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Versions: (RFC 2911) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 RFC 8011

IPP WG                                                          M. Sweet
Internet-Draft                                                Apple Inc.
Obsoletes: 2911,3381,3382 (if approved)                      I. McDonald
Intended status: Standards Track                        High North, Inc.
Expires: February 13, 2016                               August 12, 2015


          Internet Printing Protocol/1.1: Model and Semantics
                       draft-sweet-rfc2911bis-04

Abstract

   This document is one of a set of documents, which together describe
   all aspects of the Internet Printing Protocol (IPP).  IPP is an
   application level protocol that can be used for distributed printing
   using Internet tools and technologies.  This document describes a
   simplified model consisting of abstract objects, their attributes,
   and their operations that is independent of encoding and transport.
   The model consists of a Printer and a Job object.  A Job optionally
   supports multiple documents.  IPP 1.1 semantics allow end-users and
   operators to query Printer capabilities, submit print jobs, inquire
   about the status of print Jobs and printers, and cancel, hold, and
   release print Jobs.  IPP 1.1 semantics allow operators to pause and
   resume (Jobs from) Printer objects.  This document also addresses
   security, internationalization, and directory issues.

Editor's Note

   This draft is being submitted as an AD-sponsored replacement of RFCs
   2911, 3381, and 3382, with drafts being reviewed and edited by the
   IEEE-ISTO's Printer Working Group IPP WG.  The initial goal is to
   have an clean version of IPP/1.1 as an IETF Proposed Standard.  The
   long-term goal is to advance IPP/1.1 to IETF Internet Standard.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."



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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2015 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   1.1.  Simplified Printing Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   2.  Conventions Used in This Document . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   2.1.  Requirements Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   2.2.  Printing Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   2.3.  Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   3.  IPP Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   3.1.  Printer Object  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
   3.2.  Job Object  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
   3.3.  Object Relationships  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
   3.4.  Object Identity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
   4.  IPP Operations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
   4.1.  Common Semantics  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
   4.1.1.  Required Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
   4.1.2.  Operation IDs and Request IDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
   4.1.3.  Attributes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  25
   4.1.4.  Character Set and Natural Language Operation Attributes .  27
   4.1.4.1.  Request Operation Attributes  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27
   4.1.4.2.  Response Operation Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . .  31
   4.1.5.  Operation Targets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  32
   4.1.6.  Operation Response Status Codes and Status Messages . . .  34
   4.1.6.1.  "status-code" (type2 enum)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  34
   4.1.6.2.  "status-message" (text(255))  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  35
   4.1.6.3.  "detailed-status-message" (text(MAX)) . . . . . . . . .  36
   4.1.6.4.  "document-access-error" (text(MAX)) . . . . . . . . . .  36
   4.1.7.  Unsupported Attributes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  36
   4.1.8.  Versions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  38
   4.1.9.  Job Creation Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  40
   4.2.  Printer Operations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  43



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   4.2.1.  Print-Job Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  43
   4.2.1.1.  Print-Job Request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  43
   4.2.1.2.  Print-Job Response  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  49
   4.2.2.  Print-URI Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  51
   4.2.3.  Validate-Job Operation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  52
   4.2.4.  Create-Job Operation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  52
   4.2.5.  Get-Printer-Attributes Operation  . . . . . . . . . . . .  53
   4.2.5.1.  Get-Printer-Attributes Request  . . . . . . . . . . . .  54
   4.2.5.2.  Get-Printer-Attributes Response . . . . . . . . . . . .  56
   4.2.6.  Get-Jobs Operation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  57
   4.2.6.1.  Get-Jobs Request  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  57
   4.2.6.2.  Get-Jobs Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  59
   4.2.7.  Pause-Printer Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  61
   4.2.7.1.  Pause-Printer Request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  63
   4.2.7.2.  Pause-Printer Response  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  63
   4.2.8.  Resume-Printer Operation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  64
   4.2.9.  Purge-Jobs Operation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  65
   4.3.  Job Operations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  65
   4.3.1.  Send-Document Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  66
   4.3.1.1.  Send-Document Request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  67
   4.3.1.2.  Send-Document Response  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  69
   4.3.2.  Send-URI Operation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  69
   4.3.3.  Cancel-Job Operation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  70
   4.3.3.1.  Cancel-Job Request  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  72
   4.3.3.2.  Cancel-Job Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  72
   4.3.4.  Get-Job-Attributes Operation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  73
   4.3.4.1.  Get-Job-Attributes Request  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  74
   4.3.4.2.  Get-Job-Attributes Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  75
   4.3.5.  Hold-Job Operation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  76
   4.3.5.1.  Hold-Job Request  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  77
   4.3.5.2.  Hold-Job Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  78
   4.3.6.  Release-Job Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  78
   4.3.7.  Restart-Job Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  80
   4.3.7.1.  Restart-Job Request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  82
   4.3.7.2.  Restart-Job Response  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  83
   5.  Object Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  83
   5.1.  Attribute Syntaxes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  83
   5.1.1.  'text'  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  84
   5.1.1.1.  'textWithoutLanguage' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  85
   5.1.1.2.  'textWithLanguage'  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  86
   5.1.2.  'name'  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  87
   5.1.2.1.  'nameWithoutLanguage' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  87
   5.1.2.2.  'nameWithLanguage'  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  87
   5.1.2.3.  Matching 'name' attribute values  . . . . . . . . . . .  88
   5.1.3.  'keyword' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  89
   5.1.4.  'enum'  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  90
   5.1.5.  'uri' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  91
   5.1.6.  'uriScheme' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  91



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   5.1.7.  'charset' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  91
   5.1.8.  'naturalLanguage' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  92
   5.1.9.  'mimeMediaType' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  93
   5.1.9.1.  Application/octet-stream -- Auto-Sensing the document
             format  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  94
   5.1.10. 'octetString' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  95
   5.1.11. 'boolean' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  95
   5.1.12. 'integer' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  95
   5.1.13. 'rangeOfInteger'  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  95
   5.1.14. 'dateTime'  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  95
   5.1.15. 'resolution'  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  96
   5.1.16. 'collection'  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  96
   5.1.17. '1setOf X'  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  97
   5.2.  Job Template Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  97
   5.2.1.  job-priority (integer(1:100)) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
   5.2.2.  job-hold-until (type3 keyword | name (MAX)) . . . . . . . 101
   5.2.3.  job-sheets (type3 keyword | name(MAX))  . . . . . . . . . 102
   5.2.4.  multiple-document-handling (type2 keyword)  . . . . . . . 103
   5.2.5.  copies (integer(1:MAX)) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
   5.2.6.  finishings (1setOf type2 enum)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
   5.2.7.  page-ranges (1setOf rangeOfInteger (1:MAX)) . . . . . . . 107
   5.2.8.  sides (type2 keyword) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
   5.2.9.  number-up (integer(1:MAX))  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
   5.2.10. orientation-requested (type2 enum)  . . . . . . . . . . . 110
   5.2.11. media (type3 keyword | name(MAX)) . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
   5.2.12. printer-resolution (resolution) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
   5.2.13. print-quality (type2 enum)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
   5.3.  Job Description Attributes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
   5.3.1.  job-uri (uri) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
   5.3.2.  job-id (integer(1:MAX)) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
   5.3.3.  job-printer-uri (uri) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
   5.3.4.  job-more-info (uri) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
   5.3.5.  job-name (name(MAX))  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
   5.3.6.  job-originating-user-name (name(MAX)) . . . . . . . . . . 116
   5.3.7.  job-state (type1 enum)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
   5.3.7.1.  Forwarding Servers  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
   5.3.7.2.  Partitioning of Job States  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
   5.3.8.  job-state-reasons (1setOf  type2 keyword) . . . . . . . . 120
   5.3.9.  job-state-message (text(MAX)) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
   5.3.10. job-detailed-status-messages (1setOf text(MAX)) . . . . . 125
   5.3.11. job-document-access-errors (1setOf text(MAX)) . . . . . . 126
   5.3.12. number-of-documents (integer(0:MAX))  . . . . . . . . . . 126
   5.3.13. output-device-assigned (name(127))  . . . . . . . . . . . 126
   5.3.14. Event Time Job Description Attributes . . . . . . . . . . 126
   5.3.14.1.  time-at-creation (integer(MIN:MAX))  . . . . . . . . . 127
   5.3.14.2.  time-at-processing (integer(MIN:MAX))  . . . . . . . . 127
   5.3.14.3.  time-at-completed (integer(MIN:MAX)) . . . . . . . . . 128
   5.3.14.4.  job-printer-up-time (integer(1:MAX)) . . . . . . . . . 128



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   5.3.14.5.  date-time-at-creation (dateTime) . . . . . . . . . . . 128
   5.3.14.6.  date-time-at-processing (dateTime) . . . . . . . . . . 128
   5.3.14.7.  date-time-at-completed (dateTime)  . . . . . . . . . . 128
   5.3.15. number-of-intervening-Jobs (integer(0:MAX)) . . . . . . . 128
   5.3.16. job-message-from-operator (text(127)) . . . . . . . . . . 129
   5.3.17. Job Size Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
   5.3.17.1.  job-k-octets (integer(0:MAX))  . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
   5.3.17.2.  job-impressions (integer(0:MAX)) . . . . . . . . . . . 130
   5.3.17.3.  job-media-sheets (integer(0:MAX))  . . . . . . . . . . 130
   5.3.18. Job Progress Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
   5.3.18.1.  job-k-octets-processed (integer(0:MAX))  . . . . . . . 131
   5.3.18.2.  job-impressions-completed (integer(0:MAX)) . . . . . . 131
   5.3.18.3.  job-media-sheets-completed (integer(0:MAX))  . . . . . 131
   5.3.19. attributes-charset (charset)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
   5.3.20. attributes-natural-language (naturalLanguage) . . . . . . 131
   5.4.  Printer Description Attributes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
   5.4.1.  printer-uri-supported (1setOf uri)  . . . . . . . . . . . 134
   5.4.2.  uri-authentication-supported (1setOf type2 keyword) . . . 134
   5.4.3.  uri-security-supported (1setOf type2 keyword) . . . . . . 135
   5.4.4.  printer-name (name(127))  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
   5.4.5.  printer-location (text(127))  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
   5.4.6.  printer-info (text(127))  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
   5.4.7.  printer-more-info (uri) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
   5.4.8.  printer-driver-installer (uri)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
   5.4.9.  printer-make-and-model (text(127))  . . . . . . . . . . . 138
   5.4.10. printer-more-info-manufacturer (uri)  . . . . . . . . . . 138
   5.4.11. printer-state (type1 enum)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
   5.4.12. printer-state-reasons (1setOf type2 keyword)  . . . . . . 139
   5.4.13. printer-state-message (text(MAX)) . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
   5.4.14. ipp-versions-supported (1setOf type2 keyword) . . . . . . 142
   5.4.15. operations-supported (1setOf type2 enum)  . . . . . . . . 143
   5.4.16. multiple-document-jobs-supported (boolean)  . . . . . . . 145
   5.4.17. charset-configured (charset)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
   5.4.18. charset-supported (1setOf charset)  . . . . . . . . . . . 145
   5.4.19. natural-language-configured (naturalLanguage) . . . . . . 145
   5.4.20. generated-natural-language-supported (1setOf
           naturalLanguage)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
   5.4.21. document-format-default (mimeMediaType) . . . . . . . . . 146
   5.4.22. document-format-supported (1setOf mimeMediaType)  . . . . 146
   5.4.23. printer-is-accepting-Jobs (boolean) . . . . . . . . . . . 146
   5.4.24. queued-job-count (integer(0:MAX)) . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
   5.4.25. printer-message-from-operator (text(127)) . . . . . . . . 147
   5.4.26. color-supported (boolean) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
   5.4.27. reference-uri-schemes-supported (1setOf uriScheme)  . . . 147
   5.4.28. pdl-override-supported (type2 keyword)  . . . . . . . . . 148
   5.4.29. printer-up-time (integer(1:MAX))  . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
   5.4.30. printer-current-time (dateTime) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
   5.4.31. multiple-operation-time-out (integer(1:MAX))  . . . . . . 149



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   5.4.32. compression-supported (1setOf type3 keyword)  . . . . . . 150
   5.4.33. job-k-octets-supported (rangeOfInteger(0:MAX))  . . . . . 150
   5.4.34. job-impressions-supported (rangeOfInteger(0:MAX)) . . . . 150
   5.4.35. job-media-sheets-supported (rangeOfInteger(0:MAX))  . . . 150
   5.4.36. pages-per-minute (integer(0:MAX)) . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
   5.4.37. pages-per-minute-color (integer(0:MAX)) . . . . . . . . . 151
   6.  Conformance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
   6.1.  Client Conformance Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
   6.2.  IPP Object Conformance Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
   6.2.1.  Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
   6.2.2.  Operations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
   6.2.3.  IPP Object Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
   6.2.4.  Versions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
   6.2.5.  Extensions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
   6.2.6.  Attribute Syntaxes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
   6.2.7.  Security  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
   6.3.  Charset and Natural Language Requirements . . . . . . . . . 157
   7.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
   7.1.  Typed 'keyword' and 'enum' Extensions . . . . . . . . . . . 158
   7.2.  Attribute Extensibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
   7.3.  Attribute Syntax Extensibility  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
   7.4.  Operation Extensibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
   7.5.  Attribute Group Extensibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
   7.6.  Status Code Extensibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
   7.7.  Out-of-band Attribute Value Extensibility . . . . . . . . . 163
   7.8.  Registration of MIME types/sub-types for document-formats . 163
   7.9.  Registration of charsets for use in 'charset' attribute
         values  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
   8.  Internationalization Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
   9.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
   9.1.  Security Scenarios  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
   9.1.1.  Client and Server in the Same Security Domain . . . . . . 169
   9.1.2.  Client and Server in Different Security Domains . . . . . 169
   9.1.3.  Print by Reference  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
   9.2.  URIs in Operation, Job, and Printer attributes  . . . . . . 169
   9.3.  URIs for each authentication mechanisms . . . . . . . . . . 170
   9.4.  Restricted Queries  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
   9.5.  Operations performed by operators and system administrators 171
   9.6.  Queries on Jobs submitted using non-IPP protocols . . . . . 171
   10. Changes Since RFC 2911  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
   11. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
   11.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
   11.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
   11.3.  URIs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
   Appendix A.  Formats for IPP Registration Proposals . . . . . . . 177
   A.1.  Type3 keyword attribute values registration . . . . . . . . 178
   A.2.  Type2 enum attribute values registration  . . . . . . . . . 179
   A.3.  Type3 enum attribute values registration  . . . . . . . . . 179



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   A.4.  Attribute registration  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
   A.5.  Attribute Syntax registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
   A.6.  Operation registration  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
   A.7.  Attribute Group registration  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
   A.8.  Status code registration  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
   A.9.  Out-of-band Attribute Value registration  . . . . . . . . . 182
   Appendix B.  Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
   B.1.  Conformance Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
   B.2.  Model Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
   B.2.1.  Keyword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
   B.2.2.  Attributes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
   B.2.2.1.  Attribute Name  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
   B.2.2.2.  Attribute Group Name  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
   B.2.2.3.  Attribute Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
   B.2.2.4.  Attribute Syntax  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
   B.2.3.  Supports  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
   B.2.4.  print-stream page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
   B.2.5.  impression  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
   Appendix C.  Status Codes and Suggested Status Code Messages  . . 187
   C.1.  Status Codes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
   C.1.1.  Informational . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
   C.1.2.  Successful Status Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
   C.1.2.1.  successful-ok (0x0000)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
   C.1.2.2.  successful-ok-ignored-or-substituted-attributes
             (0x0001)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
   C.1.2.3.  successful-ok-conflicting-attributes (0x0002) . . . . . 189
   C.1.3.  Redirection Status Codes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
   C.1.4.  Client Error Status Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
   C.1.4.1.  client-error-bad-request (0x0400) . . . . . . . . . . . 190
   C.1.4.2.  client-error-forbidden (0x0401) . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
   C.1.4.3.  client-error-not-authenticated (0x0402) . . . . . . . . 190
   C.1.4.4.  client-error-not-authorized (0x0403)  . . . . . . . . . 190
   C.1.4.5.  client-error-not-possible (0x0404)  . . . . . . . . . . 191
   C.1.4.6.  client-error-timeout (0x0405) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
   C.1.4.7.  client-error-not-found (0x0406) . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
   C.1.4.8.  client-error-gone (0x0407)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
   C.1.4.9.  client-error-request-entity-too-large (0x0408)  . . . . 192
   C.1.4.10. client-error-request-value-too-long (0x0409)  . . . . . 192
   C.1.4.11. client-error-document-format-not-supported (0x040A) . . 192
   C.1.4.12. client-error-attributes-or-values-not-supported
             (0x040B)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
   C.1.4.13. client-error-uri-scheme-not-supported (0x040C)  . . . . 193
   C.1.4.14. client-error-charset-not-supported (0x040D) . . . . . . 193
   C.1.4.15. client-error-conflicting-attributes (0x040E)  . . . . . 194
   C.1.4.16. client-error-compression-not-supported (0x040F) . . . . 194
   C.1.4.17. client-error-compression-error (0x0410) . . . . . . . . 194
   C.1.4.18. client-error-document-format-error (0x0411) . . . . . . 194
   C.1.4.19. client-error-document-access-error (0x0412) . . . . . . 194



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   C.1.5.  Server Error Status Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
   C.1.5.1.  server-error-internal-error (0x0500)  . . . . . . . . . 195
   C.1.5.2.  server-error-operation-not-supported (0x0501) . . . . . 195
   C.1.5.3.  server-error-service-unavailable (0x0502) . . . . . . . 195
   C.1.5.4.  server-error-version-not-supported (0x0503) . . . . . . 196
   C.1.5.5.  server-error-device-error (0x0504)  . . . . . . . . . . 196
   C.1.5.6.  server-error-temporary-error (0x0505) . . . . . . . . . 196
   C.1.5.7.  server-error-not-accepting-Jobs (0x0506)  . . . . . . . 197
   C.1.5.8.  server-error-busy (0x0507)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
   C.1.5.9.  server-error-job-canceled (0x0508)  . . . . . . . . . . 197
   C.1.5.10. server-error-multiple-document-jobs-not-supported
             (0x0509)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
   C.2.  Status Codes for IPP Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
   Appendix D.  "media" keyword values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
   D.1.  Examples  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
   Appendix E.  Processing IPP Attributes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
   E.1.  Fidelity  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
   E.2.  Page Description Language (PDL) Override  . . . . . . . . . 225
   E.3.  Using Job Template Attributes During Document Processing. . 227
   Appendix F.  Generic Directory Schema . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
   Appendix G.  Change History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
   G.1.  Changes In -04  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
   G.2.  Changes In -03  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
   G.3.  Changes In -02  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
   G.4.  Changes In -01  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233

1.  Introduction

   The Internet Printing Protocol (IPP) is an application level protocol
   that can be used for distributed printing using Internet tools and
   technologies.  IPP version 1.1 (IPP/1.1) focuses primarily on end
   user functionality with a few administrative operations included.
   This document is just one of a suite of documents that fully define
   IPP.  The full set of IETF IPP documents includes:

      Design Goals for an Internet Printing Protocol [RFC2567]

      Rationale for the Structure and Model and Protocol for the
      Internet Printing Protocol [RFC2568]

      Internet Printing Protocol/1.1: Model and Semantics (this
      document)

      Internet Printing Protocol/1.1: Encoding and Transport
      [RFC2910bis]

      Internet Printing Protocol/1.1: Implementer's Guide [RFC3196]



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      Internet Printing Protocol/1.1: IPP URL Scheme [RFC3510]

      IPP over HTTPS Transport Binding and 'ipps' URI Scheme [RFC7472]

      Internet Printing Protocol/1.1: Requirements for Job, Printer, and
      Device Administrative Operations [RFC3239]

      Internet Printing Protocol/1.1: Job and Printer Set Operations
      [RFC3380]

      Internet Printing Protocol/1.1: Job and Printer Administrative
      Operations [RFC3998]

      Internet Printing Protocol/1.1: Requirements for IPP Notifications
      [RFC3997]

      Internet Printing Protocol/1.1: Event Notifications and
      Subscriptions [RFC3995]

      Internet Printing Protocol/1.1: The 'ippget' Delivery Method for
      Event Notifications [RFC3996]

      Mapping between LPD and IPP Protocols [RFC2569]

   Anyone reading these documents for the first time is strongly
   encouraged to read the IPP documents in the above order.  Additional
   IPP specifications have been published by the IEEE-ISTO Printer
   Working Group's [1] IPP Workgroup [2].

   This document is laid out as follows:

   o  The rest of Section 1 is an introduction to the IPP simplified
      model for distributed printing;

   o  Section 2 defines the terminology and conventions used within this
      document;

   o  Section 3 introduces the object types covered in this document
      with their basic behaviors, attributes, and interactions;

   o  Section 4 defines the core operations for IPP/1.1.  IPP operations
      are synchronous - each operation has both a request and a
      response;

   o  Section 5 defines the core attributes (and their syntaxes) that
      are used in the model;





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   o  Sections 6 - 7 summarize the implementation conformance
      requirements for objects that support the protocol and IANA
      considerations, respectively;

   o  Sections 8 and 9 cover the Internationalization and Security
      considerations for IPP; and

   o  The appendices provide a reference for Status Codes, "media"
      keyword values, processing of IPP attributes, and the generic
      directory schema.

1.1.  Simplified Printing Model

   In order to achieve its goal of realizing a workable printing
   protocol for the Internet, the Internet Printing Protocol (IPP) is
   based on a simplified printing model that abstracts the many
   components of real world printing solutions.  The Internet is a
   distributed computing environment where requesters of print services
   (clients, applications, printer drivers, etc.) cooperate and interact
   with print service providers.  This model and semantics document
   describes a simple, abstract model for IPP even though the underlying
   configurations can be complex "n-tier" client/server systems.  An
   important simplifying step in the IPP model is to expose only the key
   objects and interfaces required for printing.  The model described in
   this model document does not include features, interfaces, and
   relationships that are beyond the scope of the first version of IPP
   (IPP/1.1).  IPP/1.1 incorporates many of the relevant ideas and
   lessons learned from other specification and development efforts
   [HTPP] [ISO10175] [LDPA] [P1387.4] [PSIS] [RFC1179] [SWP].  IPP is
   heavily influenced by the printing model introduced in the Document
   Printing Application (DPA) [ISO10175] standard.  Although DPA
   specifies both end user and administrative features, IPP version 1.1
   (IPP/1.1) focuses primarily on end user functionality with a few
   additional OPTIONAL operator operations.

   The IPP/1.1 model encapsulates the important components of
   distributed printing into two object types:

   o  Printer (Section 3.1)

   o  Job (Section 3.2)

   Each object type has an associated set of operations (see Section 4)
   and attributes (see Section 5).

   It is important, however, to understand that in real system
   implementations (which lie underneath the abstracted IPP/1.1 model),
   there are other components of a print service which are not



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   explicitly defined in the IPP/1.1 model.  The following figure
   illustrates where IPP/1.1 fits with respect to these other
   components.

                                +--------------+
                                |  Application |
                      o         +. . . . . . . |
                     \|/        |   Spooler    |
                     / \        +. . . . . . . |   +---------+
                   End-User     | Print Driver |---|  File   |
         +-----------+ +-----+  +------+-------+   +----+----+
         |  Browser  | | GUI |         |                |
         +-----+-----+ +--+--+         |                |
               |          |            |                |
               |      +---+------------+---+            |
   N   D   S   |      |      IPP Client    |------------+
   O   I   E   |      +---------+----------+
   T   R   C   |                |
   I   E   U   |
   F   C   R   -------------- Transport ------------------
   I   T   I
   C   O   T                    |         --+
   A   R   Y           +--------+--------+  |
   T   Y               |    IPP Server   |  |
   I                   +--------+--------+  |
   O                            |           |
   N                   +-----------------+  | IPP Printer
                       |  Print Service  |  |
                       +-----------------+  |
                                |         --+
                       +-----------------+
                       | Output Device(s)|
                       +-----------------+

                           Figure 1 - IPP Model

   An IPP Printer object encapsulates the functions normally associated
   with physical output devices along with the spooling, scheduling and
   multiple device management functions often associated with a print
   server.  Printer objects are optionally registered as entries in a
   directory where end users find and select them based on some sort of
   filtered and context based searching mechanism (see section 16).  The
   directory is used to store relatively static information about the
   Printer, allowing end users to search for and find Printers that
   match their search criteria, for example: name, context, Printer
   capabilities, etc.  The more dynamic information, such as state,
   currently loaded and ready media, number of Jobs at the Printer,
   errors, warnings, and so forth, is directly associated with the



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   Printer object itself rather than with the entry in the directory
   which only represents the Printer object.

   IPP Clients implement the IPP protocol on the Client side and give
   end users (or programs running on behalf of end users) the ability to
   query Printer objects and submit and manage print Jobs.  An IPP
   server is just that part of the Printer object that implements the
   server-side protocol.  The rest of the Printer object implements (or
   gateways into) the application semantics of the print service itself.
   The Printer objects can be embedded in an output device or can be
   implemented on a host on the network that communicates with an output
   device.

   When a Job is submitted to the Printer object and the Printer object
   validates the attributes in the submission request, the Printer
   object creates a new Job object.  The end user then interacts with
   this new Job object to query its status and monitor the progress of
   the Job. An end user can also cancel their print Jobs by using the
   Job object's Cancel-Job operation.  An end-user can also hold,
   release, and restart their print Jobs using the Job object's OPTIONAL
   Hold-Job, Release-Job, and Restart-Job operations, if implemented.

   A privileged operator or administrator of a Printer object can
   cancel, hold, release, and restart any user's Job using the REQUIRED
   Cancel-Job and the OPTIONAL Hold-Job, Release-Job, and Restart-Job
   operations.  In additional privileged operator or administrator of a
   Printer object can pause, resume, or purge (Jobs from) a Printer
   object using the OPTIONAL Pause-Printer, Resume-Printer, and Purge-
   Jobs operations, if implemented.

   The notification service is out of scope for this IPP/1.1 document,
   but using such a notification service, the end user is able to
   register for and receive Printer specific and Job specific events.
   An end user can query the status of Printer objects and can follow
   the progress of Job objects by polling using the Get-Printer-
   Attributes, Get-Jobs, and Get-Job-Attributes operations.

2.  Conventions Used in This Document

2.1.  Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

   The key word "DEPRECATED" in this document refers to an operation,
   attribute, or value that SHOULD NOT be used or supported in new
   implementations.



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2.2.  Printing Terminology

   Client: Initiator of outgoing IPP session requests and sender of
   outgoing IPP operation requests (Hypertext Transfer Protocol --
   HTTP/1.1 [RFC7230] User Agent).

   Document: An object created and managed by a Printer that contains
   the description, processing, and status information.  A Document
   object can have attached data and is bound to a single Job.

   'ipp' URI: An IPP URI as defined in [RFC3510].

   'ipps' URI: An IPP URI as defined in [RFC7472].

   Job: An object created and managed by a Printer that contains
   description, processing, and status information.  The Job also
   contains zero or more Document objects.

   Logical Device: A print server, software service, or gateway that
   processes Jobs and either forwards or stores the processed Job or
   uses one or more Physical Devices to render output.

   Output Device: A single Logical or Physical Device.

   Physical Device: A hardware implementation of an endpoint device,
   e.g., a marking engine, a fax modem, etc.

   Printer: Listener for incoming IPP session requests and receiver of
   incoming IPP operation requests (Hypertext Transfer Protocol --
   HTTP/1.1 [RFC7230] Server) that represents one or more Physical
   Devices or a Logical Device.

2.3.  Abbreviations

   ABNF: Augmented Backus-Naur Form [RFC5234]

   ASCII: American Standard Code for Information Interchange [ASCII]

   HTTP: HyperText Transfer Protocol [RFC7230]

   HTTPS: HTTP over TLS [RFC2818]

   IANA: Internet Assigned Numbers Authority

   IEEE: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

   IESG: Internet Engineering Steering Group




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   IPP: Internet Printing Protocol (this document and [PWG5100.12])

   ISTO: IEEE Industry Standards and Technology Organization

   LPD: Line Printer Daemon Protocol [RFC1179]

   PWG: IEEE-ISTO Printer Working Group <http://www.pwg.org/>

   RFC: Request for Comments

   TCP: Transmission Control Protocol [RFC793]

   TLS: Transport Layer Security [RFC5246]

   URI: Uniform Resource Identifier [RFC3986]

   URL: Uniform Resource Locator [RFC3986]

   UTF-8: Unicode Transformation Format - 8-bit [RFC3629]

3.  IPP Objects

   The IPP/1.1 model introduces objects of type Printer and Job. Each
   type of object models relevant aspects of a real-world entity such as
   a real printer or real print Job. Each object type is defined as a
   set of possible attributes that can be supported by instances of that
   object type.  For each object (instance), the actual set of supported
   attributes and values describe a specific implementation.  The
   object's attributes and values describe its state, capabilities,
   realizable features, Job processing functions, and default behaviors
   and characteristics.  For example, the Printer object type is defined
   as a set of attributes that each Printer object potentially supports.
   In the same manner, the Job object type is defined as a set of
   attributes that are potentially supported by each Job object.

   Each attribute included in the set of attributes defining an object
   type is labeled as:

   o  "REQUIRED": each object MUST support the attribute.

   o  "RECOMMENDED": each object SHOULD support the attribute.

   o  "OPTIONAL": each object MAY support the attribute.

   Some definitions of attribute values indicate that an object MUST or
   SHOULD support the value; otherwise, support of the value is
   OPTIONAL.  However, if an implementation supports an attribute, it
   MUST support at least one of the possible values for that attribute.



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3.1.  Printer Object

   The major component of the IPP/1.1 model is the Printer object.  A
   Printer object implements the server-side of the IPP/1.1 protocol.
   Using the protocol, end users can query the attributes of the Printer
   object and submit print Jobs to the Printer object.  The actual
   implementation components behind the Printer abstraction can take on
   different forms and different configurations.  However, the model
   abstraction allows the details of the configuration of real
   components to remain opaque to the end user.  Section 4 describes
   each of the Printer operations in detail.

   The capabilities and state of a Printer object are described by its
   attributes.  Printer attributes are divided into two groups:

   o  "job-template" attributes: These attributes describe supported Job
      processing capabilities and defaults for the Printer object.  (See
      Section 5.2)

   o  "printer-description" attributes: These attributes describe the
      Printer object's identification, state, location, references to
      other sources of information about the Printer object, etc. (see
      Section 5.4)

   Since a Printer object is an abstraction of a generic document output
   device and print service provider, a Printer object could be used to
   represent any real or virtual device with semantics consistent with
   the Printer object, such as a fax device, an imager, or even a CD
   writer.

   Some examples of configurations supporting a Printer object include:

   1.  An output device with no spooling capabilities

   2.  An output device with a built-in spooler

   3.  A print server supporting IPP with one or more associated output
       devices

       3a.  The associated output devices are or are not capable of
            spooling jobs

       3b.  The associated output devices possibly support IPP

   The following figures show some examples of how Printer objects can
   be realized on top of various distributed printing configurations.
   The embedded case below represents configurations 1 and 2.  The
   hosted and fan-out figures below represent configurations 3a and 3b.



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   In this document the term "client" refers to a software entity that
   sends IPP operation requests to an IPP Printer object and accepts IPP
   operation responses.  A Client MAY be:

   1.  contained within software controlled by an end user, e.g.
       activated by the "Print" menu item in an application or

   2.  the print server component that sends IPP requests to either an
       output device or another "downstream" print server.

   The term "IPP Printer" is a network entity that accepts IPP operation
   requests and returns IPP operation responses.  As such, an IPP object
   MAY be:

   1.  an (embedded) device component that accepts IPP requests and
       controls the device or

   2.  a component of a print server that accepts IPP requests (where
       the print server controls one or more networked devices using IPP
       or other protocols).































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   Legend:
   ##### indicates a Printer object which is
         either embedded in an output device or is
         hosted in a server. The Printer object
         might or might not be capable of queuing/spooling.
   any   indicates any network protocol or direct
         connect, including IPP
   embedded printer:
                                             output device
                                           +---------------+
    O   +--------+                         |  ###########  |
   /|\  | Client |------------IPP------------># Printer #  |
   / \  +--------+                         |  # Object  #  |
                                           |  ###########  |
                                           +---------------+
   hosted printer:
                                           +---------------+
    O   +--------+        ###########      |               |
   /|\  | Client |--IPP--># Printer #-any->| output device |
   / \  +--------+        # Object  #      |               |
                          ###########      +---------------+
                                            +---------------+
   fan out:                                 |               |
                                        +-->| output device |
                                    any/    |               |
    O   +--------+      ###########   /     +---------------+
   /|\  | Client |-IPP-># Printer #--*
   / \  +--------+      # Object  #   \     +---------------+
                        ########### any\    |               |
                                        +-->| output device |
                                            |               |
                                            +---------------+

                Figure 2 - IPP Printer Object Architecture

3.2.  Job Object

   A Job object is used to model a print Job. A Job object contains
   documents.  The information required to create a Job object is sent
   in a create request from the end user via an IPP Client to the
   Printer object.  The Printer object validates the create request, and
   if the Printer object accepts the request, the Printer object creates
   the new Job object.  Section 4 describes each of the Job operations
   in detail.

   The characteristics and state of a Job object are described by its
   attributes.  Job attributes are grouped into two groups as follows:




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   o  "job-template" attributes: These attributes can be supplied by the
      Client or end user and include Job processing instructions which
      are intended to override any Printer object defaults and/or
      instructions embedded within the document data.  (See Section 5.2)

   o  "job-description" attributes: These attributes describe the Job
      object's identification, state, size, etc.  The Client supplies
      some of these attributes, and the Printer object generates others.
      (See Section 5.3)

   An implementation MUST support at least one document per Job object.
   An implementation MAY support multiple documents per Job object.  A
   document is either:

   o  a stream of document data in a format supported by the Printer
      object (typically a Page Description Language - PDL), or

   o  a reference to such a stream of document data

   In IPP/1.1, a document is not modeled as an IPP object, therefore it
   has no object identifier or associated attributes.  All Job
   processing instructions are modeled as Job object attributes.  These
   attributes are called Job Template attributes and they apply equally
   to all documents within a Job object.

3.3.  Object Relationships

   IPP objects have relationships that are maintained persistently along
   with the persistent storage of the object attributes.

   A Printer object can represent either one or more physical output
   devices or a logical device which "processes" Jobs but never actually
   uses a physical output device to put marks on paper.  Examples of
   logical devices include a Web page publisher or a gateway into an
   online document archive or repository.  A Printer object contains
   zero or more Job objects.

   A Job object is contained by exactly one Printer object, however the
   identical document data associated with a Job object could be sent to
   either the same or a different Printer object.  In this case, a
   second Job object would be created which would be almost identical to
   the first Job object, however it would have new (different) Job
   object identifiers (see Section 3.4).

   A Job object is either empty (before any documents have been added)
   or contains one or more documents.  If the contained document is a
   stream of document data, that stream can be contained in only one
   document.  However, there can be identical copies of the stream in



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   other documents in the same or different Job objects.  If the
   contained document is just a reference to a stream of document data,
   other documents (in the same or different Job object(s)) Clients
   contain the same reference.

3.4.  Object Identity

   All Printer and Job objects are identified by a Uniform Resource
   Identifier (URI) [RFC3986] so that they can be persistently and
   unambiguously referenced.  Since every URL is a specialized form of a
   URI, even though the more generic term URI is used throughout the
   rest of this document, its usage is intended to cover the more
   specific notion of URL as well.

   An administrator configures Printer objects to either support or not
   support authentication and/or message privacy using Transport Layer
   Security (TLS) [RFC5246] (the mechanism for security configuration is
   outside the scope of this IPP/1.1 document).  In some situations,
   both types of connections (both authenticated and unauthenticated)
   can be established using a single communication channel that has some
   sort of negotiation mechanism.  In other situations, multiple
   communication channels are used, one for each type of security
   configuration.  Section 9 provides a full description of all security
   considerations and configurations.

   If a Printer object supports more than one communication channel,
   some or all of those channels might support and/or require different
   security mechanisms.  In such cases, an administrator could expose
   the simultaneous support for these multiple communication channels as
   multiple URIs for a single Printer object where each URI represents
   one of the communication channels to the Printer object.  To support
   this flexibility, the IPP Printer object type defines a multi-valued
   identification attribute called the "printer-uri-supported"
   attribute.  It MUST contain at least one URI.  It MAY contain more
   than one URI.  That is, every Printer object will have at least one
   URI that identifies at least one communication channel to the Printer
   object, but it Clients have more than one URI where each URI
   identifies a different communication channel to the Printer object.
   The "printer-uri-supported" attribute has two companion attributes,
   the "uri-security-supported" attribute and the "uri-authentication-
   supported".  Both have the same cardinality as "printer-uri-
   supported".  The purpose of the "uri-security-supported" attribute is
   to indicate the security mechanisms (if any) used for each URI listed
   in "printer-uri-supported".  The purpose of the "uri-authentication-
   supported" attribute is to indicate the authentication mechanisms (if
   any) used for each URI listed in "printer-uri-supported".  These
   three attributes are fully described in sections 4.4.1, 4.4.2, and
   4.4.3.



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   When a Job is submitted to the Printer object via a create request,
   the Client supplies only a single Printer object URI.  The Client
   supplied Printer object URI MUST be one of the values in the
   "printer-uri-supported" Printer attribute.

   IPP/1.1 does not specify how the Client obtains the Client supplied
   URI, but it is RECOMMENDED that a Printer object be registered as an
   entry in a directory service.  End-users and programs can then
   interrogate the directory searching for Printers.  Section 16 defines
   a generic schema for Printer object entries in the directory service
   and describes how the entry acts as a bridge to the actual IPP
   Printer object.  The entry in the directory that represents the IPP
   Printer object includes the possibly many URIs for that Printer
   object as values in one its attributes.

   When a Client submits a create request to the Printer object, the
   Printer object validates the request and creates a new Job object.
   The Printer object assigns the new Job object a URI which is stored
   in the "job-uri" Job attribute.  This URI is then used by Clients as
   the target for subsequent Job operations.  The Printer object
   generates a Job URI based on its configured security policy and the
   URI used by the Client in the create request.

   For example, consider a Printer object that supports both a
   communication channel secured by the use of TLS (using HTTP over TLS
   with an "https" schemed URI) and another open communication channel
   that is not secured with TLS (using a simple "http" schemed URI).  If
   a Client were to submit a Job using the secure URI, the Printer
   object would assign the new Job object a secure URI as well.  If a
   Client were to submit a Job using the open-channel URI, the Printer
   would assign the new Job object an open-channel URI.

   In addition, the Printer object also populates the Job object's "job-
   printer-uri" attribute.  This is a reference back to the Printer
   object that created the Job object.  If a Client only has access to a
   Job object's "job-uri" identifier, the Client can query the Job's
   "job-printer-uri" attribute in order to determine which Printer
   object created the Job object.  If the Printer object supports more
   than one URI, the Printer object picks the one URI supplied by the
   Client when creating the Job to build the value for and to populate
   the Job's "job-printer-uri" attribute.

   Allowing Job objects to have URIs allows for flexibility and
   scalability.  For example, in some implementations, the Printer
   object might create Jobs that are processed in the same local
   environment as the Printer object itself.  In this case, the Job URI
   might just be a composition of the Printer's URI and some unique
   component for the Job object, such as the unique 32-bit positive



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   integer mentioned later in this paragraph.  In other implementations,
   the Printer object might be a central clearing-house for validating
   all Job object creation requests, but the Job object itself might be
   created in some environment that is remote from the Printer object.
   In this case, the Job object's URI possibly has no physical-location
   relationship at all to the Printer object's URI.  Again, the fact
   that Job objects have URIs allows for flexibility and scalability,
   however, many existing printing systems have local models or
   interface constraints that force print Jobs to be identified using
   only a 32-bit positive integer rather than an independent URI.  This
   numeric Job ID is only unique within the context of the Printer
   object to which the create request was originally submitted.
   Therefore, in order to allow both types of Client access to IPP Job
   objects (either by Job URI or by numeric Job ID), when the Printer
   object successfully processes a create request and creates a new Job
   object, the Printer object MUST generate both a Job URI and a Job ID.
   The Job ID (stored in the "job-id" attribute) only has meaning in the
   context of the Printer object to which the create request was
   originally submitted.  This requirement to support both Job URIs and
   Job IDs allows all types of Clients to access Printer objects and Job
   objects no matter the local constraints imposed on the Client
   implementation.

   In addition to identifiers, Printer objects and Job objects have
   names ("printer-name" and "job-name").  An object name is not
   guaranteed to be unique across all instances of all objects.  A
   Printer object's name is chosen and set by an administrator through
   some mechanism outside the scope of this IPP/1.1 document.  A Job
   object's name is optionally chosen and supplied by the IPP Client
   submitting the Job. If the Client does not supply a Job object name,
   the Printer object generates a name for the new Job object.  In all
   cases, the name only has local meaning.

   To summarize:

   o  Each Printer object is identified with one or more URIs.  The
      Printer's "printer-uri-supported" attribute contains the URI(s).

   o  The Printer object's "uri-security-supported" attribute identifies
      the communication channel security protocols that have been
      configured for the various Printer object URIs (e.g., 'tls' or
      'none').

   o  The Printer object's "uri-authentication-supported" attribute
      identifies the authentication mechanisms that have been configured
      for the various Printer object URIs (e.g., 'digest' or 'none').





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   o  Each Job object is identified with a Job URI.  The Job's "job-uri"
      attribute contains the URI.

   o  Each Job object is also identified with Job ID which is a 32-bit,
      positive integer.  The Job's "job-id" attribute contains the Job
      ID.  The Job ID is only unique within the context of the Printer
      object which created the Job object.

   o  Each Job object has a "job-printer-uri" attribute which contains
      the URI of the Printer object that was used to create the Job
      object.  This attribute is used to determine the Printer object
      that created a Job object when given only the URI for the Job
      object.  This linkage is necessary to determine the languages,
      charsets, and operations which are supported on that Job (the
      basis for such support comes from the creating Printer object).

   o  Each Printer object has a name (which is not necessarily unique).
      The administrator chooses and sets this name through some
      mechanism outside the scope of this IPP/1.1 document.  The Printer
      object's "printer-name" attribute contains the name.

   o  Each Job object has a name (which is not necessarily unique).  The
      Client optionally supplies this name in the create request.  If
      the Client does not supply this name, the Printer object generates
      a name for the Job object.  The Job object's "job-name" attribute
      contains the name.

4.  IPP Operations

   IPP objects support operations.  An operation consists of a request
   and a response.  When a Client communicates with an IPP object, the
   Client issues an operation request to the URI for that object.
   Operation requests and responses have parameters that identify the
   operation.  Operations also have attributes that affect the run-time
   characteristics of the operation (the intended target, localization
   information, etc.).  These operation-specific attributes are called
   operation attributes (as compared to object attributes such as
   Printer object attributes or Job object attributes).  Each request
   carries along with it any operation attributes, object attributes,
   and/or document data required to perform the operation.  Each request
   requires a response from the object.  Each response indicates success
   or failure of the operation with a status code as a response
   parameter.  The response contains any operation attributes, object
   attributes, and/or status messages generated during the execution of
   the operation request.






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   This section describes the semantics of the IPP operations, both
   requests and responses, in terms of the parameters, attributes, and
   other data associated with each operation.

   The IPP/1.1 Printer operations are:

      Print-Job (Section 4.2.1)

      Print-URI (Section 4.2.2)

      Validate-Job (Section 4.2.3)

      Create-Job (Section 4.2.4)

      Get-Printer-Attributes (Section 4.2.5)

      Get-Jobs (Section 4.2.6)

      Pause-Printer (Section 4.3.5)

      Resume-Printer (Section 4.3.6)

      Purge-Jobs (Section 4.2.9)

   The Job operations are:

      Send-Document (Section 4.3.1)

      Send-URI (Section 4.3.2)

      Cancel-Job (Section 4.3.3)

      Get-Job-Attributes (Section 4.3.4)

      Hold-Job (Section 4.3.5)

      Release-Job (Section 4.3.6)

      Restart-Job (Section 4.3.7)

   The Send-Document and Send-URI Job operations are used to add
   documents to an existing Job object created using the Create-Job
   operation.








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4.1.  Common Semantics

   All IPP operations require some common parameters and operation
   attributes.  These common elements and their semantic characteristics
   are defined and described in more detail in the following sections.

4.1.1.  Required Parameters

   Every operation request contains the following REQUIRED parameters:

   o  a "version-number",

   o  an "operation-id",

   o  a "request-id", and

   o  the attributes that are REQUIRED for that type of request.

   Every operation response contains the following REQUIRED parameters:

   o  a "version-number",

   o  a "status-code",

   o  the "request-id" that was supplied in the corresponding request,
      and

   o  the attributes that are REQUIRED for that type of response.

   The "Encoding and Transport" document [RFC2910bis] defines special
   rules for the encoding of these parameters.  All other operation
   elements are represented using the more generic encoding rules for
   attributes and groups of attributes.

4.1.2.  Operation IDs and Request IDs

   Each IPP operation request includes an identifying "operation-id"
   value.  Valid values are defined in the "operations-supported"
   Printer attribute section (see Section 5.4.15).  The Client specifies
   which operation is being requested by supplying the correct
   "operation-id" value.

   In addition, every invocation of an operation is identified by a
   "request-id" value.  For each request, the Client chooses the
   "request-id" which MUST be an integer (possibly unique depending on
   Client requirements) in the range from 1 to 2**31 - 1 (inclusive).
   This "request-id" allows Clients to manage multiple outstanding
   requests.  The receiving IPP object copies all 32-bits of the client-



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   supplied "request-id" attribute into the response so that the Client
   can match the response with the correct outstanding request, even if
   the "request-id" is out of range.  If the request is terminated
   before the complete "request-id" is received, the IPP object rejects
   the request and returns a response with a "request-id" of 0.

   Note: In some cases, the transport protocol underneath IPP might be a
   connection oriented protocol that would make it impossible for a
   Client to receive responses in any order other than the order in
   which the corresponding requests were sent.  In such cases, the
   "request-id" attribute would not be essential for correct protocol
   operation.  However, in other mappings, the operation responses can
   come back in any order.  In these cases, the "request-id" would be
   essential.

4.1.3.  Attributes

   Operation requests and responses are both composed of groups of
   attributes and/or document data.  The attributes groups are:

   o  Operation Attributes: These attributes are passed in the operation
      and affect the IPP object's behavior while processing the
      operation request and Clients affect other attributes or groups of
      attributes.  Some operation attributes describe the document data
      associated with the print Job and are associated with new Job
      objects, however most operation attributes do not persist beyond
      the life of the operation.  The description of each operation
      attribute includes conformance statements indicating which
      operation attributes are REQUIRED and which are OPTIONAL for an
      IPP object to support and which attributes a Client MUST supply in
      a request and an IPP object MUST supply in a response.

   o  Job Template Attributes: These attributes affect the processing of
      a Job. A Client OPTIONALLY supplies Job Template Attributes in a
      create request, and the receiving object MUST be prepared to
      receive all supported attributes.  The Job object can later be
      queried to find out what Job Template attributes were originally
      requested in the create request, and such attributes are returned
      in the response as Job Object Attributes.  The Printer object can
      be queried about its Job Template attributes to find out what type
      of Job processing capabilities are supported and/or what the
      default Job processing behaviors are, though such attributes are
      returned in the response as Printer Object Attributes.  The "ipp-
      attribute-fidelity" operation attribute affects processing of all
      client-supplied Job Template attributes (see sections 3.2.1.2 and
      15 for a full description of "ipp-attribute-fidelity" and its
      relationship to other attributes).




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   o  Job Object Attributes: These attributes are returned in response
      to a query operation directed at a Job object.

   o  Printer Object Attributes: These attributes are returned in
      response to a query operation directed at a Printer object.

   o  Unsupported Attributes: In a create request, the Client supplies a
      set of Operation and Job Template attributes.  If any of these
      attributes or their values is unsupported by the Printer object,
      the Printer object returns the set of unsupported attributes in
      the response.  Sections 3.1.7, 3.2.1.2, and 15 give a full
      description of how Job Template attributes supplied by the Client
      in a create request are processed by the Printer object and how
      unsupported attributes are returned to the Client.  Because of
      extensibility, any IPP object might receive a request that
      contains new or unknown attributes or values for which it has no
      support.  In such cases, the IPP object processes what it can and
      returns the unsupported attributes in the response.  The
      Unsupported Attribute group is defined for all operation responses
      for returning unsupported attributes that the Client supplied in
      the request.

   Later in this section, each operation is formally defined by
   identifying the allowed and expected groups of attributes for each
   request and response.  The model identifies a specific order for each
   group in each request or response, but the attributes within each
   group Clients be in any order, unless specified otherwise.

   The attributes within a group MUST be unique; if an attribute with
   the same name occurs more than once, the group is mal-formed.
   Clients MUST NOT submit such malformed requests and Printers MUST NOT
   return such malformed responses.  If such a malformed request is
   submitted to a Printer, the Printer MUST either (1) reject the
   request with the 'client-error-bad-request' status code (see
   Appendix C.1.4.1) or (2) process the request normally after selecting
   only one of the attribute instances, depending on implementation.
   Which attribute is selected when there are duplicate attributes
   depends on implementation.  The IPP Printer MUST NOT use the values
   from more than one such duplicate attribute instance.

   Each attribute definition includes the attribute's name followed by
   the name of its attribute syntax(es) in parenthesizes.  In addition,
   each 'integer' attribute is followed by the allowed range in
   parentheses, (m:n), for values of that attribute.  Each 'text' or
   'name' attribute is followed by the maximum size in octets in
   parentheses, (size), for values of that attribute.  For more details
   on attribute syntax notation, see the descriptions of these
   attributes syntaxes in Section 5.1.



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   Note: Document data included in the operation is not strictly an
   attribute, but it is treated as a special attribute group for
   ordering purposes.  The only operations that support supplying the
   document data within an operation request are Print-Job and Send-
   Document.  There are no operation responses that include document
   data.

   Some operations are REQUIRED for IPP objects to support; the others
   are OPTIONAL (see Section 6.2.2).  Therefore, before using an
   OPTIONAL operation, a Client SHOULD first use the REQUIRED Get-
   Printer-Attributes operation to query the Printer's "operations-
   supported" attribute in order to determine which OPTIONAL Printer and
   Job operations are actually supported.  The Client SHOULD NOT use an
   OPTIONAL operation that is not supported.  When an IPP object
   receives a request to perform an operation it does not support, it
   returns the 'server-error-operation-not-supported' status code (see
   Appendix C.1.5.2).  An IPP object is non-conformant if it does not
   support a REQUIRED operation.

4.1.4.  Character Set and Natural Language Operation Attributes

   Some Job and Printer attributes have values that are text strings and
   names intended for human understanding rather than machine
   understanding (see the 'text' and 'name' attribute syntax
   descriptions in Section 5.1).  The following sections describe two
   special Operation Attributes called "attributes-charset" and
   "attributes-natural-language".  These attributes are always part of
   the Operation Attributes group.  For most attribute groups, the order
   of the attributes within the group is not important.  However, for
   these two attributes within the Operation Attributes group, the order
   is critical.  The "attributes-charset" attribute MUST be the first
   attribute in the group and the "attributes-natural-language"
   attribute MUST be the second attribute in the group.  In other words,
   these attributes MUST be supplied in every IPP request and response,
   they MUST come first in the group, and MUST come in the specified
   order.  For Job creation operations, the IPP Printer implementation
   saves these two attributes with the new Job object as Job Description
   attributes.  For the sake of brevity in this document, these
   operation attribute descriptions are not repeated with every
   operation request and response, but have a reference back to this
   section instead.

4.1.4.1.  Request Operation Attributes

   The Client MUST supply and the Printer object MUST support the
   following REQUIRED operation attributes in every IPP/1.1 operation
   request:




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   "attributes-charset" (charset):

   This operation attribute identifies the charset (coded character set
   and encoding method) used by any 'text' and 'name' attributes that
   the Client is supplying in this request.  It also identifies the
   charset that the Printer object MUST use (if supported) for all
   'text' and 'name' attributes and status messages that the Printer
   object returns in the response to this request.  See Sections 4.1.1
   and 4.1.2 for the definition of the 'text' and 'name' attribute
   syntaxes.

   All Clients and IPP objects MUST support the 'utf-8' charset
   [RFC3629] and MAY support additional charsets provided that they are
   registered with IANA [IANA-CS].  If the Printer object does not
   support the Client supplied charset value, the Printer object MUST
   reject the request, set the "attributes-charset" to 'utf-8' in the
   response, and return the 'client-error-charset-not-supported' status
   code and any 'text' or 'name' attributes using the 'utf-8' charset.
   The Printer OPTIONALLY returns any attributes in the Unsupported
   Attributes Group (See sections 3.1.7 and 3.2.1.2).  The Printer
   object MUST indicate the charset(s) supported as the values of the
   "charset-supported" Printer attribute (see Section 5.4.18), so that
   the Client can query to determine which charset(s) are supported.

   Note to Client implementers: Since IPP objects are only required to
   support the 'utf-8' charset, in order to maximize interoperability
   with multiple IPP object implementations, a Client SHOULD supply
   'utf-8' in the "attributes-charset" operation attribute, even though
   the Client is only passing and able to present a simpler charset,
   such as US-ASCII [ASCII] or ISO-8859-1 [ISO8859-1].  Then the Client
   will have to filter out (or charset convert) those characters that
   are returned in the response that it cannot present to its user.  On
   the other hand, if both the Client and the IPP objects also support a
   charset in common besides "utf-8", the Client can use that charset in
   order to avoid charset conversion or data loss.

   See the 'charset' attribute syntax description in Section 5.1.7 for
   the syntax and semantic interpretation of the values of this
   attribute and for example values.

   "attributes-natural-language" (naturalLanguage):

   This operation attribute identifies the natural language used by any
   'text' and 'name' attributes that the Client is supplying in this
   request.  This attribute also identifies the natural language that
   the Printer object SHOULD use for all 'text' and 'name' attributes
   and status messages that the Printer object returns in the response
   to this request.  See the 'naturalLanguage' attribute syntax



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   description in Section 5.1.8 for the syntax and semantic
   interpretation of the values of this attribute and for example
   values.

