+A/3, c*(1+y)/((1-y)*x)) of Wei25519, where c was defined before. (Here, we used the mapping of Appendix C.3.) The inverse mapping from Wei25519 to Edwards25519 is defined by mapping the point at infinity O and the point (A/3, 0) of order two of Wei25519 to, respectively, the identity element (0,1) and the point (0,-1) of order two of Struik Expires January 20, 2019 [Page 11]

Internet-Draft lwig-curve-representations July 2018 Edwards25519 and having each other point (x, y) of Wei25519 correspond to the point (c*(3*x-A)/(3*y), (3*x-A-3)/(3*x-A+3)). Note that these mappings can be easily realized in projective coordinates, using a few field multiplications only, thus allowing switching between alternative representations with negligible relative incremental cost. D.3. Domain Parameters The parameters of the Montgomery curve and the corresponding isomorphic curves in twisted Edwards curve and short-Weierstrass form are as indicated below. Here, the domain parameters of the Montgomery curve Curve25519 and of the twisted Edwards curve Edwards25519 are as specified in RFC 7748; the domain parameters of Wei25519 are "new". General parameters (for all curve models): p 2^{255}-19 (=0x7fffffff ffffffff ffffffff ffffffff ffffffff ffffffff ffffffff ffffffed) h 8 n 72370055773322622139731865630429942408571163593799076060019509382 85454250989 (=2^{252} + 0x14def9de a2f79cd6 5812631a 5cf5d3ed) h1 4 n1 14474011154664524427946373126085988481603263447650325797860494125 407373907997 (=2^{253} - 0x29bdf3bd 45ef39ac b024c634 b9eba7e3) Montgomery curve-specific parameters (for Curve25519): A 486662 B 1 Gu 9 (=0x9) Gv 14781619447589544791020593568409986887264606134616475288964881837 755586237401 Struik Expires January 20, 2019 [Page 12]

Internet-Draft lwig-curve-representations July 2018 (=0x20ae19a1 b8a086b4 e01edd2c 7748d14c 923d4d7e 6d7c61b2 29e9c5a2 7eced3d9) Twisted Edwards curve-specific parameters (for Edwards25519): a -1 (-0x01) d -121665/121666 (=370957059346694393431380835087545651895421138798432190163887855 33085940283555) (=0x52036cee 2b6ffe73 8cc74079 7779e898 00700a4d 4141d8ab 75eb4dca 135978a3) Gx 15112221349535400772501151409588531511454012693041857206046113283 949847762202 (=0x216936d3 cd6e53fe c0a4e231 fdd6dc5c 692cc760 9525a7b2 c9562d60 8f25d51a) Gy 4/5 (=463168356949264781694283940034751631413079938662562256157830336 03165251855960) (=0x66666666 66666666 66666666 66666666 66666666 66666666 66666666 66666658) Weierstrass curve-specific parameters (for Wei25519): a 19298681539552699237261830834781317975544997444273427339909597334 573241639236 (=0x2aaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaa98 4914a144) b 55751746669818908907645289078257140818241103727901012315294400837 956729358436 (=0x7b425ed0 97b425ed 097b425e d097b425 ed097b42 5ed097b4 260b5e9c 7710c864) Gx' 19298681539552699237261830834781317975544997444273427339909597334 652188435546 (=0x2aaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaad245a) Struik Expires January 20, 2019 [Page 13]

Internet-Draft lwig-curve-representations July 2018 Gy' 14781619447589544791020593568409986887264606134616475288964881837 755586237401 (=0x20ae19a1 b8a086b4 e01edd2c 7748d14c 923d4d7e 6d7c61b2 29e9c5a2 7eced3d9) Appendix E. Further Mappings The non-binary curves specified in Appendix A are expressed in different curve models, viz. as curves in short-Weierstrass form, as Montgomery curves, or as twisted Edwards curves. Within each curve model, further mappings exist that induce a mapping between elliptic curves within each curve model. This can be exploited to force some of the domain parameter to a value that allows a more efficient implementation of the addition formulae. E.1. Isomorphic Mapping between Weierstrass Curves One can map points of the Weierstrass curve W_{a,b} to points of the Weierstrass curve W_{a',b'}, where a:=a'*u^4 and b:=b'*u^6 for some nonzero value u of the finite field GF(q). This defines a one-to-one correspondence, which - in fact - is an isomorphism between W_{a,b} and W_{a',b'}, thereby showing that, e.g., the discrete logarithm problem in either curve model is equally hard. The mapping from W_{a,b} to W_{a',b'} is defined by mapping the point at infinity O of W_{a,b} to the point at infinity O of W_{a',b'}, while mapping each other point (x, y) of W_{a,b} to the point (x', y'):=(x*u^2, y*u^3) of W_{a',b'}. The inverse mapping from W_{a',b'} to W_{a,b} is defined by mapping the point at infinity O of W_{a',b'} to the point at infinity O of W_{a,b}, while mapping each other point (x', y') of W_{a',b'} to the point (x, y):=(x/u^2, y/u^3) of W_{a,b}. Implementations may take advantage of this mapping to carry out elliptic curve group operations originally defined for a Weierstrass curve with a generic domain parameter a on a corresponding isomorphic Weierstrass curve with domain parameter a' that has a special form, which is known to allow for more efficient implementations of addition laws, and translating the result back to the original curve. In particular, it is known that such efficiency improvements exist if a'=-3 (mod p) and one uses so-called Jacobian coordinates with a particular projective version of the addition laws of Appendix B.1. While not all Weierstrass curves can be put into this form, all traditional NIST curves have domain parameter a=-3, while all Brainpool curves [RFC5639] are isomorphic to a Weierstrass curve of this form. For details, we refer to [GECC]. Struik Expires January 20, 2019 [Page 14]