   There are no REQUIRED natural languages required for the Printer
   object to support.  However, the Printer object's "generated-natural-
   language-supported" attribute identifies the natural languages
   supported by the Printer object and any contained Job objects for all
   text strings generated by the IPP object.  A Client MAY query this
   attribute to determine which natural language(s) are supported for
   generated messages.

   For any of the attributes for which the Printer object generates
   text, i.e., for the "job-state-message", "printer-state-message", and
   status messages (see Section 4.1.6), the Printer object MUST be able
   to generate these text strings in any of its supported natural
   languages.  If the Client requests a natural language that is not
   supported, the Printer object MUST return these generated messages in
   the Printer's configured natural language as specified by the
   Printer's "natural-language-configured" attribute" (see
   Section 5.4.19).

   For other 'text' and 'name' attributes supplied by the Client,
   authentication system, operator, system administrator, or
   manufacturer (i.e., for "job-originating-user-name", "printer-name"
   (name), "printer-location" (text), "printer-info" (text), and
   "printer-make-and-model" (text)), the Printer object is only required
   to support the configured natural language of the Printer identified
   by the Printer object's "natural-language-configured" attribute,
   though support of additional natural languages for these attributes
   is permitted.

   For any 'text' or 'name' attribute in the request that is in a
   different natural language than the value supplied in the
   "attributes-natural-language" operation attribute, the Client MUST
   use the Natural Language Override mechanism (see sections 4.1.1.2 and
   4.1.2.2) for each such attribute value supplied.  The Client MAY use
   the Natural Language Override mechanism redundantly, i.e., use it
   even when the value is in the same natural language as the value
   supplied in the "attributes-natural-language" operation attribute of
   the request.

   The IPP object MUST accept any natural language and any Natural
   Language Override, whether the IPP object supports that natural
   language or not (and independent of the value of the "ipp-attribute-
   fidelity" Operation attribute).  That is the IPP object accepts all
   Client supplied values no matter what the values are in the Printer
   object's "generated-natural-language-supported" attribute.  That



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   attribute, "generated-natural-language-supported", only applies to
   generated messages, not Client supplied messages.  The IPP object
   MUST remember that natural language for all client-supplied
   attributes, and when returning those attributes in response to a
   query, the IPP object MUST indicate that natural language.

   Each value whose attribute syntax type is 'text' or 'name' (see
   sections 4.1.1 and 4.1.2) has an Associated Natural-Language.  This
   document does not specify how this association is stored in a Printer
   or Job object.  When such a value is encoded in a request or
   response, the natural language is either implicit or explicit:

   * In the implicit case, the value contains only the text/name value,
   and the language is specified by the "attributes-natural-language"
   operation attribute in the request or response (see sections 4.1.1.1
   textWithoutLanguage and 4.1.2.1 nameWithoutLanguage).

   * In the explicit case (also known as the Natural-Language Override
   case), the value contains both the language and the text/name value
   (see sections 4.1.1.2 textWithLanguage and 4.1.2.2 nameWithLanguage).

   For example, the "job-name" attribute MAY be supplied by the Client
   in a create request.  The text value for this attribute will be in
   the natural language identified by the "attribute-natural-language"
   attribute, or if different, as identified by the Natural Language
   Override mechanism.  If supplied, the IPP object will use the value
   of the "job-name" attribute to populate the Job object's "job-name"
   attribute.  Whenever any Client queries the Job object's "job-name"
   attribute, the IPP object returns the attribute as stored and uses
   the Natural Language Override mechanism to specify the natural
   language, if it is different from that reported in the "attributes-
   natural-language" operation attribute of the response.  The IPP
   object MAY use the Natural Language Override mechanism redundantly,
   i.e., use it even when the value is in the same natural language as
   the value supplied in the "attributes-natural-language" operation
   attribute of the response.

   An IPP object MUST NOT reject a request based on a supplied natural
   language in an "attributes-natural-language" Operation attribute or
   in any attribute that uses the Natural Language Override.

   Clients SHOULD NOT supply 'text' or 'name' attributes that use an
   illegal combination of natural language and charset.  For example,
   suppose a Printer object supports charsets 'utf-8', 'iso-8859-1', and
   'iso-8859-7'.  Suppose also, that it supports natural languages 'en'
   (English), 'fr' (French), and 'el' (Greek).  Although the Printer
   object supports the charset 'iso-8859-1' and natural language 'el',
   it probably does not support the combination of Greek text strings



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   using the 'iso-8859-1' charset.  The Printer object handles this
   apparent incompatibility differently depending on the context in
   which it occurs:

   o  In a create request: If the Client supplies a text or name
      attribute (for example, the "job-name" operation attribute) that
      uses an apparently incompatible combination, it is a Client choice
      that does not affect the Printer object or its correct operation.
      Therefore, the Printer object simply accepts the Client supplied
      value, stores it with the Job object, and responds back with the
      same combination whenever the Client (or any client) queries for
      that attribute.

   o  In a query-type operation, like Get-Printer-Attributes: If the
      Client requests an apparently incompatible combination, the
      Printer object responds (as described in Section 4.1.4.2) using
      the Printer's configured natural language rather than the natural
      language requested by the Client.

   In either case, the Printer object does not reject the request
   because of the apparent incompatibility.  The potential incompatible
   combination of charset and natural language can occur either at the
   global operation level or at the Natural Language Override attribute-
   by-attribute level.  In addition, since the response always includes
   explicit charset and natural language information, there is never any
   question or ambiguity in how the Client interprets the response.

4.1.4.2.  Response Operation Attributes

   The Printer object MUST supply and the Client MUST support the
   following REQUIRED operation attributes in every IPP/1.1 operation
   response:

   "attributes-charset" (charset):

   This operation attribute identifies the charset used by any 'text'
   and 'name' attributes that the Printer object is returning in this
   response.  The value in this response MUST be the same value as the
   "attributes-charset" operation attribute supplied by the Client in
   the request.  If this is not possible (i.e., the charset requested is
   not supported), the request would have been rejected.  See
   "attributes-charset" described in Section 4.1.4.1 above.

   If the Printer object supports more than just the 'utf-8' charset,
   the Printer object MUST be able to code convert between each of the
   charsets supported on a highest fidelity possible basis in order to
   return the 'text' and 'name' attributes in the charset requested by
   the Client.  However, some information loss MAY occur during the



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   charset conversion depending on the charsets involved.  For example,
   the Printer object Clients convert from a UTF-8 'a' to a US-ASCII 'a'
   (with no loss of information), from an ISO Latin 1 CAPITAL LETTER A
   WITH ACUTE ACCENT to US-ASCII 'A' (losing the accent), or from a
   UTF-8 Japanese Kanji character to some ISO Latin 1 error character
   indication such as '?', decimal code equivalent, or to the absence of
   a character, depending on implementation.

   Whether an implementation that supports more than one charset stores
   the data in the charset supplied by the Client or code converts to
   one of the other supported charsets, depends on implementation.  The
   strategy should try to minimize loss of information during code
   conversion.  On each response, such an implementation converts from
   its internal charset to that requested.

   "attributes-natural-language" (naturalLanguage):

   This operation attribute identifies the natural language used by any
   'text' and 'name' attributes that the IPP object is returning in this
   response.  Unlike the "attributes-charset" operation attribute, the
   IPP object OPTIONALLY returns the same value as that supplied by the
   Client in the request.  The IPP object MAY return the natural
   language of the Job object or the Printer's configured natural
   language as identified by the Printer object's "natural-language-
   configured" attribute, rather than the natural language supplied by
   the Client.  For any 'text' or 'name' attribute or status message in
   the response that is in a different natural language than the value
   returned in the "attributes-natural-language" operation attribute,
   the IPP object MUST use the Natural Language Override mechanism (see
   sections 4.1.1.2 and 4.1.2.2) on each attribute value returned.  The
   IPP object MAY use the Natural Language Override mechanism
   redundantly, i.e., use it even when the value is in the same natural
   language as the value supplied in the "attributes-natural-language"
   operation attribute of the response.

4.1.5.  Operation Targets

   All IPP operations are directed at IPP objects.  For Printer
   operations, the operation is always directed at a Printer object
   using one of its URIs (i.e., one of the values in the Printer
   object's "printer-uri-supported" attribute).  Even if the Printer
   object supports more than one URI, the Client supplies only one URI
   as the target of the operation.  The Client identifies the target
   object by supplying the correct URI in the "printer-uri (uri)"
   operation attribute.

   For Job operations, the operation is directed at either:




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   o  The Job object itself using the Job object's URI.  In this case,
      the Client identifies the target object by supplying the correct
      URI in the "job-uri (uri)" operation attribute.

   o  The Printer object that created the Job object using both the
      Printer objects URI and the Job object's Job ID.  Since the
      Printer object that created the Job object generated the Job ID,
      it MUST be able to correctly associate the Client supplied Job ID
      with the correct Job object.  The Client supplies the Printer
      object's URI in the "printer-uri (uri)" operation attribute and
      the Job object's Job ID in the "job-id (integer(1:MAX))" operation
      attribute.

   If the operation is directed at the Job object directly using the Job
   object's URI, the Client MUST NOT include the redundant "job-id"
   operation attribute.

   The operation target attributes are REQUIRED operation attributes
   that MUST be included in every operation request.  Like the charset
   and natural language attributes (see Section 4.1.4), the operation
   target attributes are specially ordered operation attributes.  In all
   cases, the operation target attributes immediately follow the
   "attributes-charset" and "attributes-natural-language" attributes
   within the operation attribute group, however the specific ordering
   rules are:

   o  In the case where there is only one operation target attribute
      (i.e., either only the "printer-uri" attribute or only the "job-
      uri" attribute), that attribute MUST be the third attribute in the
      operation attributes group.

   o  In the case where Job operations use two operation target
      attributes (i.e., the "printer-uri" and "job-id" attributes), the
      "printer-uri" attribute MUST be the third attribute and the "job-
      id" attribute MUST be the fourth attribute.

   In all cases, the target URIs contained within the body of IPP
   operation requests and responses must be in absolute format rather
   than relative format (a relative URL identifies a resource with the
   scope of the HTTP server, but does not include scheme, host or port).

   The following rules apply to the use of port numbers in URIs that
   identify IPP objects:

   1.  If the URI scheme allows the port number to be explicitly
       included in the URI string, and a port number is specified within
       the URI, then that port number MUST be used by the Client to
       contact the IPP object.



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   2.  If the URI scheme allows the port number to be explicitly
       included in the URI string, and a port number is not specified
       within the URI, then default port number implied by that URI
       scheme MUST be used by the Client to contact the IPP object.

   3.  If the URI scheme does not allow an explicit port number to be
       specified within the URI, then the default port number implied by
       that URI MUST be used by the Client to contact the IPP object.

   Note: The Internet Printing Protocol/1.1: IPP URL Scheme [RFC3510]
   and Internet Printing Protocol (IPP) over HTTPS Transport Binding and
   the 'ipps' URI Scheme [RFC7472] documents define the mapping of IPP
   onto HTTP and HTTPS, respectively, and define and register a default
   port number.

4.1.6.  Operation Response Status Codes and Status Messages

   Every operation response includes a REQUIRED "status-code" parameter
   and an OPTIONAL "status-message" operation attribute, and an OPTIONAL
   "detailed-status-message" operation attribute.  The Print-URI and
   Send-URI response MAY include an OPTIONAL "document-access-error"
   operation attribute.

4.1.6.1.  "status-code" (type2 enum)

   The REQUIRED "status-code" parameter provides information on the
   processing of a request.

   The status code is intended for use by automata.  A Client
   implementation of IPP SHOULD convert status code values into any
   localized message that has semantic meaning to the end user.

   The "status-code" value is a numeric value that has semantic meaning.
   The "status-code" syntax is similar to a "type2 enum" (see
   Section 5.1 on "Attribute Syntaxes") except that values can range
   only from 0x0000 to 0x7FFF.  Appendix C describes the status codes,
   assigns the numeric values, and suggests a corresponding status
   message for each status code for use by the Client when the user's
   natural language is English.

   If the Printer performs an operation with no errors and it encounters
   no problems, it MUST return the status code 'successful-ok' in the
   response.  See Appendix C.

   If the Client supplies unsupported values for the following
   parameters or Operation attributes, the Printer object MUST reject
   the operation, OPTIONALLY returns the unsupported attribute value in




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   the Unsupported Attributes group, and MUST return the indicated
   status code:

   +---------------------+---------------------------------------------+
   | Parameter/Attribute | Status code                                 |
   +---------------------+---------------------------------------------+
   | version-number      | server-error-version-not-supported          |
   +---------------------+---------------------------------------------+
   | operation-id        | server-error-operation-not-supported        |
   +---------------------+---------------------------------------------+
   | attributes-charset  | client-error-charset-not-supported          |
   +---------------------+---------------------------------------------+
   | compression         | client-error-compression-not-supported      |
   +---------------------+---------------------------------------------+
   | document-format     | client-error-document-format-not-supported  |
   +---------------------+---------------------------------------------+
   | document-uri        | client-error-uri-scheme-not-supported,      |
   |                     | client-error-document-access-error          |
   +---------------------+---------------------------------------------+

   If the Client supplies unsupported values for other attributes, or
   unsupported attributes, the Printer returns the status code defined
   in Section 4.1.7 on Unsupported Attributes.

4.1.6.2.  "status-message" (text(255))

   The OPTIONAL "status-message" operation attribute provides a short
   textual description of the status of the operation.  The "status-
   message" attribute's syntax is "text(255)", so the maximum length is
   255 octets (see Section 5.1.1).  The status message is intended for
   the human end user.  If a response does include a "status-message"
   attribute, an IPP Client SHOULD examine or display the messages in
   some implementation specific manner.  The "status-message" is
   especially useful for a later version of a Printer object to return
   as supplemental information for the human user to accompany a status
   code that an earlier version of a Client might not understand.

   If the Printer object supports the "status-message" operation
   attribute, the Printer object MUST be able to generate this message
   in any of the natural languages identified by the Printer object's
   "generated-natural-language-supported" attribute (see the
   "attributes-natural-language" operation attribute specified in
   Section 4.1.4.1.  Appendix C suggests the text for the status message
   returned by the Printer for use with the English natural language.

   As described in Section 4.1.4.1 for any returned 'text' attribute, if
   there is a choice for generating this message, the Printer object
   uses the natural language indicated by the value of the "attributes-



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   natural-language" in the Client request if supported, otherwise the
   Printer object uses the value in the Printer object's own "natural-
   language-configured" attribute.

   If the Printer object supports the "status-message" operation
   attribute, it SHOULD use the REQUIRED 'utf-8' charset to return a
   status message for the following error status codes (see Appendix C):
   'client-error-bad-request', 'client-error-charset-not-supported',
   'server-error-internal-error', 'server-error-operation-not-
   supported', and 'server-error-version-not-supported'.  In this case,
   it MUST set the value of the "attributes-charset" operation attribute
   to 'utf-8' in the error response.

4.1.6.3.  "detailed-status-message" (text(MAX))

   The OPTIONAL "detailed-status-message" operation attribute provides
   additional more detailed technical and implementation-specific
   information about the operation.  The "detailed-status-message"
   attribute's syntax is "text(MAX)", so the maximum length is 1023
   octets (see Section 5.1.1).  If the Printer objects supports the
   "detailed-status-message" operation attribute, the Printer OPTIONALLY
   localizes the message, since it is intended for use by the system
   administrator or other experienced technical persons.  Localization
   might obscure the technical meaning of such messages.  Clients MUST
   NOT attempt to parse the value of this attribute.  See the "document-
   access-error" operation attribute (Section 4.1.6.4) for additional
   errors that a program can process.

4.1.6.4.  "document-access-error" (text(MAX))

   This OPTIONAL operation attribute provides additional information
   about any document access errors encountered by the Printer before it
   returned a response to the Print-URI (Section 4.2.2) or Send-URI
   (Section 4.3.1) operation.  For errors in the protocol identified by
   the URI scheme in the "document-uri" operation attribute, such as
   'http:' or 'ftp:', the error code is returned in parentheses,
   followed by the URI.  For example:

   (404) http://ftp.pwg.org/pub/pwg/ipp/new_MOD/ipp-model-v11-990510.pdf

   Most Internet protocols use decimal error codes (unlike IPP), so the
   ASCII error code representation is in decimal.

4.1.7.  Unsupported Attributes

   The Unsupported Attributes group contains attributes that are not
   supported by the operation.  This group is primarily for the Job
   creation operations, but all operations can return this group.



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   A Printer object MUST include an Unsupported Attributes group in a
   response if the status code is one of the following: 'successful-ok-
   ignored-or-substituted-attributes', 'successful-ok-conflicting-
   attributes', 'client-error-attributes-or-values-not-supported' or
   'client-error-conflicting-attributes'.

   If the status code is one of the four specified in the preceding
   paragraph, the Unsupported Attributes group MUST contain all of those
   attributes and only those attributes that are:

   a.  an Operation or Job Template attribute supplied in the request,
       and

   b.  unsupported by the printer.  See below for details on the three
       categories "unsupported" attributes.

   If the status code is one of those in the table in Section 4.1.6.1,
   the Unsupported Attributes group OPTIONALLY contains the unsupported
   parameter or attribute indicated in that table.

   If the Printer object is not returning any Unsupported Attributes in
   the response, the Printer object SHOULD omit Group 2 rather than
   sending an empty group.  However, a Client MUST be able to accept an
   empty group.

   Unsupported attributes fall into three categories:

   1.  The Printer object does not support the supplied attribute (no
       matter what the attribute syntax or value).

   2.  The Printer object does support the attribute, but does not
       support some or all of the particular attribute syntaxes or
       values supplied by the Client (i.e., the Printer object does not
       have those attribute syntaxes or values in its corresponding
       "xxx-supported" attribute).

   3.  The Printer object does support the attributes and values
       supplied, but the particular values are in conflict with one
       another, because they violate a constraint, such as not being
       able to staple transparencies.

   In the case of an unsupported attribute name, the Printer object
   returns the client-supplied attribute with a substituted value of
   'unsupported'.  This value's syntax type is "out-of-band" and its
   encoding is defined by special rules for "out-of-band" values in the
   "Encoding and Transport" document [RFC2910bis].  Its value indicates
   no support for the attribute itself (see the beginning of
   Section 5.1).



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   In the case of a supported attribute with one or more unsupported
   attribute syntaxes or values, the Printer object simply returns the
   client-supplied attribute with the unsupported attribute syntaxes or
   values as supplied by the Client.  This indicates support for the
   attribute, but no support for that particular attribute syntax or
   value.  If the Client supplies a multi-valued attribute with more
   than one value and the Printer object supports the attribute but only
   supports a subset of the client-supplied attribute syntaxes or
   values, the Printer object MUST return only those attribute syntaxes
   or values that are unsupported.

   In the case of two (or more) supported attribute values that are in
   conflict with one another (although each is supported independently,
   the values conflict when requested together within the same job), the
   Printer object MUST return all the values that it ignores or
   substitutes to resolve the conflict, but not any of the values that
   it is still using.  The choice for exactly how to resolve the
   conflict is implementation dependent.  See sections 3.2.1.2 and 15.
   See The Implementer's Guide [RFC3196] for an example.

4.1.8.  Versions

   Each operation request and response carries with it a "version-
   number" parameter.  Each value of the "version-number" is in the form
   "X.Y" where X is the major version number and Y is the minor version
   number.  By including a version number in the Client request, it
   allows the Client to identify which version of IPP it is interested
   in using, i.e., the version whose conformance requirements the Client
   can depend upon the Printer to meet.

   If the IPP object does not support that major version number supplied
   by the Client, i.e., the major version field of the "version-number"
   parameter does not match any of the values of the Printer's "ipp-
   versions-supported" (see Section 5.4.14), the object MUST respond
   with a status code of 'server-error-version-not-supported' along with
   the closest version number that is supported (see Appendix C.1.5.4).
   If the major version number is supported, but the minor version
   number is not, the IPP object SHOULD accept and attempt to perform
   the request (or reject the request if the operation is not
   supported), else it rejects the request and returns the 'server-
   error-version-not-supported' status code.  In all cases, the IPP
   object MUST return the "version-number" that it supports that is
   closest to the version number supplied by the Client in the request.

   There is no version negotiation per se.  However, if after receiving
   a 'server-error-version-not-supported' status code from an IPP
   object, a Client SHOULD try again with a different version number.  A
   Client MAY also determine the versions supported either from a



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   directory that conforms to Appendix E (see section 16) or by querying
   the Printer object's "ipp-versions-supported" attribute (see
   Section 5.4.14) to determine which versions are supported.

   An IPP/1.1 object implementation MUST support version '1.1', i.e.,
   meet the conformance requirements for IPP/1.1 as specified in this
   document and [RFC2910bis].  IPP implementations SHOULD accept any
   request with the major version '1' or '2', or reject the request if
   the operation is not supported.

   There is only one notion of "version number" that covers both IPP
   Model and IPP Protocol changes.  Changes to the major version number
   of the Model and Semantics document indicate structural or syntactic
   changes that make it impossible for older version of IPP Clients and
   Printer objects to correctly parse and correctly process the new or
   changed attributes, operations and responses.  If the major version
   number changes, the minor version numbers is set to zero.  As an
   example, adding the REQUIRED "ipp-attribute-fidelity" attribute to
   version '1.1' (if it had not been part of version '1.0'), would have
   required a change to the major version number, since an IPP/1.0
   Printer would not have processed a request with the correct semantics
   that contained the "ipp-attribute-fidelity" attribute that it did not
   know about.  Items that might affect the changing of the major
   version number include any changes to the Model and Semantics
   document (this document) or the "Encoding and Transport" document
   [RFC2910bis] itself, such as:

   o  reordering of ordered attributes or attribute sets

   o  changes to the syntax of existing attributes

   o  adding REQUIRED (for an IPP object to support) operation attribute
      groups

   o  adding values to existing REQUIRED operation attributes

   o  adding REQUIRED operations

   Changes to the minor version number indicate the addition of new
   features, attributes and attribute values that might not be
   understood by all IPP objects, but which can be ignored if not
   understood.  Items that might affect the changing of the minor
   version number include any changes to the model objects and
   attributes but not the encoding and transport rules [RFC2910bis]
   (except adding attribute syntaxes).  Examples of such changes are:

   o  grouping all extensions not included in a previous version into a
      new version



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   o  adding new attribute values

   o  adding new object attributes

   o  adding OPTIONAL (for an IPP object to support) operation
      attributes (i.e., those attributes that an IPP object can ignore
      without confusing clients)

   o  adding OPTIONAL (for an IPP object to support) operation attribute
      groups (i.e., those attributes that an IPP object can ignore
      without confusing clients)

   o  adding new attribute syntaxes

   o  adding OPTIONAL operations

   o  changing Job Description attributes or Printer Description
      attributes from OPTIONAL to REQUIRED or vice versa.

   o  adding OPTIONAL attribute syntaxes to an existing attribute.

   The encoding of the "version-number" MUST NOT change over any version
   number (either major or minor).  This rule guarantees that all future
   versions will be backwards compatible with all previous versions (at
   least for checking the "version-number").  In addition, any protocol
   elements (attributes, error codes, tags, etc.) that are not carried
   forward from one version to the next are deprecated so that they can
   never be reused with new semantics.

   Implementations that support a certain version OPTIONALLY support all
   previous versions.  As each new version is defined (through the
   release of a new IPP specification document), that version will
   specify which previous versions MUST and which versions SHOULD be
   supported in compliant implementations.

4.1.9.  Job Creation Operations

   In order to "submit a print job" and create a new Job object, a
   Client issues a create request.  A create request is any one of
   following three operation requests:

   o  The Print-Job Request: A Client that wants to submit a print Job
      with only a single document uses the Print-Job operation.  The
      operation allows for the Client to "push" the document data to the
      Printer object by including the document data in the request
      itself.





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   o  The Print-URI Request: A Client that wants to submit a print Job
      with only a single document (where the Printer object "pulls" the
      document data instead of the Client "pushing" the data to the
      Printer object) uses the Print-URI operation.  In this case, the
      Client includes in the request only a URI reference to the
      document data (not the document data itself).

   o  The Create-Job Request: A Client that wants to submit a print Job
      with one or more documents uses the Create-Job operation.  This
      operation is followed by an arbitrary number (one or more) of
      Send-Document and/or Send-URI operations (each creating another
      document for the newly create Job object).  The Send-Document
      operation includes the document data in the request (the Client
      "pushes" the document data to the printer), and the Send-URI
      operation includes only a URI reference to the document data in
      the request (the Printer "pulls" the document data from the
      referenced location).  The last Send-Document or Send-URI request
      for a given Job object includes a "last-document" operation
      attribute set to 'true' indicating that this is the last request.

   Throughout this model document, the term "create request" is used to
   refer to any of these three operation requests.

   A Create-Job operation followed by only one Send-Document operation
   is semantically equivalent to a Print-Job operation, however, the
   Client SHOULD use the Create-Job and Send-Document operations (when
   supported) for all single document Jobs to allow for reliable Job
   control and monitoring.  Print-Job is a REQUIRED operation (all
   implementations MUST support it) whereas Create-Job is an RECOMMENDED
   operation, hence some implementations might not support it.

   Job submission time is the point in time when a Client issues a
   create request.  The initial state of every Job object is the
   'pending', 'pending-held', or 'processing' state (see Section 5.3.7).
   When the Printer object begins processing the print job, the Job
   object's state moves to 'processing'.  This is known as Job
   processing time.  There are validation checks that must be done at
   Job submission time and others that must be performed at Job
   processing time.

   At Job submission time and at the time a Validate-Job operation is
   received, the Printer MUST do the following:

   1.  Process the Client supplied attributes and either accept or
       reject the request

   2.  Validate the syntax of and support for the scheme of any Client
       supplied URI



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   At Job submission time the Printer object MUST validate whether or
   not the supplied attributes, attribute syntaxes, and values are
   supported by matching them with the Printer object's corresponding
   "xxx-supported" attributes.  See Section 4.1.7 for details.
   [RFC3196] presents suggested steps for an IPP object to either accept
   or reject any request and additional steps for processing create
   requests.

   At Job submission time the Printer object OPTIONALLY performs the
   validation checks reserved for Job processing time such as:

   1.  Validating the document data

   2.  Validating the actual contents of any Client supplied URI
       (resolve the reference and follow the link to the document data)

   At Job submission time, these additional Job processing time
   validation checks are essentially useless, since they require
   actually parsing and interpreting the document data, are not
   guaranteed to be 100% accurate, and MUST be done, yet again, at Job
   processing time.  Also, in the case of a URI, checking for
   availability at Job submission time does not guarantee availability
   at Job processing time.  In addition, at Job processing time, the
   Printer object might discover any of the following conditions that
   were not detectable at Job submission time:

   o  runtime errors in the document data,

   o  nested document data that is in an unsupported format,

   o  the URI reference is no longer valid (i.e., the server hosting the
      document might be down), or

   o  any other Job processing error

   At Job submission time, a Printer object, especially a non-spooling
   Printer, MAY accept Jobs that it does not have enough space for.  In
   such a situation, a Printer object MAY stop reading data from a
   Client for an indefinite period of time.  A Client MUST be prepared
   for a write operation to block for an indefinite period of time (see
   Section 6.1 on Client conformance).

   When a Printer object has too little space for starting a new job, it
   MAY reject a new create request.  In this case, a Printer object MUST
   return a response (in reply to the rejected request) with a status-
   code of 'server-error-busy' (see section 14.1.5.8) and it MAY close
   the connection before receiving all bytes of the operation.  A
   Printer SHOULD indicate that it is temporarily unable to accept Jobs



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   by setting the 'spool-space-full' value in its "printer-state-
   reasons" attribute and removing the value when it can accept another
   Job (see Section 5.4.12).

   When receiving a 'server-error-busy' status-code in an operation
   response, a Client MUST be prepared for the Printer object to close
   the connection before the Client has sent all of the data (especially
   for the Print-Job operation).  A Client MUST be prepared to keep
   submitting a create request until the IPP Printer object accepts the
   create request.

   At Job processing time, since the Printer object has already
   responded with a successful status code in the response to the create
   request, if the Printer object detects an error, the Printer object
   is unable to inform the end user of the error with an operation
   status code.  In this case, the Printer, depending on the error, can
   set the Job object's "job-state", "job-state-reasons", or "job-state-
   message" attributes to the appropriate value(s) so that later queries
   can report the correct Job status.

   Note: Asynchronous notification of events is outside the scope of
   this IPP/1.1 document.

4.2.  Printer Operations

   All Printer operations are directed at Printer objects.  A Client
   MUST always supply the "printer-uri" operation attribute in order to
   identify the correct target of the operation.

4.2.1.  Print-Job Operation

   This REQUIRED operation allows a Client to submit a print Job with
   only one document and supply the document data (rather than just a
   reference to the data).  See Appendix E for the suggested steps for
   processing create operations and their Operation and Job Template
   attributes.

4.2.1.1.  Print-Job Request

   The following groups of attributes are supplied as part of the Print-
   Job Request:

   Group 1: Operation Attributes

      Natural Language and Character Set:

         The "attributes-charset" and "attributes-natural-language"
         attributes as described in Section 4.1.4.1.  The Printer object



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         MUST copy these values to the corresponding Job Description
         attributes described in sections 4.3.19 and 4.3.20.

      Target:

         The "printer-uri" (uri) operation attribute which is the target
         for this operation as described in Section 4.1.5.

      Requesting User Name:

         The "requesting-user-name" (name(MAX)) attribute SHOULD be
         supplied by the Client as described in Section 9.3.

      "job-name" (name(MAX)):

         The Client OPTIONALLY supplies this attribute.  The Printer
         object MUST support this attribute.  It contains the Client
         supplied Job name.  If this attribute is supplied by the
         Client, its value is used for the "job-name" attribute of the
         newly created Job object.  The Client MAY automatically include
         any information that will help the end-user distinguish amongst
         his/her jobs, such as the name of the application program along
         with information from the document, such as the document name,
         document subject, or source file name.  If this attribute is
         not supplied by the Client, the Printer generates a name to use
         in the "job-name" attribute of the newly created Job object
         (see Section 5.3.5).

      "ipp-attribute-fidelity" (boolean):

         The Client OPTIONALLY supplies this attribute.  The Printer
         object MUST support this attribute.  The value 'true' indicates
         that total fidelity to Client supplied Job Template attributes
         and values is required, else the Printer object MUST reject the
         Print-Job request.  The value 'false' indicates that a
         reasonable attempt to print the Job object is acceptable and
         the Printer object MUST accept the Print-Job request.  If not
         supplied, the Printer object assumes the value is 'false'.  All
         Printer objects MUST support both types of Job processing.  See
         Appendix E for a full description of "ipp-attribute-fidelity"
         and its relationship to other attributes, especially the
         Printer object's "pdl-override-supported" attribute.

      "document-name" (name(MAX)):

         The Client OPTIONALLY supplies this attribute.  The Printer
         object MUST support this attribute.  It contains the Client
         supplied document name.  The document name MAY be different



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         than the Job name.  Typically, the Client software
         automatically supplies the document name on behalf of the end
         user by using a file name or an application generated name.  If
         this attribute is supplied, its value can be used in a manner
         defined by each implementation.  Examples include: printed
         along with the Job (Job start sheet, page adornments, etc.),
         used by accounting or resource tracking management tools, or
         even stored along with the document as a document level
         attribute.  IPP/1.1 does not support the concept of document
         level attributes.

      "compression" (type3 keyword):

         The Client OPTIONALLY supplies this attribute.  The Printer
         object MUST support this attribute and the "compression-
         supported" attribute (see Section 5.4.32).  The Client supplied
         "compression" operation attribute identifies the compression
         algorithm used on the document data.  The following cases
         exist:

         a.  If the Client omits this attribute, the Printer object MUST
             assume that the data is not compressed (i.e. the Printer
             follows the rules below as if the Client supplied the
             "compression" attribute with a value of 'none').

         b.  If the Client supplies this attribute, but the value is not
             supported by the Printer object, i.e., the value is not one
             of the values of the Printer object's "compression-
             supported" attribute, the Printer object MUST reject the
             request, and return the 'client-error-compression-not-
             supported' status code.  See Section 4.1.7 for returning
             unsupported attributes and values.

         c.  If the Client supplies the attribute and the Printer object
             supports the attribute value, the Printer object uses the
             corresponding decompression algorithm on the document data.

         d.  If the decompression algorithm fails before the Printer
             returns an operation response, the Printer object MUST
             reject the request and return the 'client-error-
             compression-error' status code.

         e.  If the decompression algorithm fails after the Printer
             returns an operation response, the Printer object MUST
             abort the Job and add the 'compression-error' value to the
             job's "job-state-reasons" attribute.





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         f.  If the decompression algorithm succeeds, the document data
             MUST then have the format specified by the job's "document-
             format" attribute, if supplied (see "document-format"
             operation attribute definition below).

      "document-format" (mimeMediaType):

         The Client OPTIONALLY supplies this attribute.  The Printer
         object MUST support this attribute.  The value of this
         attribute identifies the format of the supplied document data.
         The following cases exist:

         a.  If the Client does not supply this attribute, the Printer
             object assumes that the document data is in the format
             defined by the Printer object's "document-format-default"
             attribute. (i.e. the Printer follows the rules below as if
             the Client supplied the "document-format" attribute with a
             value equal to the printer's default value).

         b.  If the Client supplies this attribute, but the value is not
             supported by the Printer object, i.e., the value is not one
             of the values of the Printer object's "document-format-
             supported" attribute, the Printer object MUST reject the
             request and return the 'client-error-document-format-not-
             supported' status code.

         c.  If the Client supplies this attribute and its value is
             'application/octet-stream' (i.e. to be auto-sensed, see
             Section 5.1.9.1), and the format is not one of the
             document-formats that the Printer can auto-sense, and this
             check occurs before the Printer returns an operation
             response, then the Printer MUST reject the request and
             return the 'client-error-document-format-not-supported'
             status code.

         d.  If the Client supplies this attribute, and the value is
             supported by the Printer object, the Printer is capable of
             interpreting the document data.

         e.  If interpreting of the document data fails before the
             Printer returns an operation response, the Printer object
             MUST reject the request and return the 'client-error-
             document-format-error' status code.

         f.  If interpreting of the document data fails after the
             Printer returns an operation response, the Printer object
             MUST abort the Job and add the 'document-format-error'
             value to the job's "job-state-reasons" attribute.



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      "document-natural-language" (naturalLanguage):

         The Client OPTIONALLY supplies this attribute.  The Printer
         object OPTIONALLY supports this attribute.  This attribute
         specifies the natural language of the document for those
         document-formats that require a specification of the natural
         language in order to image the document unambiguously.  There
         are no particular values required for the Printer object to
         support.

      "job-k-octets" (integer(0:MAX)):

         The Client OPTIONALLY supplies this attribute.  The Printer
         object OPTIONALLY supports this attribute and the "job-k-
         octets-supported" attribute (see Section 5.4.33).  The Client
         supplied "job-k-octets" operation attribute identifies the
         total size of the document(s) in K octets being submitted (see
         Section 5.3.17.1 for the complete semantics).  If the Client
         supplies the attribute and the Printer object supports the
         attribute, the value of the attribute is used to populate the
         Job object's "job-k-octets" Job Description attribute.

         For this attribute and the following two attributes ("job-
         impressions", and "job-media-sheets"), if the Client supplies
         the attribute, but the Printer object does not support the
         attribute, the Printer object ignores the client-supplied
         value.  If the Client supplies the attribute and the Printer
         supports the attribute, and the value is within the range of
         the corresponding Printer object's "xxx-supported" attribute,
         the Printer object MUST use the value to populate the Job
         object's "xxx" attribute.  If the Client supplies the attribute
         and the Printer supports the attribute, but the value is
         outside the range of the corresponding Printer object's "xxx-
         supported" attribute, the Printer object MUST copy the
         attribute and its value to the Unsupported Attributes response
         group, reject the request, and return the 'client-error-
         attributes-or-values-not-supported' status code.  If the Client
         does not supply the attribute, the Printer object MAY choose to
         populate the corresponding Job object attribute depending on
         whether the Printer object supports the attribute and is able
         to calculate or discern the correct value.

      "job-impressions" (integer(0:MAX)):

         The Client OPTIONALLY supplies this attribute.  The Printer
         object OPTIONALLY supports this attribute and the "job-
         impressions-supported" attribute (see Section 5.4.34).  The
         Client supplied "job-impressions" operation attribute



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         identifies the total size in number of impressions of the
         document(s) being submitted (see Section 5.3.17.2 for the
         complete semantics).

         See last paragraph under "job-k-octets".

      "job-media-sheets" (integer(0:MAX)):

         The Client OPTIONALLY supplies this attribute.  The Printer
         object OPTIONALLY supports this attribute and the "job-media-
         sheets-supported" attribute (see Section 5.4.35).  The Client
         supplied "job-media-sheets" operation attribute identifies the
         total number of media sheets to be produced for this Job (see
         Section 5.3.17.3 for the complete semantics).

         See last paragraph under "job-k-octets".

   Group 2: Job Template Attributes

      The Client OPTIONALLY supplies a set of Job Template attributes as
      defined in Section 5.2.  If the Client is not supplying any Job
      Template attributes in the request, the Client SHOULD omit Group 2
      rather than sending an empty group.  However, a Printer object
      MUST be able to accept an empty group.

   Group 3: Document Content

      The Client MUST supply the document data to be processed.

   In addition to the MANDATORY parameters required for every operation
   request, the simplest Print-Job Request consists of just the
   "attributes-charset" and "attributes-natural-language" operation
   attributes; the "printer-uri" target operation attribute; the
   Document Content and nothing else.  In this simple case, the Printer
   object:

   o  creates a new Job object (the Job object contains a single
      document),

   o  stores a generated Job name in the "job-name" attribute in the
      natural language and charset requested (see Section 4.1.4.1) (if
      those are supported, otherwise using the Printer object's default
      natural language and charset), and

   o  at Job processing time, uses its corresponding default value
      attributes for the supported Job Template attributes that were not
      supplied by the Client as IPP attribute or embedded instructions
      in the document data.



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4.2.1.2.  Print-Job Response

   The Printer object MUST return to the Client the following sets of
   attributes as part of the Print-Job Response:

   Group 1: Operation Attributes

      Status Message:

         In addition to the REQUIRED status code returned in every
         response, the response OPTIONALLY includes a "status-message"
         (text(255)) and/or a "detailed-status-message" (text(MAX))
         operation attribute as described in sections 13 and 3.1.6.  If
         the Client supplies unsupported or conflicting Job Template
         attributes or values, the Printer object MUST reject or accept
         the Print-Job request depending on the whether the Client
         supplied a 'true' or 'false' value for the "ipp-attribute-
         fidelity" operation attribute.  See the Implementer's Guide
         [RFC3196] for a complete description of the suggested steps for
         processing a create request.

      Natural Language and Character Set:

         The "attributes-charset" and "attributes-natural-language"
         attributes as described in Section 4.1.4.2.

   Group 2: Unsupported Attributes

      See Section 4.1.7 for details on returning Unsupported Attributes.

      The value of the "ipp-attribute-fidelity" supplied by the Client
      does not affect what attributes the Printer object returns in this
      group.  The value of "ipp-attribute-fidelity" only affects whether
      the Print-Job operation is accepted or rejected.  If the Job is
      accepted, the Client Clients query the Job using the Get-Job-
      Attributes operation requesting the unsupported attributes that
      were returned in the create response to see which attributes were
      ignored (not stored on the Job object) and which attributes were
      stored with other (substituted) values.

   Group 3: Job Object Attributes

      "job-uri" (uri):

         The Printer object MUST return the Job object's URI by
         returning the contents of the REQUIRED "job-uri" Job object
         attribute.  The Client uses the Job object's URI when directing
         operations at the Job object.  The Printer object always uses



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         its configured security policy when creating the new URI.
         However, if the Printer object supports more than one URI, the
         Printer object also uses information about which URI was used
         in the Print-Job Request to generated the new URI so that the
         new URI references the correct access channel.  In other words,
         if the Print-Job Request comes in over a secure channel, the
         Printer object MUST generate a Job URI that uses the secure
         channel as well.

      "job-id" (integer(1:MAX)):

         The Printer object MUST return the Job object's Job ID by
         returning the REQUIRED "job-id" Job object attribute.  The
         Client uses this "job-id" attribute in conjunction with the
         "printer-uri" attribute used in the Print-Job Request when
         directing Job operations at the Printer object.

      "job-state" (type1 enum):

         The Printer object MUST return the Job object's REQUIRED "job-
         state" attribute.  The value of this attribute (along with the
         value of the next attribute: "job-state-reasons") is taken from
         a "snapshot" of the new Job object at some meaningful point in
         time (implementation defined) between when the Printer object
         receives the Print-Job Request and when the Printer object
         returns the response.

      "job-state-reasons" (1setOf type2 keyword):

         The Printer object MUST return the Job object's REQUIRED "job-
         state-reasons" attribute.

      "job-state-message" (text(MAX)):

         The Printer object OPTIONALLY returns the Job object's OPTIONAL
         "job-state-message" attribute.  If the Printer object supports
         this attribute then it MUST be returned in the response.  If
         this attribute is not returned in the response, the Client can
         assume that the "job-state-message" attribute is not supported
         and will not be returned in a subsequent Job object query.

      "number-of-intervening-jobs" (integer(0:MAX)):

         The Printer object OPTIONALLY returns the Job object's OPTIONAL
         "number-of-intervening-jobs" attribute.  If the Printer object
         supports this attribute then it MUST be returned in the
         response.  If this attribute is not returned in the response,
         the Client can assume that the "number-of-intervening-jobs"



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         attribute is not supported and will not be returned in a
         subsequent Job object query.

   Note: Since any Printer state information which affects a job's state
   is reflected in the "job-state" and "job-state-reasons" attributes,
   it is sufficient to return only these attributes and no specific
   Printer status attributes.

   Note: In addition to the MANDATORY parameters required for every
   operation response, the simplest response consists of the just the
   "attributes-charset" and "attributes-natural-language" operation
   attributes and the "job-uri", "job-id", and "job-state" Job Object
   Attributes.  In this simplest case, the status code is 'successful-
   ok' and there is no "status-message" or "detailed-status-message"
   operation attribute.

4.2.2.  Print-URI Operation

   This OPTIONAL operation is identical to the Print-Job operation
   (Section 4.2.1) except that a Client supplies a URI reference to the
   document data using the "document-uri" (uri) operation attribute (in
   Group 1) rather than including the document data itself.  Before
   returning the response, the Printer MUST validate that the Printer
   supports the retrieval method (e.g., http, ftp, etc.) implied by the
   URI, and MUST check for valid URI syntax.  If the client-supplied URI
   scheme is not supported, i.e. the value is not in the Printer
   object's "referenced-uri-scheme-supported" attribute, the Printer
   object MUST reject the request and return the 'client-error-uri-
   scheme-not-supported' status code.

   The IPP Printer MAY validate the accessibility of the document as
   part of the operation or subsequently.  If the Printer determines an
   accessibility problem before returning an operation response, it
   rejects the request and returns the 'client-error-document-access-
   error' status code.  The Printer MAY also return a specific document
   access error code using the "document-access-error" operation
   attribute (see Section 4.1.6.4).

   If the Printer determines this document accessibility problem after
   accepting the request and returning an operation response with one of
   the successful status codes, the Printer adds the 'document-access-
   error' value to the job's "job-state-reasons" attribute and MAY
   populate the job's "job-document-access-errors" Job Description
   attribute (see Section 5.3.11).  See The Implementer's Guide
   [RFC3196] for suggested additional checks.






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   If the Printer object supports this operation, it MUST support the
   "reference-uri-schemes-supported" Printer attribute (see
   Section 5.4.27).

   It is up to the IPP object to interpret the URI and subsequently
   "pull" the document from the source referenced by the URI string.

4.2.3.  Validate-Job Operation

   This REQUIRED operation is similar to the Print-Job operation
   (Section 4.2.1) except that a Client supplies no document data and
   the Printer allocates no resources (i.e., it does not create a new
   Job object).  This operation is used only to verify capabilities of a
   Printer object against whatever attributes are supplied by the Client
   in the Validate-Job request.  By using the Validate-Job operation a
   Client can validate that an identical Print-Job operation (with the
   document data) would be accepted.  The Validate-Job operation also
   performs the same security negotiation as the Print-Job operation
   (see Section 9), so that a Client can check that the Client and
   Printer object security requirements can be met before performing a
   Print-Job operation.

   The Validate-Job operation does not accept a "document-uri" attribute
   in order to allow a Client to check that the same Print-URI operation
   will be accepted, since the Client doesn't send the data with the
   Print-URI operation.  The Client SHOULD just issue the Print-URI
   request.

   The Printer object returns the same status codes, Operation
   Attributes (Group 1) and Unsupported Attributes (Group 2) as the
   Print-Job operation.  However, no Job Object Attributes (Group 3) are
   returned, since no Job object is created.

4.2.4.  Create-Job Operation

   This RECOMMENDED operation is similar to the Print-Job operation
   (Section 4.2.1) except that in the Create-Job request, a Client does
   not supply document data or any reference to document data.  Also,
   the Client does not supply any of the "document-name", "document-
   format", "compression", or "document-natural-language" operation
   attributes.  This operation is followed by one or more Send-Document
   or Send-URI operations.  In each of those operation requests, the
   Client OPTIONALLY supplies the "document-name", "document-format",
   and "document-natural-language" attributes for each document in the
   Job object.






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   If a Printer object supports the Create-Job operation, it MUST also
   support the Send-Document operation and also MAY support the Send-URI
   operation.

   If the Printer object supports this operation, it MUST support the
   "multiple-operation-time-out" Printer attribute (see Section 5.4.31).

   If the Printer object supports this operation, then it MUST support
   the "multiple-document-jobs-supported" Printer Description attribute
   (see Section 5.4.16) and indicate whether or not it supports
   multiple-document Jobs.

   If the Printer object supports this operation and supports multiple
   documents in a job, then it MUST support the "multiple-document-
   handling" Job Template Job attribute with at least one value (see
   Section 5.2.4) and the associated "multiple-document-handling-
   default" and "multiple-document-handling-supported" Job Template
   Printer attributes (see Section 5.2).

   After the Create-Job operation has completed, the value of the "job-
   state" attribute is similar to the "job-state" after a Print-Job,
   even though no document-data has arrived.  A Printer MAY set the
   'job-data-insufficient' value of the job's "job-state-reason"
   attribute to indicate that processing cannot begin until sufficient
   data has arrived and set the "job-state" to either 'pending' or
   'pending-held'.  A non-spooling Printer that doesn't implement the
   'pending' Job state Clients even set the "job-state" to 'processing',
   even though there is not yet any data to process.  See sections 4.3.7
   and 4.3.8.

4.2.5.  Get-Printer-Attributes Operation

   This REQUIRED operation allows a Client to request the values of the
   attributes of a Printer object.  In the request, the Client supplies
   the set of Printer attribute names and/or attribute group names in
   which the requester is interested.  In the response, the Printer
   object returns a corresponding attribute set with the appropriate
   attribute values filled in.

   For Printer objects, the possible names of attribute groups are:

   o  'job-template': the subset of the Job Template attributes that
      apply to a Printer object (the last two columns of the table in
      Section 5.2) that the implementation supports for Printer objects.

   o  'printer-description': the subset of the attributes specified in
      Section 5.4 that the implementation supports for Printer objects.




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   o  'all': the special group 'all' that includes all attributes that
      the implementation supports for Printer objects.

   Since a Client MAY request specific attributes or named groups, there
   is a potential that there is some overlap.  For example, if a Client
   requests, 'printer-name' and 'all', the Client is actually requesting
   the "printer-name" attribute twice: once by naming it explicitly, and
   once by inclusion in the 'all' group.  In such cases, the Printer
   object OPTIONALLY returns each attribute only once in the response
   even if it is requested multiple times.  The Client SHOULD NOT
   request the same attribute in multiple ways.

   It is NOT REQUIRED that a Printer object support all attributes
   belonging to a group (since some attributes are OPTIONAL).  However,
   it is REQUIRED that each Printer object support all group names.

4.2.5.1.  Get-Printer-Attributes Request

   The following sets of attributes are part of the Get-Printer-
   Attributes Request:

   Group 1: Operation Attributes

      Natural Language and Character Set:

         The "attributes-charset" and "attributes-natural-language"
         attributes as described in Section 4.1.4.1.

      Target:

         The "printer-uri" (uri) operation attribute which is the target
         for this operation as described in Section 4.1.5.

      Requesting User Name:

         The "requesting-user-name" (name(MAX)) attribute SHOULD be
         supplied by the Client as described in Section 9.3.

      "requested-attributes" (1setOf keyword):

         The Client OPTIONALLY supplies a set of attribute names and/or
         attribute group names in whose values the requester is
         interested.  The Printer object MUST support this attribute.
         If the Client omits this attribute, the Printer MUST respond as
         if this attribute had been supplied with a value of 'all'.

      "document-format" (mimeMediaType):




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         The Client OPTIONALLY supplies this attribute.  The Printer
         object MUST support this attribute.  This attribute is useful
         for a Printer object to determine the set of supported
         attribute values that relate to the requested document format.
         The Printer object MUST return the attributes and values that
         it uses to validate a Job on a create or Validate-Job operation
         in which this document format is supplied.  The Printer object
         SHOULD return only (1) those attributes that are supported for
         the specified format and (2) the attribute values that are
         supported for the specified document format.  By specifying the
         document format, the Client can get the Printer object to
         eliminate the attributes and values that are not supported for
         a specific document format.  For example, a Printer object
         might have multiple interpreters to support both 'application/
         postscript' (for PostScript) and 'text/plain' (for text)
         documents.  However, for only one of those interpreters might
         the Printer object be able to support "number-up" with values
         of '1', '2', and '4'.  For the other interpreter it might be
         able to only support "number-up" with a value of '1'.  Thus a
         Client can use the Get-Printer-Attributes operation to obtain
         the attributes and values that will be used to accept/reject a
         create Job operation.

         If the Printer object does not distinguish between different
         sets of supported values for each different document format
         when validating Jobs in the create and Validate-Job operations,
         it MUST NOT distinguish between different document formats in
         the Get-Printer-Attributes operation.  If the Printer object
         does distinguish between different sets of supported values for
         each different document format specified by the Client, this
         specialization applies only to the following Printer object
         attributes:

         +  Printer attributes that are Job Template attributes ("xxx-
            default" "xxx-supported", and "xxx-ready" in the Table in
            Section 5.2),

         +  "pdl-override-supported",

         +  "compression-supported",

         +  "job-k-octets-supported",

         +  "job-impressions-supported,

         +  "job-media-sheets-supported"

         +  "printer-driver-installer",



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         +  "color-supported", and

         +  "reference-uri-schemes-supported"

         The values of all other Printer object attributes (including
         "document-format-supported") remain invariant with respect to
         the Client supplied document format (except for new Printer
         description attribute as registered according to Section 7.2).

         If the Client omits this "document-format" operation attribute,
         the Printer object MUST respond as if the attribute had been
         supplied with the value of the Printer object's "document-
         format-default" attribute.  It is RECOMMENDED that the Client
         always supply a value for "document-format", since the Printer
         object's "document-format-default" Clients be 'application/
         octet-stream', in which case the returned attributes and values
         are for the union of the document formats that the Printer can
         automatically sense.  For more details, see the description of
         the 'mimeMediaType' attribute syntax in Section 5.1.9.

         If the Client supplies a value for the "document-format"
         Operation attribute that is not supported by the Printer, i.e.,
         is not among the values of the Printer object's "document-
         format-supported" attribute, the Printer object MUST reject the
         operation and return the 'client-error-document-format-not-
         supported' status code.

4.2.5.2.  Get-Printer-Attributes Response

   The Printer object returns the following sets of attributes as part
   of the Get-Printer-Attributes Response:

   Group 1: Operation Attributes

      Status Message:

         In addition to the REQUIRED status code returned in every
         response, the response OPTIONALLY includes a "status-message"
         (text(255)) and/or a "detailed-status-message" (text(MAX))
         operation attribute as described in sections 13 and 3.1.6.

      Natural Language and Character Set:

         The "attributes-charset" and "attributes-natural-language"
         attributes as described in Section 4.1.4.2.

   Group 2: Unsupported Attributes




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      See Section 4.1.7 for details on returning Unsupported Attributes.

      The response OPTIONALLY contains the "requested-attributes"
      operation attribute with any supplied values (attribute keywords)
      that were requested by the Client but are not supported by the IPP
      object.  If the Printer object does return unsupported attributes
      referenced in the "requested-attributes" operation attribute and
      that attribute included group names, such as 'all', the
      unsupported attributes MUST NOT include attributes described in
      the standard but not supported by the implementation.

   Group 3: Printer Object Attributes

      This is the set of requested attributes and their current values.
      The Printer object ignores (does not respond with) any requested
      attribute which is not supported.  The Printer object MAY respond
      with a subset of the supported attributes and values, depending on
      the security policy in force.  However, the Printer object MUST
      respond with the 'unknown' value for any supported attribute
      (including all REQUIRED attributes) for which the Printer object
      does not know the value.  Also the Printer object MUST respond
      with the 'no-value' for any supported attribute (including all
      REQUIRED attributes) for which the system administrator has not
      configured a value.  See the description of the "out-of-band"
      values in the beginning of Section 5.1.

4.2.6.  Get-Jobs Operation

   This REQUIRED operation allows a Client to retrieve the list of Job
   objects belonging to the target Printer object.  The Client can also
   supply a list of Job attribute names and/or attribute group names.  A
   group of Job object attributes will be returned for each Job object
   that is returned.

   This operation is similar to the Get-Job-Attributes operation, except
   that this Get-Jobs operation returns attributes from possibly more
   than one object.

4.2.6.1.  Get-Jobs Request

   The Client submits the Get-Jobs request to a Printer object.

   The following groups of attributes are part of the Get-Jobs Request:

   Group 1: Operation Attributes

      Natural Language and Character Set:




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         The "attributes-charset" and "attributes-natural-language"
         attributes as described in Section 4.1.4.1.

      Target:

         The "printer-uri" (uri) operation attribute which is the target
         for this operation as described in Section 4.1.5.

      Requesting User Name:

         The "requesting-user-name" (name(MAX)) attribute SHOULD be
         supplied by the Client as described in Section 9.3.

      "limit" (integer(1:MAX)):

         The Client OPTIONALLY supplies this attribute.  The Printer
         object MUST support this attribute.  It is an integer value
         that determines the maximum number of Jobs that a Client will
         receive from the Printer even if "which-jobs" or "my-jobs"
         constrain which Jobs are returned.  The limit is a "stateless
         limit" in that if the value supplied by the Client is 'N', then
         only the first 'N' Jobs are returned in the Get-Jobs Response.
         There is no mechanism to allow for the next 'M' Jobs after the
         first 'N' Jobs.  If the Client does not supply this attribute,
         the Printer object responds with all applicable Jobs.

      "requested-attributes" (1setOf type2 keyword):

         The Client OPTIONALLY supplies this attribute.  The Printer
         object MUST support this attribute.  It is a set of Job
         attribute names and/or attribute groups names in whose values
         the requester is interested.  This set of attributes is
         returned for each Job object that is returned.  The allowed
         attribute group names are the same as those defined in the Get-
         Job-Attributes operation in Section 4.3.4.  If the Client does
         not supply this attribute, the Printer MUST respond as if the
         Client had supplied this attribute with two values: 'job-uri'
         and 'job-id'.

      "which-jobs" (type2 keyword):

         The Client OPTIONALLY supplies this attribute.  The Printer
         object MUST support this attribute.  It indicates which Job
         objects MUST be returned by the Printer object.  The values for
         this attribute are:

         +  'completed': This includes any Job object whose state is
            'completed', 'canceled', or 'aborted'.



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         +  'not-completed': This includes any Job object whose state is
            'pending', 'processing', 'processing-stopped', or 'pending-
            held'.

         A Printer object MUST support both values.  However, if the
         implementation does not keep Jobs in the 'completed',
         'canceled', and 'aborted' states, then it returns no Jobs when
         the 'completed' value is supplied.

         If a Client supplies some other value, the Printer object MUST
         copy the attribute and the unsupported value to the Unsupported
         Attributes response group, reject the request, and return the
         'client-error-attributes-or-values-not-supported' status code.

         If the Client does not supply this attribute, the Printer
         object MUST respond as if the Client had supplied the attribute
         with a value of 'not-completed'.

      "my-jobs" (boolean):

         The Client OPTIONALLY supplies this attribute.  The Printer
         object MUST support this attribute.  It indicates whether Jobs
         from all users or just the Jobs submitted by the requesting
         user of this request MUST be considered as candidate Jobs to be
         returned by the Printer object.  If the Client does not supply
         this attribute, the Printer object MUST respond as if the
         Client had supplied the attribute with a value of 'false',
         i.e., Jobs from all users.  The means for authenticating the
         requesting user and matching the Jobs is described in
         Section 9.

4.2.6.2.  Get-Jobs Response

   The Printer object returns all of the Job objects up to the number
   specified by the "limit" attribute that match the criteria as defined
   by the attribute values supplied by the Client in the request.  It is
   possible that no Job objects are returned since there can literally
   be no Job objects at the Printer, or there can be no Job objects that
   match the criteria supplied by the Client.  If the Client requests
   any Job attributes at all, there is a set of Job Object Attributes
   returned for each Job object.

   It is not an error for the Printer to return 0 Jobs.  If the response
   returns 0 Jobs because there are no Jobs matching the criteria, and
   the request would have returned 1 or more Jobs with a status code of
   'successful-ok' if there had been Jobs matching the criteria, then
   the status code for 0 Jobs MUST be 'successful-ok'.




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   Group 1: Operation Attributes

      Status Message:

         In addition to the REQUIRED status code returned in every
         response, the response OPTIONALLY includes a "status-message"
         (text(255)) and/or a "detailed-status-message" (text(MAX))
         operation attribute as described in sections 13 and 3.1.6.

      Natural Language and Character Set:

         The "attributes-charset" and "attributes-natural-language"
         attributes as described in Section 4.1.4.2.

   Group 2: Unsupported Attributes

      See Section 4.1.7 for details on returning Unsupported Attributes.

      The response OPTIONALLY contains the "requested-attributes"
      operation attribute with any supplied values (attribute keywords)
      that were requested by the Client but are not supported by the IPP
      object.  If the Printer object does return unsupported attributes
      referenced in the "requested-attributes" operation attribute and
      that attribute included group names, such as 'all', the
      unsupported attributes MUST NOT include attributes described in
      the standard but not supported by the implementation.

   Groups 3 to N: Job Object Attributes

      The Printer object responds with one set of Job Object Attributes
      for each returned Job object.  The Printer object ignores (does
      not respond with) any requested attribute or value which is not
      supported or which is restricted by the security policy in force,
      including whether the requesting user is the user that submitted
      the Job (Job originating user) or not (see Section 9).  However,
      the Printer object MUST respond with the 'unknown' value for any
      supported attribute (including all REQUIRED attributes) for which
      the Printer object does not know the value, unless it would
      violate the security policy.  See the description of the "out-of-
      band" values in the beginning of Section 5.1.

      Jobs are returned in the following order:

      *  If the Client requests all 'completed' Jobs (Jobs in the
         'completed', 'aborted', or 'canceled' states), then the Jobs
         are returned newest to oldest (with respect to actual
         completion time)




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      *  If the Client requests all 'not-completed' Jobs (Jobs in the
         'pending', 'processing', 'pending-held', and 'processing-
         stopped' states), then Jobs are returned in relative
         chronological order of expected time to complete (based on
         whatever scheduling algorithm is configured for the Printer
         object).

4.2.7.  Pause-Printer Operation

   This OPTIONAL operation allows a Client to stop the Printer object
   from scheduling Jobs on all its devices.  Depending on
   implementation, the Pause-Printer operation MAY also stop the Printer
   from processing the current Job or Jobs.  Any Job that is currently
   being printed is either stopped as soon as the implementation permits
   or is completed, depending on implementation.  The Printer object
   MUST still accept create operations to create new jobs, but MUST
   prevent any Jobs from entering the 'processing' state.

   If the Pause-Printer operation is supported, then the Resume-Printer
   operation MUST be supported, and vice-versa.

   The IPP Printer stops the current job(s) on its device(s) that were
   in the 'processing' or 'processing-stopped' states as soon as the
   implementation permits.  If the implementation will take appreciable
   time to stop, the IPP Printer adds the 'moving-to-paused' value to
   the Printer object's "printer-state-reasons" attribute (see
   Section 5.4.12).  When the device(s) have all stopped, the IPP
   Printer transitions the Printer object to the 'stopped' state,
   removes the 'moving-to-paused' value, if present, and adds the
   'paused' value to the Printer object's "printer-state-reasons"
   attribute.

   When the current job(s) complete that were in the 'processing' state,
   the IPP Printer transitions them to the 'completed' state.  When the
   current job(s) stop in mid processing that were in the 'processing'
   state, the IPP Printer transitions them to the 'processing-stopped'
   state and adds the 'printer-stopped' value to the job's "job-state-
   reasons" attribute.

   For any Jobs that are 'pending' or 'pending-held', the 'printer-
   stopped' value of the jobs' "job-state-reasons" attribute also
   applies.  However, the IPP Printer OPTIONALLY updates those jobs'
   "job-state-reasons" attributes and only need return the 'printer-
   stopped' value when those Jobs are queried (so-called "lazy
   evaluation").

   Whether the Pause-Printer operation affects Jobs that were submitted
   to the device from other sources than the IPP Printer object in the



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   same way that the Pause-Printer operation affects Jobs that were
   submitted to the IPP Printer object using IPP, depends on
   implementation, i.e., on whether the IPP protocol is being used as a
   universal management protocol or just to manage IPP jobs,
   respectively.

   The IPP Printer MUST accept the request in any state and transition
   the Printer to the indicated new "printer-state" before returning as
   follows:

   +------------+--------------+-------------------+-------------------+
   | Current    | New"printer- | "printer-state-   | IPP Printer's     |
   | "printer-  | state"       | reasons"          | response status   |
   | state"     |              |                   | code and action:  |
   +------------+--------------+-------------------+-------------------+
   | 'idle'     | 'stopped'    | 'paused'          | 'successful-ok'   |
   +------------+--------------+-------------------+-------------------+
   | 'processin | 'processing' | 'moving-to-       | OPTION 1:         |
   | g'         |              | paused'           | 'successful-ok';  |
   |            |              |                   | Later, when all   |
   |            |              |                   | output has        |
   |            |              |                   | stopped, the      |
   |            |              |                   | "printer-state"   |
   |            |              |                   | becomes           |
   |            |              |                   | 'stopped', and    |
   |            |              |                   | the 'paused'      |
   |            |              |                   | value replaces    |
   |            |              |                   | the 'moving-to-   |
   |            |              |                   | paused' value in  |
   |            |              |                   | the "printer-     |
   |            |              |                   | state-reasons"    |
   |            |              |                   | attribute         |
   +------------+--------------+-------------------+-------------------+
   | 'processin | 'stopped'    | 'paused'          | OPTION 2:         |
   | g'         |              |                   | 'successful-ok';  |
   |            |              |                   | all device output |
   |            |              |                   | stopped           |
   |            |              |                   | immediately       |
   +------------+--------------+-------------------+-------------------+
   | 'stopped'  | 'stopped'    | 'paused'          | 'successful-ok'   |
   +------------+--------------+-------------------+-------------------+

   Access Rights: The authenticated user (see Section 9.3) performing
   this operation must be an operator or administrator of the Printer
   object (see Sections 1 and 8.5).  Otherwise, the IPP Printer MUST
   reject the operation and return: 'client-error-forbidden', 'client-
   error-not-authenticated', or 'client-error-not-authorized' as
   appropriate.



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4.2.7.1.  Pause-Printer Request

   The following groups of attributes are part of the Pause-Printer
   Request:

   Group 1: Operation Attributes

      Natural Language and Character Set:

         The "attributes-charset" and "attributes-natural-language"
         attributes as described in Section 4.1.4.1.

      Target:

         The "printer-uri" (uri) operation attribute which is the target
         for this operation as described in Section 4.1.5.

      Requesting User Name:

         The "requesting-user-name" (name(MAX)) attribute SHOULD be
         supplied by the Client as described in Section 9.3.

4.2.7.2.  Pause-Printer Response

   The following groups of attributes are part of the Pause-Printer
   Response:

   Group 1: Operation Attributes

      Status Message:

         In addition to the REQUIRED status code returned in every
         response, the response OPTIONALLY includes a "status-message"
         (text(255)) and/or a "detailed-status-message" (text(MAX))
         operation attribute as described in sections 13 and 3.1.6.

      Natural Language and Character Set:

         The "attributes-charset" and "attributes-natural-language"
         attributes as described in Section 4.1.4.2.

   Group 2: Unsupported Attributes

      See Section 4.1.7 for details on returning Unsupported Attributes.







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4.2.8.  Resume-Printer Operation

   This operation allows a Client to resume the Printer object
   scheduling Jobs on all its devices.  The Printer object MUST remove
   the 'paused' and 'moving-to-paused' values from the Printer object's
   "printer-state-reasons" attribute, if present.  If there are no other
   reasons to keep a device paused (such as media-jam), the IPP Printer
   is free to transition itself to the 'processing' or 'idle' states,
   depending on whether there are Jobs to be processed or not,
   respectively, and the device(s) resume processing Jobs.

   If the Pause-Printer operation is supported, then the Resume-Printer
   operation MUST be supported, and vice-versa.

   The IPP Printer removes the 'printer-stopped' value from any job's
   "job-state-reasons" attributes contained in that Printer.

   The IPP Printer MUST accept the request in any state, transition the
   Printer object to the indicated new state as follows:

   +-----------------+-----------------+-------------------------------+
   | Current         | New "printer-   | IPP Printer's response status |
   | "printer-state" | state"          | code and action:              |
   +-----------------+-----------------+-------------------------------+
   | 'idle'          | 'idle'          | 'successful-ok'               |
   +-----------------+-----------------+-------------------------------+
   | 'processing'    | 'processing'    | 'successful-ok'               |
   +-----------------+-----------------+-------------------------------+
   | 'stopped'       | 'processing'    | 'successful-ok'; when there   |
   |                 |                 | are Jobs to be processed      |
   +-----------------+-----------------+-------------------------------+
   | 'stopped'       | 'idle'          | 'successful-ok'; when there   |
   |                 |                 | are no Jobs to be processed.  |
   +-----------------+-----------------+-------------------------------+

   Access Rights: The authenticated user (see Section 9.3) performing
   this operation must be an operator or administrator of the Printer
   object (see Sections 1 and 8.5).  Otherwise, the IPP Printer MUST
   reject the operation and return: 'client-error-forbidden', 'client-
   error-not-authenticated', or 'client-error-not-authorized' as
   appropriate.

   The Resume-Printer Request and Resume-Printer Response have the same
   attribute groups and attributes as the Pause-Printer operation (see
   Sections 4.2.7.1 and 4.2.7.2).






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4.2.9.  Purge-Jobs Operation

   This DEPRECATED operation allows a Client to remove all Jobs from an
   IPP Printer object, regardless of their Job states, including Jobs in
   the Printer object's Job History (see Section 5.3.7.2).  After a
   Purge-Jobs operation has been performed, a Printer object MUST return
   no Jobs in subsequent Get-Job-Attributes and Get-Jobs responses
   (until new Jobs are submitted).

   Whether the Purge-Jobs (and Get-Jobs) operation affects Jobs that
   were submitted to the device from other sources than the IPP Printer
   object in the same way that the Purge-Jobs operation affects Jobs
   that were submitted to the IPP Printer object using IPP, depends on
   implementation, i.e., on whether the IPP protocol is being used as a
   universal management protocol or just to manage IPP jobs,
   respectively.

   Note: if an operator wants to cancel all Jobs without clearing out
   the Job History, the operator uses the Cancel-Job operation on each
   Job instead of using the Purge-Jobs operation.

   Note: this operation SHOULD NOT be supported in new implementations
   since it destroys printer accounting information.

   The Printer object MUST accept this operation in any state and
   transition the Printer object to the 'idle' state.

   Access Rights: The authenticated user (see Section 9.3) performing
   this operation must be an operator or administrator of the Printer
   object (see Sections 1 and 8.5).  Otherwise, the IPP object MUST
   reject the operation and return: client-error-forbidden, client-
   error-not-authenticated, and client-error-not-authorized as
   appropriate.

   The Purge-Jobs Request and Purge-Jobs Response have the same
   attribute groups and attributes as the Pause-Printer operation (see
   sections 3.2.7.1 and 3.2.7.2).

4.3.  Job Operations

   All Job operations are directed at Job objects.  A Client MUST always
   supply some means of identifying the Job object in order to identify
   the correct target of the operation.  That Job identification MAY
   either be a single Job URI or a combination of a Printer URI with a
   Job ID.  The IPP object implementation MUST support both forms of
   identification for every Job.





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4.3.1.  Send-Document Operation

   This RECOMMENDED operation allows a Client to create a multi-document
   Job object that is initially "empty" (contains no documents).  In the
   Create-Job response, the Printer object returns the Job object's URI
   (the "job-uri" attribute) and the Job object's 32-bit identifier (the
   "job-id" attribute).  For each new document that the Client desires
   to add, the Client uses a Send-Document operation.  Each Send-
   Document Request contains the entire stream of document data for one
   document.

   If the Printer supports this operation but does not support multiple
   documents per job, the Printer MUST reject subsequent Send-Document
   operations supplied with data and return the 'server-error-multiple-
   document-jobs-not-supported'.  However, the Printer MUST accept the
   first document with a 'true' or 'false' value for the "last-document"
   operation attribute (see below), so that Clients MAY always submit
   one document Jobs with a 'false' value for "last-document" in the
   first Send-Document and a 'true' for "last-document" in the second
   Send-Document (with no data).

   Since the Create-Job and the send operations (Send-Document or Send-
   URI operations) that follow could occur over an arbitrarily long
   period of time for a particular job, a Client MUST send another send
   operation within an IPP Printer defined minimum time interval after
   the receipt of the previous request for the Job. If a Printer object
   supports the Create-Job and Send-Document operations, the Printer
   object MUST support the "multiple-operation-time-out" attribute (see
   Section 5.4.31).  This attribute indicates the minimum number of
   seconds the Printer object will wait for the next send operation
   before taking some recovery action.

   An IPP object MUST recover from an errant Client that does not supply
   a send operation, sometime after the minimum time interval specified
   by the Printer object's "multiple-operation-time-out" attribute.
   Such recovery MAY include any of the following or other recovery
   actions:

   1.  Assume that the Job is an invalid job, start the process of
       changing the Job state to 'aborted', add the 'aborted-by-system'
       value to the job's "job-state-reasons" attribute (see
       Section 5.3.8), and clean up all resources associated with the
       Job. In this case, if another send operation is finally received,
       the Printer responds with an "client-error-not-possible" or
       "client-error-not-found" depending on whether or not the Job
       object is still around when the send operation finally arrives.





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   2.  Assume that the last send operation received was in fact the last
       document (as if the "last-document" flag had been set to 'true'),
       close the Job object, and proceed to process it (i.e., move the
       Job's state to 'pending').

   3.  Assume that the last send operation received was in fact the last
       document, close the Job, but move it to the 'pending-held' and
       add the 'submission-interrupted' value to the job's "job-state-
       reasons" attribute (see Section 5.3.8).  This action allows the
       user or an operator to determine whether to continue processing
       the Job by moving it back to the 'pending' state using the
       Release-Job operation (see Section 4.3.6) or to cancel the Job
       using the Cancel-Job operation (see Section 4.3.3).

   Each implementation is free to decide the "best" action to take
   depending on local policy, whether any documents have been added,
   whether the implementation spools Jobs or not, and/or any other piece
   of information available to it.  If the choice is to abort the Job
   object, it is possible that the Job object has already been processed
   to the point that some media sheet pages have been printed.

   Access Rights: The authenticated user (see Section 9.3) performing
   this operation must either be the Job owner (as determined in the
   Create-Job operation) or an operator or administrator of the Printer
   object (see Sections 1 and 8.5).  Otherwise, the IPP object MUST
   reject the operation and return: 'client-error-forbidden', 'client-
   error-not-authenticated', or 'client-error-not-authorized' as
   appropriate.

4.3.1.1.  Send-Document Request

   The following attribute sets are part of the Send-Document Request:

   Group 1: Operation Attributes

      Natural Language and Character Set:

         The "attributes-charset" and "attributes-natural-language"
         attributes as described in Section 4.1.4.1.

      Target:

         Either (1) the "printer-uri" (uri) plus "job-id"
         (integer(1:MAX))or (2) the "job-uri" (uri) operation
         attribute(s) which define the target for this operation as
         described in Section 4.1.5.

      Requesting User Name:



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         The "requesting-user-name" (name(MAX)) attribute SHOULD be
         supplied by the Client as described in Section 9.3.

      "document-name" (name(MAX)):

         The Client OPTIONALLY supplies this attribute.  The Printer
         object MUST support this attribute.  It contains the Client
         supplied document name.  The document name MAY be different
         than the Job name and is not guaranteed to be unique across
         multiple documents in the same Job. Typically, the Client
         software automatically supplies the document name on behalf of
         the end user by using a file name or an application generated
         name.  See the description of the "document-name" operation
         attribute in the Print-Job Request (Section 4.2.1.1) for more
         information about this attribute.

      "compression" (type3 keyword):

         See the description of "compression" for the Print-Job
         operation in Section 4.2.1.1.

      "document-format" (mimeMediaType):

         See the description of "document-format" for the Print-Job
         operation in Section 4.2.1.1.

      "document-natural-language" (naturalLanguage):

         The Client OPTIONALLY supplies this attribute.  The Printer
         object OPTIONALLY supports this attribute.  This attribute
         specifies the natural language of the document for those
         document-formats that require a specification of the natural
         language in order to image the document unambiguously.  There
         are no particular values required for the Printer object to
         support.

      "last-document" (boolean):

         The Client MUST supply this attribute.  The Printer object MUST
         support this attribute.  It is a boolean flag that is set to
         'true' if this is the last document for the Job, 'false'
         otherwise.

   Group 2: Document Content

      The Client MUST supply the document data if the "last-document"
      flag is set to 'false'.  However, since a Client might not know
      that the previous document sent with a Send-Document (or Send-URI)



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      operation was the last document (i.e., the "last-document"
      attribute was set to 'false'), it is legal to send a Send-Document
      request with no document data where the "last-document" flag is
      set to 'true'.  Such a request MUST NOT increment the value of the
      Job object's "number-of-documents" attribute, since no real
      document was added to the Job. It is not an error for a Client to
      submit a Job with no actual document data, i.e., only a single
      Create-Job and Send-Document request with a "last-document"
      operation attribute set to 'true' with no document data.

4.3.1.2.  Send-Document Response

   The following sets of attributes are part of the Send-Document
   Response:

   Group 1: Operation Attributes

      Status Message:

         In addition to the REQUIRED status code returned in every
         response, the response OPTIONALLY includes a "status-message"
         (text(255)) and/or a "detailed-status-message" (text(MAX))
         operation attribute as described in sections 13 and 3.1.6.

      Natural Language and Character Set:

         The "attributes-charset" and "attributes-natural-language"
         attributes as described in Section 4.1.4.2.

   Group 2: Unsupported Attributes

      See Section 4.1.7 for details on returning Unsupported Attributes.

   Group 3: Job Object Attributes

      This is the same set of attributes as described in the Print-Job
      response (see Section 4.2.1.2).

4.3.2.  Send-URI Operation

   This RECOMMENDED operation is identical to the Send-Document
   operation (see Section 4.3.1) except that a Client MUST supply a URI
   reference ("document-uri" operation attribute) rather than the
   document data itself.  If a Printer object supports this operation,
   Clients can use both Send-URI or Send-Document operations to add new
   documents to an existing multi-document Job object.  However, if a
   Client needs to indicate that the previous Send-URI or Send-Document
   was the last document, the Client MUST use the Send-Document



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   operation with no document data and the "last-document" flag set to
   'true' (rather than using a Send-URI operation with no "document-uri"
   operation attribute).

   If a Printer object supports this operation, it MUST also support the
   Print-URI operation (see Section 4.2.2).

   The Printer object MUST validate the syntax and URI scheme of the
   supplied URI before returning a response, just as in the Print-URI
   operation.  The IPP Printer MAY validate the accessibility of the
   document as part of the operation or subsequently (see
   Section 4.2.2).

4.3.3.  Cancel-Job Operation

   This REQUIRED operation allows a Client to cancel a Print Job from
   the time the Job is created up to the time it is completed, canceled,
   or aborted.  Since a Job might already be printing by the time a
   Cancel-Job is received, some media sheet pages might be printed
   before the Job is actually terminated.

   The IPP object MUST accept or reject the request based on the job's
   current state and transition the Job to the indicated new state as
   follows:



























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   +-------------------+--------------------+--------------------------+
   | Current "job-     | New "job-state"    | IPP object's response    |
   | state"            |                    | status code and action:  |
   +-------------------+--------------------+--------------------------+
   | 'pending'         | 'canceled'         | 'successful-ok'          |
   +-------------------+--------------------+--------------------------+
   | 'pending-held'    | 'canceled'         | 'successful-ok'          |
   +-------------------+--------------------+--------------------------+
   | 'processing'      | 'canceled'         | 'successful-ok'          |
   +-------------------+--------------------+--------------------------+
   | 'processing'      | 'processing'       | 'successful-ok' See Rule |
   |                   |                    | 1                        |
   +-------------------+--------------------+--------------------------+
   | 'processing'      | 'processing'       | 'client-error-not-       |
   |                   |                    | possible' See Rule 2     |
   +-------------------+--------------------+--------------------------+
   | 'processing-      | 'canceled'         | 'successful-ok'          |
   | stopped'          |                    |                          |
   +-------------------+--------------------+--------------------------+
   | 'processing-      | 'processing-       | 'successful-ok' See Rule |
   | stopped'          | stopped'           | 1                        |
   +-------------------+--------------------+--------------------------+
   | 'processing-      | 'processing-       | 'client-error-not-       |
   | stopped'          | stopped'           | possible' See Rule 2     |
   +-------------------+--------------------+--------------------------+
   | 'completed'       | 'completed'        | 'client-error-not-       |
   |                   |                    | possible'                |
   +-------------------+--------------------+--------------------------+
   | 'canceled'        | 'canceled'         | 'client-error-not-       |
   |                   |                    | possible'                |
   +-------------------+--------------------+--------------------------+
   | 'aborted'         | 'aborted'          | 'client-error-not-       |
   |                   |                    | possible'                |
   +-------------------+--------------------+--------------------------+

   Rule 1: If the implementation requires some measurable time to cancel
   the Job in the 'processing' or 'processing-stopped' Job states, the
   IPP object MUST add the 'processing-to-stop-point' value to the job's
   "job-state-reasons" attribute and then transition the Job to the
   'canceled' state when the processing ceases (see Section 5.3.8).

   Rule 2: If the Job object already has the 'processing-to-stop-point'
   value in its "job-state-reasons" attribute, then the Printer object
   MUST reject a Cancel-Job operation.

   Access Rights: The authenticated user (see Section 9.3) performing
   this operation must either be the Job owner or an operator or
   administrator of the Printer object (see Sections 1 and 8.5).



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   Otherwise, the IPP object MUST reject the operation and return:
   'client-error-forbidden', 'client-error-not-authenticated', or
   'client-error-not-authorized' as appropriate.

4.3.3.1.  Cancel-Job Request

   The following groups of attributes are part of the Cancel-Job
   Request:

   Group 1: Operation Attributes

      Natural Language and Character Set:

         The "attributes-charset" and "attributes-natural-language"
         attributes as described in Section 4.1.4.1.

      Target:

         Either (1) the "printer-uri" (uri) plus "job-id"
         (integer(1:MAX))or (2) the "job-uri" (uri) operation
         attribute(s) which define the target for this operation as
         described in Section 4.1.5.

      Requesting User Name:

         The "requesting-user-name" (name(MAX)) attribute SHOULD be
         supplied by the Client as described in Section 9.3.

      "message" (text(127)):

         The Client OPTIONALLY supplies this attribute.  The Printer
         object OPTIONALLY supports this attribute.  It is a message to
         the operator.  This "message" attribute is not the same as the
         "job-message-from-operator" attribute.  That attribute is used
         to report a message from the operator to the end user that
         queries that attribute.  This "message" operation attribute is
         used to send a message from the Client to the operator along
         with the operation request.  It is an implementation decision
         of how or where to display this message to the operator (if at
         all).

4.3.3.2.  Cancel-Job Response

   The following sets of attributes are part of the Cancel-Job Response:

   Group 1: Operation Attributes

      Status Message:



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         In addition to the REQUIRED status code returned in every
         response, the response OPTIONALLY includes a "status-message"
         (text(255)) and/or a "detailed-status-message" (text(MAX))
         operation attribute as described in sections 13 and 3.1.6.

      Natural Language and Character Set:

         The "attributes-charset" and "attributes-natural-language"
         attributes as described in Section 4.1.4.2.

   Group 2: Unsupported Attributes

      See Section 4.1.7 for details on returning Unsupported Attributes.

      Once a successful response has been sent, the implementation
      guarantees that the Job will eventually end up in the 'canceled'
      state.  Between the time of the Cancel-Job operation is accepted
      and when the Job enters the 'canceled' job-state (see
      Section 5.3.7), the "job-state-reasons" attribute SHOULD contain
      the 'processing-to-stop-point' value which indicates to later
      queries that although the Job might still be 'processing', it will
      eventually end up in the 'canceled' state, not the 'completed'
      state.

4.3.4.  Get-Job-Attributes Operation

   This REQUIRED operation allows a Client to request the values of
   attributes of a Job object and it is almost identical to the Get-
   Printer-Attributes operation (see Section 4.2.5).  The only
   differences are that the operation is directed at a Job object rather
   than a Printer object, there is no "document-format" operation
   attribute used when querying a Job object, and the returned attribute
   group is a set of Job object attributes rather than a set of Printer
   object attributes.

   For Jobs, the possible names of attribute groups are:

   o  'job-template': the subset of the Job Template attributes that
      apply to a Job object (the first column of the table in
      Section 5.2) that the implementation supports for Job objects.

   o  'job-description': the subset of the Job Description attributes
      specified in Section 5.3 that the implementation supports for Job
      objects.

   o  'all': the special group 'all' that includes all attributes that
      the implementation supports for Job objects.




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   Since a Client MAY request specific attributes or named groups, there
   is a potential that there is some overlap.  For example, if a Client
   requests, 'job-name' and 'job-description', the Client is actually
   requesting the "job-name" attribute once by naming it explicitly, and
   once by inclusion in the 'job-description' group.  In such cases, the
   Printer object OPTIONALLY returns the attribute only once in the
   response even if it is requested multiple times.  The Client SHOULD
   NOT request the same attribute in multiple ways.

   It is NOT REQUIRED that a Job object support all attributes belonging
   to a group (since some attributes are OPTIONAL).  However it is
   REQUIRED that each Job object support all these group names.

4.3.4.1.  Get-Job-Attributes Request

   The following groups of attributes are part of the Get-Job-Attributes
   Request when the request is directed at a Job object:

   Group 1: Operation Attributes

      Natural Language and Character Set:

         The "attributes-charset" and "attributes-natural-language"
         attributes as described in Section 4.1.4.1.

      Target:

         Either (1) the "printer-uri" (uri) plus "job-id"
         (integer(1:MAX)) or (2) the "job-uri" (uri) operation
         attribute(s) which define the target for this operation as
         described in Section 4.1.5.

      Requesting User Name:

         The "requesting-user-name" (name(MAX)) attribute SHOULD be
         supplied by the Client as described in Section 9.3.

      "requested-attributes" (1setOf keyword):

         The Client OPTIONALLY supplies this attribute.  The IPP object
         MUST support this attribute.  It is a set of attribute names
         and/or attribute group names in whose values the requester is
         interested.  If the Client omits this attribute, the IPP object
         MUST respond as if this attribute had been supplied with a
         value of 'all'.






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4.3.4.2.  Get-Job-Attributes Response

   The Printer object returns the following sets of attributes as part
   of the Get-Job-Attributes Response:

   Group 1: Operation Attributes

      Status Message:

         In addition to the REQUIRED status code returned in every
         response, the response OPTIONALLY includes a "status-message"
         (text(255)) and/or a "detailed-status-message" (text(MAX))
         operation attribute as described in sections 13 and 3.1.6.

      Natural Language and Character Set:

         The "attributes-charset" and "attributes-natural-language"
         attributes as described in Section 4.1.4.2.  The "attributes-
         natural-language" MAY be the natural language of the Job
         object, rather than the one requested.

   Group 2: Unsupported Attributes

      See Section 4.1.7 for details on returning Unsupported Attributes.

      The response OPTIONALLY contains the "requested-attributes"
      operation attribute with any supplied values (attribute keywords)
      that were requested by the Client but are not supported by the IPP
      object.  If the Printer object does return unsupported attributes
      referenced in the "requested-attributes" operation attribute and
      that attribute included group names, such as 'all', the
      unsupported attributes MUST NOT include attributes described in
      the standard but not supported by the implementation.

   Group 3: Job Object Attributes

      This is the set of requested attributes and their current values.
      The IPP object ignores (does not respond with) any requested
      attribute or value which is not supported or which is restricted
      by the security policy in force, including whether the requesting
      user is the user that submitted the Job (Job originating user) or
      not (see Section 9).  However, the IPP object MUST respond with
      the 'unknown' value for any supported attribute (including all
      REQUIRED attributes) for which the IPP object does not know the
      value, unless it would violate the security policy.  See the
      description of the "out-of-band" values in the beginning of
      Section 5.1.




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4.3.5.  Hold-Job Operation

   This OPTIONAL operation allows a Client to hold a pending Job in the
   queue so that it is not eligible for scheduling.  If the Hold-Job
   operation is supported, then the Release-Job operation MUST be
   supported, and vice-versa.  The OPTIONAL "job-hold-until" operation
   attribute allows a Client to specify whether to hold the Job
   indefinitely or until a specified time period, if supported.

   The IPP object MUST accept or reject the request based on the job's
   current state and transition the Job to the indicated new state as
   follows:

   +-------------------+--------------------+--------------------------+
   | Current "job-     | New "job-state"    | IPP object's response    |
   | state"            |                    | status code and action:  |
   +-------------------+--------------------+--------------------------+
   | 'pending'         | 'pending-held'     | 'successful-ok' See Rule |
   |                   |                    | 1                        |
   +-------------------+--------------------+--------------------------+
   | 'pending'         | 'pending'          | 'successful-ok' See Rule |
   |                   |                    | 2                        |
   +-------------------+--------------------+--------------------------+
   | 'pending-held'    | 'pending-held'     | 'successful-ok' See Rule |
   |                   |                    | 1                        |
   +-------------------+--------------------+--------------------------+
   | 'pending-held'    | 'pending'          | 'successful-ok' See Rule |
   |                   |                    | 2                        |
   +-------------------+--------------------+--------------------------+
   | 'processing'      | 'processing'       | 'client-error-not-       |
   |                   |                    | possible'                |
   +-------------------+--------------------+--------------------------+
   | 'processing-      | 'processing-       | 'client-error-not-       |
   | stopped'          | stopped'           | possible'                |
   +-------------------+--------------------+--------------------------+
   | 'completed'       | 'completed'        | 'client-error-not-       |
   |                   |                    | possible'                |
   +-------------------+--------------------+--------------------------+
   | 'canceled'        | 'canceled'         | 'client-error-not-       |
   |                   |                    | possible'                |
   +-------------------+--------------------+--------------------------+
   | 'aborted'         | 'aborted'          | 'client-error-not-       |
   |                   |                    | possible'                |
   +-------------------+--------------------+--------------------------+

   Rule 1: If the implementation supports multiple reasons for a Job to
   be in the 'pending-held' state, the IPP object MUST add the 'job-




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   hold-until-specified' value to the job's "job-state-reasons"
   attribute.

   Rule 2: If the IPP object supports the "job-hold-until" operation
   attribute, but the specified time period has already started (or is
   the 'no-hold' value) and there are no other reasons to hold the job,
   the IPP object MUST make the Job be a candidate for processing
   immediately (see Section 5.2.2) by putting the Job in the 'pending'
   state.

   Note: In order to keep the Hold-Job operation simple, such a request
   is rejected when the Job is in the 'processing' or 'processing-
   stopped' states.  If an operation is needed to hold Jobs while in
   these states, it will be added as an additional operation, rather
   than overloading the Hold-Job operation.  Then it is clear to Clients
   by querying the Printer object's "operations-supported" (see
   Section 5.4.15) and the Job object's "job-state" (see Section 5.3.7)
   attributes which operations are possible.

   Access Rights: The authenticated user (see Section 9.3) performing
   this operation must either be the Job owner or an operator or
   administrator of the Printer object (see Sections 1 and 8.5).
   Otherwise, the IPP object MUST reject the operation and return:
   'client-error-forbidden', 'client-error-not-authenticated', or
   'client-error-not-authorized' as appropriate.

4.3.5.1.  Hold-Job Request

   The groups and operation attributes are the same as for a Cancel-Job
   request (see Section 4.3.3.1), with the addition of the following
   Group 1 Operation attribute:

      "job-hold-until" (type3 keyword | name(MAX)):

      The Client OPTIONALLY supplies this Operation attribute.  The IPP
      object MUST support this operation attribute in a Hold-Job
      request, if it supports the "job-hold-until" Job template
      attribute in create operations.  See Section 5.2.2.  The IPP
      object SHOULD support the "job-hold-until" Job Template attribute
      for use in Job create operations with at least the 'indefinite'
      value, if it supports the Hold-Job operation.  Otherwise, a Client
      cannot create a Job and hold it immediately (without picking some
      supported time period in the future).

      If supplied and supported as specified in the Printer's "job-hold-
      until-supported" attribute, the IPP object copies the supplied
      operation attribute to the Job object, replacing the job's




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      previous "job-hold-until" attribute, if present, and makes the Job
      a candidate for scheduling during the supplied named time period.

      If supplied, but either the "job-hold-until" Operation attribute
      itself or the value supplied is not supported, the IPP object
      accepts the request, returns the unsupported attribute or value in
      the Unsupported Attributes Group according to Section 4.1.7,
      returns the 'successful-ok-ignored-or-substituted-attributes, and
      holds the Job indefinitely until a Client performs a subsequent
      Release-Job operation.

      If the Client (1) supplies a value that specifies a time period
      that has already started or the 'no-hold' value (meaning don't
      hold the job) and (2) the IPP object supports the "job-hold-until"
      operation attribute and there are no other reasons to hold the
      job, the IPP object MUST accept the operation and make the Job be
      a candidate for processing immediately (see Section 5.2.2).

      If the Client does not supply a "job-hold-until" Operation
      attribute in the request, the IPP object MUST populate the Job
      object with a "job-hold-until" attribute with the 'indefinite'
      value (if IPP object supports the "job-hold-until" attribute) and
      hold the Job indefinitely, until a Client performs a Release-Job
      operation.

4.3.5.2.  Hold-Job Response

   The groups and attributes are the same as for a Cancel-Job response
   (see Section 4.3.3.2).

4.3.6.  Release-Job Operation

   This OPTIONAL operation allows a Client to release a previously held
   Job so that it is again eligible for scheduling.  If the Hold-Job
   operation is supported, then the Release-Job operation MUST be
   supported, and vice-versa.

   This operation removes the "job-hold-until" Job attribute, if
   present, from the Job object that had been supplied in the create or
   most recent Hold-Job or Restart-Job operation and removes its effect
   on the Job. The IPP object MUST remove the 'job-hold-until-specified'
   value from the job's "job-state-reasons" attribute, if present.  See
   Section 5.3.8.

   The IPP object MUST accept or reject the request based on the job's
   current state and transition the Job to the indicated new state as
   follows:




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   +-------------------+--------------------+--------------------------+
   | Current "job-     | New "job-state"    | IPP object's response    |
   | state"            |                    | status code and action:  |
   +-------------------+--------------------+--------------------------+
   | 'pending'         | 'pending'          | 'successful-ok' No       |
   |                   |                    | effect on the Job.       |
   +-------------------+--------------------+--------------------------+
   | 'pending-held'    | 'pending-held'     | 'successful-ok'  See     |
   |                   |                    | Rule 1                   |
   +-------------------+--------------------+--------------------------+
   | 'pending-held'    | 'pending'          | 'successful-ok'          |
   +-------------------+--------------------+--------------------------+
   | 'processing'      | 'processing'       | 'successful-ok' No       |
   |                   |                    | effect on the Job.       |
   +-------------------+--------------------+--------------------------+
   | 'processing-      | 'processing-       | 'successful-ok' No       |
   | stopped'          | stopped'           | effect on the Job.       |
   +-------------------+--------------------+--------------------------+
   | 'completed'       | 'completed'        | 'client-error-not-       |
   |                   |                    | possible'                |
   +-------------------+--------------------+--------------------------+
   | 'canceled'        | 'canceled'         | 'client-error-not-       |
   |                   |                    | possible'                |
   +-------------------+--------------------+--------------------------+
   | 'aborted'         | 'aborted'          | 'client-error-not-       |
   |                   |                    | possible'                |
   +-------------------+--------------------+--------------------------+

   Rule 1: If there are other reasons to keep the Job in the 'pending-
   held' state, such as 'resources-are-not-ready', the Job remains in
   the 'pending-held' state.  Thus the 'pending-held' state is not just
   for Jobs that have the 'job-hold-until' applied to them, but are for
   any reason to keep the Job from being a candidate for scheduling and
   processing, such as 'resources-are-not-ready'.  See the "job-hold-
   until" attribute (Section 5.2.2).

   Access Rights: The authenticated user (see Section 9.3) performing
   this operation must either be the Job owner or an operator or
   administrator of the Printer object (see Sections 1 and 8.5).
   Otherwise, the IPP object MUST reject the operation and return:
   'client-error-forbidden', 'client-error-not-authenticated', or
   'client-error-not-authorized' as appropriate.

   The Release-Job Request and Release-Job Response have the same
   attribute groups and attributes as the Cancel-Job operation (see
   Section 4.3.3.1 and 3.3.3.2).





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4.3.7.  Restart-Job Operation

   This DEPRECATED operation allows a Client to restart a Job that is
   retained in the queue after processing has completed (see
   Section 5.3.7.2).

   The Job is moved to the 'pending' or 'pending-held' Job state and
   restarts at the beginning on the same IPP Printer object with the
   same attribute values.  If any of the documents in the Job were
   passed by reference (Print-URI or Send-URI), the Printer MUST re-
   fetch the data, since the semantics of Restart-Job are to repeat all
   Job processing.  The Job Description attributes that accumulate Job
   progress, such as "job-impressions-completed", "job-media-sheets-
   completed", and "job-k-octets-processed", MUST be reset to 0 so that
   they give an accurate record of the Job from its restart point.  The
   Job object MUST continue to use the same "job-uri" and "job-id"
   attribute values.

   Note: The Resubmit-Job operation [PWG5100.11] is the safe replacement
   for this operation and makes a copy of the job, assigns a new "job-
   uri" and "job-id" to the copy, and resets the Job progress attributes
   in the new copy only.

   The IPP object MUST accept or reject the request based on the job's
   current state, transition the Job to the indicated new state as
   follows:

























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   +-------------------+--------------------+--------------------------+
   | Current "job-     | New "job-state"    | IPP object's response    |
   | state"            |                    | status code and action:  |
   +-------------------+--------------------+--------------------------+
   | 'pending'         | 'pending'          | 'client-error-not-       |
   |                   |                    | possible'                |
   +-------------------+--------------------+--------------------------+
   | 'pending-held'    | 'pending-held'     | 'client-error-not-       |
   |                   |                    | possible'                |
   +-------------------+--------------------+--------------------------+
   | 'processing'      | 'processing'       | 'client-error-not-       |
   |                   |                    | possible'                |
   +-------------------+--------------------+--------------------------+
   | 'processing-      | 'processing-       | 'client-error-not-       |
   | stopped'          | stopped'           | possible'                |
   +-------------------+--------------------+--------------------------+
   | 'completed'       | 'pending' or       | 'successful-ok' - Job is |
   |                   | 'pending-held'     | started over.            |
   +-------------------+--------------------+--------------------------+
   | 'completed'       | 'completed'        | 'client-error-not-       |
   |                   |                    | possible' - see Rule 1   |
   +-------------------+--------------------+--------------------------+
   | 'canceled'        | 'pending' or       | 'successful-ok' - Job is |
   |                   | 'pending-held'     | started over.            |
   +-------------------+--------------------+--------------------------+
   | 'canceled'        | 'canceled'         | 'client-error-not-       |
   |                   |                    | possible' - see Rule 1   |
   +-------------------+--------------------+--------------------------+
   | 'aborted'         | 'pending' or       | 'successful-ok' - Job is |
   |                   | 'pending-held'     | started over.            |
   +-------------------+--------------------+--------------------------+
   | 'aborted'         | 'aborted'          | 'client-error-not-       |
   |                   |                    | possible' - see Rule 1   |
   +-------------------+--------------------+--------------------------+

   Rule 1: If the Job Retention Period has expired for the Job in this
   state, then the IPP object rejects the operation.  See
   Section 5.3.7.2.

   Note: In order to prevent a user from inadvertently restarting a Job
   in the middle, the Restart-Job request is rejected when the Job is in
   the 'processing' or 'processing-stopped' states.  If in the future an
   operation is needed to hold or restart Jobs while in these states, it
   will be added as an additional operation, rather than overloading the
   Restart-Job operation, so that it is clear that the user intended
   that the current Job not be completed.





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   Access Rights: The authenticated user (see Section 9.3) performing
   this operation must either be the Job owner or an operator or
   administrator of the Printer object (see Sections 1 and 8.5).
   Otherwise, the IPP object MUST reject the operation and return:
   'client-error-forbidden', 'client-error-not-authenticated', or
   'client-error-not-authorized' as appropriate.

4.3.7.1.  Restart-Job Request

   The groups and attributes are the same as for a Cancel-Job request
   (see Section 4.3.3.1), with the addition of the following Group 1
   Operation attribute:

      "job-hold-until" (type3 keyword | name(MAX)):

      The Client OPTIONALLY supplies this attribute.  The IPP object
      MUST support this Operation attribute in a Restart-Job request, if
      it supports the "job-hold-until" Job Template attribute in create
      operations.  See Section 5.2.2.  Otherwise, the IPP object
      OPTIONALLY supports the "job-hold-until" Operation attribute in a
      Restart-Job request.

      If supplied and supported as specified in the Printer's "job-hold-
      until-supported" attribute, the IPP object copies the supplied
      Operation attribute to the Job object, replacing the job's
      previous "job-hold-until" attribute, if present, and makes the Job
      a candidate for scheduling during the supplied named time period.
      See Section 5.2.2.

      If supplied, but the value is not supported, the IPP object
      accepts the request, returns the unsupported attribute or value in
      the Unsupported Attributes Group according to Section 4.1.7,
      returns the 'successful-ok-ignored-or-substituted-attributes'
      status code, and holds the Job indefinitely until a Client
      performs a subsequent Release-Job operation.

      If supplied, but the "job-hold-until" Operation attribute itself
      is not supported, the IPP object accepts the request, returns the
      unsupported attribute with the out-of-band 'unsupported' value in
      the Unsupported Attributes Group according to Section 4.1.7,
      returns the 'successful-ok-ignored-or-substituted-attributes'
      status code, and restarts the job, i.e., ignores the "job-hold-
      until" attribute.

      If the Client (1) supplies a value that specifies a time period
      that has already started or the 'no-hold' value (meaning don't
      hold the job) and (2) the IPP object supports the "job-hold-until"
      operation attribute and there are no other reasons to hold the



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      job, the IPP object makes the Job a candidate for processing
      immediately (see Section 5.2.2).

      If the Client does not supply a "job-hold-until" operation
      attribute in the request, the IPP object removes the "job-hold-
      until" attribute, if present, from the Job. If there are no other
      reasons to hold the job, the Restart-Job operation makes the Job a
      candidate for processing immediately (see Section 5.2.2).

4.3.7.2.  Restart-Job Response

   The groups and attributes are the same as for a Cancel-Job response
   (see Section 4.3.3.2).

5.  Object Attributes

   This section describes the attributes with their corresponding
   attribute syntaxes and values that are part of the IPP model.  The
   sections below show the objects and their associated attributes which
   are included within the scope of this protocol.  Many of these
   attributes are derived from other relevant documents:

   o  Document Printing Application (DPA) [ISO10175]

   o  RFC 3805 Printer MIB v2 [RFC3805]

   Each attribute is uniquely identified in this document using a
   "keyword" (see Appendix B.2.1) which is the name of the attribute.
   The keyword is included in the section header describing that
   attribute.

   Note: Not only are keywords used to identify attributes, but one of
   the attribute syntaxes described below is "keyword" so that some
   attributes have keyword values.  Therefore, these attributes are
   defined as having an attribute syntax that is a set of keywords.

5.1.  Attribute Syntaxes

   This section defines the basic attribute syntax types that all
   Clients and IPP objects MUST be able to accept in responses and
   accept in requests, respectively.  Each attribute description in
   sections 3 and 4 includes the name of attribute syntax(es) in the
   heading (in parentheses).  A conforming implementation of an
   attribute MUST include the semantics of the attribute syntax(es) so
   identified.  Section 7.3 describes how the protocol can be extended
   with new attribute syntaxes.





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   The attribute syntaxes are specified in the following sub-sections,
   where the sub-section heading is the keyword name of the attribute
   syntax inside the single quotes.  In operation requests and responses
   each attribute value MUST be represented as one of the attribute
   syntaxes specified in the sub-section heading for the attribute.  In
   addition, the value of an attribute in a response (but not in a
   request) MAY be one of the "out-of-band" values whose special
   encoding rules are defined in the "Encoding and Transport" document
   [RFC2910bis].  Standard "out-of-band" values are:

      'unknown': The attribute is supported by the IPP object, but the
      value is unknown to the IPP object for some reason.

      'unsupported': The attribute is unsupported by the IPP object.
      This value MUST be returned only as the value of an attribute in
      the Unsupported Attributes Group.

      'no-value': The attribute is supported by the Printer object, but
      the administrator has not yet configured a value.

   All attributes in a request MUST have one or more values as defined
   in Sections 4.2 to 4.4.  Thus Clients MUST NOT supply attributes with
   "out-of-band" values for operations defined in this document.  All
   attributes in a response MUST have one or more values as defined in
   Sections 4.2 to 4.4 or a single "out-of-band" value.

   Most attributes are defined to have a single attribute syntax.
   However, a few attributes (e.g., "job-sheet", "media", "job-hold-
   until") are defined to have several attribute syntaxes, depending on
   the value.  These multiple attribute syntaxes are separated by the
   "|" character in the sub-section heading to indicate the choice.
   Since each value MUST be tagged as to its attribute syntax in the
   protocol, a single-valued attribute instance can have any one of its
   attribute syntaxes and a multi-valued attribute instance can have a
   mixture of its defined attribute syntaxes.

5.1.1.  'text'

   A text attribute is an attribute whose value is a sequence of zero or
   more characters encoded in a maximum of 1023 ('MAX') octets.  MAX is
   the maximum length for each value of any text attribute.  However, if
   an attribute will always contain values whose maximum length is much
   less than MAX, the definition of that attribute will include a
   qualifier that defines the maximum length for values of that
   attribute.  For example: the "printer-location" attribute is
   specified as "printer-location (text(127))".  In this case, text
   values for "printer-location" MUST NOT exceed 127 octets; if supplied
   with a longer text string via some external interface (other than the



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   protocol), implementations are free to truncate to this shorter
   length limitation.

   In this document, all text attributes are defined using the 'text'
   syntax.  However, 'text' is used only for brevity; the formal
   interpretation of 'text' is: 'textWithoutLanguage |
   textWithLanguage'.  That is, for any attribute defined in this
   document using the 'text' attribute syntax, all IPP objects and
   Clients MUST support both the 'textWithoutLanguage' and
   'textWithLanguage' attribute syntaxes.  However, in actual usage and
   protocol execution, objects and Clients accept and return only one of
   the two syntax per attribute.  The syntax 'text' never appears "on-
   the-wire".

   Both 'textWithoutLanguage' and 'textWithLanguage' are needed to
   support the real world needs of interoperability between sites and
   systems that use different natural languages as the basis for human
   communication.  Generally, one natural language applies to all text
   attributes in a given request or response.  The language is indicated
   by the "attributes-natural-language" operation attribute defined in
   Section 4.1.4 or "attributes-natural-language" Job attribute defined
   in Section 5.3.20, and there is no need to identify the natural
   language for each text string on a value-by-value basis.  In these
   cases, the attribute syntax 'textWithoutLanguage' is used for text
   attributes.  In other cases, the Client needs to supply or the
   Printer object needs to return a text value in a natural language
   that is different from the rest of the text values in the request or
   response.  In these cases, the Client or Printer object uses the
   attribute syntax 'textWithLanguage' for text attributes (this is the
   Natural Language Override mechanism described in Section 4.1.4).

   The 'textWithoutLanguage' and 'textWithLanguage' attribute syntaxes
   are described in more detail in the following sections.

5.1.1.1.  'textWithoutLanguage'

   The 'textWithoutLanguage' syntax indicates a value that is sequence
   of zero or more characters encoded in a maximum of 1023 (MAX) octets.
   Text strings are encoded using the rules of some charset.  The
   Printer object MUST support the UTF-8 charset [RFC3629] and MAY
   support additional charsets to represent 'text' values, provided that
   the charsets are registered with IANA [IANA-CS].  See Section 5.1.7
   for the definition of the 'charset' attribute syntax, including
   restricted semantics and examples of charsets.







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5.1.1.2.  'textWithLanguage'

   The 'textWithLanguage' attribute syntax is a compound attribute
   syntax consisting of two parts: a 'textWithoutLanguage' part encoded
   in a maximum of 1023 (MAX) octets plus an additional
   'naturalLanguage' (see Section 5.1.8) part that overrides the natural
   language in force.  The 'naturalLanguage' part explicitly identifies
   the natural language that applies to the text part of that value and
   that value alone.  For any give text attribute, the
   'textWithoutLanguage' part is limited to the maximum length defined
   for that 'text' attribute, and the 'naturalLanguage' part is always
   limited to 63 (additional) octets.  Using the 'textWithLanguage'
   attribute syntax rather than the normal 'textWithoutLanguage' syntax
   is the so-called Natural Language Override mechanism and MUST be
   supported by all IPP objects and clients.

   If the attribute is multi-valued (1setOf text), then the
   'textWithLanguage' attribute syntax MUST be used to explicitly
   specify each attribute value whose natural language needs to be
   overridden.  Other values in a multi-valued 'text' attribute in a
   request or a response revert to the natural language of the operation
   attribute.

   In a create request, the Printer object MUST accept and store with
   the Job object any natural language in the "attributes-natural-
   language" operation attribute, whether the Printer object supports
   that natural language or not.  Furthermore, the Printer object MUST
   accept and store any 'textWithLanguage' attribute value, whether the
   Printer object supports that natural language or not.  These
   requirements are independent of the value of the "ipp-attribute-
   fidelity" operation attribute that the Client MAY supply.

   Example: If the Client supplies the "attributes-natural-language"
   operation attribute with the value: 'en' indicating English, but the
   value of the "job-name" attribute is in French, the Client MUST use
   the 'textWithLanguage' attribute syntax with the following two
   values:

      'fr': Natural Language Override indicating French

      'Rapport Mensuel': the Job name in French

   See the "Encoding and Transport" document [RFC2910bis] section 3.9
   for the encoding of the two parts and Appendix A for a detailed
   example of the 'textWithLanguage' attribute syntax.






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5.1.2.  'name'

   This syntax type is used for user-friendly strings, such as a Printer
   name, that, for humans, are more meaningful than identifiers.  Names
   are never translated from one natural language to another.  The
   'name' attribute syntax is essentially the same as 'text', including
   the REQUIRED support of UTF-8 except that the sequence of characters
   is limited so that its encoded form MUST NOT exceed 255 (MAX) octets.

   Also like 'text', 'name' is really an abbreviated notation for either
   'nameWithoutLanguage' or 'nameWithLanguage'.  That is, all IPP
   objects and Clients MUST support both the 'nameWithoutLanguage' and
   'nameWithLanguage' attribute syntaxes.  However, in actual usage and
   protocol execution, objects and Clients accept and return only one of
   the two syntax per attribute.  The syntax 'name' never appears "on-
   the-wire".