Internet-Draft lwig-curve-representations July 2018 Note that implementations for elliptic curves with short-Weierstrass form that hard-code the domain parameter a to a= -3 (which value is known to allow more efficient implementations) cannot always be used this way, since the curve W_{a,b} may not always be expressed in terms of a Weierstrass curve with a'=-3 via a coordinate transformation: this only holds if a'/a is a fourth power in GF(q). However, even in this case, one can still express the curve W_{a,b} in terms of a Weierstrass curve with small a' domain parameter, thereby still allowing a more efficient implementation than with a general a value. E.2. Isogeneous Mapping between Weierstrass Curves One can still map points of the Weierstrass curve W_{a,b} to points of the Weierstrass curve W_{a',b'}, where a':=-3 (mod p), even if a'/a is not a fourth power in GF(q). In that case, this mappping cannot be an isomorphism (see Appendix E.1) and, thereby, does not define a one-to-one correspondence. Instead, the mapping is a so- called isogeny (or homomorphism). Since most elliptic curve operations process points of prime order or use so-called "co-factor multiplication", in practice the resulting mapping has similar properties. In particular, one can still take advantage of this mapping to carry out elliptic curve group operations originally defined for a Weierstrass curve with domain parameter a unequal to -3 (mod p) on a corresponding isogenous Weierstrass curve with domain parameter a'=-3 (mod p) and translating the result back to the original curve. Details of this mapping are outside scope of this document. Appendix F. Further Cousins of Curve25519 F.1. Further Alternative Representations The Weierstrass curve Wei25519 is isomorphic to the Weierstrass curve Wei25519.2 defined over GF(p), with as base point the pair (G1x,G1y), where parameters are as specified in Appendix F.3. F.2. Further Switching Each affine point (x,y) of Wei25519 corresponds to the point (x,y):=(x*u^2,y*u^3) of Wei25519.2, where u is the element of GF(p) defined by u 47731687248873559672555216906496754195083410699918207029391079363 6321486119 (=0x10e26dacae93602704c7e6cff9efe595764cb5c9e04931f6fdeefc657d4e5 27), Struik Expires January 20, 2019 [Page 15]

Internet-Draft lwig-curve-representations July 2018 while the point at infinity of Wei25519 corresponds to the point at infinity of Wei25519.2. (Here, we used the mapping of Appendix E.1.) Under this mapping, the base point (Gx',Gy') of Wei25519 corresponds to the base point (G1x',G1y') of Wei25519.2. The inverse mapping maps the affine point (x,y) of Wei25519.2 to (x,y):=(x/u^2,y/u^3) of Wei25519, while mapping the point at infinity of Wei25519.2 to the point at infinity of Wei25519. Note that this mapping (and its inverse) involves a multiplication of both coordinates with fixed constants u^2 and u^3 (respectively, 1/u^2 and 1/u^3), which can be precomputed. F.3. Further Domain Parameters The parameters of the Weierstrass curve with a=2 that is isomorphic with Wei25519 and the parameters of the Weierstrass curve with a=-3 that is isogeneous with Wei25519 are as indicated below. Both domain parameter sets can be exploited directly to derive more efficient point addition formulae, should an implementation facilitate this. Weierstrass curve-specific parameters (with a=2): a 2 (=0x2) b 45793404337388339159414415854563976158160282736335993851976016290 777777599260 (=0x653e25fa 4aa43eb9 cc42c61b 806bcfd1 0e67bc23 09966e90 95a202fe 9aac731c) G1x' 218726072268944427441327971914352883414836203960572472224621495 35754145422686 (=0x305b74fc 935f1dad d440a88e 781f0a81 09d6a68d 98c6081a 660528e2 0746dd5e) G1y' 139436179034864291344077235766386796155987755307479919871866321 47013341290929 (=0x1ed3cedc e78b6b19 5d1c361c e1d4ef00 5b5b102c 99083780 bf830f7e a89021b1) Weierstrass curve-specific parameters (with a=-3): [NOTE: parameters indicated with TBD still to be completed, pending completion of Sage calculations.] a -3 Struik Expires January 20, 2019 [Page 16]

Internet-Draft lwig-curve-representations July 2018 (=0x7fffffff ffffffff ffffffff ffffffff ffffffff ffffffff ffffffff ffffffea) b [TBD] (=0x[TBD]) G2x' [TBD] (=0x[TBD]) G2y' [TBD] (=0x[TBD]) Author's Address Rene Struik Struik Security Consultancy Email: rstruik.ext@gmail.com Struik Expires January 20, 2019 [Page 17]