   Only the 'text' and 'name' attribute syntaxes permit the Natural
   Language Override mechanism.

   Some attributes are defined as 'type3 keyword | name'.  These
   attributes support values that are either type3 keywords or names.
   This dual-syntax mechanism enables a site administrator to extend
   these attributes to legally include values that are locally defined
   by the site administrator.  Such names are not registered with IANA.

5.1.2.1.  'nameWithoutLanguage'

   The nameWithoutLanguage' syntax indicates a value that is sequence of
   zero or more characters encoded in a maximum of 255 (MAX) octets.

5.1.2.2.  'nameWithLanguage'

   The 'nameWithLanguage' attribute syntax is a compound attribute
   syntax consisting of two parts: a 'nameWithoutLanguage' (see
   Section 5.1.2.1) part plus an additional 'naturalLanguage' (see
   Section 5.1.8) part that overrides the natural language in force.
   The 'naturalLanguage' part explicitly identifies the natural language
   that applies to that name value and that name value alone.  For any
   give text attribute, the 'textWithoutLanguage' part is limited to the
   maximum length defined for that 'text' attribute, and the
   'naturalLanguage' part is always limited to 63 (additional) octets.
   Using the 'textWithLanguage' attribute syntax rather than the normal
   'textWithoutLanguage' syntax is the so-called Natural Language
   Override mechanism and MUST be supported by all IPP objects and
   clients.





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   The 'nameWithLanguage' attribute syntax behaves the same as the
   'textWithLanguage' syntax.  Using the 'textWithLanguage' attribute
   syntax rather than the normal 'textWithoutLanguage' syntax is the so-
   called Natural Language Override mechanism and MUST be supported by
   all IPP objects and clients.  If a name is in a language that is
   different than the rest of the object or operation, then this
   'nameWithLanguage' syntax is used rather than the generic
   'nameWithoutLanguage' syntax.

   If the attribute is multi-valued (1setOf text), then the
   'nameWithLanguage' attribute syntax MUST be used to explicitly
   specify each attribute value whose natural language needs to be
   overridden.  Other values in a multi-valued 'name' attribute in a
   request or a response revert to the natural language of the operation
   attribute.

   In a create request, the Printer object MUST accept and store with
   the Job object any natural language in the "attributes-natural-
   language" operation attribute, whether the Printer object supports
   that natural language or not.  Furthermore, the Printer object MUST
   accept and store any 'nameWithLanguage' attribute value, whether the
   Printer object supports that natural language or not.  These
   requirements are independent of the value of the "ipp-attribute-
   fidelity" operation attribute that the Client MAY supply.

   Example: If the Client supplies the "attributes-natural-language"
   operation attribute with the value: 'en' indicating English, but the
   "printer-name" attribute is in German, the Client MUST use the
   'nameWithLanguage' attribute syntax as follows:

      'de': Natural Language Override indicating German

      'Farbdrucker': the Printer name in German

   See the "Encoding and Transport" document [RFC2910bis] section 3.9
   for the encoding of the two parts and Appendix A for a detailed
   example of the 'nameWithLanguage' attribute syntax.

5.1.2.3.  Matching 'name' attribute values

   For purposes of matching two 'name' attribute values for equality,
   such as in Job validation (where a client-supplied value for
   attribute "xxx" is checked to see if the value is among the values of
   the Printer object's corresponding "xxx-supported" attribute), the
   following match rules apply:

   1.  'keyword' values never match 'name' values.




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   2.  'name' (nameWithoutLanguage and nameWithLanguage) values match if
       (1) the name parts match and (2) the Associated Natural-Language
       parts (see Section 4.1.4.1) match.  The matching rules are:

       2a.  the name parts match if the two names are identical
            character by character, except it is RECOMMENDED that case
            be ignored.  For example: 'Ajax-letter-head-white' MUST
            match 'Ajax-letter-head-white' and SHOULD match 'ajax-
            letter-head-white' and 'AJAX-LETTER-HEAD-WHITE'.

       2b.  the Associated Natural-Language parts match if the shorter
            of the two meets the syntactic requirements of RFC 1766
            [RFC5646] and matches byte for byte with the longer.  For
            example, 'en' matches 'en', 'en-us' and 'en-gb', but matches
            neither 'fr' nor 'e'.

5.1.3.  'keyword'

   The 'keyword' attribute syntax is a sequence of characters, length: 1
   to 255, containing only the US-ASCII [ASCII] encoded values for
   lowercase letters ("a" - "z"), digits ("0" - "9"), hyphen ("-"), dot
   ("."), and underscore ("_").  The first character MUST be a lowercase
   letter.  Furthermore, keywords MUST be in U.S.  English.

   This syntax type is used for enumerating semantic identifiers of
   entities in the abstract protocol, i.e., entities identified in this
   document.  Keywords are used as attribute names or values of
   attributes.  Unlike 'text' and 'name' attribute values, 'keyword'
   values MUST NOT use the Natural Language Override mechanism, since
   they MUST always be US-ASCII and U.S.  English.

   Keywords are for use in the protocol.  A user interface will likely
   provide a mapping between protocol keywords and displayable user-
   friendly words and phrases which are localized to the natural
   language of the user.  While the keywords specified in this document
   MAY be displayed to users whose natural language is U.S.  English,
   they MAY be mapped to other U.S.  English words for U.S.  English
   users, since the user interface is outside the scope of this
   document.

   In the definition for each attribute of this syntax type, the full
   set of defined keyword values for that attribute are listed.

   When a keyword is used to represent an attribute (its name), it MUST
   be unique within the full scope of all IPP objects and attributes.
   When a keyword is used to represent a value of an attribute, it MUST
   be unique just within the scope of that attribute.  That is, the same
   keyword MUST NOT be used for two different values within the same



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   attribute to mean two different semantic ideas.  However, the same
   keyword MAY be used across two or more attributes, representing
   different semantic ideas for each attribute.  Section 7.1 describes
   how the protocol can be extended with new keyword values.  Examples
   of attribute name keywords:

      "job-name"

      "attributes-charset"

   Note: This document uses "type1", "type2", and "type3" prefixes to
   the "keyword" basic syntax to indicate different levels of review for
   extensions (see Section 7.1).

5.1.4.  'enum'

   The 'enum' attribute syntax is an enumerated integer value that is in
   the range from 1 to 2**31 - 1 (MAX).  Each value has an associated
   'keyword' name.  In the definition for each attribute of this syntax
   type, the full set of possible values for that attribute are listed.
   This syntax type is used for attributes for which there are enum
   values assigned by other standards, such as SNMP MIBs.  A number of
   attribute enum values in this document are also used for
   corresponding attributes in other standards [RFC3805].  This syntax
   type is not used for attributes to which the administrator can assign
   values.  Section 7.1 describes how the protocol can be extended with
   new enum values.

   Enum values are for use in the protocol.  A user interface will
   provide a mapping between protocol enum values and displayable user-
   friendly words and phrases which are localized to the natural
   language of the user.  While the enum symbols specified in this
   document MAY be displayed to users whose natural language is U.S.
   English, they MAY be mapped to other U.S.  English words for U.S.
   English users, since the user interface is outside the scope of this
   document.

   Note: SNMP MIBs use '2' for 'unknown' which corresponds to the IPP
   "out-of-band" value 'unknown'.  See the description of the "out-of-
   band" values at the beginning of Section 5.1.  Therefore, attributes
   of type 'enum' start at '3'.

   Note: This document uses "type1", "type2", and "type3" prefixes to
   the "enum" basic syntax to indicate different levels of review for
   extensions (see Section 7.1).






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5.1.5.  'uri'

   The 'uri' attribute syntax is any valid Uniform Resource Identifier
   or URI [RFC3986].  Most often, URIs are simply Uniform Resource
   Locators or URLs.  The maximum length of URIs used as values of IPP
   attributes is 1023 octets.  Although most other IPP attribute syntax
   types allow for only lower-cased values, this attribute syntax type
   conforms to the case-sensitive and case-insensitive rules specified
   in [RFC3986].  See also [RFC3196] for a discussion of case in URIs.

5.1.6.  'uriScheme'

   The 'uriScheme' attribute syntax is a sequence of characters
   representing a URI scheme according to RFC 2396 [RFC3986].  Though
   RFC 2396 requires that the values be case-insensitive, IPP requires
   all lower case values in IPP attributes to simplify comparing by IPP
   Clients and Printer objects.

   Standard values for this syntax type are the following keywords:

   o  'ipp': for IPP schemed URIs (e.g., "ipp://example.com/ipp/...")

   o  'ipps': for IPPS schemed URIs (e.g., "ipps://example.com/ipp/...")

   o  'http': for HTTP schemed URIs (e.g., "http://example.com/path/to/
      filename")

   o  'https': for use with HTTPS schemed URIs (e.g.,
      "https://example.com/path/to/filename")

   o  'ftp': for FTP schemed URIs (e.g., "ftp://example.com/path/to/
      filename")

   o  'mailto': for SMTP schemed URIs (e.g., "mailto:user@example.com")

   o  'file': for file schemed URIs (e.g., "file:///path/to/filename")

   A Printer object MAY support any URI 'scheme' that has been
   registered with IANA [IANA-MT].  The maximum length of URI 'scheme'
   values used to represent IPP attribute values is 63 octets.

5.1.7.  'charset'

   The 'charset' attribute syntax is a standard identifier for a
   charset.  A charset is a coded character set and encoding scheme.
   Charsets are used for labeling certain document contents and 'text'
   and 'name' attribute values.  The syntax and semantics of this
   attribute syntax are specified in RFC 2046 [RFC2046] and contained in



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   the IANA character-set Registry [IANA-CS] according to the IANA
   procedures [RFC2978].  Though RFC 2046 requires that the values be
   case-insensitive US-ASCII [ASCII], IPP requires all lower case values
   in IPP attributes to simplify comparing by IPP Clients and Printer
   objects.  When a character-set in the IANA registry has more than one
   name (alias), the name labeled as "(preferred MIME name)", if
   present, MUST be used.

   The maximum length of 'charset' values used to represent IPP
   attribute values is 63 octets.

   Some examples are:

   o  'utf-8': ISO 10646 Universal Multiple-Octet Coded Character Set
      (UCS) [ISO10646-1] represented as the UTF-8 [RFC3629] transfer
      encoding scheme in which US-ASCII [ASCII] is a subset charset.

   o  'us-ascii': 7-bit American Standard Code for Information
      Interchange (ASCII), ANSI X3.4-1986 [ASCII].  That standard
      defines US-ASCII, but RFC 2045 [RFC2045] eliminates most of the
      control characters from conformant usage in MIME and IPP.

   o  'iso-8859-1': 8-bit One-Byte Coded Character Set, Latin Alphabet
      Nr 1 [ISO8859-1].  That standard defines a coded character set
      that is used by Latin languages in the Western Hemisphere and
      Western Europe.  US-ASCII is a subset charset.

   Some attribute descriptions MAY place additional requirements on
   charset values that can be used, such as REQUIRED values that MUST be
   supported or additional restrictions, such as requiring that the
   charset have US-ASCII as a subset charset.

5.1.8.  'naturalLanguage'

   The 'naturalLanguage' attribute syntax is a standard identifier for a
   natural language and optionally a country.  The values for this
   syntax type are defined by RFC 1766 [RFC5646].  Though RFC 1766
   requires that the values be case-insensitive US-ASCII, IPP requires
   all lower case to simplify comparing by IPP Clients and Printer
   objects.  Examples include:

   o  'en': for English

   o  'en-us': for US English

   o  'fr': for French

   o  'de': for German



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   The maximum length of 'naturalLanguage' values used to represent IPP
   attribute values is 63 octets.

5.1.9.  'mimeMediaType'

   The 'mimeMediaType' attribute syntax is the Internet Media Type
   (sometimes called MIME type) as defined by RFC 2046 [RFC2046] and
   registered according to the procedures of RFC 2048 [RFC6838] for
   identifying a document format.  The value MAY include a charset, or
   other, parameter, depending on the specification of the Media Type in
   the IANA Registry [IANA-MT].  Although most other IPP syntax types
   allow for only lower-cased values, this syntax type allows for mixed-
   case values which are case-insensitive.

   Examples are:

   o  'text/html': An HTML document

   o  'text/plain': A plain text document in US-ASCII (RFC 2046
      indicates that in the absence of the charset parameter MUST mean
      US-ASCII rather than simply unspecified) [RFC2046].

   o  'text/plain; charset=US-ASCII': A plain text document in US-ASCII
      [52, 56].

   o  'text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1': A plain text document in ISO
      8859-1 (Latin 1) [ISO8859-1].

   o  'text/plain; charset=utf-8': A plain text document in ISO 10646
      represented as UTF-8 [RFC3629]

   o  'application/postscript': A PostScript document [RFC2046]

   o  'application/vnd.hp-PCL': A PCL document [IANA-MT] (charset escape
      sequence embedded in the document data)

   o  'application/pdf': Portable Document Format - see IANA MIME Media
      Type registry

   o  'application/octet-stream': Auto-sense - see Section 5.1.9.1

   The maximum length of a 'mimeMediaType' value to represent IPP
   attribute values is 255 octets.








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5.1.9.1.  Application/octet-stream -- Auto-Sensing the document format

   One special type is 'application/octet-stream'.  If the Printer
   object supports this value, the Printer object MUST be capable of
   auto-sensing the format of the document data using an implementation-
   dependent method that examines some number of octets of the document
   data, either as part of the create operation and/or at document
   processing time.  During auto-sensing, a Printer can determine that
   the document-data has a format that the Printer doesn't recognize.
   If the Printer determines this problem before returning an operation
   response, it rejects the request and returns the 'client-error-
   document-format-not-supported' status code.  If the Printer
   determines this problem after accepting the request and returning an
   operation response with one of the successful status codes, the
   Printer adds the 'unsupported-document-format' value to the job's
   "job-state-reasons" attribute.

   If the Printer object's default value attribute "document-format-
   default" is set to 'application/octet-stream', the Printer object not
   only supports auto-sensing of the document format, but will depend on
   the result of applying its auto-sensing when the Client does not
   supply the "document-format" attribute.  If the Client supplies a
   document format value, the Printer MUST rely on the supplied
   attribute, rather than trust its auto-sensing algorithm.  To
   summarize:

   1.  If the Client does not supply a document format value, the
       Printer MUST rely on its default value setting (which can be
       'application/octet-stream' indicating an auto-sensing mechanism).

   2.  If the Client supplies a value other than 'application/octet-
       stream', the Client is supplying valid information about the
       format of the document data and the Printer object MUST trust the
       Client supplied value more than the outcome of applying an
       automatic format detection mechanism.  For example, the Client
       can request the printing of a PostScript file as a 'text/plain'
       document.  The Printer object MUST print a text representation of
       the PostScript commands rather than interpret the stream of
       PostScript commands and print the result.

   3.  If the Client supplies a value of 'application/octet-stream', the
       Client is indicating that the Printer object MUST use its auto-
       sensing mechanism on the Client supplied document data whether
       auto-sensing is the Printer object's default or not.

   Note: Since the auto-sensing algorithm is probabilistic, if the
   Client requests both auto-sensing ("document-format" set to
   'application/octet-stream') and true fidelity ("ipp-attribute-



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   fidelity" set to 'true'), the Printer object might not be able to
   guarantee exactly what the end user intended (the auto-sensing
   algorithm might mistake one document format for another), but it is
   able to guarantee that its auto-sensing mechanism be used.

   When a Printer performs auto-sensing of a document in a submitted
   job, it is RECOMMENDED that the Printer indicate to the user that
   such auto-sensing has occurred and which document-format was auto-
   sensed by printing that information on the job's job-start-sheet.

5.1.10.  'octetString'

   The 'octetString' attribute syntax is a sequence of octets encoded in
   a maximum of 1023 octets which is indicated in sub-section headers
   using the notation: octetString(MAX).  This syntax type is used for
   opaque data.

5.1.11.  'boolean'

   The 'boolean' attribute syntax has only two values: 'true' and
   'false'.

5.1.12.  'integer'

   The 'integer' attribute syntax is an integer value that is in the
   range from -2**31 (MIN) to 2**31 - 1 (MAX).  Each individual
   attribute can specify the range constraint explicitly in sub-section
   headers if the range is different from the full range of possible
   integer values.  For example: job-priority (integer(1:100)) for the
   "job-priority" attribute.  However, the enforcement of that
   additional constraint is up to the IPP objects, not the protocol.

5.1.13.  'rangeOfInteger'

   The 'rangeOfInteger' attribute syntax is an ordered pair of integers
   that defines an inclusive range of integer values.  The first integer
   specifies the lower bound and the second specifies the upper bound.
   If a range constraint is specified in the header description for an
   attribute in this document whose attribute syntax is 'rangeOfInteger'
   (i.e., 'X:Y' indicating X as a minimum value and Y as a maximum
   value), then the constraint applies to both integers.

5.1.14.  'dateTime'

   The 'dateTime' attribute syntax is a standard, fixed length, 11 octet
   representation of the "DateAndTime" syntax as defined in RFC 2579
   [RFC2579].  RFC 2579 also identifies an 8 octet representation of a
   "DateAndTime" value, but IPP objects MUST use the 11 octet



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   representation.  A user interface will provide a mapping between
   protocol dateTime values and displayable user-friendly words or
   presentation values and phrases which are localized to the natural
   language and date format of the user, including time zone.

5.1.15.  'resolution'

   The 'resolution' attribute syntax specifies a two-dimensional
   resolution in the indicated units.  It consists of 3 values: a cross
   feed direction resolution (positive integer value), a feed direction
   resolution (positive integer value), and a units value.  The
   semantics of these three components are taken from the Printer MIB
   [RFC3805] suggested values.  That is, the cross feed direction
   component resolution component is the same as the
   prtMarkerAddressabilityXFeedDir object in the Printer MIB, the feed
   direction component resolution component is the same as the
   prtMarkerAddressabilityFeedDir in the Printer MIB, and the units
   component is the same as the prtMarkerAddressabilityUnit object in
   the Printer MIB (namely, '3' indicates dots per inch and '4'
   indicates dots per centimeter).  All three values MUST be present
   even if the first two values are the same.  Example: '300', '600',
   '3' indicates a 300 dpi cross-feed direction resolution, a 600 dpi
   feed direction resolution, since a '3' indicates dots per inch (dpi).

5.1.16.  'collection'

   The 'collection' attribute syntax is a container holding one or more
   named values (i.e., attributes), which are called member attributes.
   Each collection attribute definition document lists the mandatory and
   optional member attributes of each collection value.  A collection
   value is similar to an IPP attribute group in a request or a
   response, such as the operation attributes group - they both consist
   of a set of attributes.  Collections can also be nested, i.e., a
   collection in a collection.

   A collection value consists of three separate components:

   o  A 'begCollection' value with an optional octet string value
      starting the collection;

   o  Zero or more member attributes defined using a series of unnamed
      values starting with a 'memberAttrName' value that specifies the
      member attribute name; and

   o  A 'endCollection' value with optional name and octet string value
      finishing the collection.





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5.1.17.  '1setOf X'

   The '1setOf X' attribute syntax is 1 or more values of attribute
   syntax type X.  This syntax type is used for multi-valued attributes.
   The syntax type is called '1setOf' rather than just 'setOf' as a
   reminder that the set of values MUST NOT be empty (i.e., a set of
   size 0).  Sets are normally unordered.  However each attribute
   description of this type can specify that the values MUST be in a
   certain order for that attribute.

5.2.  Job Template Attributes

   Job Template attributes describe Job processing behavior.  Support
   for Job Template attributes by a Printer object is OPTIONAL (see
   Appendix B.2.3 for a description of support for OPTIONAL attributes).
   Also, Clients OPTIONALLY supply Job Template attributes in create
   requests.

   Job Template attributes conform to the following rules.  For each Job
   Template attribute called "xxx":

   1.  If the Printer object supports "xxx" then it MUST support both a
       "xxx-default" attribute (unless there is a "No" in the table
       below) and a "xxx-supported" attribute.  If the Printer object
       doesn't support "xxx", then it MUST support neither an "xxx-
       default" attribute nor an "xxx-supported" attribute, and it MUST
       treat an attribute "xxx" supplied by a Client as unsupported.  An
       attribute "xxx" can be supported for some document formats and
       not supported for other document formats.  For example, it is
       expected that a Printer object would only support "orientation-
       requested" for some document formats (such as 'text/plain' or
       'text/html') but not others (such as 'application/postscript').

   2.  "xxx" is OPTIONALLY supplied by the Client in a create request.
       If "xxx" is supplied, the Client is indicating a desired Job
       processing behavior for this Job. When "xxx" is not supplied, the
       Client is indicating that the Printer object apply its default
       Job processing behavior at Job processing time if the document
       content does not contain an embedded instruction indicating an
       xxx-related behavior.

       Since an administrator MAY change the default value attribute
       after a Job object has been submitted but before it has been
       processed, the default value used by the Printer object at Job
       processing time can be different that the default value in effect
       at Job submission time.





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   3.  The "xxx-supported" attribute is a Printer object attribute that
       describes which Job processing behaviors are supported by that
       Printer object.  A Client can query the Printer object to find
       out what xxx-related behaviors are supported by inspecting the
       returned values of the "xxx-supported" attribute.

       Note: The "xxx" in each "xxx-supported" attribute name is
       singular, even though an "xxx-supported" attribute usually has
       more than one value, such as "job-sheet-supported", unless the
       "xxx" Job Template attribute is plural, such as "finishings" or
       "sides".  In such cases the "xxx-supported" attribute names are:
       "finishings-supported" and "sides-supported".

   4.  The "xxx-default" default value attribute describes what will be
       done at Job processing time when no other Job processing
       information is supplied by the Client (either explicitly as an
       IPP attribute in the create request or implicitly as an embedded
       instruction within the document data).

   If an application wishes to present an end user with a list of
   supported values from which to choose, the application SHOULD query
   the Printer object for its supported value attributes.  The
   application SHOULD also query the default value attributes.  If the
   application then limits selectable values to only those value that
   are supported, the application can guarantee that the values supplied
   by the Client in the create request all fall within the set of
   supported values at the Printer.  When querying the Printer, the
   Client MAY enumerate each attribute by name in the Get-Printer-
   Attributes Request, or the Client MAY just name the "job-template"
   group in order to get the complete set of supported attributes (both
   supported and default attributes).

   The "finishings" attribute is an example of a Job Template attribute.
   It can take on a set of values such as 'staple', 'punch', and/or
   'cover'.  A Client can query the Printer object for the "finishings-
   supported" attribute and the "finishings-default" attribute.  The
   supported attribute contains a set of supported values.  The default
   value attribute contains the finishing value(s) that will be used for
   a new Job if the Client does not supply a "finishings" attribute in
   the create request and the document data does not contain any
   corresponding finishing instructions.  If the Client does supply the
   "finishings" attribute in the create request, the IPP object
   validates the value or values to make sure that they are a subset of
   the supported values identified in the Printer object's "finishings-
   supported" attribute.  See Section 4.1.7.

   The table below summarizes the names and relationships for all Job
   Template attributes.  The first column of the table (labeled "Job



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   Attribute") shows the name and syntax for each Job Template attribute
   in the Job object.  These are the attributes that can optionally be
   supplied by the Client in a create request.  The last two columns
   (labeled "Printer: Default Value Attribute" and "Printer: Supported
   Values Attribute") show the name and syntax for each Job Template
   attribute in the Printer object (the default value attribute and the
   supported values attribute).  A "No" in the table means the Printer
   MUST NOT support the attribute (that is, the attribute is simply not
   applicable).  For brevity in the table, the 'text' and 'name' entries
   do not show the maximum length for each attribute.

     +===================+======================+======================+
     | Job Attribute     |Printer: Default Value|  Printer: Supported  |
     |                   |   Attribute          |   Values Attribute   |
     +===================+======================+======================+
     | job-priority      | job-priority-default |job-priority-supported|
     | (integer 1:100)   | (integer 1:100)      |(integer 1:100)       |
     +-------------------+----------------------+----------------------+
     | job-hold-until    | job-hold-until-      |job-hold-until-       |
     | (type3 keyword |  |  default             | supported            |
     |    name)          |  (type3 keyword |    |(1setOf (             |
     |                   |    name)             |type3 keyword | name))|
     +-------------------+----------------------+----------------------+
     | job-sheets        | job-sheets-default   |job-sheets-supported  |
     | (type3 keyword |  | (type3 keyword |     |(1setOf (             |
     |    name)          |    name)             |type3 keyword | name))|
     +-------------------+----------------------+----------------------+
     |multiple-document- |multiple-document-    |multiple-document-    |
     | handling          | handling-default     |handling-supported    |
     | (type2 keyword)   | (type2 keyword)      |(1setOf type2 keyword)|
     +-------------------+----------------------+----------------------+
     | copies            | copies-default       | copies-supported     |
     | (integer (1:MAX)) | (integer (1:MAX))    | (rangeOfInteger      |
     |                   |                      |       (1:MAX))       |
     +-------------------+----------------------+----------------------+
     | finishings        | finishings-default   | finishings-supported |
     |(1setOf type2 enum)|(1setOf type2 enum)   |(1setOf type2 enum)   |
     +-------------------+----------------------+----------------------+
     | page-ranges       | No                   | page-ranges-         |
     | (1setOf           |                      | supported (boolean)  |
     |   rangeOfInteger  |                      |                      |
     |        (1:MAX))   |                      |                      |
     +-------------------+----------------------+----------------------+
     | sides             | sides-default        | sides-supported      |
     | (type2 keyword)   | (type2 keyword)      |(1setOf type2 keyword)|
     +-------------------+----------------------+----------------------+
     | number-up         | number-up-default    | number-up-supported  |
     | (integer (1:MAX)) | (integer (1:MAX))    |(1setOf (integer      |



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     |                   |                      | (1:MAX) |            |
     |                   |                      |  rangeOfInteger      |
     |                   |                      |   (1:MAX)))          |
     +-------------------+----------------------+----------------------+
     | orientation-      |orientation-requested-|orientation-requested-|
     |  requested        |  default             |  supported           |
     |   (type2 enum)    |  (type2 enum)        |  (1setOf type2 enum) |
     +-------------------+----------------------+----------------------+
     | media             | media-default        | media-supported      |
     | (type3 keyword |  | (type3 keyword |     |(1setOf (             |
     |    name)          |    name)             |type3 keyword | name))|
     |                   |                      |                      |
     |                   |                      | media-ready          |
     |                   |                      |(1setOf (             |
     |                   |                      |type3 keyword | name))|
     +-------------------+----------------------+----------------------+
     | printer-resolution| printer-resolution-  | printer-resolution-  |
     | (resolution)      |  default             | supported            |
     |                   | (resolution)         |(1setOf resolution)   |
     +-------------------+----------------------+----------------------+
     | print-quality     | print-quality-default| print-quality-       |
     | (type2 enum)      | (type2 enum)         | supported            |
     |                   |                      |(1setOf type2 enum)   |
     +-------------------+----------------------+----------------------+

5.2.1.  job-priority (integer(1:100))

   This attribute specifies a priority for scheduling the Job. A higher
   value specifies a higher priority.  The value 1 indicates the lowest
   possible priority.  The value 100 indicates the highest possible
   priority.  Among those Jobs that are ready to print, a Printer MUST
   print all Jobs with a priority value of n before printing those with
   a priority value of n-1 for all n.

   If the Printer object supports this attribute, it MUST always support
   the full range from 1 to 100.  No administrative restrictions are
   permitted.  This way an end-user can always make full use of the
   entire range with any Printer object.  If privileged Jobs are
   implemented outside IPP/1.1, they MUST have priorities higher than
   100, rather than restricting the range available to end-users.

   If the Client does not supply this attribute and this attribute is
   supported by the Printer object, the Printer object MUST use the
   value of the Printer object's "job-priority-default" at Job
   submission time (unlike most Job Template attributes that are used if
   necessary at Job processing time).





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   The syntax for the "job-priority-supported" is also integer(1:100).
   This single integer value indicates the number of priority levels
   supported.  The Printer object MUST take the value supplied by the
   Client and map it to the closest integer in a sequence of n integers
   values that are evenly distributed over the range from 1 to 100 using
   the formula:

      roundToNearestInt((100x+50)/n)

   where n is the value of "job-priority-supported" and x ranges from 0
   through n-1.

   For example, if n=1 the sequence of values is 50; if n=2, the
   sequence of values is: 25 and 75; if n = 3, the sequence of values
   is: 17, 50 and 83; if n = 10, the sequence of values is: 5, 15, 25,
   35, 45, 55, 65, 75, 85, and 95; if n = 100, the sequence of values
   is: 1, 2, 3, ... 100.

   If the value of the Printer object's "job-priority-supported" is 10
   and the Client supplies values in the range 1 to 10, the Printer
   object maps them to 5, in the range 11 to 20, the Printer object maps
   them to 15, etc.

5.2.2.  job-hold-until (type3 keyword | name (MAX))

   This attribute specifies the named time period during which the Job
   MUST become a candidate for printing.

   Standard keyword values for named time periods are:

   o  'no-hold': immediately, if there are not other reasons to hold the
      job

   o  'indefinite': - the Job is held indefinitely, until a Client
      performs a Release-Job (Section 4.3.6)

   o  'day-time': during the day

   o  'evening': evening

   o  'night': night

   o  'weekend': weekend

   o  'second-shift': second-shift (after close of business)

   o  'third-shift': third-shift (after midnight)




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   An administrator MUST associate allowable print times with a named
   time period (by means outside the scope of this IPP/1.1 document).
   An administrator is encouraged to pick names that suggest the type of
   time period.  An administrator MAY define additional values using the
   'name' or 'keyword' attribute syntax, depending on implementation.

   If the value of this attribute specifies a time period that is in the
   future, the Printer SHOULD add the 'job-hold-until-specified' value
   to the job's "job-state-reasons" attribute, MUST move the Job to the
   'pending-held' state, and MUST NOT schedule the Job for printing
   until the specified time-period arrives.

   When the specified time period arrives, the Printer MUST remove the
   'job-hold-until-specified' value from the job's "job-state-reason"
   attribute, if present.  If there are no other Job state reasons that
   keep the Job in the 'pending-held' state, the Printer MUST consider
   the Job as a candidate for processing by moving the Job to the
   'pending' state.

   If this Job attribute value is the named value 'no-hold', or the
   specified time period has already started, the Job MUST be a
   candidate for processing immediately.

   If the Client does not supply this attribute and this attribute is
   supported by the Printer object, the Printer object MUST use the
   value of the Printer object's "job-hold-until-default" at Job
   submission time (unlike most Job Template attributes that are used if
   necessary at Job processing time).

5.2.3.  job-sheets (type3 keyword | name(MAX))

   This attribute determines which Job start/end sheet(s), if any, MUST
   be printed with a Job.

   Standard keyword values are:

   o  'none': no Job sheet is printed

   o  'standard': one or more site specific standard Job sheets are
      printed, e.g. a single start sheet or both start and end sheet is
      printed

   An administrator MAY define additional values using the 'name' or
   'keyword' attribute syntax, depending on implementation.

   The effect of this attribute on Jobs with multiple documents MAY be
   affected by the "multiple-document-handling" Job attribute
   (Section 5.2.4), depending on the Job sheet semantics.



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5.2.4.  multiple-document-handling (type2 keyword)

   This attribute controls finishing operations and the placement of one
   or more print-stream pages into impressions and onto media sheets.
   When the value of the "copies" attribute exceeds 1, it also controls
   the order in which the copies that result from processing the
   documents are produced.  For the purposes of this explanations, if
   "a" represents an instance of document data, then the result of
   processing the data in document "a" is a sequence of media sheets
   represented by "a(*)".  This attribute MUST be supported with at
   least one value if the Printer supports multiple documents per Job
   (see Sections 4.2.4 and 4.3.1).

   Standard keyword values are:

   o  'single-document': If a Job object has multiple documents, say,
      the document data is called a and b, then the result of processing
      all the document data (a and then b) MUST be treated as a single
      sequence of media sheets for finishing operations; that is,
      finishing would be performed on the concatenation of the sequences
      a(*),b(*).  The Printer object MUST NOT force the data in each
      document instance to be formatted onto a new print-stream page,
      nor to start a new impression on a new media sheet.  If more than
      one copy is made, the ordering of the sets of media sheets
      resulting from processing the document data MUST be a(*), b(*),
      a(*), b(*), ..., and the Printer object MUST force each copy
      (a(*),b(*)) to start on a new media sheet.

   o  'separate-documents-uncollated-copies': If a Job object has
      multiple documents, say, the document data is called a and b, then
      the result of processing the data in each document instance MUST
      be treated as a single sequence of media sheets for finishing
      operations; that is, the sets a(*) and b(*) would each be finished
      separately.  The Printer object MUST force each copy of the result
      of processing the data in a single document to start on a new
      media sheet.  If more than one copy is made, the ordering of the
      sets of media sheets resulting from processing the document data
      MUST be a(*), a(*), ..., b(*), b(*) ... .

   o  'separate-documents-collated-copies': If a Job object has multiple
      documents, say, the document data is called a and b, then the
      result of processing the data in each document instance MUST be
      treated as a single sequence of media sheets for finishing
      operations; that is, the sets a(*) and b(*) would each be finished
      separately.  The Printer object MUST force each copy of the result
      of processing the data in a single document to start on a new
      media sheet.  If more than one copy is made, the ordering of the




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      sets of media sheets resulting from processing the document data
      MUST be a(*), b(*), a(*), b(*), ... .

   o  'single-document-new-sheet': Same as 'single-document', except
      that the Printer object MUST ensure that the first impression of
      each document instance in the Job is placed on a new media sheet.
      This value allows multiple documents to be stapled together with a
      single staple where each document starts on a new sheet.

   The 'single-document' value is the same as 'separate-documents-
   collated-copies' with respect to ordering of print-stream pages, but
   not media sheet generation, since 'single-document' will put the
   first page of the next document on the back side of a sheet if an odd
   number of pages have been produced so far for the job, while
   'separate-documents-collated-copies' always forces the next document
   or document copy on to a new sheet.  In addition, if the "finishings"
   attribute specifies 'staple', then with 'single-document', documents
   a and b are stapled together as a single document with no regard to
   new sheets, with 'single-document-new-sheet', documents a and b are
   stapled together as a single document, but document b starts on a new
   sheet, but with 'separate-documents-uncollated-copies' and 'separate-
   documents-collated-copies', documents a and b are stapled separately.

   Note: The value 'separate-documents-uncollated-copies' produces
   uncollated sheets within a document, e.g., when "copies" is '2' a two
   document Job will be printed as sheets a(1), a(1), a(2), ... a(n),
   a(n), b(1), b(1), ..., b(n), b(n).  All other values produce collated
   sheets within a document.

   The relationship of this attribute and the other attributes that
   control document processing is described in Appendix E.3.

5.2.5.  copies (integer(1:MAX))

   This attribute specifies the number of copies to be printed.

   On many devices the supported number of collated copies will be
   limited by the number of physical output bins on the device, and can
   be different from the number of uncollated copies which can be
   supported.

   Note: The effect of this attribute on Jobs with multiple documents is
   controlled by the "multiple-document-handling" Job attribute
   (Section 5.2.4) and the relationship of this attribute and the other
   attributes that control document processing is described in
   Appendix E.3.





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5.2.6.  finishings (1setOf type2 enum)

   This attribute identifies the finishing operations that the Printer
   uses for each copy of each printed document in the Job. For Jobs with
   multiple documents, the "multiple-document-handling" attribute
   determines what constitutes a "copy" for purposes of finishing.

   Standard enum values are:

   +-----------+-------------------------------------------------------+
   | Value     | Symbolic Name and Description                         |
   +-----------+-------------------------------------------------------+
   | '3'       | 'none':  Perform no finishing                         |
   +-----------+-------------------------------------------------------+
   | '4'       | 'staple':  Bind the document(s) with one or more      |
   |           | staples. The exact number and placement of the        |
   |           | staples is site-defined.                              |
   +-----------+-------------------------------------------------------+
   | '5'       | 'punch':  This value indicates that holes are         |
   |           | required in the finished document. The exact number   |
   |           | and placement of the holes is site-defined  The punch |
   |           | specification MAY be satisfied (in a site- and        |
   |           | implementation-specific manner) either by             |
   |           | drilling/punching, or by substituting pre-drilled     |
   |           | media.                                                |
   +-----------+-------------------------------------------------------+
   | '6'       | 'cover':  This value is specified when it is desired  |
   |           | to select a non-printed (or pre-printed) cover for    |
   |           | the document. This does not supplant the              |
   |           | specification of a printed cover (on cover stock      |
   |           | medium) by the document itself.                       |
   +-----------+-------------------------------------------------------+
   | '7'       | 'bind':  This value indicates that a binding is to be |
   |           | applied to the document; the type and placement of    |
   |           | the binding is site-defined.                          |
   +-----------+-------------------------------------------------------+
   | '8'       | 'saddle-stitch':  Bind the document(s) with one or    |
   |           | more staples (wire stitches) along the middle fold.   |
   |           | The exact number and placement of the staples and the |
   |           | middle fold is implementation and/or site-defined.    |
   +-----------+-------------------------------------------------------+
   | '9'       | 'edge-stitch':  Bind the document(s) with one or more |
   |           | staples (wire stitches) along one edge. The exact     |
   |           | number and placement of the staples is implementation |
   |           | and/or site-defined.                                  |
   +-----------+-------------------------------------------------------+
   | '10'-'19' | reserved for future generic finishing enum values.    |
   +-----------+-------------------------------------------------------+



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   The following values are more specific; they indicate a corner or an
   edge as if the document were a portrait document (see below):

   +-------+-----------------------------------------------------------+
   | Value | Symbolic Name and Description                             |
   +-------+-----------------------------------------------------------+
   | '20'  | 'staple-top-left':  Bind the document(s) with one or more |
   |       | staples in the top left corner.                           |
   +-------+-----------------------------------------------------------+
   | '21'  | 'staple-bottom-left':  Bind the document(s) with one or   |
   |       | more staples in the bottom left corner.                   |
   +-------+-----------------------------------------------------------+
   | '22'  | 'staple-top-right':  Bind the document(s) with one or     |
   |       | more staples in the top right corner.                     |
   +-------+-----------------------------------------------------------+
   | '23'  | 'staple-bottom-right':  Bind the document(s) with one or  |
   |       | more staples in the bottom right corner.                  |
   +-------+-----------------------------------------------------------+
   | '24'  | 'edge-stitch-left':  Bind the document(s) with one or     |
   |       | more staples (wire stitches) along the left edge. The     |
   |       | exact number and placement of the staples is              |
   |       | implementation and/or site-defined.                       |
   +-------+-----------------------------------------------------------+
   | '25'  | 'edge-stitch-top':  Bind the document(s) with one or more |
   |       | staples (wire stitches) along the top edge. The exact     |
   |       | number and placement of the staples is implementation     |
   |       | and/or site-defined.                                      |
   +-------+-----------------------------------------------------------+
   | '26'  | 'edge-stitch-right':  Bind the document(s) with one or    |
   |       | more staples (wire stitches) along the right edge. The    |
   |       | exact number and placement of the staples is              |
   |       | implementation and/or site-defined.                       |
   +-------+-----------------------------------------------------------+
   | '27'  | 'edge-stitch-bottom':  Bind the document(s) with one or   |
   |       | more staples (wire stitches) along the bottom edge. The   |
   |       | exact number and placement of the staples is              |
   |       | implementation and/or site-defined.                       |
   +-------+-----------------------------------------------------------+
   | '28'  | 'staple-dual-left':  Bind the document(s) with two        |
   |       | staples (wire stitches) along the left edge assuming a    |
   |       | portrait document (see above).                            |
   +-------+-----------------------------------------------------------+
   | '29'  | 'staple-dual-top':  Bind the document(s) with two staples |
   |       | (wire stitches) along the top edge assuming a portrait    |
   |       | document (see above).                                     |
   +-------+-----------------------------------------------------------+
   | '30'  | 'staple-dual-right':  Bind the document(s) with two       |
   |       | staples (wire stitches) along the right edge assuming a   |



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   |       | portrait document (see above).                            |
   +-------+-----------------------------------------------------------+
   | '31'  | 'staple-dual-bottom':  Bind the document(s) with two      |
   |       | staples (wire stitches) along the bottom edge assuming a  |
   |       | portrait document (see above).                            |
   +-------+-----------------------------------------------------------+

   The 'staple-xxx' values are specified with respect to the document as
   if the document were a portrait document.  If the document is
   actually a landscape or a reverse-landscape document, the Client
   supplies the appropriate transformed value.  For example, to position
   a staple in the upper left hand corner of a landscape document when
   held for reading, the Client supplies the 'staple-bottom-left' value
   (since landscape is defined as a +90 degree rotation of the image
   with respect to the media from portrait, i.e., anti-clockwise).  On
   the other hand, to position a staple in the upper left hand corner of
   a reverse-landscape document when held for reading, the Client
   supplies the 'staple-top-right' value (since reverse-landscape is
   defined as a -90 degree rotation of the image with respect to the
   media from portrait, i.e., clockwise).

   The angle (vertical, horizontal, angled) of each staple with respect
   to the document depends on the implementation which can in turn
   depend on the value of the attribute.

   Note: The effect of this attribute on Jobs with multiple documents is
   controlled by the "multiple-document-handling" Job attribute
   (Section 5.2.4) and the relationship of this attribute and the other
   attributes that control document processing is described in
   Appendix E.3.

   If the Client supplies a value of 'none' along with any other
   combination of values, it is the same as if only that other
   combination of values had been supplied (that is the 'none' value has
   no effect).

5.2.7.  page-ranges (1setOf rangeOfInteger (1:MAX))

   This attribute identifies the range(s) of print-stream pages that the
   Printer object uses for each copy of each document which are to be
   printed.  Nothing is printed for any pages identified that do not
   exist in the document(s).  Ranges MUST be in ascending order, for
   example: 1-3, 5-7, 15-19 and MUST NOT overlap, so that a non-spooling
   Printer object can process the Job in a single pass.  If the ranges
   are not ascending or are overlapping, the IPP object MUST reject the
   request and return the 'client-error-bad-request' status code.  The
   attribute is associated with print-stream pages not application-




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   numbered pages (for example, the page numbers found in the headers
   and or footers for certain word processing applications).

   For Jobs with multiple documents, the "multiple-document-handling"
   attribute determines what constitutes a "copy" for purposes of the
   specified page range(s).  When "multiple-document-handling" is
   'single-document', the Printer object MUST apply each supplied page
   range once to the concatenation of the print-stream pages.  For
   example, if there are 8 documents of 10 pages each, the page-range
   '41:60' prints the pages in the 5th and 6th documents as a single
   document and none of the pages of the other documents are printed.
   When "multiple-document-handling" is 'separate-documents-uncollated-
   copies' or 'separate-documents-collated-copies', the Printer object
   MUST apply each supplied page range repeatedly to each document copy.
   For the same job, the page-range '1:3, 10:10' would print the first 3
   pages and the 10th page of each of the 8 documents in the Job, as 8
   separate documents.

   In most cases, the exact pages to be printed will be generated by a
   device driver and this attribute would not be required.  However,
   when printing an archived document which has already been formatted,
   the end user can elect to print just a subset of the pages contained
   in the document.  In this case, if page-range = n.m is specified, the
   first page to be printed will be page n.  All subsequent pages of the
   document will be printed through and including page m.

   "page-ranges-supported" is a boolean value indicating whether or not
   the Printer is capable of supporting the printing of page ranges.
   This capability can differ from one PDL to another.  There is no
   "page-ranges-default" attribute.  If the "page-ranges" attribute is
   not supplied by the Client, all pages of the document will be
   printed.

   Note: The effect of this attribute on Jobs with multiple documents is
   controlled by the "multiple-document-handling" Job attribute
   (Section 5.2.4) and the relationship of this attribute and the other
   attributes that control document processing is described in
   Appendix E.3.

5.2.8.  sides (type2 keyword)

   This attribute specifies how print-stream pages are to be imposed
   upon the sides of an instance of a selected medium, i.e., an
   impression.

   The standard keyword values are:





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   o  'one-sided': imposes each consecutive print-stream page upon the
      same side of consecutive media sheets.

   o  'two-sided-long-edge': imposes each consecutive pair of print-
      stream pages upon front and back sides of consecutive media
      sheets, such that the orientation of each pair of print-stream
      pages on the medium would be correct for the reader as if for
      binding on the long edge.  This imposition is sometimes called
      'duplex' or 'head-to-head'.

   o  'two-sided-short-edge': imposes each consecutive pair of print-
      stream pages upon front and back sides of consecutive media
      sheets, such that the orientation of each pair of print-stream
      pages on the medium would be correct for the reader as if for
      binding on the short edge.  This imposition is sometimes called
      'tumble' or 'head-to-toe'.

   'two-sided-long-edge', 'two-sided-short-edge', 'tumble', and 'duplex'
   all work the same for portrait or landscape.  However 'head-to-toe'
   is 'tumble' in portrait but 'duplex' in landscape.  'head-to-head'
   also switches between 'duplex' and 'tumble' when using portrait and
   landscape modes.

   Note: The effect of this attribute on Jobs with multiple documents is
   controlled by the "multiple-document-handling" Job attribute
   (Section 5.2.4) and the relationship of this attribute and the other
   attributes that control document processing is described in
   Appendix E.3.

5.2.9.  number-up (integer(1:MAX))

   This attribute specifies the number of print-stream pages to impose
   upon a single side of an instance of a selected medium.  For example,
   if the value is:

















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   +-------+-----------------------------------------------------------+
   | Value | Description                                               |
   +-------+-----------------------------------------------------------+
   | '1'   | the Printer MUST place one print-stream page on a single  |
   |       | side of an instance of the selected medium (MAY add some  |
   |       | sort of translation, scaling, or rotation).               |
   +-------+-----------------------------------------------------------+
   | '2'   | the Printer MUST place two print-stream pages on a single |
   |       | side of an instance of the selected medium (MAY add some  |
   |       | sort of translation, scaling, or rotation).               |
   +-------+-----------------------------------------------------------+
   | '4'   | the Printer MUST place four print-stream pages on a       |
   |       | single side of an instance of the selected medium (MAY    |
   |       | add some sort of translation, scaling, or rotation).      |
   +-------+-----------------------------------------------------------+

   This attribute primarily controls the translation, scaling and
   rotation of print-stream pages.

   Note: The effect of this attribute on Jobs with multiple documents is
   controlled by the "multiple-document-handling" Job attribute
   (Section 5.2.4) and the relationship of this attribute and the other
   attributes that control document processing is described in
   Appendix E.3.

5.2.10.  orientation-requested (type2 enum)

   This attribute indicates the desired orientation for printed print-
   stream pages; it does not describe the orientation of the client-
   supplied print-stream pages.

   For some document formats (such as 'application/postscript'), the
   desired orientation of the print-stream pages is specified within the
   document data.  This information is generated by a device driver
   prior to the submission of the print Job. Other document formats
   (such as 'text/plain') do not include the notion of desired
   orientation within the document data.  In the latter case it is
   possible for the Printer object to bind the desired orientation to
   the document data after it has been submitted.  It is expected that a
   Printer object would only support "orientations-requested" for some
   document formats (e.g., 'text/plain' or 'text/html') but not others
   (e.g., 'application/postscript').  This is no different than any
   other Job Template attribute since Section 5.2, item 1, points out
   that a Printer object can support or not support any Job Template
   attribute based on the document format supplied by the Client.
   However, a special mention is made here since it is very likely that
   a Printer object will support "orientation-requested" for only a
   subset of the supported document formats.



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   Standard enum values are:

   +-------+-----------------------------------------------------------+
   | Value | Symbolic Name and Description                             |
   +-------+-----------------------------------------------------------+
   | '3'   | 'portrait':  The content will be imaged across the short  |
   |       | edge of the medium.                                       |
   +-------+-----------------------------------------------------------+
   | '4'   | 'landscape':  The content will be imaged across the long  |
   |       | edge of the medium. Landscape is defined to be a rotation |
   |       | of the print-stream page to be imaged by +90 degrees with |
   |       | respect to the medium (i.e. anti-clockwise) from the      |
   |       | portrait orientation. Note:  The +90 direction was chosen |
   |       | because simple finishing on the long edge is the same     |
   |       | edge whether portrait or landscape                        |
   +-------+-----------------------------------------------------------+
   | '5'   | 'reverse-landscape':  The content will be imaged across   |
   |       | the long edge of the medium. Reverse-landscape is defined |
   |       | to be a rotation of the print-stream page to be imaged by |
   |       | -90 degrees with respect to the medium (i.e. clockwise)   |
   |       | from the portrait orientation. Note: The 'reverse-        |
   |       | landscape' value was added because some applications      |
   |       | rotate landscape -90 degrees from portrait, rather than   |
   |       | +90 degrees.                                              |
   +-------+-----------------------------------------------------------+
   | '6'   | 'reverse-portrait':  The content will be imaged across    |
   |       | the short edge of the medium. Reverse-portrait is defined |
   |       | to be a rotation of the print-stream page to be imaged by |
   |       | 180 degrees with respect to the medium from the portrait  |
   |       | orientation. Note: The 'reverse-portrait' value was added |
   |       | for use with the "finishings" attribute in cases where    |
   |       | the opposite edge is desired for finishing a portrait     |
   |       | document on simple finishing devices that have only one   |
   |       | finishing position. Thus a 'text'/plain' portrait         |
   |       | document can be stapled "on the right" by a simple        |
   |       | finishing device as is common use with some middle        |
   |       | eastern languages such as Hebrew.                         |
   +-------+-----------------------------------------------------------+

   Note: The effect of this attribute on Jobs with multiple documents is
   controlled by the "multiple-document-handling" Job attribute
   (Section 5.2.4) and the relationship of this attribute and the other
   attributes that control document processing is described in
   Appendix E.3.







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5.2.11.  media (type3 keyword | name(MAX))

   This attribute identifies the medium that the Printer uses for all
   impressions of the Job.

   The values for "media" include medium-names, medium-sizes, input-
   trays and electronic forms so that one attribute specifies the media.
   If a Printer object supports a medium name as a value of this
   attribute, such a medium name implicitly selects an input-tray that
   contains the specified medium.  If a Printer object supports a medium
   size as a value of this attribute, such a medium size implicitly
   selects a medium name that in turn implicitly selects an input-tray
   that contains the medium with the specified size.  If a Printer
   object supports an input-tray as the value of this attribute, such an
   input-tray implicitly selects the medium that is in that input-tray
   at the time the Job prints.  This case includes manual-feed input-
   trays.  If a Printer object supports an electronic form as the value
   of this attribute, such an electronic form implicitly selects a
   medium-name that in turn implicitly selects an input-tray that
   contains the medium specified by the electronic form.  The electronic
   form also implicitly selects an image that the Printer MUST merge
   with the document data as its prints each page.

   Standard keyword values are taken from ISO DPA [ISO10175], the
   Printer MIB [RFC3805], and ASME-Y14.1M [ASME-Y14.1M] and are listed
   in Appendix D.  An administrator MAY define additional values using
   the 'name' or 'keyword' attribute syntax, depending on
   implementation.

   There is also an additional Printer attribute named "media-ready"
   which differs from "media-supported" in that legal values only
   include the subset of "media-supported" values that are physically
   loaded and ready for printing with no operator intervention required.

   The relationship of this attribute and the other attributes that
   control document processing is described in Appendix E.3.

5.2.12.  printer-resolution (resolution)

   This attribute identifies the resolution that Printer uses for the
   Job.

5.2.13.  print-quality (type2 enum)

   This attribute specifies the print quality that the Printer uses for
   the Job.

   The standard enum values are:



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    +-------+---------------------------------------------------------+
    | Value | Symbolic Name and Description                           |
    +-------+---------------------------------------------------------+
    | '3'   | 'draft': lowest quality available on the printer        |
    +-------+---------------------------------------------------------+
    | '4'   | 'normal': normal or intermediate quality on the printer |
    +-------+---------------------------------------------------------+
    | '5'   | 'high': highest quality available on the printer        |
    +-------+---------------------------------------------------------+

5.3.  Job Description Attributes

   The attributes in this section form the attribute group called "job-
   description".  The following table summarizes these attributes.  The
   third column indicates whether the attribute is a REQUIRED attribute
   that MUST be supported by Printer objects.  If it is not indicated as
   REQUIRED, then it is OPTIONAL.  The maximum size in octets for 'text'
   and 'name' attributes is indicated in parenthesizes.

   +----------------------------+----------------------+--------------+
   |      Attribute             |     Syntax           |  REQUIRED?   |
   +----------------------------+----------------------+--------------+
   | job-uri                    | uri                  |  REQUIRED    |
   +----------------------------+----------------------+--------------+
   | job-id                     | integer(1:MAX)       |  REQUIRED    |
   +----------------------------+----------------------+--------------+
   | job-printer-uri            | uri                  |  REQUIRED    |
   +----------------------------+----------------------+--------------+
   | job-more-info              | uri                  |              |
   +----------------------------+----------------------+--------------+
   | job-name                   | name (MAX)           |  REQUIRED    |
   +----------------------------+----------------------+--------------+
   | job-originating-user-name  | name (MAX)           |  REQUIRED    |
   +----------------------------+----------------------+--------------+
   | job-state                  | type1 enum           |  REQUIRED    |
   +----------------------------+----------------------+--------------+
   | job-state-reasons          | 1setOf type2 keyword |  REQUIRED    |
   +----------------------------+----------------------+--------------+
   | job-state-message          | text (MAX)           |              |
   +----------------------------+----------------------+--------------+
   | job-detailed-status-       | 1setOf text (MAX)    |              |
   |       messages             |                      |              |
   +----------------------------+----------------------+--------------+
   | job-document-access-errors | 1setOf text (MAX)    |              |
   +----------------------------+----------------------+--------------+
   | number-of-documents        | integer (0:MAX)      |              |
   +----------------------------+----------------------+--------------+
   | output-device-assigned     | name (127)           |              |



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   +----------------------------+----------------------+--------------+
   | time-at-creation           | integer (MIN:MAX)    |  REQUIRED    |
   +----------------------------+----------------------+--------------+
   | time-at-processing         | integer (MIN:MAX)    |  REQUIRED    |
   +----------------------------+----------------------+--------------+
   | time-at-completed          | integer (MIN:MAX)    |  REQUIRED    |
   +----------------------------+----------------------+--------------+
   | job-printer-up-time        | integer (1:MAX)      |  REQUIRED    |
   +----------------------------+----------------------+--------------+
   | date-time-at-creation      | dateTime             |              |
   +----------------------------+----------------------+--------------+
   | date-time-at-processing    | dateTime             |              |
   +----------------------------+----------------------+--------------+
   | date-time-at-completed     | dateTime             |              |
   +----------------------------+----------------------+--------------+
   | number-of-intervening-Jobs | integer (0:MAX)      |              |
   +----------------------------+----------------------+--------------+
   | job-message-from-operator  | text (127)           |              |
   +----------------------------+----------------------+--------------+
   | job-k-octets               | integer (0:MAX)      |              |
   +----------------------------+----------------------+--------------+
   | job-impressions            | integer (0:MAX)      |              |
   +----------------------------+----------------------+--------------+
   | job-media-sheets           | integer (0:MAX)      |              |
   +----------------------------+----------------------+--------------+
   | job-k-octets-processed     | integer (0:MAX)      |              |
   +----------------------------+----------------------+--------------+
   | job-impressions-completed  | integer (0:MAX)      |              |
   +----------------------------+----------------------+--------------+
   | job-media-sheets-completed | integer (0:MAX)      |              |
   +----------------------------+----------------------+--------------+
   | attributes-charset         | charset              |  REQUIRED    |
   +----------------------------+----------------------+--------------+
   | attributes-natural-language| naturalLanguage      |  REQUIRED    |
   +----------------------------+----------------------+--------------+

5.3.1.  job-uri (uri)

   This REQUIRED attribute contains the URI for the Job. The Printer
   object, on receipt of a new job, generates a URI which identifies the
   new Job. The Printer object returns the value of the "job-uri"
   attribute as part of the response to a create request.  The precise
   format of a Job URI is implementation dependent.  If the Printer
   object supports more than one URI and there is some relationship
   between the newly formed Job URI and the Printer object's URI, the
   Printer object uses the Printer URI supplied by the Client in the
   create request.  For example, if the create request comes in over a
   secure channel, the new Job URI MUST use the same secure channel.



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   This can be guaranteed because the Printer object is responsible for
   generating the Job URI and the Printer object is aware of its
   security configuration and policy as well as the Printer URI used in
   the create request.

   For a description of this attribute and its relationship to "job-id"
   and "job-printer-uri" attribute, see the discussion in Section 3.4 on
   "Object Identity".

5.3.2.  job-id (integer(1:MAX))

   This REQUIRED attribute contains the ID of the Job. The Printer, on
   receipt of a new job, generates an ID which identifies the new Job on
   that Printer.  The Printer returns the value of the "job-id"
   attribute as part of the response to a create request.  The 0 value
   is not included to allow for compatibility with SNMP index values
   which also cannot be 0.

   For a description of this attribute and its relationship to "job-uri"
   and "job-printer-uri" attribute, see the discussion in Section 3.4 on
   "Object Identity".

5.3.3.  job-printer-uri (uri)

   This REQUIRED attribute identifies the Printer object that created
   this Job object.  When a Printer object creates a Job object, it
   populates this attribute with the Printer object URI that was used in
   the create request.  This attribute permits a Client to identify the
   Printer object that created this Job object when only the Job
   object's URI is available to the Client.  The Client queries the
   creating Printer object to determine which languages, charsets,
   operations, are supported for this Job.

   For a description of this attribute and its relationship to "job-uri"
   and "job-id" attribute, see the discussion in Section 3.4 on "Object
   Identity".

5.3.4.  job-more-info (uri)

   Similar to "printer-more-info", this attribute contains the URI
   referencing some resource with more information about this Job
   object, perhaps an HTML page containing information about the Job.

5.3.5.  job-name (name(MAX))

   This REQUIRED attribute is the name of the Job. It is a name that is
   more user friendly than the "job-uri" attribute value.  It does not
   need to be unique between Jobs.  The Job's "job-name" attribute is



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   set to the value supplied by the Client in the "job-name" operation
   attribute in the create request (see Section 4.2.1.1).  If, however,
   the "job-name" operation attribute is not supplied by the Client in
   the create request, the Printer object, on creation of the Job, MUST
   generate a name.  The Printer SHOULD generate the value of the Job's
   "job-name" attribute from the first of the following sources that
   produces a value: 1) the "document-name" operation attribute of the
   first (or only) document, 2) the "document-URI" attribute of the
   first (or only) document, or 3) any other piece of Job specific and/
   or Document Content information.

5.3.6.  job-originating-user-name (name(MAX))

   This REQUIRED attribute contains the name of the end user that
   submitted the print Job. The Printer object sets this attribute to
   the most authenticated printable name that it can obtain from the
   authentication service over which the IPP operation was received.
   Only if such is not available, does the Printer object use the value
   supplied by the Client in the "requesting-user-name" operation
   attribute of the create operation (see Sections 4.4.2, 4.4.3, and 8).

   Note: The Printer object needs to keep an internal originating user
   id of some form, typically as a credential of a principal, with the
   Job object.  Since such an internal attribute is implementation-
   dependent and not of interest to clients, it is not specified as a
   Job Description attribute.  This originating user id is used for
   authorization checks (if any) on all subsequent operations.

5.3.7.  job-state (type1 enum)

   This REQUIRED attribute identifies the current state of the Job. Even
   though the IPP protocol defines seven values for Job states (plus the
   out-of-band 'unknown' value - see Section 5.1), implementations only
   need to support those states which are appropriate for the particular
   implementation.  In other words, a Printer supports only those Job
   states implemented by the output device and available to the Printer
   object implementation.

   Standard enum values are:

   +--------+----------------------------------------------------------+
   | Values | Symbolic Name and Description                            |
   +--------+----------------------------------------------------------+
   | '3'    | 'pending':  The Job is a candidate to start processing,  |
   |        | but is not yet processing.                               |
   +--------+----------------------------------------------------------+
   | '4'    | 'pending-held':  The Job is not a candidate for          |
   |        | processing for any number of reasons but will return to  |



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   |        | the 'pending' state as soon as the reasons are no longer |
   |        | present. The job's "job-state-reason" attribute MUST     |
   |        | indicate why the Job is no longer a candidate for        |
   |        | processing.                                              |
   +--------+----------------------------------------------------------+
   | '5'    | 'processing':  One or more of: 1. the Job is using, or   |
   |        | is attempting to use, one or more purely software        |
   |        | processes that are analyzing, creating, or interpreting  |
   |        | a PDL, etc., 2. the Job is using, or is attempting to    |
   |        | use, one or more hardware devices that are interpreting  |
   |        | a PDL, making marks on a medium, and/or performing       |
   |        | finishing, such as stapling, etc., 3. the Printer object |
   |        | has made the Job ready for printing, but the output      |
   |        | device is not yet printing it, either because the Job    |
   |        | hasn't reached the output device or because the Job is   |
   |        | queued in the output device or some other spooler,       |
   |        | awaiting the output device to print it.  When the Job is |
   |        | in the 'processing' state, the entire Job state includes |
   |        | the detailed status represented in the Printer object's  |
   |        | "printer-state", "printer-state-reasons", and "printer-  |
   |        | state-message" attributes.  Implementations MAY include  |
   |        | additional values in the job's "job-state-reasons"       |
   |        | attribute to indicate the progress of the job, such as   |
   |        | adding the 'job-printing' value to indicate when the     |
   |        | output device is actually making marks on paper and/or   |
   |        | the 'processing-to-stop-point' value to indicate that    |
   |        | the IPP object is in the process of canceling or         |
   |        | aborting the Job. Most implementations won't bother with |
   |        | this nuance.                                             |
   +--------+----------------------------------------------------------+
   | '6'    | 'processing-stopped':  The Job has stopped while         |
   |        | processing for any number of reasons and will return to  |
   |        | the 'processing' state as soon as the reasons are no     |
   |        | longer present.  The job's "job-state-reason" attribute  |
   |        | MAY indicate why the Job has stopped processing. For     |
   |        | example, if the output device is stopped, the 'printer-  |
   |        | stopped' value MAY be included in the job's "job-state-  |
   |        | reasons" attribute.  Note:  When an output device is     |
   |        | stopped, the device usually indicates its condition in   |
   |        | human readable form locally at the device. A Client can  |
   |        | obtain more complete device status remotely by querying  |
   |        | the Printer object's "printer-state", "printer-state-    |
   |        | reasons" and "printer-state-message" attributes.         |
   +--------+----------------------------------------------------------+
   | '7'    | 'canceled':  The Job has been canceled by a Cancel-Job   |
   |        | operation and the Printer object has completed canceling |
   |        | the Job and all Job status attributes have reached their |
   |        | final values for the Job. While the Printer object is    |



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   |        | canceling the job, the Job remains in its current state, |
   |        | but the job's "job-state-reasons" attribute SHOULD       |
   |        | contain the 'processing-to-stop-point' value and one of  |
   |        | the 'canceled-by-user', 'canceled-by-operator', or       |
   |        | 'canceled-at-device' value. When the Job moves to the    |
   |        | 'canceled' state, the  'processing-to-stop-point' value, |
   |        | if present, MUST be removed, but the 'canceled-by-xxx',  |
   |        | if present, MUST remain.                                 |
   +--------+----------------------------------------------------------+
   | '8'    | 'aborted':  The Job has been aborted by the system,      |
   |        | usually while the Job was in the 'processing' or         |
   |        | 'processing-stopped' state and the Printer has completed |
   |        | aborting the Job and all Job status attributes have      |
   |        | reached their final values for the Job. While the        |
   |        | Printer object is aborting the job, the Job remains in   |
   |        | its current state, but the job's "job-state-reasons"     |
   |        | attribute SHOULD contain the 'processing-to-stop-point'  |
   |        | and 'aborted-by-system' values. When the Job moves to    |
   |        | the 'aborted' state, the  'processing-to-stop-point'     |
   |        | value, if present, MUST be removed, but the 'aborted-by- |
   |        | system' value, if present, MUST remain.                  |
   +--------+----------------------------------------------------------+
   | '9'    | 'completed':  The Job has completed successfully or with |
   |        | warnings or errors after processing and all of the Job   |
   |        | media sheets have been successfully stacked in the       |
   |        | appropriate output bin(s) and all Job status attributes  |
   |        | have reached their final values for the Job. The job's   |
   |        | "job-state-reasons" attribute SHOULD contain one of:     |
   |        | 'completed-successfully', 'completed-with-warnings', or  |
   |        | 'completed-with-errors' values.                          |
   +--------+----------------------------------------------------------+

   The final value for this attribute MUST be one of: 'completed',
   'canceled', or 'aborted' before the Printer removes the Job
   altogether.  The length of time that Jobs remain in the 'canceled',
   'aborted', and 'completed' states depends on implementation.  See
   Section 5.3.7.2.

   The following figure shows the normal Job state transitions.












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                                                      +----> canceled
                                                     /
       +----> pending --------> processing ---------+------> completed
       |         ^                   ^               \
   --->+         |                   |                +----> aborted
       |         v                   v               /
       +----> pending-held    processing-stopped ---+

                       Figure 3 - IPP Job Life Cycle

   Normally a Job progresses from left to right.  Other state
   transitions are unlikely, but are not forbidden.  Not shown are the
   transitions to the 'canceled' state from the 'pending', 'pending-
   held', and 'processing-stopped' states.

   Jobs reach one of the three terminal states: 'completed', 'canceled',
   or 'aborted', after the Jobs have completed all activity, including
   stacking output media, after the Jobs have completed all activity,
   and all Job status attributes have reached their final values for the
   Job.

5.3.7.1.  Forwarding Servers

   As with all other IPP attributes, if the implementation cannot
   determine the correct value for this attribute, it SHOULD respond
   with the out-of-band value 'unknown' (see Section 5.1) rather than
   try to guess at some possibly incorrect value and give the end user
   the wrong impression about the state of the Job object.  For example,
   if the implementation is just a gateway into some printing system
   from which it can normally get status, but temporarily is unable,
   then the implementation should return the 'unknown' value.  However,
   if the implementation is a gateway to a printing system that never
   provides detailed status about the print job, the implementation MAY
   set the IPP Job object's state to 'completed', provided that it also
   sets the 'queued-in-device' value in the job's "job-state-reasons"
   attribute (see Section 5.3.8).

5.3.7.2.  Partitioning of Job States

   This section partitions the 7 Job states into phases: Job Not
   Completed, Job Retention, Job History, and Job Removal.  This section
   also explains the 'job-restartable' value of the "job-state-reasons"
   Job Description attribute for use with the Restart-Job operation.

   Job Not Completed: When a Job is in the 'pending', 'pending-held',
   'processing', or 'processing-stopped' states, the Job is not
   completed.




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   Job Retention: When a Job enters one of the three terminal Job
   states: 'completed', 'canceled', or 'aborted', the IPP Printer object
   MAY "retain" the Job in a restartable condition for an
   implementation-defined time period.  This time period MAY be zero
   seconds and MAY depend on the terminal Job state.  This phase is
   called Job Retention.  While in the Job Retention phase, the job's
   document data is retained and a Client can restart the Job using the
   Restart-Job operation.  If the IPP object supports the Restart-Job
   operation, then it SHOULD indicate that the Job is restartable by
   adding the 'job-restartable' value to the job's "job-state-reasons"
   attribute (see Section 5.3.8) during the Job Retention phase.

   Job History: After the Job Retention phase expires for a job, the
   Printer object deletes the document data for the Job and the Job
   becomes part of the Job History.  The Printer object MAY also delete
   any number of the Job attributes.  Since the Job is no longer
   restartable, the Printer object MUST remove the 'job-restartable'
   value from the job's "job-state-reasons" attribute, if present.

   Job Removal: After the Job has remained in the Job History for an
   implementation-defined time, such as when the number of Jobs exceeds
   a fixed number or after a fixed time period (which MAY be zero
   seconds), the IPP Printer removes the Job from the system.

   Using the Get-Jobs operation and supplying the 'not-completed' value
   for the "which-jobs" operation attribute, a Client is requesting Jobs
   in the Job Not Completed phase.  Using the Get-Jobs operation and
   supplying the 'completed' value for the "which-jobs" operation
   attribute, a Client is requesting Jobs in the Job Retention and Job
   History phases.  Using the Get-Job-Attributes operation, a Client is
   requesting a Job in any phase except Job Removal.  After Job Removal,
   the Get-Job-Attributes and Get-Jobs operations no longer are capable
   of returning any information about a Job.

5.3.8.  job-state-reasons (1setOf type2 keyword)

   This REQUIRED attribute provides additional information about the
   job's current state, i.e., information that augments the value of the
   job's "job-state" attribute.

   These values MAY be used with any Job state or states for which the
   reason makes sense.  Some of these value definitions indicate
   conformance requirements; the rest are OPTIONAL.  Furthermore, when
   implemented, the Printer MUST return these values when the reason
   applies and MUST NOT return them when the reason no longer applies
   whether the value of the Job's "job-state" attribute changed or not.
   When the Job does not have any reasons for being in its current




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   state, the value of the Job's "job-state-reasons" attribute MUST be
   'none'.

   Note: While values cannot be added to the 'job-state' attribute
   without impacting deployed Clients that take actions upon receiving
   "job-state" values, it is the intent that additional "job-state-
   reasons" values can be defined and registered without impacting such
   deployed clients.  In other words, the "job-state-reasons" attribute
   is intended to be extensible.

   The following standard keyword values are defined.  For ease of
   understanding, the values are presented in the order in which the
   reasons are likely to occur (if implemented), starting with the 'job-
   incoming' value:

   o  'none': There are no reasons for the job's current state.  This
      state reason is semantically equivalent to "job-state-reasons"
      without any value and MUST be used when there is no other value,
      since the 1setOf attribute syntax requires at least one value.

   o  'job-incoming': Either (1) the Printer has accepted the Create-Job
      operation and is expecting additional Send-Document and/or Send-
      URI operations, or (2) the Printer is retrieving/accepting
      document data as a result of a Print-Job, Print-URI, Send-Document
      or Send-URI operation.

   o  'job-data-insufficient': The Create-Job operation has been
      accepted by the Printer, but the Printer is expecting additional
      document data before it can move the Job into the 'processing'
      state.  If a Printer starts processing before it has received all
      data, the Printer removes the 'job-data-insufficient' reason, but
      the 'job-incoming' remains.  If a Printer starts processing after
      it has received all data, the Printer removes the 'job-data-
      insufficient' reason and the 'job-incoming' at the same time.

   o  'document-access-error': After accepting a Print-URI or Send-URI
      request, the Printer could not access one or more documents passed
      by reference.  This reason is intended to cover any file access
      problem, including file does not exist and access denied because
      of an access control problem.  The Printer MAY also indicate the
      document access error using the "job-document-access-errors" Job
      Description attribute (see Section 5.3.11).  Whether the Printer
      aborts the Job and moves the Job to the 'aborted' Job state or
      prints all documents that are accessible and moves the Job to the
      'completed' Job state and adds the 'completed-with-errors' value
      in the job's "job-state-reasons" attribute depends on
      implementation and/or site policy.  This value SHOULD be supported
      if the Print-URI or Send-URI operations are supported.



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   o  'submission-interrupted': The Job was not completely submitted for
      some unforeseen reason, such as: (1) the Printer has crashed
      before the Job was closed by the Client, (2) the Printer or the
      document transfer method has crashed in some non-recoverable way
      before the document data was entirely transferred to the Printer,
      (3) the Client crashed or failed to close the Job before the time-
      out period.  See Section 5.4.31.

   o  'job-outgoing': The Printer is transmitting the Job to the output
      device.

   o  'job-hold-until-specified': The value of the job's "job-hold-
      until" attribute was specified with a time period that is still in
      the future.  The Job MUST NOT be a candidate for processing until
      this reason is removed and there are no other reasons to hold the
      Job. This value SHOULD be supported if the "job-hold-until" Job
      Template attribute is supported.

   o  'resources-are-not-ready': At least one of the resources needed by
      the job, such as media, fonts, resource objects, etc., is not
      ready on any of the physical printer's for which the Job is a
      candidate.  This condition MAY be detected when the Job is
      accepted, or subsequently while the Job is pending or processing,
      depending on implementation.  The Job can remain in its current
      state or be moved to the 'pending-held' state, depending on
      implementation and/or Job scheduling policy.

   o  'printer-stopped-partly': The value of the Printer's "printer-
      state-reasons" attribute contains the value 'stopped-partly'.

   o  'printer-stopped': The value of the Printer's "printer-state"
      attribute is 'stopped'.

   o  'job-interpreting': Job is in the 'processing' state, but more
      specifically, the Printer is interpreting the document data.

   o  'job-queued': Job is in the 'processing' state, but more
      specifically, the Printer has queued the document data.

   o  'job-transforming': Job is in the 'processing' state, but more
      specifically, the Printer is interpreting document data and
      producing another electronic representation.

   o  'job-queued-for-marker': Job is in any of the 'pending-held',
      'pending', or 'processing' states, but more specifically, the
      Printer has completed enough processing of the document to be able
      to start marking and the Job is waiting for the marker.  Systems
      that require human intervention to release Jobs using the Release-



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      Job operation, put the Job into the 'pending-held' Job state.
      Systems that automatically select a Job to use the marker put the
      Job into the 'pending' Job state or keep the Job in the
      'processing' Job state while waiting for the marker, depending on
      implementation.  All implementations put the Job into (or back
      into) the 'processing' state when marking does begin.

   o  'job-printing': The output device is marking media.  This value is
      useful for Printers which spend a great deal of time processing
      (1) when no marking is happening and then want to show that
      marking is now happening or (2) when the Job is in the process of
      being canceled or aborted while the Job remains in the
      'processing' state, but the marking has not yet stopped so that
      impression or sheet counts are still increasing for the Job.

   o  'job-canceled-by-user': The Job was canceled by the owner of the
      Job using the Cancel-Job request, i.e., by a user whose
      authenticated identity is the same as the value of the originating
      user that created the Job object, or by some other authorized end-
      user, such as a member of the Job owner's security group.  This
      value SHOULD be supported.

   o  'job-canceled-by-operator': The Job was canceled by the operator
      using the Cancel-Job request, i.e., by a user who has been
      authenticated as having operator privileges (whether local or
      remote).  If the security policy is to allow anyone to cancel
      anyone's job, then this value can be used when the Job is canceled
      by other than the owner of the Job. For such a security policy, in
      effect, everyone is an operator as far as canceling Jobs with IPP
      is concerned.  This value SHOULD be supported if the
      implementation permits canceling by other than the owner of the
      Job.

   o  'job-canceled-at-device': The Job was canceled by an unidentified
      local user, i.e., a user at a console at the device.  This value
      SHOULD be supported if the implementation supports canceling Jobs
      at the console.

   o  'aborted-by-system': The Job (1) is in the process of being
      aborted, (2) has been aborted by the system and placed in the
      'aborted' state, or (3) has been aborted by the system and placed
      in the 'pending-held' state, so that a user or operator can
      manually try the Job again.  This value SHOULD be supported.

   o  'unsupported-compression': The Job was aborted by the system
      because the Printer determined while attempting to decompress the
      document-data's that the compression is actually not among those




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      supported by the Printer.  This value MUST be supported, since
      "compressions is a REQUIRED operation attribute.

   o  'compression-error': The Job was aborted by the system because the
      Printer encountered an error in the document-data while
      decompressing it.  If the Printer posts this reason, the document-
      data has already passed any tests that would have led to the
      'unsupported-compression' job-state-reason.

   o  'unsupported-document-format': The Job was aborted by the system
      because the document-data's document-format is not among those
      supported by the Printer.  If the Client specifies the document-
      format as 'application/octet-stream', the Printer MAY abort the
      Job and post this reason even though the format is a member of the
      "document-format-supported" Printer attribute, but not among the
      auto-sensed document-formats.  This value MUST be supported, since
      "document-format" is a REQUIRED operation attribute.

   o  'document-format-error': The Job was aborted by the system because
      the Printer encountered an error in the document-data while
      processing it.  If the Printer posts this reason, the document-
      data has already passed any tests that would have led to the
      'unsupported-document-format' job-state-reason.

   o  'processing-to-stop-point': The requester has issued a Cancel-Job
      operation or the Printer object has aborted the job, but is still
      performing some actions on the Job until a specified stop point
      occurs or Job termination/cleanup is completed.

   o  If the implementation requires some measurable time to cancel the
      Job in the 'processing' or 'processing-stopped' Job states, the
      IPP object MUST use this value to indicate that the Printer object
      is still performing some actions on the Job while the Job remains
      in the 'processing' or 'processing-stopped' state.  After all the
      job's Job description attributes have stopped incrementing, the
      Printer object moves the Job from the 'processing' state to the
      'canceled' or 'aborted' Job states.

   o  'service-off-line': The Printer is off-line and accepting no Jobs.
      All 'pending' Jobs are put into the 'pending-held' state.  This
      situation could be true if the service's or document transform's
      input is impaired or broken.

   o  'job-completed-successfully': The Job completed successfully.
      This value SHOULD be supported.






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   o  'job-completed-with-warnings': The Job completed with warnings.
      This value SHOULD be supported if the implementation detects
      warnings.

   o  'job-completed-with-errors': The Job completed with errors (and
      possibly warnings too).  This value SHOULD be supported if the
      implementation detects errors.

   o  'job-restartable' - This Job is retained (see Section 5.3.7.2) and
      is currently able to be restarted using the Restart-Job operation
      (see Section 4.3.7).  If 'job-restartable' is a value of the job's
      'job-state-reasons' attribute, then the IPP object MUST accept a
      Restart-Job operation for that Job. This value SHOULD be supported
      if the Restart-Job operation is supported.

   o  'queued-in-device': The Job has been forwarded to a device or
      print system that is unable to send back status.  The Printer sets
      the job's "job-state " attribute to 'completed' and adds the
      'queued-in-device' value to the job's "job-state-reasons"
      attribute to indicate that the Printer has no additional
      information about the Job and never will have any better
      information.  See Section 5.3.7.1.

5.3.9.  job-state-message (text(MAX))

   This attribute specifies information about the "job-state" and "job-
   state-reasons" attributes in human readable text.  If the Printer
   object supports this attribute, the Printer object MUST be able to
   generate this message in any of the natural languages identified by
   the Printer's "generated-natural-language-supported" attribute (see
   the "attributes-natural-language" operation attribute specified in
   Section 4.1.4.1).

   The value SHOULD NOT contain additional information not contained in
   the values of the "job-state" and "job-states-reasons" attributes,
   such as interpreter error information.  Otherwise, application
   programs might attempt to parse the (localized text).  For such
   additional information such as interpreter errors for application
   program consumption or specific document access errors, new
   attributes with keyword values, needs to be developed and registered.

5.3.10.  job-detailed-status-messages (1setOf text(MAX))

   This attribute specifies additional detailed and technical
   information about the Job. The Printer OPTIONALLY localizes the
   message(s), since they are intended for use by the system
   administrator or other experienced technical persons.  Localization
   might obscure the technical meaning of such messages.  Clients MUST



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   NOT attempt to parse the value of this attribute.  See "job-document-
   access-errors" (Section 5.3.11) for additional errors that a program
   can process.

5.3.11.  job-document-access-errors (1setOf text(MAX))

   This attribute provides additional information about each document
   access error for this Job encountered by the Printer after it
   returned a response to the Print-URI or Send-URI operation and
   subsequently attempted to access document(s) supplied in the Print-
   URI or Send-URI operation.  For errors in the protocol that is
   identified by the URI scheme in the "document-uri" operation
   attribute, such as 'http:' or 'ftp:', the error code is returned in
   parentheses, followed by the URI.  For example:

   (404) http://ftp.pwg.org/pub/pwg/ipp/new_MOD/ipp-model-v11-990510.pdf

   Most Internet protocols use decimal error codes (unlike IPP), so the
   ASCII error code representation is in decimal.

5.3.12.  number-of-documents (integer(0:MAX))

   This attribute indicates the number of documents in the job, i.e.,
   the number of Send-Document, Send-URI, Print-Job, or Print-URI
   operations that the Printer has accepted for this job, regardless of
   whether the document data has reached the Printer object or not.

   Implementations supporting the RECOMMENDED Create-Job/Send-Document/
   Send-URI operations SHOULD support this attribute so that Clients can
   query the number of documents in each Job.

5.3.13.  output-device-assigned (name(127))

   This attribute identifies the output device to which the Printer
   object has assigned this Job. If an output device implements an
   embedded Printer object, the Printer object OPTIONALLY sets this
   attribute.  If a print server implements a Printer object, the value
   MAY be empty (zero-length string) or not returned until the Printer
   object assigns an output device to the Job. This attribute is
   particularly useful when a single Printer object supports multiple
   devices (so called "fan-out" - see Section 3.1).

5.3.14.  Event Time Job Description Attributes

   This section defines the Job Description attributes that indicate the
   time at which certain events occur for a Job. If the Job event has
   not yet occurred, then the IPP object MUST return the 'no-value' out-
   of-band value (see the beginning of Section 5.1).  The "time-at-



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   xxx(integer)" attributes represent time as an 'integer' representing
   the number of seconds since the device was powered up (informally
   called "time ticks").  The "date-time-at-xxx(dateTime)" attributes
   represent time as 'dateTime' representing date and time (including an
   offset from UTC).

   In order to populate these attributes, the Printer object copies the
   value(s) of the following Printer Description attributes at the time
   the event occurs:

   1.  the value in the Printer's "printer-up-time" attribute for the
       "time-at-xxx(integer)" attributes

   2.  the value in the Printer's "printer-current-time" attribute for
       the "date-time-at-xxx(dateTime)" attributes.

   If the Printer resets its "printer-up-time" attribute to 1 on power-
   up (see Section 5.4.29) and has persistent jobs, then it MUST change
   all of jobs' "time-at-xxx(integer)" (time tick) Job attributes whose
   events have occurred either to:

   1.  0 to indicate that the event happened before the most recent
       power up OR

   2.  the negative of the number of seconds before the most recent
       power-up that the event took place, though the negative number
       OPTIONALLY reflects the exact number of seconds.

   If a Client queries a "time-at-xxx(integer)" time tick Job attribute
   and finds the value to be 0 or negative, the Client MUST assume that
   the event occurred in some life other than the Printer's current
   life.

   Note: A Printer does not change the values of any "date-time-at-
   xxx(dateTime)" Job attributes on power-up.

5.3.14.1.  time-at-creation (integer(MIN:MAX))

   This REQUIRED attribute indicates the time at which the Job object
   was created.

5.3.14.2.  time-at-processing (integer(MIN:MAX))

   This REQUIRED attribute indicates the time at which the Job object
   first began processing after the create operation or the most recent
   Restart-Job operation.  The out-of-band 'no-value' value is returned
   if the Job has not yet been in the 'processing' state (see the
   beginning of Section 5.1).



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5.3.14.3.  time-at-completed (integer(MIN:MAX))

   This REQUIRED attribute indicates the time at which the Job object
   completed (or was canceled or aborted).  The out-of-band 'no-value'
   value is returned if the Job has not yet completed, been canceled, or
   aborted (see the beginning of Section 5.1).

5.3.14.4.  job-printer-up-time (integer(1:MAX))

   This REQUIRED Job Description attribute indicates the amount of time
   (in seconds) that the Printer implementation has been up and running.
   This attribute is an alias for the "printer-up-time" Printer
   Description attribute (see Section 5.4.29).

   A Client MAY request this attribute in a Get-Job-Attributes or Get-
   Jobs request and use the value returned in combination with other
   requested Event Time Job Description Attributes in order to display
   time attributes to a user.  The difference between this attribute and
   the 'integer' value of a "time-at-xxx" attribute is the number of
   seconds ago that the "time-at-xxx" event occurred.  A Client can
   compute the wall-clock time at which the "time-at-xxx" event occurred
   by subtracting this difference from the client's wall-clock time.

5.3.14.5.  date-time-at-creation (dateTime)

   This attribute indicates the date and time at which the Job object
   was created.

5.3.14.6.  date-time-at-processing (dateTime)

   This attribute indicates the date and time at which the Job object
   first began processing after the create operation or the most recent
   Restart-Job operation.

5.3.14.7.  date-time-at-completed (dateTime)

   This attribute indicates the date and time at which the Job object
   completed (or was canceled or aborted).

5.3.15.  number-of-intervening-Jobs (integer(0:MAX))

   This attribute indicates the number of Jobs that are "ahead" of this
   Job in the relative chronological order of expected time to complete
   (i.e., the current scheduled order).  For efficiency, it is only
   necessary to calculate this value when an operation is performed that
   requests this attribute.





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5.3.16.  job-message-from-operator (text(127))

   This attribute provides a message from an operator, system
   administrator or "intelligent" process to indicate to the end user
   the reasons for modification or other management action taken on a
   Job.

5.3.17.  Job Size Attributes

   This sub-section defines Job attributes that describe the size of the
   Job. These attributes are not intended to be counters; they are
   intended to be useful routing and scheduling information if known.
   For these attributes, the Printer object can try to compute the value
   if it is not supplied in the create request.  Even if the Client does
   supply a value for these three attributes in the create request, the
   Printer object MAY choose to change the value if the Printer object
   is able to compute a value which is more accurate than the Client
   supplied value.  The Printer object can determine the correct value
   for these attributes either right at Job submission time or at any
   later point in time.

5.3.17.1.  job-k-octets (integer(0:MAX))

   This attribute specifies the total size of the document(s) in K
   octets, i.e., in units of 1024 octets requested to be processed in
   the Job. The value MUST be rounded up, so that a Job between 1 and
   1024 octets MUST be indicated as being 1, 1025 to 2048 MUST be 2,
   etc.

   This value MUST NOT include the multiplicative factors contributed by
   the number of copies specified by the "copies" attribute, independent
   of whether the device can process multiple copies without making
   multiple passes over the Job or document data and independent of
   whether the output is collated or not.  Thus the value is independent
   of the implementation and indicates the size of the document(s)
   measured in K octets independent of the number of copies.

   This value MUST also not include the multiplicative factor due to a
   copies instruction embedded in the document data.  If the document
   data actually includes replications of the document data, this value
   will include such replication.  In other words, this value is always
   the size of the source document data, rather than a measure of the
   hardcopy output to be produced.








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5.3.17.2.  job-impressions (integer(0:MAX))

   This attribute specifies the total size in number of impressions of
   the document(s) being submitted (see the definition of impression in
   Appendix B.2.5).

   As with "job-k-octets", this value MUST NOT include the
   multiplicative factors contributed by the number of copies specified
   by the "copies" attribute, independent of whether the device can
   process multiple copies without making multiple passes over the Job
   or document data and independent of whether the output is collated or
   not.  Thus the value is independent of the implementation and
   reflects the size of the document(s) measured in impressions
   independent of the number of copies.

   As with "job-k-octets", this value MUST also not include the
   multiplicative factor due to a copies instruction embedded in the
   document data.  If the document data actually includes replications
   of the document data, this value will include such replication.  In
   other words, this value is always the number of impressions in the
   source document data, rather than a measure of the number of
   impressions to be produced by the Job.

5.3.17.3.  job-media-sheets (integer(0:MAX))

   This attribute specifies the total number of media sheets to be
   produced for this Job.

   Unlike the "job-k-octets" and the "job-impressions" attributes, this
   value MUST include the multiplicative factors contributed by the
   number of copies specified by the "copies" attribute and a 'number of
   copies' instruction embedded in the document data, if any.  This
   difference allows the system administrator to control the lower and
   upper bounds of both (1) the size of the document(s) with "job-k-
   octets-supported" and "job-impressions-supported" and (2) the size of
   the Job with "job-media-sheets-supported".

5.3.18.  Job Progress Attributes

   This sub-section defines Job attributes that describe the progress of
   the Job. These attributes are intended to be counters.  That is, the
   value for a Job that has not started processing MUST be 0.  When the
   job's "job-state" is 'processing' or 'processing-stopped', this value
   is intended to contain the amount of the Job that has been processed
   to the time at which the attributes are requested.  When the Job
   enters the 'completed', 'canceled', or 'aborted' states, these values
   are the final values for the Job.




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5.3.18.1.  job-k-octets-processed (integer(0:MAX))

   This attribute specifies the total number of octets processed in K
   octets, i.e., in units of 1024 octets so far.  The value MUST be
   rounded up, so that a Job between 1 and 1024 octets inclusive MUST be
   indicated as being 1, 1025 to 2048 inclusive MUST be 2, etc.

   For implementations where multiple copies are produced by the
   interpreter with only a single pass over the data, the final value
   MUST be equal to the value of the "job-k-octets" attribute.  For
   implementations where multiple copies are produced by the interpreter
   by processing the data for each copy, the final value MUST be a
   multiple of the value of the "job-k-octets" attribute.

5.3.18.2.  job-impressions-completed (integer(0:MAX))

   This Job attribute specifies the number of impressions completed for
   the Job so far.  For printing devices, the impressions completed
   includes interpreting, marking, and stacking the output.

5.3.18.3.  job-media-sheets-completed (integer(0:MAX))

   This Job attribute specifies the media-sheets completed marking and
   stacking for the entire Job so far whether those sheets have been
   processed on one side or on both.

5.3.19.  attributes-charset (charset)

   This REQUIRED attribute is populated using the value in the Client
   supplied "attributes-charset" attribute in the create request.  It
   identifies the charset (coded character set and encoding method) used
   by any Job attributes with attribute syntax 'text' and 'name' that
   were supplied by the Client in the create request.  See Section 4.1.4
   for a complete description of the "attributes-charset" operation
   attribute.

   This attribute does not indicate the charset in which the 'text' and
   'name' values are stored internally in the Job object.  The internal
   charset is implementation-defined.  The IPP object MUST convert from
   whatever the internal charset is to that being requested in an
   operation as specified in Section 4.1.4.

5.3.20.  attributes-natural-language (naturalLanguage)

   This REQUIRED attribute is populated using the value in the Client
   supplied "attributes-natural-language" attribute in the create
   request.  It identifies the natural language used for any Job
   attributes with attribute syntax 'text' and 'name' that were supplied



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   by the Client in the create request.  See Section 4.1.4 for a
   complete description of the "attributes-natural-language" operation
   attribute.  See Sections 4.1.1.2 and 4.1.2.2 for how a Natural
   Language Override can be supplied explicitly for each 'text' and
   'name' attribute value that differs from the value identified by the
   "attributes-natural-language" attribute.

5.4.  Printer Description Attributes

   These attributes form the attribute group called "printer-
   description".  The following table summarizes these attributes, their
   syntax, and whether or not they are REQUIRED for a Printer object to
   support.  If they are not indicated as REQUIRED, they are OPTIONAL.
   The maximum size in octets for 'text' and 'name' attributes is
   indicated in parenthesizes.

   Note: How these attributes are set by an Administrator is outside the
   scope of this IPP/1.1 document.

   +----------------------------+---------------------------+----------+
   |      Attribute             |     Syntax                | REQUIRED?|
   +----------------------------+---------------------------+----------+
   | printer-uri-supported      | 1setOf uri                | REQUIRED |
   +----------------------------+---------------------------+----------+
   | uri-security-supported     | 1setOf type2 keyword      | REQUIRED |
   +----------------------------+---------------------------+----------+
   | uri-authentication-        | 1setOf type2 keyword      | REQUIRED |
   |     supported              |                           |          |
   +----------------------------+---------------------------+----------+
   | printer-name               | name (127)                | REQUIRED |
   +----------------------------+---------------------------+----------+
   | printer-location           | text (127)                |          |
   +----------------------------+---------------------------+----------+
   | printer-info               | text (127)                |          |
   +----------------------------+---------------------------+----------+
   | printer-more-info          | uri                       |          |
   +----------------------------+---------------------------+----------+
   | printer-driver-installer   | uri                       |          |
   +----------------------------+---------------------------+----------+
   | printer-make-and-model     | text (127)                |          |
   +----------------------------+---------------------------+----------+
   | printer-more-info-         | uri                       |          |
   | manufacturer               |                           |          |
   +----------------------------+---------------------------+----------+
   | printer-state              | type1 enum                | REQUIRED |
   +----------------------------+---------------------------+----------+
   | printer-state-reasons      | 1setOf type2 keyword      | REQUIRED |
   +----------------------------+---------------------------+----------+



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   | printer-state-message      | text (MAX)                |          |
   +----------------------------+---------------------------+----------+
   | ipp-versions-supported     | 1setOf type2 keyword      | REQUIRED |
   +----------------------------+---------------------------+----------+
   | operations-supported       | 1setOf type2 enum         | REQUIRED |
   +----------------------------+---------------------------+----------+
   | multiple-document-jobs-    | boolean                   |          |
   |     supported              |                           |          |
   +----------------------------+---------------------------+----------+
   | charset-configured         | charset                   | REQUIRED |
   +----------------------------+---------------------------+----------+
   | charset-supported          | 1setOf charset            | REQUIRED |
   +----------------------------+---------------------------+----------+
   | natural-language-configured| naturalLanguage           | REQUIRED |
   +----------------------------+---------------------------+----------+
   | generated-natural-language-| 1setOf naturalLanguage    | REQUIRED |
   | supported                  |                           |          |
   +----------------------------+---------------------------+----------+
   | document-format-default    | mimeMediaType             | REQUIRED |
   +----------------------------+---------------------------+----------+
   | document-format-supported  | 1setOf mimeMediaType      | REQUIRED |
   +----------------------------+---------------------------+----------+
   | printer-is-accepting-Jobs  | boolean                   | REQUIRED |
   +----------------------------+---------------------------+----------+
   | queued-job-count           | integer (0:MAX)           | REQUIRED |
   +----------------------------+---------------------------+----------+
   | printer-message-from-      | text (127)                |          |
   | operator                   |                           |          |
   +----------------------------+---------------------------+----------+
   | color-supported            | boolean                   |          |
   +----------------------------+---------------------------+----------+
   | reference-uri-schemes-     | 1setOf uriScheme          |          |
   |   supported                |                           |          |
   +----------------------------+---------------------------+----------+
   | pdl-override-supported     | type2 keyword             | REQUIRED |
   +----------------------------+---------------------------+----------+
   | printer-up-time            | integer (1:MAX)           | REQUIRED |
   +----------------------------+---------------------------+----------+
   | printer-current-time       | dateTime                  |          |
   +----------------------------+---------------------------+----------+
   | multiple-operation-time-out| integer (1:MAX)           |          |
   +----------------------------+---------------------------+----------+
   | compression-supported      | 1setOf type3 keyword      | REQUIRED |
   +----------------------------+---------------------------+----------+
   | job-k-octets-supported     | rangeOfInteger (0:MAX)    |          |
   +----------------------------+---------------------------+----------+
   | job-impressions-supported  | rangeOfInteger (0:MAX)    |          |
   +----------------------------+---------------------------+----------+



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   | job-media-sheets-supported | rangeOfInteger (0:MAX)    |          |
   +----------------------------+---------------------------+----------+
   | pages-per-minute           | integer(0:MAX)            |          |
   +----------------------------+---------------------------+----------+
   | pages-per-minute-color     | integer(0:MAX)            |          |
   +----------------------------+---------------------------+----------+

5.4.1.  printer-uri-supported (1setOf uri)

   This REQUIRED Printer attribute contains at least one URI for the
   Printer object.  It OPTIONALLY contains more than one URI for the
   Printer object.  An administrator determines a Printer object's
   URI(s) and configures this attribute to contain those URIs by some
   means outside the scope of this IPP/1.1 document.  The precise format
   of this URI is implementation dependent and depends on the protocol.
   See the next two sections for a description of the "uri-security-
   supported" and "uri-authentication-supported" attributes, both of
   which are the REQUIRED companion attributes to this "printer-uri-
   supported" attribute.  See Section 3.4 on Printer object identity and
   Section 9.2 on security and URIs for more information.

5.4.2.  uri-authentication-supported (1setOf type2 keyword)

   This REQUIRED Printer attribute MUST have the same cardinality
   (contain the same number of values) as the "printer-uri-supported"
   attribute.  This attribute identifies the Client Authentication
   mechanism associated with each URI listed in the "printer-uri-
   supported" attribute.  The Printer object uses the specified
   mechanism to identify the authenticated user (see Section 9.3).  The
   "i th" value in "uri-authentication-supported" corresponds to the "i
   th" value in "printer-uri-supported" and it describes the
   authentication mechanisms used by the Printer when accessed via that
   URI.  See [RFC2910bis] for more details on Client Authentication.

   The following standard keyword values are defined:

   o  'none': There is no authentication mechanism associated with the
      URI.  The Printer object assumes that the authenticated user is
      "anonymous".

   o  'requesting-user-name': When a Client performs an operation whose
      target is the associated URI, the Printer object assumes that the
      authenticated user is specified by the "requesting-user-name"
      Operation attribute (see Section 9.3).  If the "requesting-user-
      name" attribute is absent in a request, the Printer object assumes
      that the authenticated user is "anonymous".





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   o  'basic': When a Client performs an operation whose target is the
      associated URI, the Printer object challenges the Client with HTTP
      Basic authentication [HTTPAUTH-BASIC].  The Printer object assumes
      that the authenticated user is the name received via the Basic
      authentication mechanism.

   o  'digest': When a Client performs an operation whose target is the
      associated URI, the Printer object challenges the Client with HTTP
      Digest authentication [HTTPAUTH-DIGEST].  The Printer object
      assumes that the authenticated user is the name received via the
      Digest authentication mechanism.

   o  'certificate': When a Client performs an operation whose target is
      the associated URI, the Printer object expects the Client to
      provide a certificate.  The Printer object assumes that the
      authenticated user is the textual name contained within the
      certificate.

5.4.3.  uri-security-supported (1setOf type2 keyword)

   This REQUIRED Printer attribute MUST have the same cardinality
   (contain the same number of values) as the "printer-uri-supported"
   attribute.  This attribute identifies the security mechanisms used
   for each URI listed in the "printer-uri-supported" attribute.  The "i
   th" value in "uri-security-supported" corresponds to the "i th" value
   in "printer-uri-supported" and it describes the security mechanisms
   used for accessing the Printer object via that URI.  See [RFC2910bis]
   for more details on security mechanisms.

   The following standard keyword values are defined:

   o  'none': There are no secure communication channel protocols in use
      for the given URI.

   o  'tls': TLS [RFC5246] is the secure communications channel protocol
      in use for the given URI.

   This attribute is orthogonal to the definition of a Client
   Authentication mechanism.  Specifically, 'none' does not exclude
   Client Authentication.  See Section 5.4.2.

   Consider the following example.  For a single Printer object, an
   administrator configures the "printer-uri-supported", "uri-
   authentication-supported" and "uri-security-supported" attributes as
   follows:

      "printer-uri-supported": 'ipp://printer.example.com/ipp/print/
      open-use-printer', 'ipp://printer.example.com/ipp/print/



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      restricted-use-printer', 'ipps://printer.example.com/ipp/print/
      private-printer'

      "uri-authentication-supported": 'none', 'digest', 'basic'

      "uri-security-supported": 'none', 'none', 'tls'

   In this case, one Printer object has three URIs.

   o  For the first URI, 'ipp://printer.example.com/ipp/print/open-use-
      printer', the value 'none' in "uri-security-supported" indicates
      that there is no secure channel protocol configured to run under
      HTTP.  The value of 'none' in "uri-authentication-supported"
      indicates that all users are 'anonymous'.  There will be no
      challenge and the Printer will ignore "requesting-user-name".

   o  For the second URI, 'ipp://printer.example.com/ipp/print/
      restricted-use-printer', the value 'none' in "uri-security-
      supported" indicates that there is no secure channel protocol
      configured to run under HTTP.  The value of 'digest' in "uri-
      authentication-supported" indicates that the Printer will issue a
      challenge and that the Printer will use the name supplied by the
      digest mechanism to determine the authenticated user (see
      Section 9.3).

   o  For the third URI, 'ipps://printer.example.com/ipp/print/private-
      printer', the value 'tls' in "uri-security-supported" indicates
      that TLS is being used to secure the channel.  The Client SHOULD
      be prepared to use TLS framing to negotiate an acceptable
      ciphersuite to use while communicating with the Printer object.
      In this case, the name implies the use of a secure communications
      channel, but the fact is made explicit by the presence of the
      'tls' value in "uri-security-supported".  The Client does not need
      to resort to understanding which security it must use by following
      naming conventions or by parsing the URI to determine which
      security mechanisms are implied.  The value of 'basic' in "uri-
      authentication-supported" indicates that the Printer will issue a
      challenge and that the Printer will use the name supplied by the
      digest mechanism to determine the authenticated user (see
      Section 9.3).  Because this challenge occurs in a tls session, the
      channel is secure.

   It is expected that many IPP Printer objects will be configured to
   support only one channel (either configured to use TLS access or not)
   and only one authentication mechanism.  Such Printer objects only
   have one URI listed in the "printer-uri-supported" attribute.  No
   matter the configuration of the Printer object (whether it has only




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   one URI or more than one URI), a Client MUST supply only one URI in
   the target "printer-uri" operation attribute.

5.4.4.  printer-name (name(127))

   This REQUIRED Printer attribute contains the name of the Printer
   object.  It is a name that is more end-user friendly than a URI.  An
   administrator determines a printer's name and sets this attribute to
   that name.  This name can be the last part of the printer's URI or it
   can be unrelated.  In non-US-English locales, a name can contain
   characters that are not allowed in a URI.

5.4.5.  printer-location (text(127))

   This Printer attribute identifies the location of the device.  This
   could include things like: "in Room 123A, second floor of building
   XYZ".

5.4.6.  printer-info (text(127))

   This Printer attribute identifies the descriptive information about
   this Printer object.  This could include things like: "This Printer
   can be used for printing color transparencies for HR presentations",
   or "Out of courtesy for others, please print only small (1-5 page)
   Jobs at this printer", or even "This Printer is going away on July 1,
   please find a new printer".

5.4.7.  printer-more-info (uri)

   This Printer attribute contains a URI used to obtain more information
   about this specific Printer object.  For example, this could be an
   HTTP type URI referencing an HTML page accessible to a Web Browser.
   The information obtained from this URI is intended for end user
   consumption.  Features outside the scope of IPP can be accessed from
   this URI.  The information is intended to be specific to this Printer
   instance and site specific services (e.g.  Job pricing, services
   offered, end user assistance).  The device manufacturer can initially
   populate this attribute.

5.4.8.  printer-driver-installer (uri)

   This Printer attribute contains a URI to use to locate the driver
   installer for this Printer object.  This attribute is intended for
   consumption by automata.  The mechanics of print driver installation
   is outside the scope of this IPP/1.1 document.  The device
   manufacturer can initially populate this attribute.





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5.4.9.  printer-make-and-model (text(127))

   This Printer attribute identifies the make and model of the device.
   The device manufacturer can initially populate this attribute.

5.4.10.  printer-more-info-manufacturer (uri)

   This Printer attribute contains a URI used to obtain more information
   about this type of device.  The information obtained from this URI is
   intended for end user consumption.  Features outside the scope of IPP
   can be accessed from this URI (e.g., latest firmware, upgrades, print
   drivers, optional features available, details on color support).  The
   information is intended to be germane to this Printer without regard
   to site specific modifications or services.  The device manufacturer
   can initially populate this attribute.

5.4.11.  printer-state (type1 enum)

   This REQUIRED Printer attribute identifies the current state of the
   device.  The "printer-state reasons" attribute augments the "printer-
   state" attribute to give more detailed information about the Printer
   in the given Printer state.

   A Printer object need only update this attribute before responding to
   an operation which requests the attribute; the Printer object
   OPTIONALLY updates this attribute continually, since asynchronous
   event notification is not part of this specification.

   The following standard enum values are defined:

   +-------+-----------------------------------------------------------+
   | Value | Symbolic Name and Description                             |
   +-------+-----------------------------------------------------------+
   | '3'   | 'idle':  Indicates that new Jobs can start processing     |
   |       | without waiting.                                          |
   +-------+-----------------------------------------------------------+
   | '4'   | 'processing':  Indicates that Jobs are processing; new    |
   |       | Jobs will wait before processing.                         |
   +-------+-----------------------------------------------------------+
   | '5'   | 'stopped':  Indicates that no Jobs can be processed and   |
   |       | intervention is required.                                 |
   +-------+-----------------------------------------------------------+

   Values of "printer-state-reasons", such as 'spool-area-full' and
   'stopped-partly', MAY be used to provide further information.






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5.4.12.  printer-state-reasons (1setOf type2 keyword)

   This REQUIRED Printer attribute supplies additional detail about the
   device's state.  Some of the these value definitions indicate
   conformance requirements; the rest are OPTIONAL.

   Each keyword value MAY have a suffix to indicate its level of
   severity.  The three levels are: report (least severe), warning, and
   error (most severe).

   o  '-report': This suffix indicates that the reason is a "report".
      An implementation can choose to omit some or all reports.  Some
      reports specify finer granularity about the Printer state; others
      serve as a precursor to a warning.  A report MUST contain nothing
      that could affect the printed output.

   o  '-warning': This suffix indicates that the reason is a "warning".
      An implementation can choose to omit some or all warnings.
      Warnings serve as a precursor to an error.  A warning MUST contain
      nothing that prevents a Job from completing, though in some cases
      the output can be of lower quality.

   o  '-error': This suffix indicates that the reason is an "error".  An
      implementation MUST include all errors.  If this attribute
      contains one or more errors, Printer MUST be in the stopped state.

   If the implementation does not add any one of the three suffixes, all
   parties MUST assume that the reason is an "error".

   If a Printer object controls more than one output device, each value
   of this attribute MAY apply to one or more of the output devices.  An
   error on one output device that does not stop the Printer object as a
   whole MAY appear as a warning in the Printer's "printer-state-reasons
   attribute".  If the "printer-state" for such a Printer has a value of
   'stopped', then there MUST be an error reason among the values in the
   "printer-state-reasons" attribute.

   The following standard keyword values are defined:

   o  'other': The device has detected an error other than one listed in
      this document.

   o  'none': There are not reasons.  This state reason is semantically
      equivalent to "printer-state-reasons" without any value and MUST
      be used, since the 1setOf attribute syntax requires at least one
      value.

   o  'media-needed': A tray has run out of media.



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   o  'media-jam': The device has a media jam.

   o  'moving-to-paused': Someone has paused the Printer object using
      the Pause-Printer operation (see Section 4.2.7) or other means,
      but the device(s) are taking an appreciable time to stop.  Later,
      when all output has stopped, the "printer-state" becomes
      'stopped', and the 'paused' value replaces the 'moving-to-paused'
      value in the "printer-state-reasons" attribute.  This value MUST
      be supported, if the Pause-Printer operation is supported and the
      implementation takes significant time to pause a device in certain
      circumstances.

   o  'paused': Someone has paused the Printer object using the Pause-
      Printer operation (see Section 4.2.7) or other means and the
      Printer object's "printer-state" is 'stopped'.  In this state, a
      Printer MUST NOT produce printed output, but it MUST perform other
      operations requested by a Client.  If a Printer had been printing
      a Job when the Printer was paused, the Printer MUST resume
      printing that Job when the Printer is no longer paused and leave
      no evidence in the printed output of such a pause.  This value
      MUST be supported, if the Pause-Printer operation is supported.

   o  'shutdown': Someone has removed a Printer object from service, and
      the device can be powered down or physically removed.  In this
      state, a Printer object MUST NOT produce printed output, and
      unless the Printer object is realized by a print server that is
      still active, the Printer object MUST perform no other operations
      requested by a Client, including returning this value.  If a
      Printer object had been printing a Job when it was shutdown, the
      Printer OPTIONALLY resumes printing that Job when the Printer is
      no longer shutdown.  If the Printer resumes printing such a job,
      it can leave evidence in the printed output of such a shutdown,
      e.g. the part printed before the shutdown can be printed a second
      time after the shutdown.

   o  'connecting-to-device': The Printer object has scheduled a Job on
      the output device and is in the process of connecting to a shared
      network output device (and might not be able to actually start
      printing the Job for an arbitrarily long time depending on the
      usage of the output device by other servers on the network).

   o  'timed-out': The server was able to connect to the output device
      (or is always connected), but was unable to get a response from
      the output device.

   o  'stopping': The Printer object is in the process of stopping the
      device and will be stopped in a while.  When the device is
      stopped, the Printer object will change the Printer object's state



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      to 'stopped'.  The 'stopping-warning' reason is never an error,
      even for a Printer with a single output device.  When an output-
      device ceases accepting jobs, the Printer will have this reason
      while the output device completes printing.

   o  'stopped-partly': When a Printer object controls more than one
      output device, this reason indicates that one or more output
      devices are stopped.  If the reason is a report, fewer than half
      of the output devices are stopped.  If the reason is a warning,
      fewer than all of the output devices are stopped.

   o  'toner-low': The device is low on toner.

   o  'toner-empty': The device is out of toner.

   o  'spool-area-full': The limit of persistent storage allocated for
      spooling has been reached.  The Printer is temporarily unable to
      accept more Jobs.  The Printer will remove this value when it is
      able to accept more Jobs.  This value SHOULD be used by a non-
      spooling Printer that only accepts one or a small number Jobs at a
      time or a spooling Printer that has filled the spool space.

   o  'cover-open': One or more covers on the device are open.

   o  'interlock-open': One or more interlock devices on the printer are
      unlocked.

   o  'door-open': One or more doors on the device are open.

   o  'input-tray-missing': One or more input trays are not in the
      device.

   o  'media-low': At least one input tray is low on media.

   o  'media-empty': At least one input tray is empty.

   o  'output-tray-missing': One or more output trays are not in the
      device

   o  'output-area-almost-full': One or more output area is almost full
      (e.g. tray, stacker, collator).

   o  'output-area-full': One or more output area is full. (e.g. tray,
      stacker, collator)

   o  'marker-supply-low': The device is low on at least one marker
      supply. (e.g. toner, ink, ribbon)




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   o  'marker-supply-empty: The device is out of at least one marker
      supply. (e.g. toner, ink, ribbon)

   o  'marker-waste-almost-full': The device marker supply waste
      receptacle is almost full.

   o  'marker-waste-full': The device marker supply waste receptacle is
      full.

   o  'fuser-over-temp': The fuser temperature is above normal.

   o  'fuser-under-temp': The fuser temperature is below normal.

   o  'opc-near-eol': The optical photo conductor is near end of life.

   o  'opc-life-over': The optical photo conductor is no longer
      functioning.

   o  'developer-low': The device is low on developer.

   o  'developer-empty: The device is out of developer.

   o  'interpreter-resource-unavailable': An interpreter resource is
      unavailable (i.e. font, form)

5.4.13.  printer-state-message (text(MAX))

   This Printer attribute specifies information about the "printer-
   state" and "printer-state-reasons" attributes in human readable text.
   If the Printer object supports this attribute, the Printer object
   MUST be able to generate this message in any of the natural languages
   identified by the Printer's "generated-natural-language-supported"
   attribute (see the "attributes-natural-language" operation attribute
   specified in Section 4.1.4.1).

5.4.14.  ipp-versions-supported (1setOf type2 keyword)

   This REQUIRED attribute identifies the IPP protocol version(s) that
   this Printer supports, including major and minor versions, i.e., the
   version numbers for which this Printer implementation meets the
   conformance requirements.  For version number validation, the Printer
   matches the (two-octet binary) "version-number" parameter supplied by
   the Client in each request (see sections 3.1.1 and 3.1.8) with the
   (US-ASCII) keyword values of this attribute.

   The following standard keyword values are defined:





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   o  '1.0': Meets the conformance requirement of IPP version 1.0 as
      specified in RFC 2566 [RFC2566] and RFC 2565 [RFC2565] including
      any extensions registered according to Section 7 and any extension
      defined in this version or any future version of the IPP "Model
      and Semantics" document or the IPP "Encoding and Transport"
      document following the rules, if any, when the "version-number"
      parameter is '1.0'.

   o  '1.1': Meets the conformance requirement of IPP version 1.1 as
      specified in this document and [RFC2910bis] including any
      extensions registered according to Section 7 and any extension
      defined in any future versions of the IPP "Model and Semantics"
      document or the IPP Encoding and Transport document following the
      rules, if any, when the "version-number" parameter is '1.1'.

5.4.15.  operations-supported (1setOf type2 enum)

   This REQUIRED Printer attribute specifies the set of supported
   operations for this Printer object and contained Job objects.

   This attribute is encoded as any other enum attribute syntax
   according to [RFC2910bis] as 32-bits.  However, all 32-bit enum
   values for this attribute MUST NOT exceed 0x00008FFF, since these
   same values are also passed in two octets in the "operation-id"
   parameter (see Section 4.1.1) in each Protocol request with the two
   high order octets omitted in order to indicate the operation being
   performed [RFC2910bis].

   The following standard enum and "operation-id" (see Section 4.1.2)
   values are defined:





















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   +---------------+---------------------------------------------------+
   | Value         | Operation Name                                    |
   +---------------+---------------------------------------------------+
   | 0x0000        | reserved, not used                                |
   +---------------+---------------------------------------------------+
   | 0x0001        | reserved, not used                                |
   +---------------+---------------------------------------------------+
   | 0x0002        | Print-Job                                         |
   +---------------+---------------------------------------------------+
   | 0x0003        | Print-URI                                         |
   +---------------+---------------------------------------------------+
   | 0x0004        | Validate-Job                                      |
   +---------------+---------------------------------------------------+
   | 0x0005        | Create-Job                                        |
   +---------------+---------------------------------------------------+
   | 0x0006        | Send-Document                                     |
   +---------------+---------------------------------------------------+
   | 0x0007        | Send-URI                                          |
   +---------------+---------------------------------------------------+
   | 0x0008        | Cancel-Job                                        |
   +---------------+---------------------------------------------------+
   | 0x0009        | Get-Job-Attributes                                |
   +---------------+---------------------------------------------------+
   | 0x000A        | Get-Jobs                                          |
   +---------------+---------------------------------------------------+
   | 0x000B        | Get-Printer-Attributes                            |
   +---------------+---------------------------------------------------+
   | 0x000C        | Hold-Job                                          |
   +---------------+---------------------------------------------------+
   | 0x000D        | Release-Job                                       |
   +---------------+---------------------------------------------------+
   | 0x000E        | Restart-Job                                       |
   +---------------+---------------------------------------------------+
   | 0x000F        | reserved for a future operation                   |
   +---------------+---------------------------------------------------+
   | 0x0010        | Pause-Printer                                     |
   +---------------+---------------------------------------------------+
   | 0x0011        | Resume-Printer                                    |
   +---------------+---------------------------------------------------+
   | 0x0012        | Purge-Jobs                                        |
   +---------------+---------------------------------------------------+
   | 0x0013-0x3FFF | reserved for future IETF standards track          |
   |               | operations (see Section 7.4)                      |
   +---------------+---------------------------------------------------+
   | 0x4000-0x7FFF | reserved for vendor extensions (see Section 7.4)  |
   +---------------+---------------------------------------------------+





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5.4.16.  multiple-document-jobs-supported (boolean)

   This Printer attribute indicates whether or not the Printer supports
   more than one document per job, i.e., more than one Send-Document or
   Send-Data operation with document data.  If the Printer supports the
   Create-Job and Send-Document operations (see Section 4.2.4 and
   3.3.1), it MUST support this attribute.

5.4.17.  charset-configured (charset)

   This REQUIRED Printer attribute identifies the charset that the
   Printer object has been configured to represent 'text' and 'name'
   Printer attributes that are set by the operator, system
   administrator, or manufacturer, i.e., for "printer-name" (name),
   "printer-location" (text), "printer-info" (text), and "printer-make-
   and-model" (text).  Therefore, the value of the Printer object's
   "charset-configured" attribute MUST also be among the values of the
   Printer object's "charset-supported" attribute.

5.4.18.  charset-supported (1setOf charset)

   This REQUIRED Printer attribute identifies the set of charsets that
   the Printer and contained Job objects support in attributes with
   attribute syntax 'text' and 'name'.  At least the value 'utf-8' MUST
   be present, since IPP objects MUST support the UTF-8 [RFC3629]
   charset.  If a Printer object supports a charset, it means that for
   all attributes of syntax 'text' and 'name' the IPP object MUST (1)
   accept the charset in requests and return the charset in responses as
   needed.

   If more charsets than UTF-8 are supported, the IPP object MUST
   perform charset conversion between the charsets as described in
   Section 4.1.4.2.

5.4.19.  natural-language-configured (naturalLanguage)

   This REQUIRED Printer attribute identifies the natural language that
   the Printer object has been configured to represent 'text' and 'name'
   Printer attributes that are set by the operator, system
   administrator, or manufacturer, i.e., for "printer-name" (name),
   "printer-location" (text), "printer-info" (text), and "printer-make-
   and-model" (text).  When returning these Printer attributes, the
   Printer object MAY return them in the configured natural language
   specified by this attribute, instead of the natural language
   requested by the Client in the "attributes-natural-language"
   operation attribute.  See Section 4.1.4.1 for the specification of
   the OPTIONAL multiple natural language support.  Therefore, the value
   of the Printer object's "natural-language-configured" attribute MUST



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   also be among the values of the Printer object's "generated-natural-
   language-supported" attribute.

5.4.20.  generated-natural-language-supported (1setOf naturalLanguage)

   This REQUIRED Printer attribute identifies the natural language(s)
   that the Printer object and contained Job objects support in
   attributes with attribute syntax 'text' and 'name'.  The natural
   language(s) supported depends on implementation and/or configuration.
   Unlike charsets, IPP objects MUST accept requests with any natural
   language or any Natural Language Override whether the natural
   language is supported or not.

   If a Printer object supports a natural language, it means that for
   any of the attributes for which the Printer or Job object generates
   messages, i.e., for the "job-state-message" and "printer-state-
   message" attributes and Operation Messages (see Section 4.1.5) in
   operation responses, the Printer and Job objects MUST be able to
   generate messages in any of the Printer's supported natural
   languages.  See Section 4.1.4 for the definition of 'text' and 'name'
   attributes in operation requests and responses.

   Note: A Printer object that supports multiple natural languages,
   often has separate catalogs of messages, one for each natural
   language supported.

5.4.21.  document-format-default (mimeMediaType)

   This REQUIRED Printer attribute identifies the document format that
   the Printer object has been configured to assume if the Client does
   not supply a "document-format" operation attribute in any of the
   operation requests that supply document data.  The standard values
   for this attribute are Internet Media types (sometimes called MIME
   types).  For further details see the description of the
   'mimeMediaType' attribute syntax in Section 5.1.9.

5.4.22.  document-format-supported (1setOf mimeMediaType)

   This REQUIRED Printer attribute identifies the set of document
   formats that the Printer object and contained Job objects can
   support.  For further details see the description of the
   'mimeMediaType' attribute syntax in Section 5.1.9.

5.4.23.  printer-is-accepting-Jobs (boolean)

   This REQUIRED Printer attribute indicates whether the Printer is
   currently able to accept jobs, i.e., is accepting Print-Job, Print-
   URI, and Create-Job requests.  If the value is 'true', the Printer is



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   accepting Jobs.  If the value is 'false', the Printer object is
   currently rejecting any Jobs submitted to it.  In this case, the
   Printer object returns the 'server-error-not-accepting-jobs' status
   code.

   This value is independent of the "printer-state" and "printer-state-
   reasons" attributes because its value does not affect the current
   job; rather it affects future Jobs.  This attribute, when 'false',
   causes the Printer to reject Jobs even when the "printer-state" is
   'idle' or, when 'true', causes the Printer object to accepts Jobs
   even when the "printer-state" is 'stopped'.

5.4.24.  queued-job-count (integer(0:MAX))

   This REQUIRED Printer attribute contains a count of the number of
   Jobs that are either 'pending', 'processing', 'pending-held', or
   'processing-stopped' and is set by the Printer object.

5.4.25.  printer-message-from-operator (text(127))

   This Printer attribute provides a message from an operator, system
   administrator or "intelligent" process to indicate to the end user
   information or status of the printer, such as why it is unavailable
   or when it is expected to be available.

5.4.26.  color-supported (boolean)

   This Printer attribute identifies whether the device is capable of
   any type of color printing at all, including highlight color.  All
   document instructions having to do with color are embedded within the
   document PDL (none are external IPP attributes in IPP/1.1).

   Note: end-users are able to determine the nature and details of the
   color support by querying the "printer-more-info-manufacturer"
   Printer attribute.

5.4.27.  reference-uri-schemes-supported (1setOf uriScheme)

   This Printer attribute specifies which URI schemes are supported for
   use in the "document-uri" operation attribute of the Print-URI or
   Send-URI operation.  If a Printer object supports these optional
   operations, it MUST support the "reference-uri-schemes-supported"
   Printer attribute with at least the following schemed URI value:

   o  'ftp': The Printer object will use an FTP 'get' operation as
      defined in RFC 2228 [RFC2228] using FTP URLs as defined by
      [RFC3986] and[RFC2316].




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   The Printer object MAY OPTIONALLY support other URI schemes (see
   Section 5.1.6).

5.4.28.  pdl-override-supported (type2 keyword)

   This REQUIRED Printer attribute expresses the ability for a
   particular Printer implementation to either attempt to override
   document data instructions with IPP attributes or not.

   This attribute takes on the following keyword values:

   o  'attempted': This value indicates that the Printer object attempts
      to make the IPP attribute values take precedence over embedded
      instructions in the document data, however there is no guarantee.

   o  'not-attempted': This value indicates that the Printer object
      makes no attempt to make the IPP attribute values take precedence
      over embedded instructions in the document data.

   Appendix E contains a full description of how this attribute
   interacts with and affects other IPP attributes, especially the "ipp-
   attribute-fidelity" attribute.

5.4.29.  printer-up-time (integer(1:MAX))

   This REQUIRED Printer attribute indicates the amount of time (in
   seconds) that this Printer instance has been up and running.  The
   value is a monotonically increasing value starting from 1 when the
   Printer object is started-up (initialized, booted, etc.).  This value
   is used to populate the Event Time Job Description Job attributes
   "time-at-creation", "time-at-processing", and "time-at-completed"
   (see Section 5.3.14).

   If the Printer object goes down at some value 'n', and comes back up,
   the implementation MAY:

   1.  Know how long it has been down, and resume at some value greater
       than 'n', or

   2.  Restart from 1.

   In other words, if the device or devices that the Printer object is
   representing are restarted or power cycled, the Printer object MAY
   continue counting this value or MAY reset this value to 1 depending
   on implementation.  However, if the Printer object software ceases
   running, and restarts without knowing the last value for "printer-up-
   time", the implementation MUST reset this value to 1.  If this value
   is reset and the Printer has persistent jobs, the Printer MUST reset



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   the "time-at-xxx(integer) Event Time Job Description attributes
   according to Section 5.3.14.  An implementation MAY use both
   implementation alternatives, depending on warm versus cold start,
   respectively.

5.4.30.  printer-current-time (dateTime)

   This Printer attribute indicates the current date and time.  This
   value is used to populate the Event Time Job Description attributes:
   "date-time-at-creation", "date-time-at-processing", and "date-time-
   at-completed" (see Section 5.3.14).

   The date and time is obtained on a "best efforts basis" and does not
   have to be that precise in order to work in practice.  A Printer
   implementation sets the value of this attribute by obtaining the date
   and time via some implementation-dependent means, such as getting the
   value from a network time server, initialization at time of
   manufacture, or setting by an administrator.  See [RFC3196] for
   examples.  If an implementation supports this attribute and the
   implementation knows that it has not yet been set, then the
   implementation MUST return the value of this attribute using the out-
   of-band 'no-value' meaning not configured.  See the beginning of
   Section 5.1.

   The time zone of this attribute might not be the time zone used by
   people located near the Printer object or device.  The Client MUST
   NOT expect that the time zone of any received 'dateTime' value to be
   in the time zone of the Client or in the time zone of the people
   located near the printer.

   The Client SHOULD display any dateTime attributes to the user in
   Client local time by converting the 'dateTime' value returned by the
   server to the time zone of the Client, rather than using the time
   zone returned by the Printer in attributes that use the 'dateTime'
   attribute syntax.

5.4.31.  multiple-operation-time-out (integer(1:MAX))

   This Printer attributes identifies the minimum time (in seconds) that
   the Printer object waits for additional Send-Document or Send-URI
   operations to follow a still-open Job object before taking any
   recovery actions, such as the ones indicated in Section 4.3.1.  If
   the Printer object supports the Create-Job and Send-Document
   operations (see Section 4.2.4 and 3.3.1), it MUST support this
   attribute.

   It is RECOMMENDED that vendors supply a value for this attribute that
   is between 60 and 240 seconds.  An implementation MAY allow a system



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   administrator to set this attribute (by means outside this IPP/1.1
   document).  If so, the system administrator MAY be able to set values
   outside this range.

5.4.32.  compression-supported (1setOf type3 keyword)

   This REQUIRED Printer attribute identifies the set of supported
   compression algorithms for document data.  Compression only applies
   to the document data; compression does not apply to the encoding of
   the IPP operation itself.  The supported values are used to validate
   the Client supplied "compression" operation attributes in Print-Job,
   Send-Document, and Send-URI requests.

   Standard keyword values are :

   o  'none': no compression is used.

   o  'deflate': ZIP public domain inflate/deflate) compression
      technology in RFC 1951 [RFC1951]

   o  'gzip' GNU zip compression technology described in RFC 1952
      [RFC1952].

   o  'compress': UNIX compression technology in RFC 1977 [RFC1977]

5.4.33.  job-k-octets-supported (rangeOfInteger(0:MAX))

   This Printer attribute specifies the upper and lower bounds of total
   sizes of Jobs in K octets, i.e., in units of 1024 octets.  The
   supported values are used to validate the Client supplied "job-
   k-octets" operation attributes in create requests.  The corresponding
   Job description attribute "job-k-octets" is defined in
   Section 5.3.17.1.

5.4.34.  job-impressions-supported (rangeOfInteger(0:MAX))

   This Printer attribute specifies the upper and lower bounds for the
   number of impressions per Job. The supported values are used to
   validate the Client supplied "job-impressions" operation attributes
   in create requests.  The corresponding Job description attribute
   "job-impressions" is defined in Section 5.3.17.2.

5.4.35.  job-media-sheets-supported (rangeOfInteger(0:MAX))

   This Printer attribute specifies the upper and lower bounds for the
   number of media sheets per Job. The supported values are used to
   validate the Client supplied "job-media-sheets" operation attributes




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   in create requests.  The corresponding Job attribute "job-media-
   sheets" is defined in Section 5.3.17.3.

5.4.36.  pages-per-minute (integer(0:MAX))

   This Printer attributes specifies the nominal number of pages per
   minute to the nearest whole number which can be generated by this
   Printer (e.g., simplex, black-and-white).  This attribute is
   informative, not a service guarantee.  Generally, it is the value
   used in the marketing literature to describe the device.

   A value of 0 indicates a device that takes more than two minutes to
   process a page.

5.4.37.  pages-per-minute-color (integer(0:MAX))

   This Printer attributes specifies the nominal number of pages per
   minute to the nearest whole number which can be generated by this
   Printer when printing color (e.g., simplex, color).  For purposes of
   this attribute, "color" means the same as for the "color-supported"
   attribute, namely, the device is capable of any type of color
   printing at all, including highlight color.  This attribute is
   informative, not a service guarantee.  Generally, it is the value
   used in the marketing literature to describe the color capabilities
   of this device.

   A value of 0 indicates a device that takes more than two minutes to
   process a page.

   If a color device has several color modes, it MAY use the pages-per-
   minute value for this attribute that corresponds to the mode that
   produces the highest number.

   Black and white only printers MUST NOT support this attribute.  If
   this attribute is present, then the "color-supported" Printer
   description attribute MUST be present and have a 'true' value.

   The values of these two attributes returned by the Get-Printer-
   Attributes operation MAY be affected by the "document-format"
   attribute supplied by the Client in the Get-Printer-Attributes
   request.  In other words, the implementation MAY have different
   speeds depending on the document format being processed.  See
   Section 4.2.5.1 Get-Printer-Attributes.








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6.  Conformance

   This section describes conformance issues and requirements.  This
   document introduces model entities such as objects, operations,
   attributes, attribute syntaxes, and attribute values.  These
   conformance sections describe the conformance requirements which
   apply to these model entities.

6.1.  Client Conformance Requirements

   This section describes the conformance requirements for a Client (see
   Section 3.1), whether it be:

   1.  contained within software controlled by an end user, e.g.
       activated by the "Print" menu item in an application that sends
       IPP requests or

   2.  the print server component that sends IPP requests to either an
       output device or another "downstream" print server.

   A conforming Client MUST support all REQUIRED operations as defined
   in this document.  For each attribute included in an operation
   request, a conforming Client MUST supply a value whose type and value
   syntax conforms to the requirements of the Model document as
   specified in Sections 3 and 4.  A conforming Client MAY supply any
   IETF standards track extensions and/or vendor extensions in an
   operation request, as long as the extensions meet the requirements in
   Section 7.

   Otherwise, there are no conformance requirements placed on the user
   interfaces provided by IPP Clients or their applications.  For
   example, one application might not allow an end user to submit
   multiple documents per job, while another does.  One application
   might first query a Printer object in order to supply a graphical
   user interface (GUI) dialogue box with supported and default values
   whereas a different implementation might not.

   When sending a request, an IPP Client MAY omit any attributes that
   are indicated as OPTIONALLY supplied by the Client.

   A Client MUST be able to accept any of the attribute syntaxes defined
   in Section 5.1, including their full range, that can be returned to
   it in a response from a Printer object.  In particular for each
   attribute that the Client supports whose attribute syntax is 'text',
   the Client MUST accept and process both the 'textWithoutLanguage' and
   'textWithLanguage' forms.  Similarly, for each attribute that the
   Client supports whose attribute syntax is 'name', the Client MUST
   accept and process both the 'nameWithoutLanguage' and



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   'nameWithLanguage' forms.  For presentation purposes, truncation of
   long attribute values is not recommended.  A recommended approach
   would be for the Client implementation to allow the user to scroll
   through long attribute values.

   A response MAY contain attribute groups, attributes, attribute
   syntaxes, values, and status codes that the Client does not expect.
   Therefore, a Client implementation MUST gracefully handle such
   responses and not refuse to inter-operate with a conforming Printer
   that is returning IETF standards track extension or vendor
   extensions, including attribute groups, attributes, attribute
   syntaxes, attribute values, status codes, and out-of-band attribute
   values that conform to Section 7.  Clients can choose to ignore any
   parameters, attribute groups, attributes, attribute syntaxes, or
   values that they do not understand.

   While a Client is sending data to a printer, it SHOULD do its best to
   prevent a channel from being closed by a lower layer when the channel
   is blocked (i.e. flow-controlled off) for whatever reason, e.g. 'out
   of paper' or 'Job ahead hasn't freed up enough memory'.  However, the
   layer that launched the print submission (e.g. an end user) MAY close
   the channel in order to cancel the Job. When a Client closes a
   channel, a Printer MAY print all or part of the received portion of
   the document.  See the "Encoding and Transport" document [RFC2910bis]
   for more details.

   A Client MUST support Client Authentication as defined in the IPP/1.1
   Encoding and Transport document [RFC2910bis].  A Client SHOULD
   support Operation Privacy and Server Authentication as defined in the
   IPP/1.1 Encoding and Transport document [RFC2910bis].  See also
   Section 9 of this document.

6.2.  IPP Object Conformance Requirements

   This section specifies the conformance requirements for conforming
   implementations of IPP objects (see Section 3).  These requirements
   apply to an IPP object whether it is:

   (1) an (embedded) device component that accepts IPP requests and
   controls the device or

   (2) a component of a print server that accepts IPP requests (where
   the print server control one or more networked devices using IPP or
   other protocols).







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6.2.1.  Objects

   Conforming implementations MUST implement all of the model objects as
   defined in this document in the indicated sections:

   Section 3.1 - Printer Object

   Section 3.2 - Job Object

6.2.2.  Operations

   Conforming IPP object implementations MUST implement all of the
   REQUIRED model operations, including REQUIRED responses, as defined
   in this document in the indicated sections:

   For a Printer object:

         +----------------------------------------+-------------+
         | Operation                              | Conformance |
         +----------------------------------------+-------------+
         | Print-Job (Section 4.2.1)              | REQUIRED    |
         +----------------------------------------+-------------+
         | Print-URI (Section 4.2.2)              | OPTIONAL    |
         +----------------------------------------+-------------+
         | Validate-Job (Section 4.2.3)           | REQUIRED    |
         +----------------------------------------+-------------+
         | Create-Job (Section 4.2.4)             | RECOMMENDED |
         +----------------------------------------+-------------+
         | Get-Printer-Attributes (Section 4.2.5) | REQUIRED    |
         +----------------------------------------+-------------+
         | Get-Jobs (Section 4.2.6)               | REQUIRED    |
         +----------------------------------------+-------------+
         | Pause-Printer (Section 4.2.7)          | OPTIONAL    |
         +----------------------------------------+-------------+
         | Resume-Printer (Section 4.2.8)         | OPTIONAL    |
         +----------------------------------------+-------------+
         | Purge-Jobs (Section 4.2.9)             | SHOULD NOT  |
         +----------------------------------------+-------------+

   For a Job object:











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           +------------------------------------+-------------+
           | Operation                          | Conformance |
           +------------------------------------+-------------+
           | Send-Document (Section 4.3.1)      | RECOMMENDED |
           +------------------------------------+-------------+
           | Send-URI (Section 4.3.2)           | RECOMMENDED |
           +------------------------------------+-------------+
           | Cancel-Job (Section 4.3.3)         | REQUIRED    |
           +------------------------------------+-------------+
           | Get-Job-Attributes (Section 4.3.4) | REQUIRED    |
           +------------------------------------+-------------+
           | Hold-Job (Section 4.3.5)           | OPTIONAL    |
           +------------------------------------+-------------+
           | Release-Job (Section 4.3.6)        | OPTIONAL    |
           +------------------------------------+-------------+
           | Restart-Job (Section 4.3.7)        | OPTIONAL    |
           +------------------------------------+-------------+

   Conforming IPP objects MUST support all REQUIRED operation attributes
   and all values of such attributes if so indicated in the description.
   Conforming IPP objects MUST ignore all unsupported or unknown
   operation attributes or operation attribute groups received in a
   request, but MUST reject a request that contains a supported
   operation attribute that contains an unsupported value.

   Conforming IPP objects MAY return operation responses that contain
   attributes groups, attributes names, attribute syntaxes, attribute
   values, and status codes that are extensions to this standard.  The
   additional attribute groups MAY occur in any order.

   The following section on object attributes specifies the support
   required for object attributes.

6.2.3.  IPP Object Attributes

   Conforming IPP objects MUST support all of the REQUIRED object
   attributes, as defined in this document in the indicated sections.

   If an object supports an attribute, it MUST support only those values
   specified in this document or through the extension mechanism
   described in Section 6.2.4.  It MAY support any non-empty subset of
   these values.  That is, it MUST support at least one of the specified
   values and at most all of them.








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6.2.4.  Versions

   IPP/1.1 Clients MUST meet the conformance requirements for Clients
   specified in this document and [RFC2910bis].  IPP/1.1 Clients MUST
   send requests containing a "version-number" parameter with a '1.1'
   value.

   IPP/1.1 Printer and Job objects MUST meet the conformance
   requirements for IPP objects specified in this document and
   [RFC2910bis].  IPP/1.1 objects MUST accept requests containing a
   "version-number" parameter with a '1.1' value or reject the request
   if the operation is not supported.

   It is beyond the scope of this specification to mandate conformance
   with other IPP versions.  However, IPP was deliberately designed to
   make supporting different versions easy.  IPP/1.1 Printer
   implementations MUST:

   o  decode and process any well-formed IPP/1.1 request; and

   o  respond appropriately with a response containing the same
      "version-number" parameter value used by the Client in the
      request.

   IPP/1.1 Client implementations MUST:

   o  decode and process any well-formed IPP/1.1 response.

   IPP Clients SHOULD try supplying alternate version numbers if they
   receive a 'server-error-version-not-supported' error return in a
   response.

6.2.5.  Extensions

   A conforming IPP object MAY support IETF standards track extensions
   and vendor extensions, as long as the extensions meet the
   requirements specified in Section 7.

   For each attribute included in an operation response, a conforming
   IPP object MUST return a value whose type and value syntax conforms
   to the requirement of the Model document as specified in Sections 3
   and 4.

6.2.6.  Attribute Syntaxes

   An IPP object MUST be able to accept any of the attribute syntaxes
   defined in Section 5.1, including their full range, in any operation
   in which a Client can supply attributes or the system administrator



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   can configure attributes (by means outside the scope of this IPP/1.1
   document).  In particular for each attribute that the IPP object
   supports whose attribute syntax is 'text', the IPP object MUST accept
   and process both the 'textWithoutLanguage' and 'textWithLanguage'
   forms.  Similarly, for each attribute that the IPP object supports
   whose attribute syntax is 'name', the IPP object MUST accept and
   process both the 'nameWithoutLanguage' and 'nameWithLanguage' forms.
   Furthermore, an IPP object MUST return attributes to the Client in
   operation responses that conform to the syntax specified in
   Section 5.1, including their full range if supplied previously by a
   Client.

6.2.7.  Security

   An IPP Printer implementation SHOULD contain support for Client
   Authentication as defined in the IPP/1.1 Encoding and Transport
   document [RFC2910bis].  A Printer implementation MAY allow an
   administrator to configure the Printer so that all, some, or none of
   the users are authenticated.  See also Section 9 of this document.

   An IPP Printer implementation SHOULD contain support for Operation
   Privacy and Server Authentication as defined in the IPP/1.1 Encoding
   and Transport document [RFC2910bis].  A Printer implementation MAY
   allow an administrator to configure the degree of support for
   Operation Privacy and Server Authentication.  See also Section 9 of
   this document.

   Security MUST NOT be compromised when a Client supplies a lower
   "version-number" parameter in a request.  For example, if an IPP/1.1
   conforming Printer object accepts version '1.0' requests and is
   configured to enforce Digest Authentication, it MUST do the same for
   a version '1.0' request.

6.3.  Charset and Natural Language Requirements

   All Clients and IPP objects MUST support the 'utf-8' charset as
   defined in Section 5.1.7.

   IPP objects MUST be able to accept any Client request which correctly
   uses the "attributes-natural-language" operation attribute or the
   Natural Language Override mechanism on any individual attribute
   whether or not the natural language is supported by the IPP object.
   If an IPP object supports a natural language, then it MUST be able to
   translate (perhaps by table lookup) all generated 'text' or 'name'
   attribute values into one of the supported languages (see
   Section 4.1.4).  That is, the IPP object that supports a natural
   language does not need to be a general purpose translator of any
   arbitrary 'text' or 'name' value supplied by the Client into that



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   natural language.  However, the object MUST be able to translate
   (automatically generate) any of its own attribute values and messages
   into that natural language.

7.  IANA Considerations

   This section describes the procedures for defining semantics for the
   following IETF standards track extensions and vendor extensions to
   the IPP/1.1 Model and Semantics document:

   1.  keyword attribute values

   2.  enum attribute values

   3.  attributes

   4.  attribute syntaxes

   5.  operations

   6.  attribute groups

   7.  status codes

   8.  out-of-band attribute values

   Extensions registered for use with IPP/1.1 are OPTIONAL for Client
   and IPP object conformance to the IPP/1.1 "Model and Semantics"
   document (this document).

   These extension procedures are aligned with the guidelines as set
   forth by the IESG [IANA-CON].  Appendix A describes how to propose
   new registrations for consideration.  IANA will reject registration
   proposals that leave out required information or do not follow the
   appropriate format described in Appendix A.  The IPP/1.1 Model and
   Semantics document can also be extended by an appropriate RFC that
   specifies any of the above extensions.

7.1.  Typed 'keyword' and 'enum' Extensions

   IPP allows for 'keyword' and 'enum' extensions (see sections 4.1.2.3
   and 4.1.4).  This document uses prefixes to the 'keyword' and 'enum'
   basic attribute syntax type in order to communicate extra information
   to the reader through its name.  This extra information is not
   represented in the protocol because it is unimportant to a Client or
   Printer object.  The list below describes the prefixes and their
   meaning.




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   "type1": This IPP specification document must be revised (or another
   IETF standards track document which augments this document) to add a
   new keyword or a new enum.  No vendor defined keywords or enums are
   allowed.

   "type2": Implementers can, at any time, add new keyword or enum
   values by proposing the complete specification to IANA:

   iana@iana.org

   IANA will forward the registration proposal to the IPP Designated
   Expert who will review the proposal with a mailing list that the
   Designated Expert keeps for this purpose.  Initially, that list will
   be the mailing list used by the IPP WG:

   ipp@pwg.org

   even after the IPP WG is disbanded as permitted by [IANA-CON].  The
   IPP Designated Expert is appointed by the IESG Area Director
   responsible for IPP, according to [IANA-CON].

   When a type2 keyword or enum is approved, the IPP Designated Expert
   becomes the point of contact for any future maintenance that might be
   required for that registration.

   "type3": Implementers can, at any time, add new keyword and enum
   values by submitting the complete specification to IANA as for type2
   who will forward the proposal to the IPP Designated Expert.  While no
   additional technical review is required, the IPP Designated Expert
   may, at his/her discretion, forward the proposal to the same mailing
   list as for type2 registrations for advice and comment.

   When a type3 keyword or enum is approved by the IPP Designated
   Expert, the original proposer becomes the point of contact for any
   future maintenance that might be required for that registration.

   For type2 and type3 keywords, the proposer includes the name of the
   keyword in the registration proposal and the name is part of the
   technical review.

   After type2 and type3 enums specifications are approved, the IPP
   Designated Expert in consultation with IANA assigns the next
   available enum number for each enum value.

   IANA will publish approved type2 and type3 keyword and enum
   attributes value registration specifications in:

   ftp.isi.edu/iana/assignments/ipp/attribute-values/xxx/yyy.txt



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   where xxx is the attribute name that specifies the initial values and
   yyy.txt is a descriptive file name that contains one or more enums or
   keywords approved at the same time.  For example, if several
   additional enums for stapling are approved for use with the
   "finishings" attribute (and "finishings-default" and "finishings-
   supported" attributes), IANA will publish the additional values in
   the file:

   ftp.isi.edu/iana/assignments/ipp/attribute-values/finishings/
   stapling.txt

   Note: Some attributes are defined to be: 'type3 keywords' | 'name'
   which allows for attribute values to be extended by a site
   administrator with administrator defined names.  Such names are not
   registered with IANA.

   By definition, each of the three types above assert some sort of
   registry or review process in order for extensions to be considered
   valid.  Each higher numbered level (1, 2, 3) tends to be decreasingly
   less stringent than the previous level.  Therefore, any typeN value
   MAY be registered using a process for some typeM where M is less than
   N, however such registration is NOT REQUIRED.  For example, a type3
   value MAY be registered in a type 1 manner (by being included in a
   future version of an IPP specification), however, it is NOT REQUIRED.

   This document defines keyword and enum values for all of the above
   types, including type3 keywords.

   For vendor keyword extensions, implementers SHOULD use keywords with
   a suitable distinguishing prefix, such as "xxx-" where xxx follows
   the syntax rules for keywords (see Section 5.1.3) and is the
   (lowercase) fully qualified company name registered with IANA for use
   in domain names [RFC1035].  For example, if the company XYZ Corp. had
   obtained the domain name "XYZ.com", then a vendor keyword 'abc' would
   be: 'xyz.com-abc'.

   Note: RFC 1035 [RFC1035] indicates that while upper and lower case
   letters are allowed in domain names, no significance is attached to
   the case.  That is, two names with the same spelling but different
   case are to be treated as if identical.  Also, the labels in a domain
   name must follow the rules for ARPANET host names: They must start
   with a letter, end with a letter or digit, and have as interior
   characters only letters, digits, and hyphen.  Labels must be 63
   characters or less.  Labels are separated by the "." character.

   For vendor enum extensions, implementers MUST use values in the
   reserved integer range which is 2**30 to 2**31-1.




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7.2.  Attribute Extensibility

   Attribute names (see Section 5.1.3) are type2 keywords.  Therefore,
   new attributes can be registered and have the same status as
   attributes in this document by following the type2 extension rules.
   For vendor attribute extensions, implementers SHOULD use keywords
   with a suitable distinguishing prefix as described in Section 7.1.

   IANA will publish approved attribute registration specifications as
   separate files:

   ftp.isi.edu/iana/assignments/ipp/attributes/xxx-yyy.txt

   where "xxx-yyy" is the new attribute name.

   If a new Printer object attribute is defined and its values can be
   affected by a specific document format, its specification needs to
   contain the following sentence:

   "The value of this attribute returned in a Get-Printer-Attributes
   response MAY depend on the "document-format" attribute supplied (see
   Section 4.2.5.1)."

   If the specification does not, then its value in the Get-Printer-
   Attributes response MUST NOT depend on the "document-format" supplied
   in the request.  When a new Job Template attribute is registered, the
   value of the Printer attributes MAY vary with "document-format"
   supplied in the request without the specification having to indicate
   so.

7.3.  Attribute Syntax Extensibility

   Attribute syntaxes (see Section 5.1) are like type2 enums.
   Therefore, new attribute syntaxes can be registered and have the same
   status as attribute syntaxes in this document by following the type2
   extension rules described in Section 7.1.  The initial set of value
   codes that identify each of the attribute syntaxes have been assigned
   in the "Encoding and Transport" document [RFC2910bis], including a
   designated range for vendor extension.

   For attribute syntaxes, the IPP Designated Expert in consultation
   with IANA assigns the next attribute syntax code in the appropriate
   range as specified in [RFC2910bis].  IANA will publish approved
   attribute syntax registration specifications as separate files:

   ftp.isi.edu/iana/assignments/ipp/attribute-syntaxes/xxx-yyy.txt

   where 'xxx-yyy' is the new attribute syntax name.



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7.4.  Operation Extensibility

   Operations (see Section 4) can also be registered following the type2
   procedures described in Section 7.1, though major new operations will
   usually be done by a new standards track RFC that augments this
   document.  For vendor operation extensions, implementers MUST use the
   range for the "operation-id" in requests specified in Section 5.4.15
   "operations-supported" Printer attribute.

   For operations, the IPP Designated Expert in consultation with IANA
   assigns the next operation-id code as specified in Section 5.4.15.
   IANA will publish approved operation registration specifications as
   separate files:

   ftp.isi.edu/iana/assignments/ipp/operations/Xxx-Yyy.txt

   where "Xxx-Yyy" is the new operation name.

7.5.  Attribute Group Extensibility

   Attribute groups (see Section 4.1.3) passed in requests and responses
   can be registered following the type2 procedures described in
   Section 7.1.  The initial set of attribute group tags have been
   assigned in the "Encoding and Transport" document [RFC2910bis],
   including a designated range for vendor extension.

   For attribute groups, the IPP Designated Expert in consultation with
   IANA assigns the next attribute group tag code in the appropriate
   range as specified in [RFC2910bis].  IANA will publish approved
   attribute group registration specifications as separate files:

   ftp.isi.edu/iana/assignments/ipp/attribute-group-tags/xxx-yyy-tag.txt

   where 'xxx-yyy-tag' is the new attribute group tag name.

7.6.  Status Code Extensibility

   Operation status codes (see Section 4.1.6.1) can also be registered
   following the type2 procedures described in Section 7.1.  The values
   for status codes are allocated in ranges as specified in Appendix D
   for each status code class:

   "informational" - Request received, continuing process

   "successful" - The action was successfully received, understood, and
   accepted





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   "redirection" - Further action must be taken in order to complete the
   request

   "client-error" - The request contains bad syntax or cannot be
   fulfilled

   "server-error" - The IPP object failed to fulfill an apparently valid
   request

   For vendor operation status code extensions, implementers MUST use
   the top of each range as specified in Appendix C.

   For operation status codes, the IPP Designated Expert in consultation
   with IANA assigns the next status code in the appropriate class range
   as specified in Appendix C.  IANA will publish approved status code
   registration specifications as separate files:

   ftp.isi.edu/iana/assignments/ipp/status-codes/xxx-yyy.txt

   where "xxx-yyy" is the new operation status code keyword.

7.7.  Out-of-band Attribute Value Extensibility

   Out-of-band attribute values (see the beginning of Section 5.1)
   passed in requests and responses can be registered following the
   type2 procedures described in Section 7.1.  The initial set of out-
   of-band attribute value tags have been assigned in the "Encoding and
   Transport" document [RFC2910bis].

   For out-of-band attribute value tags, the IPP Designated Expert in
   consultation with IANA assigns the next out-of-band attribute value
   tag code in the appropriate range as specified in [RFC2910bis].  IANA
   will publish approved out-of-band attribute value tags registration
   specifications as separate files:

   ftp.isi.edu/iana/assignments/ipp/out-of-band-attribute-value-tags/
   xxx-yyy-tag.txt

   where 'xxx-yyy-tag' is the new out-of-band attribute value tag name.

7.8.  Registration of MIME types/sub-types for document-formats

   The "document-format" attribute's syntax is 'mimeMediaType'.  This
   means that valid values are Internet Media Types (see Section 5.1.9).
   RFC 2045 [RFC2045] defines the syntax for valid Internet media types.
   IANA is the registry for all Internet media types.





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7.9.  Registration of charsets for use in 'charset' attribute values

   The "attributes-charset" attribute's syntax is 'charset'.  This means
   that valid values are charsets names.  When a charset in the IANA
   registry has more than one name (alias), the name labeled as
   "(preferred MIME name)", if present, MUST be used (see
   Section 5.1.7).  IANA is the registry for charsets following the
   procedures of [RFC2978].

8.  Internationalization Considerations

   Some of the attributes have values that are text strings and names
   which are intended for human understanding rather than machine
   understanding (see the 'text' and 'name' attribute syntaxes in
   Sections 4.1.1 and 4.1.2).

   In each operation request, the client

   o  identifies the charset and natural language of the request which
      affects each supplied 'text' and 'name' attribute value, and

   o  requests the charset and natural language for attributes returned
      by the IPP object in operation responses (as described in
      Section 4.1.4.1).

   In addition, the Client MAY separately and individually identify the
   Natural Language Override of a supplied 'text' or 'name' attribute
   using the 'textWithLanguage' and 'nameWithLanguage' technique
   described Section 5.1.1.2 and 4.1.2.2 respectively.

   All IPP objects MUST support the UTF-8 [RFC3629] charset in all
   'text' and 'name' attributes supported.  If an IPP object supports
   more than the UTF-8 charset, the object MUST convert between them in
   order to return the requested charset to the Client according to
   Section 4.1.4.2.  If an IPP object supports more than one natural
   language, the object SHOULD return 'text' and 'name' values in the
   natural language requested where those values are generated by the
   Printer (see Section 4.1.4.1).

   For Printers that support multiple charsets and/or multiple natural
   languages in 'text' and 'name' attributes, different Jobs can have
   been submitted in differing charsets and/or natural languages.  All
   responses MUST be returned in the charset requested by the Client.
   However, the Get-Jobs operation uses the 'textWithLanguage' and
   'nameWithLanguage' mechanism to identify the differing natural
   languages with each Job attribute returned.





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   The Printer object also has configured charset and natural language
   attributes.  The Client can query the Printer object to determine the
   list of charsets and natural languages supported by the Printer
   object and what the Printer object's configured values are.  See the
   "charset-configured", "charset-supported", "natural-language-
   configured", and "generated-natural-language-supported" Printer
   description attributes for more details.

   The "charset-supported" attributed identifies the supported charsets.
   If a charset is supported, the IPP object MUST be capable of
   converting to and from that charset into any other supported charset.
   In many cases, an IPP object will support only one charset and it
   MUST be the UTF-8 charset.

   The "charset-configured" attribute identifies the one supported
   charset which is the native charset given the current configuration
   of the IPP object (administrator defined).

   The "generated-natural-language-supported" attribute identifies the
   set of supported natural languages for generated messages; it is not
   related to the set of natural languages that must be accepted for
   Client supplied 'text' and 'name' attributes.  For Client supplied
   'text' and 'name' attributes, an IPP object MUST accept ALL supplied
   natural languages.  Just because a Printer object is currently
   configured to support 'en-us' natural language does not mean that the
   Printer object should reject a Job if the Client supplies a Job name
   that is in 'fr-ca'.

   The "natural-language-configured" attribute identifies the one
   supported natural language for generated messages which is the native
   natural language given the current configuration of the IPP object
   (administrator defined).

   Attributes of type 'text' and 'name' are populated from different
   sources.  These attributes can be categorized into following groups
   (depending on the source of the attribute):

   1.  Some attributes are supplied by the Client (e.g., the Client
       supplied "job-name", "document-name", and "requesting-user-name"
       operation attributes along with the corresponding Job object's
       "job-name" and "job-originating-user-name" attributes).  The IPP
       object MUST accept these attributes in any natural language no
       matter what the set of supported languages for generated messages

   2.  Some attributes are supplied by the system administrator (e.g.,
       the Printer object's "printer-name" and "printer-location"
       attributes).  These too can be in any natural language.  If the
       natural language for these attributes is different than what a



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       Client requests, then they must be reported using the Natural
       Language Override mechanism.

   3.  Some attributes are supplied by the device manufacturer (e.g.,
       the Printer object's "printer-make-and-model" attribute).  These
       too can be in any natural language.  If the natural language for
       these attributes is different than what a Client requests, then
       they must be reported using the Natural Language Override
       mechanism.

   4.  Some attributes are supplied by the operator (e.g., the Job
       object's "job-message-from-operator" attribute).  These too can
       be in any natural language.  If the natural language for these
       attributes is different than what a Client requests, then they
       must be reported using the Natural Language Override mechanism.

   5.  Some attributes are generated by the IPP object (e.g., the Job
       object's "job-state-message" attribute, the Printer object's
       "printer-state-message" attribute, and the "status-message"
       operation attribute).  These attributes can only be in one of the
       "generated-natural-language-supported" natural languages.  If a
       Client requests some natural language for these attributes other
       than one of the supported values, the IPP object SHOULD respond
       using the value of the "natural-language-configured" attribute
       (using the Natural Language Override mechanism if needed).

   The 'text' and 'name' attributes specified in this version of this
   document (additional ones will be registered according to the
   procedures in Section 7) are:

   +-----------------------------------+-------------------------------+
   | Attributes                        | Source                        |
   +-----------------------------------+-------------------------------+
   | Operation Attributes:             |                               |
   |                                   |                               |
   | job-name (name)                   | client                        |
   | document-name (name)              | client                        |
   | requesting-user-name (name)       | client                        |
   | status-message (text)             | Job or Printer object         |
   | detailed-status-message (text)    | Job or Printer object - see   |
   |                                   | rule 1                        |
   | document-access-error (text)      | Job or Printer object - see   |
   |                                   | rule 1                        |
   |                                   |                               |
   | Job Template Attributes:          |                               |
   |                                   |                               |
   | job-hold-until (keyword | name)   | Client matches administrator- |
   |                                   | configured                    |



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   | job-hold-until-default (keyword | | Client matches administrator- |
   | name)                             | configured                    |
   | job-hold-until-supported (keyword | Client matches administrator- |
   | | name)                           | configured                    |
   | job-sheets (keyword | name)       | Client matches administrator- |
   |                                   | configured                    |
   | job-sheets-default (keyword |     | Client matches administrator- |
   | name)                             | configured                    |
   | job-sheets-supported (keyword |   | Client matches administrator- |
   | name)                             | configured                    |
   | media (keyword | name)            | Client matches administrator- |
   |                                   | configured                    |
   | media-default (keyword | name)    | Client matches administrator- |
   |                                   | configured                    |
   | media-supported (keyword | name)  | Client matches administrator- |
   |                                   | configured                    |
   | media-ready (keyword | name)      | Client matches administrator- |
   |                                   | configured                    |
   |                                   |                               |
   | Job Description Attributes:       |                               |
   |                                   |                               |
   | job-name (name)                   | Client or Printer object      |
   | job-originating-user-name (name)  | Printer object                |
   | job-state-message (text)          | Job or Printer object         |
   | output-device-assigned            | administrator                 |
   | (name(127))                       |                               |
   | job-message-from-operator         | operator                      |
   | (text(127))                       |                               |
   | job-detailed-status-messages      | Job or Printer object - see   |
   | (1setOf text)                     | rule 1                        |
   | job-document-access-errors        | Job or Printer object - see   |
   | (1setOf text)                     | rule 1                        |
   |                                   |                               |
   | Printer Description Attributes:   |                               |
   |                                   |                               |
   | printer-name (name(127))          | administrator                 |
   | printer-location (text(127))      | administrator                 |
   | printer-info (text(127))          | administrator                 |
   | printer-make-and-model            | administrator or manufacturer |
   | (text(127))                       |                               |
   | printer-state-message (text)      | Printer object                |
   | printer-message-from-operator     | operator                      |
   | (text(127))                       |                               |
   +-----------------------------------+-------------------------------+

   Rule 1 - Neither the Printer nor the Client localizes these message
   attributes, since they are intended for use by the system
   administrator or other experienced technical persons.



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9.  Security Considerations

   It is difficult to anticipate the security risks that might exist in
   any given IPP environment.  For example, if IPP is used within a
   given corporation over a private network, the risks of exposing
   document data can be low enough that the corporation will choose not
   to use encryption on that data.  However, if the connection between
   the Client and the IPP object is over a public network, the Client
   can protect the content of the information during transmission
   through the network with encryption.

   Furthermore, the value of the information being printed can vary from
   one IPP environment to the next.  Printing payroll checks, for
   example, would have a different value than printing public
   information from a file.  There is also the possibly of denial-of-
   service attacks, but denial-of-service attacks against printing
   resources are not well understood and there is no published
   precedents regarding this scenario.

   Once the authenticated identity of the requester has been supplied to
   the IPP object, the object uses that identity to enforce any
   authorization policy that might be in place.  For example, one site's
   policy might be that only the Job owner is allowed to cancel a Job.
   The details and mechanisms to set up a particular access control
   policy are not part of IPP/1.1, and must be established via some
   other type of administrative or access control framework.  However,
   there are operation status codes that allow an IPP server to return
   information back to a Client about any potential access control
   violations for an IPP object.

   During a create operation, the client's identity is recorded in the
   Job object in an implementation-defined attribute.  This information
   can be used to verify a client's identity for subsequent operations
   on that Job object in order to enforce any access control policy that
   might be in effect.  See Section 9.3 below for more details.

   Since the security levels or the specific threats that an IPP system
   administrator can be concerned with cannot be anticipated, IPP MUST
   be capable of operating with different security mechanisms and
   security policies as required by the individual installation.
   Security policies might vary from very strong, to very weak, to none
   at all, and corresponding security mechanisms will be required.

9.1.  Security Scenarios

   The following sections describe specific security attacks for IPP
   environments.  Where examples are provided they should be considered
   illustrative of the environment and not an exhaustive set.  Not all



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   of these environments will necessarily be addressed in initial
   implementations of IPP.

9.1.1.  Client and Server in the Same Security Domain

   This environment is typical of internal networks where traditional
   office workers print the output of personal productivity applications
   on shared work-group printers, or where batch applications print
   their output on large production printers.  Although the identity of
   the user can be trusted in this environment, a user might want to
   protect the content of a document against such attacks as
   eavesdropping, replaying or tampering.

9.1.2.  Client and Server in Different Security Domains

   Examples of this environment include printing a document created by
   the Client on a publicly available printer, such as at a commercial
   print shop; or printing a document remotely on a business associate's
   printer.  This latter operation is functionally equivalent to sending
   the document to the business associate as a facsimile.  Printing
   sensitive information on a Printer in a different security domain
   requires strong security measures.  In this environment
   authentication of the Printer is required as well as protection
   against unauthorized use of print resources.  Since the document
   crosses security domains, protection against eavesdropping and
   document tampering are also required.  It will also be important in
   this environment to protect Printers against "spamming" and malicious
   document content.

9.1.3.  Print by Reference

   When the document is not stored on the Client, printing can be done
   by reference.  That is, the print request can contain a reference, or
   pointer, to the document instead of the actual document itself (see
   sections 3.2.2 and 3.3.2).  Standard methods currently do not exist
   for remote entities to "assume" the credentials of a Client for
   forwarding requests to a 3rd party.  It is anticipated that Print-By-
   Reference will be used to access "public" documents and that
   sophisticated methods for authenticating "proxies" is not specified
   in this document.

9.2.  URIs in Operation, Job, and Printer attributes

   The "printer-uri-supported" attribute contains the Printer object's
   URI(s).  Its companion attribute, "uri-security-supported",
   identifies the security mechanism used for each URI listed in the
   "printer-uri-supported" attribute.  For each Printer operation
   request, a Client MUST supply only one URI in the "printer-uri"



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   operation attribute.  In other words, even though the Printer
   supports more than one URI, the Client only interacts with the
   Printer object using one if its URIs.  This duality is not needed for
   Job objects, since the Printer objects is the factory for Job
   objects, and the Printer object will generate the correct URI for new
   Job objects depending on the Printer object's security configuration.

9.3.  URIs for each authentication mechanisms

   Each URI has an authentication mechanism associated with it.  If the
   URI is the i'th element of "printer-uri-supported", then
   authentication mechanism is the "i th" element of "uri-
   authentication-supported".  For a list of possible authentication
   mechanisms, see Section 5.4.2.

   The Printer object uses an authentication mechanism to determine the
   name of the user performing an operation.  This user is called the
   "authenticated user".  The credibility of authentication depends on
   the mechanism that the Printer uses to obtain the user's name.  When
   the authentication mechanism is 'none', all authenticated users are
   "anonymous".

   During Job creation operations, the Printer initializes the value of
   the "job-originating-user-name" attribute (see Section 5.3.6) to be
   the authenticated user.  The authenticated user is this case is
   called the "Job owner".

   If an implementation can be configured to support more than one
   authentication mechanism (see Section 5.4.2), then it MUST implement
   rules for determining equality of authenticated user names which have
   been authenticated via different authentication mechanisms.  One
   possible policy is that identical names that are authenticated via
   different mechanisms are different.  For example, a user can cancel
   his Job only if he uses the same authentication mechanism for both
   Cancel-Job and Print-Job. Another policy is that identical names that
   are authenticated via different mechanism are the same if the
   authentication mechanism for the later operation is not less strong
   than the authentication mechanism for the earlier Job creation
   operation.  For example, a user can cancel his Job only if he uses
   the same or stronger authentication mechanism for Cancel-Job and
   Print-Job. With this second policy a Job submitted via 'requesting-
   user-name' authentication could be canceled via 'digest'
   authentication.  With the first policy, the Job could not be canceled
   in this way.

   A Client is able to determine the authentication mechanism used to
   create a Job. It is the i'th value of the Printer's "uri-
   authentication-supported" attribute (see Section 5.4.2), where i is



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   the index of the element of the Printer's "printer-uri-supported"
   attribute (see Section 5.4.1) equal to the job's "job-printer-uri"
   attribute (see Section 5.3.3).

9.4.  Restricted Queries

   In many IPP operations, a Client supplies a list of attributes to be
   returned in the response.  For security reasons, an IPP object can be
   configured not to return all attributes (or all values) that a Client
   requests.  The Job attributes returned MAY depend on whether the
   requesting user is the same as the user that submitted the Job. The
   IPP object MAY even return none of the requested attributes.  In such
   cases, the status returned is the same as if the object had returned
   all requested attributes.  The Client cannot tell by such a response
   whether the requested attribute was present or absent on the object.

9.5.  Operations performed by operators and system administrators

   For the three Printer operations Pause-Printer, Resume-Printer, and
   Purge-Jobs (see sections 3.2.7, 3.2.8 and 3.2.9), the requesting user
   is intended to be an operator or administrator of the Printer object
   (see Section 1).  Otherwise, the IPP Printer MUST reject the
   operation and return: 'client-error-forbidden', 'client-error-not-
   authenticated', or 'client-error-not-authorized' as appropriate.  For
   operations on jobs, the requesting user is intended to be the Job
   owner or can be an operator or administrator of the Printer object.
   The means for authorizing an operator or administrator of the Printer
   object are not specified in this document.

9.6.  Queries on Jobs submitted using non-IPP protocols

   If the device that an IPP Printer is representing is able to accept
   Jobs using other Job submission protocols in addition to IPP, it is
   RECOMMENDED that such an implementation at least allow such "foreign"
   Jobs to be queried using Get-Jobs returning "job-id" and "job-uri" as
   'unknown'.  Such an implementation OPTIONALLY supports all of the
   same IPP Job attributes as for IPP Jobs.  The IPP object returns the
   'unknown' out-of-band value for any requested attribute of a foreign
   Job that is supported for IPP jobs, but not for foreign Jobs.

   It is further RECOMMENDED, that the IPP Printer generate "job-id" and
   "job-uri" values for such "foreign jobs", if possible, so that they
   can be targets of other IPP operations, such as Get-Job-Attributes
   and Cancel-Job. Such an implementation also needs to deal with the
   problem of authentication of such foreign Jobs.  One approach would
   be to treat all such foreign Jobs as belonging to users other than
   the user of the IPP Client.  Another approach would be for the
   foreign Job to belong to 'anonymous'.  Only if the IPP Client has



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   been authenticated as an operator or administrator of the IPP Printer
   object, could the foreign Jobs be queried by an IPP request.
   Alternatively, if the security policy is to allow users to query
   other users' jobs, then the foreign Jobs would also be visible to an
   end-user IPP Client using Get-Jobs and Get-Job-Attributes.

10.  Changes Since RFC 2911

   The following changes have been made since RFC 2911:

   o  Errata ID 364: Fixed range of "redirection" status codes (to
      0x03xx)

   o  Errata ID 694: Fixed range of vendor status codes (0x0n80 to
      0x0nff)

   o  Errata ID 3072: Reworded multiple-document-handling definition
      since it also applies to single document Jobs and is the only
      interoperable way to request uncollated copies.

   o  Errata ID 3365: Fixed bad nameWithLanguage maximum length -
      reference nameWithoutLanguage section for length

   o  Errata ID 4173: Fixed range of vendor operation codes (0x4000 to
      0x7fff)

   o  Updated obsoleted RFC references

   o  Changed IPP-IIG reference to RFC 3196

   o  Updated Create-Job, Send-Document, and Send-URI to RECOMMENDED.

   o  Incorporated collection attribute content from RFC 3382.

   o  Obsoleted all attributes and values defined in RFC 3381, as they
      do not interact well with the "finishings" attribute and have
      never been widely implemented.

   o  Deprecated the Purge-Jobs and Restart-Job operations which destroy
      accounting information.

11.  References

11.1.  Normative References

   [ASCII]    ANSI, "Information Systems - Coded Character Sets - 7-Bit
              American National Standard Code for Information
              Interchange (7-Bit ASCII)", June 2007.



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   [ASME-Y14.1M]
              "ASME Y14.1M-1995: Metric Drawing Sheet Size and Format",
              1995.

   [HTTPAUTH-BASIC]
              Reschke, J., "The 'Basic' HTTP Authentication Scheme",
              February 2015, <http://tools.ietf.org/html/
              draft-ietf-httpauth-basicauth-update-07>.

   [HTTPAUTH-DIGEST]
              Shekh-Yusef, R., Ahrens, D., and S. Bremer, "HTTP Digest
              Access Authentication", April 2015,
              <http://tools.ietf.org/html/
              draft-ietf-httpauth-digest-19>.

   [ISO10175]
              "ISO/IEC 10175 Document Printing Application (DPA)", June
              1996.

   [ISO10646-1]
              "ISO/IEC 10646-1:1993, "Information technology --
              Universal Multiple-Octet Coded Character Set (UCS) - Part
              1: Architecture and Basic Multilingual Plane, JTC1/SC2."",
              1993.

   [ISO8859-1]
              "ISO/IEC 8859-1:1987, "Information technology -- 8-bit
              One-Byte Coded Character Set - Part 1: Latin Alphabet Nr
              1"", 1987.

   [PWG5100.11]
              Hastings, T. and D. Fullman, "IPP: Job and Printer
              Extensions - Set 2", October 2010,
              <http://ftp.pwg.org/pub/pwg/ipp/wd/
              wd-ippjobprinterext10-20101030-5100.11.pdf>.

   [PWG5100.12]
              Sweet, M. and I. McDonald, "IPP/2.0, 2.1, and 2.2", August
              2015,
              <http://ftp.pwg.org/pub/pwg/ipp/wd/wd-ipp20-20150812.pdf>.

   [RFC1035]  Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - implementation and
              specification", STD 13, RFC 1035, November 1987.

   [RFC1951]  Deutsch, P., "DEFLATE Compressed Data Format Specification
              version 1.3", RFC 1951, May 1996.





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   [RFC1952]  Deutsch, P., Gailly, J-L., Adler, M., Deutsch, L., and G.
              Randers-Pehrson, "GZIP file format specification version
              4.3", RFC 1952, May 1996.

   [RFC1977]  Schryver, V., "PPP BSD Compression Protocol", RFC 1977,
              August 1996.

   [RFC2045]  Freed, N. and N. Borenstein, "Multipurpose Internet Mail
              Extensions (MIME) Part One: Format of Internet Message
              Bodies", RFC 2045, November 1996.

   [RFC2046]  Freed, N. and N. Borenstein, "Multipurpose Internet Mail
              Extensions (MIME) Part Two: Media Types", RFC 2046,
              November 1996.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC2818]  Rescorla, E., "HTTP Over TLS", RFC 2818, May 2000.

   [RFC2910bis]
              Sweet, M. and I. McDonald, "Internet Printing
              Protocol/1.1: Encoding and Transport", April 2015,
              <http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-sweet-rfc2910bis>.

   [RFC3196]  Hastings, T., Manros, C., Zehler, P., Kugler, C., and H.
              Holst, "Internet Printing Protocol/1.1: Implementor's
              Guide", RFC 3196, November 2001.

   [RFC3239]  Kugler, C., Lewis, H., and T. Hastings, "Internet Printing
              Protocol (IPP): Requirements for Job, Printer, and Device
              Administrative Operations", RFC 3239, February 2002.

   [RFC3380]  Hastings, T., Herriot, R., Kugler, C., and H. Lewis,
              "Internet Printing Protocol (IPP): Job and Printer Set
              Operations", RFC 3380, September 2002.

   [RFC3510]  Herriot, R. and I. McDonald, "Internet Printing
              Protocol/1.1: IPP URL Scheme", RFC 3510, April 2003.

   [RFC3629]  Yergeau, F., "UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO
              10646", STD 63, RFC 3629, November 2003.

   [RFC3805]  Bergman, R., Lewis, H., and I. McDonald, "Printer MIB v2",
              RFC 3805, June 2004.






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   [RFC3986]  Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, "Uniform
              Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax", STD 66,
              RFC 3986, January 2005.

   [RFC3995]  Herriot, R. and T. Hastings, "Internet Printing Protocol
              (IPP): Event Notifications and Subscriptions", RFC 3995,
              March 2005.

   [RFC3996]  Herriot, R., Hastings, T., and H. Lewis, "Internet
              Printing Protocol (IPP): The 'ippget' Delivery Method for
              Event Notifications", RFC 3996, March 2005.

   [RFC3997]  Hastings, T., deBry, R., and H. Lewis, "Internet Printing
              Protocol (IPP): Requirements for IPP Notifications",
              RFC 3997, March 2005.

   [RFC3998]  Kugler, C., Lewis, H., and T. Hastings, "Internet Printing
              Protocol (IPP): Job and Printer Administrative
              Operations", RFC 3998, March 2005.

   [RFC5234]  Crocker, D. and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for Syntax
              Specifications: ABNF", STD 68, RFC 5234, January 2008.

   [RFC5246]  Dierks, T. and E. Rescorla, "The Transport Layer Security
              (TLS) Protocol Version 1.2", RFC 5246, August 2008.

   [RFC5646]  Phillips, A. and M. Davis, "Tags for Identifying
              Languages", BCP 47, RFC 5646, September 2009.

   [RFC6838]  Freed, N., Klensin, J., and T. Hansen, "Media Type
              Specifications and Registration Procedures", BCP 13,
              RFC 6838, January 2013.

   [RFC7230]  Fielding, R. and J. Reschke, "Hypertext Transfer Protocol
              (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing", RFC 7230, June
              2014.

   [RFC7472]  McDonald, I. and M. Sweet, "Internet Printing Protocol
              (IPP) over HTTPS Transport Binding and the 'ipps' URI
              Scheme", RFC 7472, March 2015.

   [RFC793]   Postel, J., "Transmission Control Protocol", STD 7,
              RFC 793, September 1981.








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11.2.  Informative References

   [HTPP]     Barnett, J., Carter, K., and R. DeBry, "Initial Draft -
              Hypertext Printing Protocol - HTPP/1.0", 10 1996,
              <ftp://ftp.pwg.org/pub/pwg/ipp/historic/htpp/
              overview.ps.gz>.

   [IANA-CON]
              Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an
              IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 5226,
              May 2008.

   [IANA-CS]  "IANA Registry of Coded Character Sets",
              <ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/iana/assignments/character-
              sets>.

   [IANA-MT]  "IANA Registry of Media Types", <ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-
              notes/iana/assignments/media-types/>.

   [LDPA]     Hastings, T., Isaacson, S., MacKay, M., Manros, C.,
              Taylor, D., and P. Zehler, "LDPA - Lightweight Document
              Printing Application", October 1996,
              <ftp://ftp.pwg.org/pub/pwg/ipp/historic/ldpa/
              ldpa8.pdf.gz>.

   [P1387.4]  Kirk, M., "POSIX System Administration - Part 4: Printing
              Interfaces, POSIX 1387.4 D8", 1998.

   [PSIS]     Herriot, R., "X/Open: A Printing System Interoperability
              Specification (PSIS)", August 1995.

   [RFC1179]  McLaughlin, L., "Line printer daemon protocol", RFC 1179,
              August 1990.

   [RFC2228]  Horowitz, M., "FTP Security Extensions", RFC 2228, October
              1997.

   [RFC2316]  Bellovin, S., "Report of the IAB Security Architecture
              Workshop", RFC 2316, April 1998.

   [RFC2565]  Herriot, R., Butler, S., Moore, P., and R. Turner,
              "Internet Printing Protocol/1.0: Encoding and Transport",
              RFC 2565, April 1999.

   [RFC2566]  deBry, R., Hastings, T., Herriot, R., Isaacson, S., and P.
              Powell, "Internet Printing Protocol/1.0: Model and
              Semantics", RFC 2566, April 1999.




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   [RFC2567]  Wright, F., "Design Goals for an Internet Printing
              Protocol", RFC 2567, April 1999.

   [RFC2568]  Zilles, S., "Rationale for the Structure of the Model and
              Protocol for the Internet Printing Protocol", RFC 2568,
              April 1999.

   [RFC2569]  Herriot, R., Jacobs, N., Hastings, T., and J. Martin,
              "Mapping between LPD and IPP Protocols", RFC 2569, April
              1999.

   [RFC2579]  McCloghrie, K., Ed., Perkins, D., Ed., and J.
              Schoenwaelder, Ed., "Textual Conventions for SMIv2",
              STD 58, RFC 2579, April 1999.

   [RFC2978]  Freed, N. and J. Postel, "IANA Charset Registration
              Procedures", BCP 19, RFC 2978, October 2000.

   [SWP]      Moore, P., Jahromi, B., and S. Butler, "Simple Web
              Printing SWP/1.0", May 1997,
              <ftp://ftp.pwg.org/pub/pwg/ipp/new_PRO/swp9705.pdf>.

11.3.  URIs

   [1] http://www.pwg.org/

   [2] http://www.pwg.org/ipp/

Appendix A.  Formats for IPP Registration Proposals

   In order to propose an IPP extension for registration, the proposer
   must submit an application to IANA by email to "iana@iana.org" or by
   filling out the appropriate form on the IANA web pages
   (http://www.iana.org).  This section specifies the required
   information and the formats for proposing registrations of extensions
   to IPP as provided in Section 7 for:

   1.  type2 'keyword' attribute values

   2.  type3 'keyword' attribute values

   3.  type2 'enum' attribute values

   4.  type3 'enum' attribute values

   5.  attributes

   6.  attribute syntaxes



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   7.  operations

   8.  status codes

   9.  out-of-band attribute values

   11.1 Type2 keyword attribute values registration

   Type of registration: type2 keyword attribute value

   Name of attribute to which this keyword specification is to be added:

   Proposed keyword name of this keyword value:

   Specification of this keyword value (follow the style of IPP Model
   Section 5.1.2.3):

   Name of proposer:

   Address of proposer:

   Email address of proposer:

   Note: For type2 keywords, the Designated Expert will be the point of
   contact for the approved registration specification, if any
   maintenance of the registration specification is needed.

A.1.  Type3 keyword attribute values registration

   Type of registration: type3 keyword attribute value

   Name of attribute to which this keyword specification is to be added:

   Proposed keyword name of this keyword value:

   Specification of this keyword value (follow the style of IPP Model
   Section 5.1.2.3):

   Name of proposer:

   Address of proposer:

   Email address of proposer:

   Note: For type3 keywords, the proposer will be the point of contact
   for the approved registration specification, if any maintenance of
   the registration specification is needed.




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A.2.  Type2 enum attribute values registration

   Type of registration: type2 enum attribute value

   Name of attribute to which this enum specification is to be added:

   Keyword symbolic name of this enum value:

   Numeric value (to be assigned by the IPP Designated Expert in
   consultation with IANA):

   Specification of this enum value (follow the style of IPP Model
   Section 5.1.4):

   Name of proposer:

   Address of proposer:

   Email address of proposer:

   Note: For type2 enums, the Designated Expert will be the point of
   contact for the approved registration specification, if any
   maintenance of the registration specification is needed.

A.3.  Type3 enum attribute values registration

   Type of registration: type3 enum attribute value

   Name of attribute to which this enum specification is to be added:

   Keyword symbolic name of this enum value:

   Numeric value (to be assigned by the IPP Designated Expert in
   consultation with IANA):

   Specification of this enum value (follow the style of IPP Model
   Section 5.1.4):

   Name of proposer:

   Address of proposer:

   Email address of proposer:

   Note: For type3 enums, the proposer will be the point of contact for
   the approved registration specification, if any maintenance of the
   registration specification is needed.




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A.4.  Attribute registration

   Type of registration: attribute

   Proposed keyword name of this attribute:

   Types of attribute (Operation, Job Template, Job Description, Printer
   Description):

   Operations to be used with if the attribute is an operation
   attribute:

   Object (Job, Printer, etc. if bound to an object):

   Attribute syntax(es) (include 1setOf and range as in Section 5.2):

   If attribute syntax is 'keyword' or 'enum', is it type2 or type3:

   If this is a Printer attribute, MAY the value returned depend on
   "document-format" (See Section 7.2):

   If this is a Job Template attribute, how does its specification
   depend on the value of the "multiple-document-handling" attribute:

   Specification of this attribute (follow the style of IPP Model
   Section 5.2):

   Name of proposer:

   Address of proposer:

   Email address of proposer:

   Note: For attributes, the IPP Designated Expert will be the point of
   contact for the approved registration specification, if any
   maintenance of the registration specification is needed.

A.5.  Attribute Syntax registration

   Type of registration: attribute syntax

   Proposed name of this attribute syntax:

   Type of attribute syntax (integer, octetString, character-string, see
   [RFC2910bis]):

   Numeric tag according to [RFC2910bis] (to be assigned by the IPP
   Designated Expert in consultation with IANA):



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   Specification of this attribute (follow the style of IPP Model
   Section 5.1):

   Name of proposer:

   Address of proposer:

   Email address of proposer:

   Note: For attribute syntaxes, the IPP Designated Expert will be the
   point of contact for the approved registration specification, if any
   maintenance of the registration specification is needed.

A.6.  Operation registration

   Type of registration: operation

   Proposed name of this operation:

   Numeric operation-id value according to Section 5.4.15 (to be
   assigned by the IPP Designated Expert in consultation with IANA):

   Object Target (Job, Printer, etc. that operation is upon):

   Specification of this operation (follow the style of IPP Model
   Section 4):

   Name of proposer:

   Address of proposer:

   Email address of proposer:

   Note: For operations, the IPP Designated Expert will be the point of
   contact for the approved registration specification, if any
   maintenance of the registration specification is needed.

A.7.  Attribute Group registration

   Type of registration: attribute group

   Proposed name of this attribute group:

   Numeric tag according to [RFC2910bis] (to be assigned by the IPP
   Designated Expert in consultation with IANA):

   Operation requests and group number for each operation in which the
   attribute group occurs:



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   Operation responses and group number for each operation in which the
   attribute group occurs:

   Specification of this attribute group (follow the style of IPP Model
   Section 4):

   Name of proposer:

   Address of proposer:

   Email address of proposer:

   Note: For attribute groups, the IPP Designated Expert will be the
   point of contact for the approved registration specification, if any
   maintenance of the registration specification is needed.

A.8.  Status code registration

   Type of registration: status code

   Keyword symbolic name of this status code value:

   Numeric value (to be assigned by the IPP Designated Expert in
   consultation with IANA):

   Operations that this status code can be used with:

   Specification of this status code (follow the style of IPP Model
   Appendix C APPENDIX B: Status Codes and Suggested Status Code
   Messages):

   Name of proposer:

   Address of proposer:

   Email address of proposer:

   Note: For status codes, the Designated Expert will be the point of
   contact for the approved registration specification, if any
   maintenance of the registration specification is needed.

A.9.  Out-of-band Attribute Value registration

   Type of registration: out-of-band attribute value

   Proposed name of this out-of-band attribute value:





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   Numeric tag according to [RFC2910bis] (to be assigned by the IPP
   Designated Expert in consultation with IANA):

   Operations that this out-of-band attribute value can be used with:

   Attributes that this out-of-band attribute value can be used with:

   Specification of this out-of-band attribute value (follow the style
   of the beginning of IPP Model Section 5.1):

   Name of proposer:

   Address of proposer:

   Email address of proposer:

   Note: For out-of-band attribute values, the IPP Designated Expert
   will be the point of contact for the approved registration
   specification, if any maintenance of the registration specification
   is needed.

Appendix B.  Terminology

   This specification document uses the terminology defined in this
   section.

B.1.  Conformance Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT",
   "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be
   interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

B.2.  Model Terminology

B.2.1.  Keyword

   Keywords are used within this document as identifiers of semantic
   entities within the abstract model (see Section 5.1.2.3).  Attribute
   names, some attribute values, attribute syntaxes, and attribute group
   names are represented as keywords.

B.2.2.  Attributes

   An attribute is an item of information that is associated with an
   instance of an IPP object.  An attribute consists of an attribute
   name and one or more attribute values.  Each attribute has a specific
   attribute syntax.  All object attributes are defined in Section 5 and
   all operation attributes are defined in Section 4.



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   Job Template Attributes are described in Section 5.2.  The Client
   optionally supplies Job Template attributes in a create request
   (operation requests that create Job objects).  The Printer object has
   associated attributes which define supported and default values for
   the Printer.

B.2.2.1.  Attribute Name

   Each attribute is uniquely identified in this document by its
   attribute name.  An attribute name is a keyword.  The keyword
   attribute name is given in the section header describing that
   attribute.  In running text in this document, attribute names are
   indicated inside double quotation marks (") where the quotation marks
   are not part of the keyword itself.

B.2.2.2.  Attribute Group Name

   Related attributes are grouped into named groups.  The name of the
   group is a keyword.  The group name can be used in place of naming
   all the attributes in the group explicitly.  Attribute groups are
   defined in Section 4.

B.2.2.3.  Attribute Value

   Each attribute has one or more values.  Attribute values are
   represented in the syntax type specified for that attribute.  In
   running text in this document, attribute values are indicated inside
   single quotation marks ('), whether their attribute syntax is
   keyword, integer, text, etc. where the quotation marks are not part
   of the value itself.

B.2.2.4.  Attribute Syntax

   Each attribute is defined using an explicit syntax type.  In this
   document, each syntax type is defined as a keyword with specific
   meaning.  The "Encoding and Transport" document [RFC2910bis]
   indicates the actual "on-the-wire" encoding rules for each syntax
   type.  Attribute syntax types are defined in Section 5.1.

B.2.3.  Supports

   By definition, a Printer object supports an attribute only if that
   Printer object responds with the corresponding attribute populated
   with some value(s) in a response to a query for that attribute.  A
   Printer object supports an attribute value if the value is one of the
   Printer object's "supported values" attributes.  The device behind a
   Printer object can exhibit a behavior that corresponds to some IPP
   attribute, but if the Printer object, when queried for that



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   attribute, doesn't respond with the attribute, then as far as IPP is
   concerned, that implementation does not support that feature.  If the
   Printer object's "xxx-supported" attribute is not populated with a
   particular value (even if that value is a legal value for that
   attribute), then that Printer object does not support that particular
   value.

   A conforming implementation MUST support all REQUIRED attributes.
   However, even for REQUIRED attributes, conformance to IPP does not
   mandate that all implementations support all possible values
   representing all possible Job processing behaviors and features.  For
   example, if a given instance of a Printer supports only certain
   document formats, then that Printer responds with the "document-
   format-supported" attribute populated with a set of values, possibly
   only one, taken from the entire set of possible values defined for
   that attribute.  This limited set of values represents the Printer's
   set of supported document formats.  Supporting an attribute and some
   set of values for that attribute enables IPP end users to be aware of
   and make use of those features associated with that attribute and
   those values.  If an implementation chooses to not support an
   attribute or some specific value, then IPP end users would have no
   ability to make use of that feature within the context of IPP itself.
   However, due to existing practice and legacy systems which are not
   IPP aware, there might be some other mechanism outside the scope of
   IPP to control or request the "unsupported" feature (such as embedded
   instructions within the document data itself).

   For example, consider the "finishings-supported" attribute.

   1) If a Printer object is not physically capable of stapling, the
   "finishings-supported" attribute MUST NOT be populated with the value
   of 'staple'.

   2) A Printer object is physically capable of stapling, however an
   implementation chooses not to support stapling in the IPP
   "finishings" attribute.  In this case, 'staple' MUST NOT be a value
   in the "finishings-supported" Printer object attribute.  Without
   support for the value 'staple', an IPP end user would have no means
   within the protocol itself to request that a Job be stapled.
   However, an existing document data formatter might be able to request
   that the document be stapled directly with an embedded instruction
   within the document data.  In this case, the IPP implementation does
   not "support" stapling, however the end user is still able to have
   some control over the stapling of the completed Job.

   3) A Printer object is physically capable of stapling, and an
   implementation chooses to support stapling in the IPP "finishings"
   attribute.  In this case, 'staple' MUST be a value in the



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   "finishings-supported" Printer object attribute.  Doing so, would
   enable end users to be aware of and make use of the stapling feature
   using IPP attributes.

   Even though support for Job Template attributes by a Printer object
   is OPTIONAL, it is RECOMMENDED that if the device behind a Printer
   object is capable of realizing any feature or function that
   corresponds to an IPP attribute and some associated value, then that
   implementation SHOULD support that IPP attribute and value.

   The set of values in any of the supported value attributes is set
   (populated) by some administrative process or automatic sensing
   mechanism that is outside the scope of this IPP/1.1 document.  For
   administrative policy and control reasons, an administrator can
   choose to make only a subset of possible values visible to the end
   user.  In this case, the real output device behind the IPP Printer
   abstraction can be capable of a certain feature, however an
   administrator is specifying that access to that feature not be
   exposed to the end user through the IPP protocol.  Also, since a
   Printer object can represent a logical print device (not just a
   physical device) the actual process for supporting a value is
   undefined and left up to the implementation.  However, if a Printer
   object supports a value, some manual human action can be needed to
   realize the semantic action associated with the value, but no end
   user action is required.

   For example, if one of the values in the "finishings-supported"
   attribute is 'staple', the actual process might be an automatic
   staple action by a physical device controlled by some command sent to
   the device.  Or, the actual process of stapling might be a manual
   action by an operator at an operator attended Printer object.

   For another example of how supported attributes function, consider a
   system administrator who desires to control all print Jobs so that no
   Job sheets are printed in order to conserve paper.  To force no Job
   sheets, the system administrator sets the only supported value for
   the "job-sheets-supported" attribute to 'none'.  In this case, if a
   Client requests anything except 'none', the create request is
   rejected or the "job-sheets" value is ignored (depending on the value
   of "ipp-attribute-fidelity").  To force the use of Job start/end
   sheets on all jobs, the administrator does not include the value
   'none' in the "job-sheets-supported" attribute.  In this case, if a
   Client requests 'none', the create request is rejected or the "job-
   sheets" value is ignored (again depending on the value of "ipp-
   attribute-fidelity").






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B.2.4.  print-stream page

   A "print-stream page" is a page according to the definition of pages
   in the language used to express the document data.

B.2.5.  impression

   An "impression" is the image (possibly many print-stream pages in
   different configurations) imposed onto a single media page.

Appendix C.  Status Codes and Suggested Status Code Messages

   This section defines status code enum keywords and values that are
   used to provide semantic information on the results of an operation
   request.  Each operation response MUST include a status code.  The
   response MAY also contain a status message that provides a short
   textual description of the status.  The status code is intended for
   use by automata, and the status message is intended for the human end
   user.  Since the status message is an OPTIONAL component of the
   operation response, an IPP application (i.e., a browser, GUI, print
   driver or gateway) is NOT REQUIRED to examine or display the status
   message, since it MAY not be returned to the application.

   The prefix of the status keyword defines the class of response as
   follows:

   "informational" - Request received, continuing process

   "successful" - The action was successfully received, understood, and
   accepted

   "redirection" - Further action must be taken in order to complete the
   request

   "client-error" - The request contains bad syntax or cannot be
   fulfilled

   "server-error" - The IPP object failed to fulfill an apparently valid
   request

   As with type2 enums, IPP status codes are extensible.  IPP Clients
   are NOT REQUIRED to understand the meaning of all registered status
   codes, though such understanding is obviously desirable.  However,
   IPP Clients MUST understand the class of any status code, as
   indicated by the prefix, and treat any unrecognized response as being
   equivalent to the first status code of that class, with the exception
   that an unrecognized response MUST NOT be cached.  For example, if an
   unrecognized status code of "client-error-xxx-yyy" is received by the



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   Client, it can safely assume that there was something wrong with its
   request and treat the response as if it had received a "client-error-
   bad-request" status code.  In such cases, IPP applications SHOULD
   present the OPTIONAL message (if present) to the end user since the
   message is likely to contain human readable information which will
   help to explain the unusual status.  The name of the enum is the
   suggested status message for US English.

   The status code values range from 0x0000 to 0x7FFF.  The value ranges
   for each status code class are as follows:

   "successful" - 0x0000 to 0x00FF

   "informational" - 0x0100 to 0x01FF

   "redirection" - 0x0300 to 0x03FF

   "client-error" - 0x0400 to 0x04FF

   "server-error" - 0x0500 to 0x05FF

   The top half (128 values) of each range (0x0n80 to 0x0nFF, for n = 0
   to 5) is reserved for vendor use within each status code class.
   Values 0x0600 to 0x7FFF are reserved for future assignment by IETF
   standards track documents and MUST NOT be used.

C.1.  Status Codes

   Each status code is described below.  Appendix C.1.5.9 contains a
   table that indicates which status codes apply to which operations.
   The Implementer's Guide [RFC3196] describe the suggested steps for
   processing IPP attributes for all operations, including returning
   status codes.

C.1.1.  Informational

   This class of status code indicates a provisional response and is to
   be used for informational purposes only.

   There are no status codes defined in IPP/1.1 for this class of status
   code.

C.1.2.  Successful Status Codes

   This class of status code indicates that the client's request was
   successfully received, understood, and accepted.





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C.1.2.1.  successful-ok (0x0000)

   The request has succeeded and no request attributes were substituted
   or ignored.  In the case of a response to a create request, the
   'successful-ok' status code indicates that the request was
   successfully received and validated, and that the Job object has been
   created; it does not indicate that the Job has been processed.  The
   transition of the Job object into the 'completed' state is the only
   indicator that the Job has been printed.

C.1.2.2.  successful-ok-ignored-or-substituted-attributes (0x0001)

   The request has succeeded, but some supplied (1) attributes were
   ignored or (2) unsupported values were substituted with supported
   values or were ignored in order to perform the operation without
   rejecting it.  Unsupported attributes, attribute syntaxes, or values
   MUST be returned in the Unsupported Attributes group of the response
   for all operations.  There is an exception to this rule for the query
   operations: Get-Printer-Attributes, Get-Jobs, and Get-Job-Attributes
   for the "requested-attributes" operation attribute only.  When the
   supplied values of the "requested-attributes" operation attribute are
   requesting attributes that are not supported, the IPP object MAY, but
   is NOT REQUIRED to, return the "requested-attributes" attribute in
   the Unsupported Attribute response group (with the unsupported values
   only).  See sections 3.1.7 and 3.2.1.2.

C.1.2.3.  successful-ok-conflicting-attributes (0x0002)

   The request has succeeded, but some supplied attribute values
   conflicted with the values of other supplied attributes.  These
   conflicting values were either (1) substituted with (supported)
   values or (2) the attributes were removed in order to process the Job
   without rejecting it.  Attributes or values which conflict with other
   attributes and have been substituted or ignored MUST be returned in
   the Unsupported Attributes group of the response for all operations
   as supplied by the Client.  See sections 3.1.7 and 3.2.1.2.

C.1.3.  Redirection Status Codes

   This class of status code indicates that further action needs to be
   taken to fulfill the request.

   There are no status codes defined in IPP/1.1 for this class of status
   code.







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C.1.4.  Client Error Status Codes

   This class of status code is intended for cases in which the Client
   seems to have erred.  The IPP object SHOULD return a message
   containing an explanation of the error situation and whether it is a
   temporary or permanent condition.

C.1.4.1.  client-error-bad-request (0x0400)

   The request could not be understood by the IPP object due to
   malformed syntax (such as the value of a fixed length attribute whose
   length does not match the prescribed length for that attribute - see
   the Implementer's Guide [RFC3196] ).  The IPP application SHOULD NOT
   repeat the request without modifications.

C.1.4.2.  client-error-forbidden (0x0401)

   The IPP object understood the request, but is refusing to fulfill it.
   Additional authentication information or authorization credentials
   will not help and the request SHOULD NOT be repeated.  This status
   code is commonly used when the IPP object does not wish to reveal
   exactly why the request has been refused or when no other response is
   applicable.

C.1.4.3.  client-error-not-authenticated (0x0402)

   The request requires user authentication.  The IPP Client can repeat
   the request with suitable authentication information.  If the request
   already included authentication information, then this status code
   indicates that authorization has been refused for those credentials.
   If this response contains the same challenge as the prior response,
   and the user agent has already attempted authentication at least
   once, then the response message can contain relevant diagnostic
   information.  This status codes reveals more information than
   "client-error-forbidden".

C.1.4.4.  client-error-not-authorized (0x0403)

   The requester is not authorized to perform the request.  Additional
   authentication information or authorization credentials will not help
   and the request SHOULD NOT be repeated.  This status code is used
   when the IPP object wishes to reveal that the authentication
   information is understandable, however, the requester is explicitly
   not authorized to perform the request.  This status codes reveals
   more information than "client-error-forbidden" and "client-error-not-
   authenticated".





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C.1.4.5.  client-error-not-possible (0x0404)

   This status code is used when the request is for something that can
   not happen.  For example, there might be a request to cancel a Job
   that has already been canceled or aborted by the system.  The IPP
   Client SHOULD NOT repeat the request.

C.1.4.6.  client-error-timeout (0x0405)

   The Client did not produce a request within the time that the IPP
   object was prepared to wait.  For example, a Client issued a Create-
   Job operation and then, after a long period of time, issued a Send-
   Document operation and this error status code was returned in
   response to the Send-Document request (see Section 4.3.1).  The IPP
   object might have been forced to clean up resources that had been
   held for the waiting additional Documents.  The IPP object was forced
   to close the Job since the Client took too long.  The Client SHOULD
   NOT repeat the request without modifications.

C.1.4.7.  client-error-not-found (0x0406)

   The IPP object has not found anything matching the request URI.  No
   indication is given of whether the condition is temporary or
   permanent.  For example, a Client with an old reference to a Job (a
   URI) tries to cancel the Job, however in the mean time the Job might
   have been completed and all record of it at the Printer has been
   deleted.  This status code, 'client-error-not-found' is returned
   indicating that the referenced Job can not be found.  This error
   status code is also used when a Client supplies a URI as a reference
   to the document data in either a Print-URI or Send-URI operation, but
   the document can not be found.

   In practice, an IPP application should avoid a not found situation by
   first querying and presenting a list of valid Printer URIs and Job
   URIs to the end-user.

C.1.4.8.  client-error-gone (0x0407)

   The requested object is no longer available and no forwarding address
   is known.  This condition should be considered permanent.  Clients
   with link editing capabilities should delete references to the
   request URI after user approval.  If the IPP object does not know or
   has no facility to determine, whether or not the condition is
   permanent, the status code "client-error-not-found" should be used
   instead.

   This response is primarily intended to assist the task of maintenance
   by notifying the recipient that the resource is intentionally



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   unavailable and that the IPP object administrator desires that remote
   links to that resource be removed.  It is not necessary to mark all
   permanently unavailable resources as "gone" or to keep the mark for
   any length of time -- that is left to the discretion of the IPP
   object administrator and/or Printer implementation.

C.1.4.9.  client-error-request-entity-too-large (0x0408)

   The IPP object is refusing to process a request because the request
   entity is larger than the IPP object is willing or able to process.
   An IPP Printer returns this status code when it limits the size of
   print Jobs and it receives a print Job that exceeds that limit or
   when the attributes are so many that their encoding causes the
   request entity to exceed IPP object capacity.

C.1.4.10.  client-error-request-value-too-long (0x0409)

   The IPP object is refusing to service the request because one or more
   of the client-supplied attributes has a variable length value that is
   longer than the maximum length specified for that attribute.  The IPP
   object might not have sufficient resources (memory, buffers, etc.) to
   process (even temporarily), interpret, and/or ignore a value larger
   than the maximum length.  Another use of this error code is when the
   IPP object supports the processing of a large value that is less than
   the maximum length, but during the processing of the request as a
   whole, the object can pass the value onto some other system component
   which is not able to accept the large value.  For more details, see
   the Implementer's Guide [RFC3196] .

   Note: For attribute values that are URIs, this rare condition is only
   likely to occur when a Client has improperly submitted a request with
   long query information (e.g. an IPP application allows an end-user to
   enter an invalid URI), when the Client has descended into a URI
   "black hole" of redirection (e.g., a redirected URI prefix that
   points to a suffix of itself), or when the IPP object is under attack
   by a Client attempting to exploit security holes present in some IPP
   objects using fixed-length buffers for reading or manipulating the
   Request-URI.

C.1.4.11.  client-error-document-format-not-supported (0x040A)

   The IPP object is refusing to service the request because the
   document data is in a format, as specified in the "document-format"
   operation attribute, that is not supported by the Printer object.
   This error is returned independent of the client-supplied "ipp-
   attribute-fidelity".  The Printer object MUST return this status
   code, even if there are other Job Template attributes that are not




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   supported as well, since this error is a bigger problem than with Job
   Template attributes.  See sections 3.1.6.1, 3.1.7, and 3.2.1.1.

C.1.4.12.  client-error-attributes-or-values-not-supported (0x040B)

   In a create request, if the Printer object does not support one or
   more attributes, attribute syntaxes, or attribute values supplied in
   the request and the Client supplied the "ipp-attribute-fidelity"
   operation attribute with the 'true' value, the Printer object MUST
   return this status code.  The Printer object MUST also return in the
   Unsupported Attributes Group all the attributes and/or values
   supplied by the Client that are not supported.  See Section 4.1.7.
   For example, if the request indicates 'iso-a4' media, but that media
   type is not supported by the Printer object.  Or, if the Client
   supplies a Job Template attribute and the attribute itself is not
   even supported by the Printer.  If the "ipp-attribute-fidelity"
   attribute is 'false', the Printer MUST ignore or substitute values
   for unsupported Job Template attributes and values rather than reject
   the request and return this status code.

   For any operation where a Client requests attributes (such as a Get-
   Jobs, Get-Printer-Attributes, or Get-Job-Attributes operation), if
   the IPP object does not support one or more of the requested
   attributes, the IPP object simply ignores the unsupported requested
   attributes and processes the request as if they had not been
   supplied, rather than returning this status code.  In this case, the
   IPP object MUST return the 'successful-ok-ignored-or-substituted-
   attributes' status code and MAY return the unsupported attributes as
   values of the "requested-attributes" in the Unsupported Attributes
   Group (see Appendix C.1.2.2).

C.1.4.13.  client-error-uri-scheme-not-supported (0x040C)

   The scheme of the client-supplied URI in a Print-URI or a Send-URI
   operation is not supported.  See sections 3.1.6.1 and 3.1.7.

C.1.4.14.  client-error-charset-not-supported (0x040D)

   For any operation, if the IPP Printer does not support the charset
   supplied by the Client in the "attributes-charset" operation
   attribute, the Printer MUST reject the operation and return this
   status and any 'text' or 'name' attributes using the 'utf-8' charset
   (see Section 4.1.4.1).  See sections 3.1.6.1 and 3.1.7.








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C.1.4.15.  client-error-conflicting-attributes (0x040E)

   The request is rejected because some attribute values conflicted with
   the values of other attributes which this document does not permit to
   be substituted or ignored.  The Printer object MUST also return in
   the Unsupported Attributes Group the conflicting attributes supplied
   by the Client.  See sections 3.1.7 and 3.2.1.2.

C.1.4.16.  client-error-compression-not-supported (0x040F)

   The IPP object is refusing to service the request because the
   document data, as specified in the "compression" operation attribute,
   is compressed in a way that is not supported by the Printer object.
   This error is returned independent of the client-supplied "ipp-
   attribute-fidelity".  The Printer object MUST return this status
   code, even if there are other Job Template attributes that are not
   supported as well, since this error is a bigger problem than with Job
   Template attributes.  See sections 3.1.6.1, 3.1.7, and 3.2.1.1.

C.1.4.17.  client-error-compression-error (0x0410)

   The IPP object is refusing to service the request because the
   document data cannot be decompressed when using the algorithm
   specified by the "compression" operation attribute.  This error is
   returned independent of the client-supplied "ipp-attribute-fidelity".
   The Printer object MUST return this status code, even if there are
   Job Template attributes that are not supported as well, since this
   error is a bigger problem than with Job Template attributes.  See
   sections 3.1.7 and 3.2.1.1.

C.1.4.18.  client-error-document-format-error (0x0411)

   The IPP object is refusing to service the request because Printer
   encountered an error in the document data while interpreting it.
   This error is returned independent of the client-supplied "ipp-
   attribute-fidelity".  The Printer object MUST return this status
   code, even if there are Job Template attributes that are not
   supported as well, since this error is a bigger problem than with Job
   Template attributes.  See sections 3.1.7 and 3.2.1.1.

C.1.4.19.  client-error-document-access-error (0x0412)

   The IPP object is refusing to service the Print-URI or Send-URI
   request because Printer encountered an access error while attempting
   to validate the accessibility or access the document data specified
   in the "document-uri" operation attribute.  The Printer MAY also
   return a specific document access error code using the "document-
   access-error" operation attribute (see Section 4.1.6.4).  This error



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   is returned independent of the client-supplied "ipp-attribute-
   fidelity".  The Printer object MUST return this status code, even if
   there are Job Template attributes that are not supported as well,
   since this error is a bigger problem than with Job Template
   attributes.  See sections 3.1.6.1 and 3.1.7.

C.1.5.  Server Error Status Codes

   This class of status codes indicates cases in which the IPP object is
   aware that it has erred or is incapable of performing the request.
   The IPP object SHOULD include a message containing an explanation of
   the error situation, and whether it is a temporary or permanent
   condition.

C.1.5.1.  server-error-internal-error (0x0500)

   The IPP object encountered an unexpected condition that prevented it
   from fulfilling the request.  This error status code differs from
   "server-error-temporary-error" in that it implies a more permanent
   type of internal error.  It also differs from "server-error-device-
   error" in that it implies an unexpected condition (unlike a paper-jam
   or out-of-toner problem which is undesirable but expected).  This
   error status code indicates that probably some knowledgeable human
   intervention is required.

C.1.5.2.  server-error-operation-not-supported (0x0501)

   The IPP object does not support the functionality required to fulfill
   the request.  This is the appropriate response when the IPP object
   does not recognize an operation or is not capable of supporting it.
   See sections 3.1.6.1 and 3.1.7.

C.1.5.3.  server-error-service-unavailable (0x0502)

   The IPP object is currently unable to handle the request due to a
   temporary overloading or maintenance of the IPP object.  The
   implication is that this is a temporary condition which will be
   alleviated after some delay.  If known, the length of the delay can
   be indicated in the message.  If no delay is given, the IPP
   application should handle the response as it would for a "server-
   error-temporary-error" response.  If the condition is more permanent,
   the error status codes "client-error-gone" or "client-error-not-
   found" could be used.








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C.1.5.4.  server-error-version-not-supported (0x0503)

   The IPP object does not support, or refuses to support, the IPP
   protocol version that was supplied as the value of the "version-
   number" operation parameter in the request.  The IPP object is
   indicating that it is unable or unwilling to complete the request
   using the same major and minor version number as supplied in the
   request other than with this error message.  The error response
   SHOULD contain a "status-message" attribute (see Section 4.1.6.2)
   describing why that version is not supported and what other versions
   are supported by that IPP object.  See sections 3.1.6.1, 3.1.7, and
   3.1.8.

   The error response MUST identify in the "version-number" operation
   parameter the closest version number that the IPP object does
   support.  For example, if a Client supplies version '1.0' and an
   IPP/1.1 object supports version '1.0', then it responds with version
   '1.0' in all responses to such a request.  If the IPP/1.1 object does
   not support version '1.0', then it should accept the request and
   respond with version '1.1' or can reject the request and respond with
   this error code and version '1.1'.  If a Client supplies a version
   '1.2', the IPP/1.1 object should accept the request and return
   version '1.1' or can reject the request and respond with this error
   code and version '1.1'.  See sections 3.1.8 and 4.4.14.

C.1.5.5.  server-error-device-error (0x0504)

   A printer error, such as a paper jam, occurs while the IPP object
   processes a Print or Send operation.  The response contains the true
   Job Status (the values of the "job-state" and "job-state-reasons"
   attributes).  Additional information can be returned in the OPTIONAL
   "job-state-message" attribute value or in the OPTIONAL status message
   that describes the error in more detail.  This error status code is
   only returned in situations where the Printer is unable to accept the
   create request because of such a device error.  For example, if the
   Printer is unable to spool, and can only accept one Job at a time,
   the reason it might reject a create request is that the printer
   currently has a paper jam.  In many cases however, where the Printer
   object can accept the request even though the Printer has some error
   condition, the 'successful-ok' status code will be returned.  In such
   a case, the Client would look at the returned Job Object Attributes
   or later query the Printer to determine its state and state reasons.

C.1.5.6.  server-error-temporary-error (0x0505)

   A temporary error such as a buffer full write error, a memory
   overflow (i.e. the document data exceeds the memory of the Printer),
   or a disk full condition, occurs while the IPP Printer processes an



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   operation.  The Client MAY try the unmodified request again at some
   later point in time with an expectation that the temporary internal
   error condition has been cleared.  Alternatively, as an
   implementation option, a Printer object MAY delay the response until
   the temporary condition is cleared so that no error is returned.

C.1.5.7.  server-error-not-accepting-Jobs (0x0506)

   A temporary error indicating that the Printer is not currently
   accepting jobs, because the administrator has set the value of the
   Printer's "printer-is-accepting-jobs" attribute to 'false' (by means
   outside the scope of this IPP/1.1 document).

C.1.5.8.  server-error-busy (0x0507)

   A temporary error indicating that the Printer is too busy processing
   Jobs and/or other requests.  The Client SHOULD try the unmodified
   request again at some later point in time with an expectation that
   the temporary busy condition will have been cleared.

C.1.5.9.  server-error-job-canceled (0x0508)

   An error indicating that the Job has been canceled by an operator or
   the system while the Client was transmitting the data to the IPP
   Printer.  If a job-id and job-uri had been created, then they are
   returned in the Print-Job, Send-Document, or Send-URI response as
   usual; otherwise, no job-id and job-uri are returned in the response.

C.1.5.10.  server-error-multiple-document-jobs-not-supported (0x0509)

   The IPP object does not support multiple documents per Job and a
   Client attempted to supply document data with a second Send-Document
   or Send-URI operation.

C.2.  Status Codes for IPP Operations

   PJ = Print-Job, PU = Print-URI, CJ = Create-Job, SD = Send-Document
   SU = Send-URI, V = Validate-Job, GA = Get-Job-Attributes and
   Get-Printer-Attributes, GJ = Get-Jobs, C = Cancel-Job
                                                  IPP Operations
   IPP Status Keyword                       PJ PU CJ SD SU V GA GJ C
   ------------------                       -- -- -- -- -- - -- -- -
   successful-ok                            x  x  x  x  x  x x  x  x
   successful-ok-ignored-or-substituted-    x  x  x  x  x  x x  x  x
        attributes
   successful-ok-conflicting-attributes     x  x  x  x  x  x x  x  x
   client-error-bad-request                 x  x  x  x  x  x x  x  x
   client-error-forbidden                   x  x  x  x  x  x x  x  x



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   client-error-not-authenticated           x  x  x  x  x  x x  x  x
   client-error-not-authorized              x  x  x  x  x  x x  x  x
   client-error-not-possible                x  x  x  x  x  x x  x  x
   client-error-timeout                              x  x
   client-error-not-found                   x  x  x  x  x  x x  x  x
   client-error-gone                        x  x  x  x  x  x x  x  x
   client-error-request-entity-too-large    x  x  x  x  x  x x  x  x
   client-error-request-value-too-long      x  x  x  x  x  x x  x  x
   client-error-document-format-not-        x  x     x  x  x x
        supported
   client-error-attributes-or-values-not-   x  x  x  x  x  x x  x  x
        supported
   client-error-uri-scheme-not-supported       x        x
   client-error-charset-not-supported       x  x  x  x  x  x x  x  x
   client-error-conflicting-attributes      x  x  x  x  x  x x  x  x
   client-error-compression-not-supported   x  x     x  x  x
   client-error-compression-error           x  x     x  x
   client-error-document-format-error       x  x     x  x
   client-error-document-access-error          x        x
   server-error-internal-error              x  x  x  x  x  x x  x  x
   server-error-operation-not-supported        x  x  x  x
   server-error-service-unavailable         x  x  x  x  x  x x  x  x
   server-error-version-not-supported       x  x  x  x  x  x x  x  x
   server-error-device-error                x  x  x  x  x
   server-error-temporary-error             x  x  x  x  x
   server-error-not-accepting-Jobs          x  x  x        x
   server-error-busy                        x  x  x  x  x  x x  x  x
   server-error-job-canceled                x        x  x
   server-error-multiple-document-jobs-              x  x
          not-supported

   HJ = Hold-Job, RJ = Release-Job, RS = Restart-Job
   PP = Pause-Printer, RP = Resume-Printer, PJ = Purge-Jobs
                                            IPP Operations (cont.)
   IPP Status Keyword                       HJ RJ RS PP RP PJ
   ------------------                       -- -- -- -- -- --
   successful-ok                            x  x  x  x  x  x
   successful-ok-ignored-or-substituted-    x  x  x  x  x  x
        attributes
   successful-ok-conflicting-attributes     x  x  x  x  x  x
   client-error-bad-request                 x  x  x  x  x  x
   client-error-forbidden                   x  x  x  x  x  x
   client-error-not-authenticated           x  x  x  x  x  x
   client-error-not-authorized              x  x  x  x  x  x
   client-error-not-possible                x  x  x  x  x  x
   client-error-timeout
   client-error-not-found                   x  x  x  x  x  x
   client-error-gone                        x  x  x  x  x  x



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   client-error-request-entity-too-large    x  x  x  x  x  x
   client-error-request-value-too-long      x  x  x  x  x  x
   client-error-document-format-not-
        supported
   client-error-attributes-or-values-not-   x  x  x  x  x  x
        supported
   client-error-uri-scheme-not-supported
   client-error-charset-not-supported       x  x  x  x  x  x
   client-error-conflicting-attributes      x  x  x  x  x  x
   client-error-compression-not-supported
   client-error-compression-error
   client-error-document-format-error
   client-error-document-access-error
   server-error-internal-error              x  x  x  x  x  x
   server-error-operation-not-supported     x  x  x  x  x  x
   server-error-service-unavailable         x  x  x  x  x  x
   server-error-version-not-supported       x  x  x  x  x  x
   server-error-device-error
   server-error-temporary-error             x  x  x  x  x  x
   server-error-not-accepting-jobs
   server-error-busy                        x  x  x  x  x  x
   server-error-job-canceled
   server-error-multiple-document-jobs-
          not-supported

Appendix D.  "media" keyword values

   Standard keyword values are taken from several sources.

   Standard values are defined (taken from DPA[ISO10175] and the Printer
   MIB[RFC3805]):

   o  'default': The default medium for the output device

   o  'iso-a4-white': Specifies the ISO A4 white medium: 210 mm x 297 mm

   o  'iso-a4-colored': Specifies the ISO A4 colored medium: 210 mm x
      297 mm

   o  'iso-a4-transparent' Specifies the ISO A4 transparent medium: 210
      mm x 297 mm

   o  'iso-a3-white': Specifies the ISO A3 white medium: 297 mm x 420 mm

   o  'iso-a3-colored': Specifies the ISO A3 colored medium: 297 mm x
      420 mm

   o  'iso-a5-white': Specifies the ISO A5 white medium: 148 mm x 210 mm



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   o  'iso-a5-colored': Specifies the ISO A5 colored medium: 148 mm x
      210 mm

   o  'iso-b4-white': Specifies the ISO B4 white medium: 250 mm x 353 mm

   o  'iso-b4-colored': Specifies the ISO B4 colored medium: 250 mm x
      353 mm

   o  'iso-b5-white': Specifies the ISO B5 white medium: 176 mm x 250 mm

   o  'iso-b5-colored': Specifies the ISO B5 colored medium: 176 mm x
      250 mm

   o  'jis-b4-white': Specifies the JIS B4 white medium: 257 mm x 364 mm

   o  'jis-b4-colored': Specifies the JIS B4 colored medium: 257 mm x
      364 mm

   o  'jis-b5-white': Specifies the JIS B5 white medium: 182 mm x 257 mm

   o  'jis-b5-colored': Specifies the JIS B5 colored medium: 182 mm x
      257 mm

   o  The following standard values are defined for North American
      media:

   o  'na-letter-white': Specifies the North American letter white
      medium

   o  'na-letter-colored': Specifies the North American letter colored
      medium

   o  'na-letter-transparent': Specifies the North American letter
      transparent medium

   o  'na-legal-white': Specifies the North American legal white medium

   o  'na-legal-colored': Specifies the North American legal colored
      medium

   The following standard values are defined for envelopes:

   o  'iso-b4-envelope': Specifies the ISO B4 envelope medium

   o  'iso-b5-envelope': Specifies the ISO B5 envelope medium

   o  'iso-c3-envelope': Specifies the ISO C3 envelope medium




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   o  'iso-c4-envelope': Specifies the ISO C4 envelope medium

   o  'iso-c5-envelope': Specifies the ISO C5 envelope medium

   o  'iso-c6-envelope': Specifies the ISO C6 envelope medium

   o  'iso-designated-long-envelope': Specifies the ISO Designated Long
      envelope medium

   o  'na-10x13-envelope': Specifies the North American 10x13 envelope
      medium

   o  'na-9x12-envelope': Specifies the North American 9x12 envelope
      medium

   o  'monarch-envelope': Specifies the Monarch envelope

   o  'na-number-10-envelope': Specifies the North American number 10
      business envelope medium

   o  'na-7x9-envelope': Specifies the North American 7x9 inch envelope

   o  'na-9x11-envelope': Specifies the North American 9x11 inch
      envelope

   o  'na-10x14-envelope': Specifies the North American 10x14 inch
      envelope

   o  'na-number-9-envelope': Specifies the North American number 9
      business envelope

   o  'na-6x9-envelope': Specifies the North American 6x9 inch envelope

   o  'na-10x15-envelope': Specifies the North American 10x15 inch
      envelope

   The following standard values are defined for the less commonly used
   media:

   o  'executive-white': Specifies the white executive medium

   o  'folio-white': Specifies the folio white medium

   o  'invoice-white': Specifies the white invoice medium

   o  'ledger-white': Specifies the white ledger medium

   o  'quarto-white': Specified the white quarto medium



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   o  'iso-a0-white': Specifies the ISO A0 white medium: 841 mm x 1189
      mm

   o  'iso-a0-transparent': Specifies the ISO A0 transparent medium: 841
      mm x 1189 mm

   o  'iso-a0-translucent': Specifies the ISO A0 translucent medium: 841
      mm x 1189 mm

   o  'iso-a1-white': Specifies the ISO A1 white medium: 594 mm x 841 mm

   o  'iso-a1-transparent': Specifies the ISO A1 transparent medium: 594
      mm x 841 mm

   o  'iso-a1-translucent': Specifies the ISO A1 translucent medium: 594
      mm x 841 mm

   o  'iso-a2-white': Specifies the ISO A2 white medium: 420 mm x 594 mm

   o  'iso-a2-transparent': Specifies the ISO A2 transparent medium: 420
      mm x 594 mm

   o  'iso-a2-translucent': Specifies the ISO A2 translucent medium: 420
      mm x 594 mm

   o  'iso-a3-transparent': Specifies the ISO A3 transparent medium: 297
      mm x 420 mm

   o  'iso-a3-translucent': Specifies the ISO A3 translucent medium: 297
      mm x 420 mm

   o  'iso-a4-translucent': Specifies the ISO A4 translucent medium: 210
      mm x 297 mm

   o  'iso-a5-transparent': Specifies the ISO A5 transparent medium: 148
      mm x 210 mm

   o  'iso-a5-translucent': Specifies the ISO A5 translucent medium: 148
      mm x 210 mm

   o  'iso-a6-white': Specifies the ISO A6 white medium: 105 mm x 148 mm

   o  'iso-a7-white': Specifies the ISO A7 white medium: 74 mm x 105 mm

   o  'iso-a8-white': Specifies the ISO A8 white medium: 52 mm x 74 mm

   o  'iso-a9-white': Specifies the ISO A9 white medium: 37 mm x 52 mm




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   o  'iso-a10-white': Specifies the ISO A10 white medium: 26 mm x 37 mm

   o  'iso-b0-white': Specifies the ISO B0 white medium: 1000 mm x 1414
      mm

   o  'iso-b1-white': Specifies the ISO B1 white medium: 707 mm x 1000
      mm

   o  'iso-b2-white': Specifies the ISO B2 white medium: 500 mm x 707 mm

   o  'iso-b3-white': Specifies the ISO B3 white medium: 353 mm x 500 mm

   o  'iso-b6-white': Specifies the ISO B6 white medium: 125 mm x 176 mm

   o  'iso-b7-white': Specifies the ISO B7 white medium: 88 mm x 125 mm

   o  'iso-b8-white': Specifies the ISO B8 white medium: 62 mm x 88 mm

   o  'iso-b9-white': Specifies the ISO B9 white medium: 44 mm x 62 mm

   o  'iso-b10-white': Specifies the ISO B10 white medium: 31 mm x 44 mm

   o  'jis-b0-white': Specifies the JIS B0 white medium: 1030 mm x 1456
      mm

   o  'jis-b0-transparent': Specifies the JIS B0 transparent medium:
      1030 mm x 1456 mm

   o  'jis-b0-translucent': Specifies the JIS B0 translucent medium:
      1030 mm x 1456 mm

   o  'jis-b1-white': Specifies the JIS B1 white medium: 728 mm x 1030
      mm

   o  'jis-b1-transparent': Specifies the JIS B1 transparent medium: 728
      mm x 1030 mm

   o  'jis-b1-translucent': Specifies the JIS B1 translucent medium: 728
      mm x 1030 mm

   o  'jis-b2-white': Specifies the JIS B2 white medium: 515 mm x 728 mm

   o  'jis-b2-transparent': Specifies the JIS B2 transparent medium: 515
      mm x 728 mm

   o  'jis-b2-translucent': Specifies the JIS B2 translucent medium: 515
      mm x 728 mm




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   o  'jis-b3-white': Specifies the JIS B3 white medium: 364 mm x 515 mm

   o  'jis-b3-transparent': Specifies the JIS B3 transparent medium: 364
      mm x 515 mm

   o  'jis-b3-translucent': Specifies the JIS B3 translucent medium: 364
      mm x 515 mm

   o  'jis-b4-transparent': Specifies the JIS B4 transparent medium: 257
      mm x 364 mm

   o  'jis-b4-translucent': Specifies the JIS B4 translucent medium: 257
      mm x 364 mm

   o  'jis-b5-transparent': Specifies the JIS B5 transparent medium: 182
      mm x 257 mm

   o  'jis-b5-translucent': Specifies the JIS B5 translucent medium: 182
      mm x 257 mm

   o  'jis-b6-white': Specifies the JIS B6 white medium: 128 mm x 182 mm

   o  'jis-b7-white': Specifies the JIS B7 white medium: 91 mm x 128 mm

   o  'jis-b8-white': Specifies the JIS B8 white medium: 64 mm x 91 mm

   o  'jis-b9-white': Specifies the JIS B9 white medium: 45 mm x 64 mm

   o  'jis-b10-white': Specifies the JIS B10 white medium: 32 mm x 45 mm

   The following standard values are defined for American Standard (i.e.
   ANSI) engineering media:

   o  'a-white': Specifies the engineering ANSI A size white medium: 8.5
      inches x 11 inches

   o  'a-transparent': Specifies the engineering ANSI A size transparent
      medium: 8.5 inches x 11 inches

   o  'a-translucent': Specifies the engineering ANSI A size translucent
      medium: 8.5 inches x 11 inches

   o  'b-white': Specifies the engineering ANSI B size white medium: 11
      inches x 17 inches

   o  'b-transparent': Specifies the engineering ANSI B size transparent
      medium: 11 inches x 17 inches)




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   o  'b-translucent': Specifies the engineering ANSI B size translucent
      medium: 11 inches x 17 inches

   o  'c-white': Specifies the engineering ANSI C size white medium: 17
      inches x 22 inches

   o  'c-transparent': Specifies the engineering ANSI C size transparent
      medium: 17 inches x 22 inches

   o  'c-translucent': Specifies the engineering ANSI C size translucent
      medium: 17 inches x 22 inches

   o  'd-white': Specifies the engineering ANSI D size white medium: 22
      inches x 34 inches

   o  'd-transparent': Specifies the engineering ANSI D size transparent
      medium: 22 inches x 34 inches

   o  'd-translucent': Specifies the engineering ANSI D size translucent
      medium: 22 inches x 34 inches

   o  'e-white': Specifies the engineering ANSI E size white medium: 34
      inches x 44 inches

   o  'e-transparent': Specifies the engineering ANSI E size transparent
      medium: 34 inches x 44 inches

   o  'e-translucent': Specifies the engineering ANSI E size translucent
      medium: 34 inches x 44 inches

   The following standard values are defined for American Standard (i.e.
   ANSI) engineering media for devices that provide the "synchro-cut"
   feature (see Appendix D.1):

   o  'axsynchro-white': Specifies the roll paper having the width of
      the longer edge (11 inches) of the engineering ANSI A size white
      medium and cuts synchronizing with data.

   o  'axsynchro-transparent': Specifies the roll paper having the width
      of the longer edge (11 inches) of the engineering ANSI A size
      transparent medium and cuts synchronizing with data.

   o  'axsynchro-translucent': Specifies the roll paper having the width
      of the longer edge (11 inches) of the engineering ANSI A size
      translucent medium and cuts synchronizing with data.






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   o  'bxsynchro-white': Specifies the roll paper having the width of
      the longer edge (17 inches) of the engineering ANSI B size white
      medium and cuts synchronizing with data.

   o  'bxsynchro-transparent': Specifies the roll paper having the width
      of the longer edge (17 inches) of the engineering ANSI B size
      transparent medium and cuts synchronizing with data.

   o  'bxsynchro-translucent': Specifies the roll paper having the width
      of the longer edge (17 inches) of the engineering ANSI B size
      translucent medium and cuts synchronizing with data.

   o  'cxsynchro-white': Specifies the roll paper having the width of
      the longer edge (22 inches) of the engineering ANSI C size white
      medium and cuts synchronizing with data.

   o  'cxsynchro-transparent': Specifies the roll paper having the width
      of the longer edge (22 inches) of the engineering ANSI C size
      transparent medium and cuts synchronizing with data.

   o  'cxsynchro-translucent': Specifies the roll paper having the width
      of the longer edge (22 inches) of the engineering ANSI C size
      translucent medium and cuts synchronizing with data.

   o  'dxsynchro-white': Specifies the roll paper having the width of
      the longer edge (34 inches) of the engineering ANSI D size white
      medium and cuts synchronizing with data.

   o  'dxsynchro-transparent': Specifies the roll paper having the width
      of the longer edge (34 inches) of the engineering ANSI D size
      transparent medium and cuts synchronizing with data.

   o  'dxsynchro-translucent': Specifies the roll paper having the width
      of the longer edge (34 inches) of the engineering ANSI D size
      translucent medium and cuts synchronizing with data.

   o  'exsynchro-white': Specifies the roll paper having the width of
      the longer edge (44 inches) of the engineering ANSI E size white
      medium and cuts synchronizing with data.

   o  'exsynchro-transparent': Specifies the roll paper having the width
      of the longer edge (44 inches) of the engineering ANSI E size
      transparent medium and cuts synchronizing with data.

   o  'exsynchro-translucent': Specifies the roll paper having the width
      of the longer edge (44 inches) of the engineering ANSI E size
      translucent medium and cuts synchronizing with data.




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   The following standard values are defined for American Architectural
   engineering media:

   o  'arch-a-white': Specifies the Architectural A size white medium: 9
      inches x 12 inches

   o  'arch-a-transparent': Specifies the Architectural A size
      transparent medium: 9 inches x 12 inches

   o  'arch-a-translucent': Specifies the Architectural A size
      translucent medium: 9 inches x 12 inches

   o  'arch-b-white': Specifies the Architectural B size white medium:
      12 inches x 18 inches

   o  'arch-b-transparent': Specifies the Architectural B size
      transparent medium: 12 inches x 18 inches

   o  'arch-b-translucent': Specifies the Architectural B size
      translucent medium: 12 inches x 18 inches

   o  'arch-c-white': Specifies the Architectural C size white medium:
      18 inches x 24 inches

   o  'arch-c-transparent': Specifies the Architectural C size
      transparent medium: 18 inches x 24 inches

   o  'arch-c-translucent': Specifies the Architectural C size
      translucent medium: 18 inches x 24 inches

   o  'arch-d-white': Specifies the Architectural D size white medium:
      24 inches x 36 inches

   o  'arch-d-transparent': Specifies the Architectural D size
      transparent medium: 24 inches x 36 inches

   o  'arch-d-translucent': Specifies the Architectural D size
      translucent medium: 24 inches x 36 inches

   o  'arch-e-white': Specifies the Architectural E size white medium:
      36 inches x 48 inches

   o  'arch-e-transparent': Specifies the Architectural E size
      transparent medium: 36 inches x 48 inches

   o  'arch-e-translucent': Specifies the Architectural E size
      translucent medium: 36 inches x 48 inches




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   The following standard values are defined for American Architectural
   engineering media for devices that provide the "synchro-cut" feature
   (see Appendix D.1):

   o  'arch-axsynchro-white': Specifies the roll paper having the width
      of the longer edge (12 inches) of the Architectural A size white
      medium and cuts synchronizing with data.

   o  'arch-axsynchro-transparent': Specifies the roll paper having the
      width of the longer edge (12 inches) of the Architectural A size
      transparent medium and cuts synchronizing with data.

   o  'arch-axsynchro-translucent': Specifies the roll paper having the
      width of the longer edge (12 inches) of the Architectural A size
      translucent medium and cuts synchronizing with data.

   o  'arch-bxsynchro-white': Specifies the roll paper having the width
      of the longer edge (18 inches) of the Architectural B size white
      medium and cuts synchronizing with data.

   o  'arch-bxsynchro-transparent': Specifies the roll paper having the
      width of the longer edge (18 inches) of the Architectural B size
      transparent medium and cuts synchronizing with data.

   o  'arch-bxsynchro-translucent': Specifies the roll paper having the
      width of the longer edge (18 inches) of the Architectural B size
      translucent medium and cuts synchronizing with data.

   o  'arch-cxsynchro-white': Specifies the roll paper having the width
      of the longer edge (24 inches) of the Architectural C size white
      medium and cuts synchronizing with data.

   o  'arch-cxsynchro-transparent': Specifies the roll paper having the
      width of the longer edge (24 inches) of the Architectural C size
      transparent medium and cuts synchronizing with data.

   o  'arch-cxsynchro-translucent': Specifies the roll paper having the
      width of the longer edge (24 inches) of the Architectural C size
      translucent medium and cuts synchronizing with data.

   o  'arch-dxsynchro-white': Specifies the roll paper having the width
      of the longer edge (36 inches) of the Architectural D size white
      medium and cuts synchronizing with data.

   o  'arch-dxsynchro-transparent': Specifies the roll paper having the
      width of the longer edge (36 inches) of the Architectural D size
      transparent medium and cuts synchronizing with data.




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   o  'arch-dxsynchro-translucent': Specifies the roll paper having the
      width of the longer edge (36 inches) of the Architectural D size
      translucent medium and cuts synchronizing with data.

   o  'arch-exsynchro-white': Specifies the roll paper having the width
      of the longer edge (48 inches) of the Architectural E size white
      medium and cuts synchronizing with data.

   o  'arch-exsynchro-transparent': Specifies the roll paper having the
      width of the longer edge (48 inches) of the Architectural E size
      transparent medium and cuts synchronizing with data.

   o  'arch-exsynchro-translucent': Specifies the roll paper having the
      width of the longer edge (48 inches) of the Architectural E size
      translucent medium and cuts synchronizing with data.

   The following standard values are defined for Japanese and European
   Standard (i.e.  ISO) engineering media, which are of a long fixed
   size [ASME-Y14.1M]:

   o  'iso-a1x3-white': Specifies the ISO A1X3 white medium having the
      width of the longer edge (841 mm) of the ISO A1 medium

   o  'iso-a1x3-transparent': Specifies the ISO A1X3 transparent medium
      having the width of the longer edge (841 mm) of the ISO A1 medium

   o  'iso-a1x3-translucent': Specifies the ISO A1X3 translucent medium
      having the width of the longer edge (841 mm) of the ISO A1 medium

   o  'iso-a1x4-white': Specifies the ISO A1X4 white medium having the
      width of the longer edge (841 mm) of the ISO A1 medium

   o  'iso-a1x4-transparent': Specifies the ISO A1X4 transparent medium
      having the width of the longer edge (841 mm) of the ISO A1 medium

   o  'iso-a1x4- translucent': Specifies the ISO A1X4 translucent medium
      having the width of the longer edge (841 mm) of the ISO A1 medium

   o  'iso-a2x3-white': Specifies the ISO A2X3 white medium having the
      width of the longer edge (594 mm) of the ISO A2 medium

   o  'iso-a2x3-transparent': Specifies the ISO A2X3 transparent medium
      having the width of the longer edge (594 mm) of the ISO A2 medium

   o  'iso-a2x3-translucent': Specifies the ISO A2X3 translucent medium
      having the width of the longer edge (594 mm) of the ISO A2 medium





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   o  'iso-a2x4-white': Specifies the ISO A2X4 white medium having the
      width of the longer edge (594 mm) of the ISO A2 medium

   o  'iso-a2x4-transparent': Specifies the ISO A2X4 transparent medium
      having the width of the longer edge (594 mm) of the ISO A2 medium

   o  'iso-a2x4-translucent': Specifies the ISO A2X4 translucent medium
      having the width of the longer edge (594 mm) of the ISO A2 medium

   o  'iso-a2x5-white': Specifies the ISO A2X5 white medium having the
      width of the longer edge (594 mm) of the ISO A2 medium

   o  'iso-a2x5-transparent': Specifies the ISO A2X5 transparent medium
      having the width of the longer edge (594 mm) of the ISO A2 medium

   o  'iso-a2x5-translucent': Specifies the ISO A2X5 translucent medium
      having the width of the longer edge (594 mm) of the ISO A2 medium

   o  'iso-a3x3-white': Specifies the ISO A3X3 white medium having the
      width of the longer edge (420 mm) of the ISO A3 medium

   o  'iso-a3x3-transparent': Specifies the ISO A3X3 transparent medium
      having the width of the longer edge (420 mm) of the ISO A3 medium

   o  'iso-a3x3-translucent': Specifies the ISO A3X3 translucent medium
      having the width of the longer edge (420 mm) of the ISO A3 medium

   o  'iso-a3x4-white': Specifies the ISO A3X4 white medium having the
      width of the longer edge (420 mm) of the ISO A3 medium

   o  'iso-a3x4-transparent': Specifies the ISO A3X4 transparent medium
      having the width of the longer edge (420 mm) of the ISO A3 medium

   o  'iso-a3x4-translucent': Specifies the ISO A3X4 translucent medium
      having the width of the longer edge (420 mm) of the ISO A3 medium

   o  'iso-a3x5-white': Specifies the ISO A3X5 white medium having the
      width of the longer edge (420 mm) of the ISO A3 medium

   o  'iso-a3x5-transparent': Specifies the ISO A3X5 transparent medium
      having the width of the longer edge (420 mm) of the ISO A3 medium

   o  'iso-a3x5-translucent': Specifies the ISO A3X5 translucent medium
      having the width of the longer edge (420 mm) of the ISO A3 medium

   o  'iso-a3x6-white': Specifies the ISO A3X6 white medium having the
      width of the longer edge (420 mm) of the ISO A3 medium




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   o  'iso-a3x6-transparent': Specifies the ISO A3X6 transparent medium
      having the width of the longer edge (420 mm) of the ISO A3 medium

   o  'iso-a3x6-translucent': Specifies the ISO A3X6 translucent medium
      having the width of the longer edge (420 mm) of the ISO A3 medium

   o  'iso-a3x7-white': Specifies the ISO A3X7 white medium having the
      width of the longer edge (420 mm) of the ISO A3 medium

   o  'iso-a3x7-transparent': Specifies the ISO A3X7 transparent medium
      having the width of the longer edge (420 mm) of the ISO A3 medium

   o  'iso-a3x7-translucent'': Specifies the ISO A3X7 translucent'
      medium having the width of the longer edge (420 mm) of the ISO A3
      medium

   o  'iso-a4x3-white': Specifies the ISO A4X3 white medium having the
      width of the longer edge (297 mm) of the ISO A4 medium

   o  'iso-a4x3-transparent': Specifies the ISO A4X3 transparent medium
      having the width of the longer edge (297 mm) of the ISO A4 medium

   o  'iso-a4x3-translucent'': Specifies the ISO A4X3 translucent'
      medium having the width of the longer edge (297 mm) of the ISO A4
      medium

   o  'iso-a4x4-white': Specifies the ISO A4X4 white medium having the
      width of the longer edge (297 mm) of the ISO A4 medium

   o  'iso-a4x4-transparent': Specifies the ISO A4X4 transparent medium
      having the width of the longer edge (297 mm) of the ISO A4 medium

   o  'iso-a4x4-translucent': Specifies the ISO A4X4 translucent medium
      having the width of the longer edge (297 mm) of the ISO A4 medium

   o  'iso-a4x5-white': Specifies the ISO A4X5 white medium having the
      width of the longer edge (297 mm) of the ISO A4 medium

   o  'iso-a4x5-transparent': Specifies the ISO A4X5 transparent medium
      having the width of the longer edge (297 mm) of the ISO A4 medium

   o  'iso-a4x5-translucent': Specifies the ISO A4X5 translucent medium
      having the width of the longer edge (297 mm) of the ISO A4 medium

   o  'iso-a4x6-white': Specifies the ISO A4X6 white medium having the
      width of the longer edge (297 mm) of the ISO A4 medium





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   o  'iso-a4x6-transparent': Specifies the ISO A4X6 transparent medium
      having the width of the longer edge (297 mm) of the ISO A4 medium

   o  'iso-a4x6-translucent': Specifies the ISO A4X6 translucent medium
      having the width of the longer edge (297 mm) of the ISO A4 medium

   o  'iso-a4x7-white': Specifies the ISO A4X7 white medium having the
      width of the longer edge (297 mm) of the ISO A4 medium

   o  'iso-a4x7-transparent': Specifies the ISO A4X7 transparent medium
      having the width of the longer edge (297 mm) of the ISO A4 medium

   o  'iso-a4x7-translucent': Specifies the ISO A4X7 translucent medium
      having the width of the longer edge (297 mm) of the ISO A4 medium

   o  'iso-a4x8-white': Specifies the ISO A4X8 white medium having the
      width of the longer edge (297 mm) of the ISO A4 medium

   o  'iso-a4x8-transparent': Specifies the ISO A4X8 transparent medium
      having the width of the longer edge (297 mm) of the ISO A4 medium

   o  'iso-a4x8-translucent': Specifies the ISO A4X8 translucent medium
      having the width of the longer edge (297 mm) of the ISO A4 medium

   o  'iso-a4x9-white': Specifies the ISO A4X9 white medium having the
      width of the longer edge (297 mm) of the ISO A4 medium

   o  'iso-a4x9-transparent': Specifies the ISO A4X9 transparent medium
      having the width of the longer edge (297 mm) of the ISO A4 medium

   o  'iso-a4x9-translucent': Specifies the ISO A4X9 translucent medium
      having the width of the longer edge (297 mm) of the ISO A4 medium

   The following standard values are defined for Japanese and European
   Standard (i.e.  ISO) engineering media, which are either a long fixed
   size [ASME-Y14.1M] or roll feed, for devices that provide the
   "synchro-cut" feature (see Appendix D.1):

   o  'iso-a0xsynchro-white': Specifies the paper having the width of
      the longer edge (1189 mm) of the ISO A0 white medium and cuts
      synchronizing with data.

   o  'iso-a0xsynchro-transparent': Specifies the paper having the width
      of the longer edge (1189 mm) of the ISO A0 transparent medium and
      cuts synchronizing with data.






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   o  'iso-a0xsynchro-translucent': Specifies the paper having the width
      of the longer edge (1189 mm) of the ISO A0 translucent medium and
      cuts synchronizing with data.

   o  'iso-a1xsynchro-white': Specifies the paper having the width of
      the longer edge (841 mm) of the ISO A1 white medium and cuts
      synchronizing with data.

   o  'iso-a1xsynchro-transparent': Specifies the paper having the width
      of the longer edge (841 mm) of the ISO A1 transparent medium and
      cuts synchronizing with data.

   o  'iso-a1xsynchro-translucent': Specifies the paper having the width
      of the longer edge (841 mm) of the ISO A1 translucent medium and
      cuts synchronizing with data.

   o  'iso-a2xsynchro-white': Specifies the paper having the width of
      the longer edge (594 mm) of the ISO A2 white medium and cuts
      synchronizing with data.

   o  'iso-a2xsynchro-transparent': Specifies the paper having the width
      of the longer edge (594 mm) of the ISO A2 transparent medium and
      cuts synchronizing with data.

   o  'iso-a2xsynchro-translucent': Specifies the paper having the width
      of the longer edge (594 mm) of the ISO A2 translucent medium and
      cuts synchronizing with data.

   o  'iso-a3xsynchro-white': Specifies the paper having the width of
      the longer edge (420 mm) of the ISO A3 white medium and cuts
      synchronizing with data.

   o  'iso-a3xsynchro-transparent': Specifies the paper having the width
      of the longer edge (420 mm) of the ISO A3 transparent medium and
      cuts synchronizing with data.

   o  'iso-a3xsynchro-translucent': Specifies the paper having the width
      of the longer edge (420 mm) of the ISO A3 translucent medium and
      cuts synchronizing with data.

   o  'iso-a4xsynchro-white': Specifies the paper having the width of
      the longer edge (297 mm) of the ISO A4 white medium and cuts
      synchronizing with data.

   o  'iso-a4xsynchro-transparent': Specifies the paper having the width
      of the longer edge (297 mm) of the ISO A4 transparent medium and
      cuts synchronizing with data.




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   o  'iso-a4xsynchro-translucent': Specifies the paper having the width
      of the longer edge (297 mm) of the ISO A4 transparent medium and
      cuts synchronizing with data.

   The following standard values are defined for American Standard (i.e.
   ANSI) engineering media, American Architectural engineering media,
   and Japanese and European Standard (i.e.  ISO) engineering media,
   which are either a long fixed size [ASME-Y14.1M] or roll feed, for
   devices that provide the "synchro-cut" feature and/or the "auto-
   select" feature (see Appendix D.1):

   o  'auto-white': Specifies that the printer selects the white medium
      with the appropriate fixed size (e.g. a1, a2, etc.) or data-
      synchro size, and the selection is implementation-defined.

   o  'auto-transparent': Specifies that the printer selects the
      transparent medium with the appropriate fixed size (e.g. a1, a2,
      etc.) or data-synchro size, and the selection is implementation-
      defined.

   o  'auto-translucent': Specifies that the printer selects the
      translucent medium with the appropriate fixed size (e.g. a1, a2,
      etc.) or data-synchro size, and the selection is implementation-
      defined.

   o  'auto-fixed-size-white': Specifies that the printer selects the
      white medium with the appropriate fixed size (e.g. a1, a2, etc.)
      or the appropriate long fixed size listed above.

   o  'auto-fixed-size-transparent': Specifies that the printer selects
      the transparent medium with the appropriate fixed size (e.g. a1,
      a2, etc.) or the appropriate long fixed size listed above.

   o  'auto-fixed-size-translucent': Specifies that the printer selects
      the translucent medium with the appropriate fixed size (e.g. a1,
      a2, etc.) or the appropriate long fixed size listed above.

   o  'auto-synchro-white': Specifies that the printer selects the white
      paper with the appropriate width and cuts it synchronizing with
      data.

   o  'auto-synchro-transparent': Specifies that the printer selects the
      transparent paper with the appropriate width and cuts it
      synchronizing with data.

   o  'auto-synchro-translucent': Specifies that the printer selects the
      translucent paper with the appropriate width and cuts it
      synchronizing with data.



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   The following standard values are defined for input-trays (from ISO
   DPA and the Printer MIB):

   o  'top': The top input tray in the printer.

   o  'middle': The middle input tray in the printer.

   o  'bottom': The bottom input tray in the printer.

   o  'envelope': The envelope input tray in the printer.

   o  'manual': The manual feed input tray in the printer.

   o  'large-capacity': The large capacity input tray in the printer.

   o  'main': The main input tray

   o  'side': The side input tray

   The following standard values are defined for media sizes (from ISO
   DPA):

   o  'iso-a0': Specifies the ISO A0 size: 841 mm by 1189 mm as defined
      in ISO 216

   o  'iso-a1': Specifies the ISO A1 size: 594 mm by 841 mm as defined
      in ISO 216

   o  'iso-a2': Specifies the ISO A2 size: 420 mm by 594 mm as defined
      in ISO 216

   o  'iso-a3': Specifies the ISO A3 size: 297 mm by 420 mm as defined
      in ISO 216

   o  'iso-a4': Specifies the ISO A4 size: 210 mm by 297 mm as defined
      in ISO 216

   o  'iso-a5': Specifies the ISO A5 size: 148 mm by 210 mm as defined
      in ISO 216

   o  'iso-a6': Specifies the ISO A6 size: 105 mm by 148 mm as defined
      in ISO 216

   o  'iso-a7': Specifies the ISO A7 size: 74 mm by 105 mm as defined in
      ISO 216

   o  'iso-a8': Specifies the ISO A8 size: 52 mm by 74 mm as defined in
      ISO 216



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   o  'iso-a9': Specifies the ISO A9 size: 37 mm by 52 mm as defined in
      ISO 216

   o  'iso-a10': Specifies the ISO A10 size: 26 mm by 37 mm as defined
      in ISO 216

   o  'iso-b0': Specifies the ISO B0 size: 1000 mm by 1414 mm as defined
      in ISO 216

   o  'iso-b1': Specifies the ISO B1 size: 707 mm by 1000 mm as defined
      in ISO 216

   o  'iso-b2': Specifies the ISO B2 size: 500 mm by 707 mm as defined
      in ISO 216

   o  'iso-b3': Specifies the ISO B3 size: 353 mm by 500 mm as defined
      in ISO 216

   o  'iso-b4': Specifies the ISO B4 size: 250 mm by 353 mm as defined
      in ISO 216

   o  'iso-b5': Specifies the ISO B5 size: 176 mm by 250 mm as defined
      in ISO 216

   o  'iso-b6': Specifies the ISO B6 size: 125 mm by 176 mm as defined
      in ISO 216

   o  'iso-b7': Specifies the ISO B7 size: 88 mm by 125 mm as defined in
      ISO 216

   o  'iso-b8': Specifies the ISO B8 size: 62 mm by 88 mm as defined in
      ISO 216

   o  'iso-b9': Specifies the ISO B9 size: 44 mm by 62 mm as defined in
      ISO 216

   o  'iso-b10': Specifies the ISO B10 size: 31 mm by 44 mm as defined
      in ISO 216

   o  'na-letter': Specifies the North American letter size: 8.5 inches
      by 11 inches

   o  'na-legal': Specifies the North American legal size: 8.5 inches by
      14 inches

   o  'na-8x10': Specifies the North American 8 inches by 10 inches

   o  'na-5x7': Specifies the North American 5 inches by 7 inches



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   o  'executive': Specifies the executive size (7.25 X 10.5 in)

   o  'folio': Specifies the folio size (8.5 X 13 in)

   o  'invoice': Specifies the invoice size (5.5 X 8.5 in)

   o  'ledger': Specifies the ledger size (11 X 17 in)

   o  'quarto': Specifies the quarto size (8.5 X 10.83 in)

   o  'iso-c3': Specifies the ISO C3 size: 324 mm by 458 mm as defined
      in ISO 269

   o  'iso-c4': Specifies the ISO C4 size: 229 mm by 324 mm as defined
      in ISO 269

   o  'iso-c5': Specifies the ISO C5 size: 162 mm by 229 mm as defined
      in ISO 269

   o  'iso-c6': Specifies the ISO C6 size: 114 mm by 162 mm as defined
      in ISO 269

   o  'iso-designated-long': Specifies the ISO Designated Long size: 110
      mm by 220 mm as defined in ISO 269

   o  'na-10x13-envelope': Specifies the North American 10x13 size: 10
      inches by 13 inches

   o  'na-9x12-envelope': Specifies the North American 9x12 size: 9
      inches by 12 inches

   o  'na-number-10-envelope': Specifies the North American number 10
      business envelope size: 4.125 inches by 9.5 inches

   o  'na-7x9-envelope': Specifies the North American 7x9 inch envelope
      size

   o  'na-9x11-envelope': Specifies the North American 9x11 inch
      envelope size

   o  'na-10x14-envelope': Specifies the North American 10x14 inch
      envelope size

   o  'na-number-9-envelope': Specifies the North American number 9
      business envelope size

   o  'na-6x9-envelope': Specifies the North American 6x9 envelope size




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   o  'na-10x15-envelope': Specifies the North American 10x15 envelope
      size

   o  'monarch-envelope': Specifies the Monarch envelope size (3.87 x
      7.5 in)

   o  'jis-b0': Specifies the JIS B0 size: 1030mm x 1456mm

   o  'jis-b1': Specifies the JIS B1 size: 728mm x 1030mm

   o  'jis-b2': Specifies the JIS B2 size: 515mm x 728mm

   o  'jis-b3': Specifies the JIS B3 size: 364mm x 515mm

   o  'jis-b4': Specifies the JIS B4 size: 257mm x 364mm

   o  'jis-b5': Specifies the JIS B5 size: 182mm x 257mm

   o  'jis-b6': Specifies the JIS B6 size: 128mm x 182mm

   o  'jis-b7': Specifies the JIS B7 size: 91mm x 128mm

   o  'jis-b8': Specifies the JIS B8 size: 64mm x 91mm

   o  'jis-b9': Specifies the JIS B9 size: 45mm x 64mm

   o  'jis-b10': Specifies the JIS B10 size: 32mm x 45mm

   The following standard values are defined for American Standard (i.e.
   ANSI) engineering media sizes:

   o  'a': Specifies the engineering ANSI A size medium: 8.5 inches x 11
      inches

   o  'b': Specifies the engineering ANSI B size medium: 11 inches x 17
      inches

   o  'c': Specifies the engineering ANSI C size medium: 17 inches x 22
      inches

   o  'd': Specifies the engineering ANSI D size medium: 22 inches x 34
      inches

   o  'e': Specifies the engineering ANSI E size medium: 34 inches x 44
      inches

   The following standard values are defined for American Architectural
   engineering media sizes:



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   o  'arch-a': Specifies the Architectural A size medium: 9 inches x 12
      inches

   o  'arch-b': Specifies the Architectural B size medium: 12 inches x
      18 inches

   o  'arch-c': Specifies the Architectural C size medium: 18 inches x
      24 inches

   o  'arch-d': Specifies the Architectural D size medium: 24 inches x
      36 inches

   o  'arch-e': Specifies the Architectural E size medium: 36 inches x
      48 inches

D.1.  Examples

   Below are examples to supplement the engineering media value
   definitions.
































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       data height:          A1 height
       data width (shaded):  A1 width < data width < (A1 width) x 2
       specified value:      'iso-a1xsynchro-white'
                    |                    |
                    |<--- data width --->|
                    |                    |
                    |              |     |        |
                    |<- A1 width ->|<- A1 width ->|
                    |              |     |        |
        cross  ^    |              |     |        |
         feed  |    +--------------------------------------------/
    direction  |    |//////////////|/////|        |     ^       /
               |    |//////////////|/////|        |     |      /
               |    |//////////////|/////|        |     |     /
               |    |//////////////|/////|        |     |     \
   <-----------+-   |//////////////|/////|        |    A1      \  roll
   feed        |    |//////////////|/////|        |   height    \  paper
   direction        |//////////////|/////|        |     |        \
                    |//////////////|/////|        |     |        /
                    |//////////////|/////|        |     v       /
                    +------------------------------------------/
                                         |
                                         |
                                         |<---- CUT HERE (to synchronize
                                         |              with data width)
                                         |

       Example 1: "Synchro-Cut", a device cutting the roll paper in
                       synchronization with the data






















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       data height:          A1 height
       data width (shaded):  A1 width < data width < (A1 width) x 2
       specified value:      'auto-fixed-size-white'
                    |                    |
                    |<--- data width --->|
                    |                    |
                    |              |     |        |
                    |<- A1 width ->|<- A1 width ->|
                    |              |     |        |
        cross  ^    |              |     |        |
         feed  |    +--------------------------------------------/
    direction  |    |//////////////|/////|        |     ^       /
               |    |//////////////|/////|        |     |      /
               |    |//////////////|/////|        |     |     /
               |    |//////////////|/////|        |     |     \
   <-----------+-   |//////////////|/////|        |    A1      \  roll
   feed        |    |//////////////|/////|        |   height    \  paper
   direction        |//////////////|/////|        |     |        \
                    |//////////////|/////|        |     |        /
                    |//////////////|/////|        |     v       /
                    +------------------------------------------/
                                                  |
                                                  |
                                                  |<--- CUT HERE
                                                  |      (to synchronize
                                                  |     with data width)

    Example 2: "Auto-Cut", a device cutting the roll paper at multiples
                         of fixed-size media width






















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       paper height:         A4 height
       paper width:          (A4 width) x 4
       specified value:      'iso-a4x4-white'
   |              |              |              |              |
   |<- A4 width ->|<- A4 width ->|<- A4 width ->|<- A4 width ->|
   |              |              |              |              |
   |              |              |              |              |
   +-----------------------------------------------------------+
   |       ^      |              |              |              |
   |       |      |              |              |              |
   |       |      |              |              |              |
   |      A4      |              |              |              |
   |    height    |              |              |              |
   |       |      |              |              |              |
   |       |      |              |              |              |
   |       |      |              |              |              |
   |       v      |              |              |              |
   +-----------------------------------------------------------+

             Example 3: the 'iso-a4x4-white' fixed size paper































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      data height:          A4 height
      data width (shaded):  (A4 width) x 2 < data width < (A4 width) x 3
      specified value:      'iso-a4xsynchro-white'
                    |                                   |
                    |<---------- data width ----------->|
                    |                                   |
                    |              |              |     |        |
                    |<- A4 width ->|<- A4 width ->|<- A4 width ->|
                    |              |              |     |        |
        cross  ^    |              |              |     |        |
         feed  |    +--------------------------------------------+
    direction  |    |//////////////|//////////////|/////|    ^   |
               |    |//////////////|//////////////|/////|    |   |
               |    |//////////////|//////////////|/////|    |   |
               |    |//////////////|//////////////|/////|    |   |
   <-----------+-   |//////////////|//////////////|/////|   A4   |
   feed        |    |//////////////|//////////////|/////| height |
   direction        |//////////////|//////////////|/////|    |   |
                    |//////////////|//////////////|/////|    |   |
                    |//////////////|//////////////|/////|    v   |
                    +--------------------------------------------+
                                                        |
                                          CUT HERE ---->|
                                    (to synchronize     |
                                    with data width)    |

    Example 4: "Synchro-Cut", a device cutting the fixed size paper in
                       synchronization with the data

Appendix E.  Processing IPP Attributes

   When submitting a print Job to a Printer object, the IPP model allows
   a Client to supply operation and Job Template attributes along with
   the document data.  These Job Template attributes in the create
   request affect the rendering, production and finishing of the
   documents in the Job. Similar types of instructions can also be
   contained in the document to be printed, that is, embedded within the
   print data itself.  In addition, the Printer has a set of attributes
   that describe what rendering and finishing options which are
   supported by that Printer.  This model, which allows for flexibility
   and power, also introduces the potential that at Job submission time,
   these client-supplied attributes can conflict with either:

   o  what the implementation is capable of realizing (i.e., what the
      Printer supports), as well as

   o  the instructions embedded within the print data itself.




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   The following sections describe how these two types of conflicts are
   handled in the IPP model.

E.1.  Fidelity

   If there is a conflict between what the Client requests and what a
   Printer object supports, the Client can request one of two possible
   conflict handling mechanisms:

   1) either reject the Job since the Job can not be processed exactly
   as specified, or

   2) allow the Printer to make any changes necessary to proceed with
   processing the Job the best it can.

   In the first case the Client is indicating to the Printer object:
   "Print the Job exactly as specified with no exceptions, and if that
   can't be done, don't even bother printing the Job at all."  In the
   second case, the Client is indicating to the Printer object: "It is
   more important to make sure the Job is printed rather than be
   processed exactly as specified; just make sure the Job is printed
   even if some client-supplied attributes need to be changed or
   ignored."

   The IPP model accounts for this situation by introducing an "ipp-
   attribute-fidelity" attribute.

   In a create request, "ipp-attribute-fidelity" is a boolean operation
   attribute that is OPTIONALLY supplied by the Client.  The value
   'true' indicates that total fidelity to Client supplied Job Template
   attributes and values is required.  The Client is requesting that the
   Job be printed exactly as specified, and if that is not possible then
   the Job MUST be rejected rather than processed incorrectly.  The
   value 'false' indicates that a reasonable attempt to print the Job is
   acceptable.  If a Printer does not support some of the Client
   supplied Job Template attributes or values, the Printer MUST ignore
   them or substitute any supported value for unsupported values,
   respectively.  The Printer can choose to substitute the default value
   associated with that attribute, or use some other supported value
   that is similar to the unsupported requested value.  For example, if
   a Client supplies a "media" value of 'na-letter', the Printer can
   choose to substitute 'iso-a4' rather than a default value of
   'envelope'.  If the Client does not supply the "ipp-attribute-
   fidelity" attribute, the Printer assumes a value of 'false'.

   Each Printer implementation MUST support both types of "fidelity"
   printing (that is whether the Client supplies a value of 'true' or
   'false'):



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   o  If the Client supplies 'false' or does not supply the attribute,
      the Printer object MUST always accept the request by ignoring
      unsupported Job Template attributes and by substituting
      unsupported values of supported Job Template attributes with
      supported values.

   o  If the Client supplies 'true', the Printer object MUST reject the
      request if the Client supplies unsupported Job Template
      attributes.

   Since a Client can always query a Printer to find out exactly what is
   and is not supported, "ipp-attribute-fidelity" set to 'false' is
   useful when:

   1) The End-User uses a command line interface to request attributes
   that might not be supported.

   2) In a GUI context, if the End User expects the Job might be moved
   to another printer and prefers a sub-optimal result to nothing at
   all.

   3) The End User just wants something reasonable in lieu of nothing at
   all.

E.2.  Page Description Language (PDL) Override

   If there is a conflict between the value of an IPP Job Template
   attribute and a corresponding instruction in the document data, the
   value of the IPP attribute SHOULD take precedence over the document
   instruction.  Consider the case where a previously formatted file of
   document data is sent to an IPP Printer.  In this case, if the Client
   supplies any attributes at Job submission time, the Client desires
   that those attributes override the embedded instructions.  Consider
   the case were a previously formatted document has embedded in it
   commands to load 'iso-a4' media.  However, the document is passed to
   an end user that only has access to a printer with 'na-letter' media
   loaded.  That end user most likely wants to submit that document to
   an IPP Printer with the "media" Job Template attribute set to 'na-
   letter'.  The Job submission attribute should take precedence over
   the embedded PDL instruction.  However, until companies that supply
   document data interpreters allow a way for external IPP attributes to
   take precedence over embedded Job production instructions, a Printer
   might not be able to support the semantics that IPP attributes
   override the embedded instructions.

   The IPP model accounts for this situation by introducing a "pdl-
   override-supported" attribute that describes the Printer objects
   capabilities to override instructions embedded in the PDL data



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   stream.  The value of the "pdl-override-supported" attribute is
   configured by means outside the scope of this IPP/1.1 document.

   This REQUIRED Printer attribute takes on the following values:

   o  'attempted': This value indicates that the Printer object attempts
      to make the IPP attribute values take precedence over embedded
      instructions in the document data, however there is no guarantee.

   o  'not-attempted': This value indicates that the Printer object
      makes no attempt to make the IPP attribute values take precedence
      over embedded instructions in the document data.

   At Job processing time, an implementation that supports the value of
   'attempted' might do one of several different actions:

   1) Generate an output device specific command sequence to realize the
   feature represented by the IPP attribute value.

   2) Parse the document data itself and replace the conflicting
   embedded instruction with a new embedded instruction that matches the
   intent of the IPP attribute value.

   3) Indicate to the Printer that external supplied attributes take
   precedence over embedded instructions and then pass the external IPP
   attribute values to the document data interpreter.

   4) Anything else that allows for the semantics that IPP attributes
   override embedded document data instructions.

   Since 'attempted' does not offer any type of guarantee, even though a
   given Printer object might not do a very "good" Job of attempting to
   ensure that IPP attributes take a higher precedence over instructions
   embedded in the document data, it would still be a conforming
   implementation.

   At Job processing time, an implementation that supports the value of
   'not-attempted' might do one of the following actions:

   1) Simply pre-pend the document data with the PDL instruction that
   corresponds to the client-supplied PDL attribute, such that if the
   document data also has the same PDL instruction, it will override
   what the Printer object pre-pended.  In other words, this
   implementation is using the same implementation semantics for the
   client-supplied IPP attributes as for the Printer object defaults.






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   2) Parse the document data and replace the conflicting embedded
   instruction with a new embedded instruction that approximates, but
   does not match, the semantic intent of the IPP attribute value.

   Note: The "ipp-attribute-fidelity" attribute applies to the Printer's
   ability to either accept or reject other unsupported Job Template
   attributes.  In other words, if "ipp-attribute-fidelity" is set to
   'true', a Job is accepted if and only if the Client supplied Job
   Template attributes and values are supported by the Printer.  Whether
   these attributes actually affect the processing of the Job when the
   document data contains embedded instructions depends on the ability
   of the Printer to override the instructions embedded in the document
   data with the semantics of the IPP attributes.  If the document data
   attributes can be overridden ("pdl-override-supported" set to
   'attempted'), the Printer makes an attempt to use the IPP attributes
   when processing the Job. If the document data attributes can not be
   overridden ("pdl-override-supported" set to 'not-attempted'), the
   Printer makes no attempt to override the embedded document data
   instructions with the IPP attributes when processing the Job, and
   hence, the IPP attributes can fail to affect the Job processing and
   output when the corresponding instruction is embedded in the document
   data.

E.3.  Using Job Template Attributes During Document Processing.

   The Printer object uses some of the Job object's Job Template
   attributes during the processing of the document data associated with
   that Job. These include, but are not limited to, "orientation-
   requested", "number-up", "sides", "media", and "copies".  The
   processing of each document in a Job Object MUST follow the steps
   below.  These steps are intended only to identify when and how
   attributes are to be used in processing document data and any
   alternative steps that accomplishes the same effect can be used to
   implement this specification document.

   1.  Using the Client supplied "document-format" attribute or some
       form of document format detection algorithm (if the value of
       "document-format" is not specific enough), determine whether or
       not the document data has already been formatted for printing.
       If the document data has been formatted, then go to step 2.
       Otherwise, the document data MUST be formatted.  The formatting
       detection algorithm is implementation defined and is not
       specified by this document.  The formatting of the document data
       uses the "orientation-requested" attribute to determine how the
       formatted print data should be placed on a print-stream page, see
       Section 5.2.10 for the details.





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   2.  The document data is in the form of a print-stream in a known
       media type.  The "page-ranges" attribute is used to select, as
       specified in Section 5.2.7, a sub-sequence of the pages in the
       print-stream that are to be processed and images.

   3.  The input to this step is a sequence of print-stream pages.  This
       step is controlled by the "number-up" attribute.  If the value of
       "number-up" is N, then during the processing of the print-stream
       pages, each N print-stream pages are positioned, as specified in
       Section 5.2.9, to create a single impression.  If a given
       document does not have N more print-stream pages, then the
       completion of the impression is controlled by the "multiple-
       document-handling" attribute as described in Section 5.2.4; when
       the value of this attribute is 'single-document' or 'single-
       document-new-sheet', the print-stream pages of document data from
       subsequent documents is used to complete the impression.

   The size(scaling), position(translation) and rotation of the print-
   stream pages on the impression is implementation defined.  Note that
   during this process the print-stream pages can be rendered to a form
   suitable for placing on the impression; this rendering is controlled
   by the values of the "printer-resolution" and "print-quality"
   attributes as described in sections 4.2.12 and 4.2.13.  In the case
   N=1, the impression is nearly the same as the print-stream page; the
   differences would only be in the size, position and rotation of the
   print-stream page and/or any decoration, such as a frame to the page,
   that is added by the implementation.

   1.  The collection of impressions is placed, in sequence, onto sides
       of the media sheets.  This placement is controlled by the "sides"
       attribute and the orientation of the print-stream page, as
       described in Section 5.2.8.  The orientation of the print-stream
       pages affects the orientation of the impression; for example, if
       "number-up" equals 2, then, typically, two portrait print-stream
       pages become one landscape impression.  Note that the placement
       of impressions onto media sheets is also controlled by the
       "multiple-document-handling" attribute as described in
       Section 5.2.4.

   2.  The "copies" and "multiple-document-handling" attributes are used
       to determine how many copies of each media instance are created
       and in what order.  See sections 4.2.5 and 4.2.4 for the details.

   3.  When the correct number of copies are created, the media
       instances are finished according to the values of the
       "finishings" attribute as described in 4.2.6.  Note that
       sometimes finishing operations can require manual intervention to
       perform the finishing operations on the copies, especially



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       uncollated copies.  This document allows any or all of the
       processing steps to be performed automatically or manually at the
       discretion of the Printer object.

Appendix F.  Generic Directory Schema

   This section defines a generic schema for an entry in a directory
   service.  A directory service is a means by which service users can
   locate service providers.  In IPP environments, this means that IPP
   Printers can be registered (either automatically or with the help of
   an administrator) as entries of type printer in the directory using
   an implementation specific mechanism such as entry attributes, entry
   type fields, specific branches, etc.  Directory clients can search or
   browse for entries of type printer.  Clients use the directory
   service to find entries based on naming, organizational contexts, or
   filtered searches on attribute values of entries.  For example, a
   Client can find all printers in the "Local Department" context.
   Authentication and authorization are also often part of a directory
   service so that an administrator can place limits on end users so
   that they are only allowed to find entries to which they have certain
   access rights.  IPP itself does not require any specific directory
   service protocol or provider.

   Note: Some directory implementations allow for the notion of
   "aliasing".  That is, one directory entry object can appear as
   multiple directory entry object with different names for each object.
   In each case, each alias refers to the same directory entry object
   which refers to a single IPP Printer object.

   The generic schema is a subset of IPP Printer Job Template and
   Printer Description attributes (sections 4.2 and 4.4).  These
   attributes are identified as either RECOMMENDED or OPTIONAL for the
   directory entry itself.  This conformance labeling is NOT the same
   conformance labeling applied to the attributes of IPP Printers
   objects.  The conformance labeling in this Appendix is intended to
   apply to directory templates and to IPP Printer implementations that
   subscribe by adding one or more entries to a directory.  RECOMMENDED
   attributes SHOULD be associated with each directory entry.  OPTIONAL
   attributes MAY be associated with the directory entry (if known or
   supported).  In addition, all directory entry attributes SHOULD
   reflect the current attribute values for the corresponding Printer
   object.

   The names of attributes in directory schema and entries SHOULD be the
   same as the IPP Printer attribute names as shown, as much as
   possible.





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   In order to bridge between the directory service and the IPP Printer
   object, one of the RECOMMENDED directory entry attributes is the
   Printer object's "printer-uri-supported" attribute.  The directory
   Client queries the "printer-uri-supported" attribute (or its
   equivalent) in the directory entry and then the IPP Client addresses
   the IPP Printer object using one of its URIs.  The "uri-security-
   supported" attribute identifies the protocol (if any) used to secure
   a channel.

   The following attributes define the generic schema for directory
   entries of type PRINTER:

   printer-uri-supported RECOMMENDED Section 5.4.1

   uri-authentication-supported RECOMMENDED Section 5.4.2

   uri-security-supported RECOMMENDED Section 5.4.3

   printer-name RECOMMENDED Section 5.4.4

   printer-location RECOMMENDED Section 5.4.5

   printer-info OPTIONAL Section 5.4.6

   printer-more-info OPTIONAL Section 5.4.7

   printer-make-and-model RECOMMENDED Section 5.4.9

   ipp-versions-supported RECOMMENDED Section 5.4.14

   multiple-document-jobs-supported OPTIONAL Section 5.4.16

   charset-supported OPTIONAL Section 5.4.18

   generated-natural-language-

   supported OPTIONAL Section 5.4.20

   document-format-supported RECOMMENDED Section 5.4.22

   color-supported RECOMMENDED Section 5.4.26

   compression-supported RECOMMENDED Section 5.4.32

   pages-per-minute OPTIONAL Section 5.4.36

   pages-per-minute-color OPTIONAL Section 5.4.37




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   finishings-supported OPTIONAL Section 5.2.6

   number-up-supported OPTIONAL Section 5.2.7

   sides-supported RECOMMENDED Section 5.2.8

   media-supported RECOMMENDED Section 5.2.11

   printer-resolution-supported OPTIONAL Section 5.2.12

   print-quality-supported OPTIONAL Section 5.2.13

Appendix G.  Change History

G.1.  Changes In -04

   The following changes are in draft-sweet-rfc2911bis-04:

   o  Removed restart and purge from the abstract.

   o  Eliminated use of confusing ISO "NEED NOT" conformance
      terminology.

   o  Added DEPRECATED terminology.

   o  Marked Purge-Jobs and Restart-Job as DEPRECATED.

   o  Added reference to PWG 5100.11 (JPS2) for the Resubmit-Job
      operation (safe replacement for Restart-Job)

G.2.  Changes In -03

   The following changes are in draft-sweet-rfc2911bis-03:

   o  Submission type is now IETF (AD-sponsored), clarify goals.

   o  Also obsolete RFC 3381 per PWG IPP WG

   o  References to RFC 2617 are updated to the updated drafts in the
      RFC editor's queue

   o  Section 4.1.5: Clarify note at end of section.

   o  Section 4.1.8: Clarify conformance requirements are for IPP/1.1
      implementations.

   o  Section 5.4.3: Drop 'ssl3' value, fix examples.




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   o  Section 6.2.4: Reword "understand" -> "decode and process"

   o  References: Drop SSL reference.

   o  Global: Don't use SSL3 in examples, use TLS

   o  Global: Client, Printer, and Job are defined terms, capitalize

   o  Global: Fix lots of uses of "may" (conformance term)

G.3.  Changes In -02

   The following changes are in draft-sweet-rfc2911bis-02:

   o  Section 1: Dropped RFC 3381 reference since we are obsoleting it.

   o  Section 4.1.5: Added reference to IPP and IPPS URI scheme RFCs.

   o  Section 4.1.8: Added references to RFC 3510 and 7472 which define
      the IPP and IPPS URI schemes and port number.

   o  Added section listing major changes since RFC 2911.

   o  Fix all "it is recommended" passive voice conformance
      requirements.

G.4.  Changes In -01

   The following changes are in draft-sweet-rfc2911bis-01:

   o  Errata ID 364: Fix range of "redirection" status codes (to 0x03xx)

   o  Errata ID 694: Fix range of vendor status codes (0x0n80 to 0x0nff)

   o  Errata ID 3072: Reword multiple-document-handling definition since
      it also applies to single document Jobs and is the only
      interoperable way to request uncollated copies.

   o  Errata ID 3365: Fix bad nameWithLanguage maximum length -
      reference nameWithoutLanguage section for length

   o  Errata ID 4173: Fix range of vendor operation codes (0x4000 to
      0x7fff)

   o  Updated obsoleted RFC references

   o  Change IPP-IIG reference to RFC 3196




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   o  Updated Create-Job, Send-Document, and Send-URI to RECOMMENDED.

Authors' Addresses

   Michael Sweet
   Apple Inc.
   1 Infinite Loop
   MS 111-HOMC
   Cupertino, CA  95014
   US

   Email: msweet@apple.com


   Ira McDonald
   High North, Inc.
   PO Box 221
   Grand Marais, MI  49839
   US

   Phone: +1 906-494-2434
   Email: blueroofmusic@gmail.com





























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