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Network Working Group                                    F. Templin, Ed.
Internet-Draft                              Boeing Research & Technology
Intended status: Informational                         December 17, 2018
Expires: June 20, 2019


      A Unified Stateful/Stateless Configuration Service for IPv6
                 draft-templin-6man-dhcpv6-ndopt-07.txt

Abstract

   IPv6 Neighbor Discovery (IPv6ND) specifies a control message set for
   nodes to discover neighbors, routers, prefixes and other services on
   the link.  It also supports a manner of StateLess Address
   AutoConfiguration (SLAAC), while the Dynamic Host Configuration
   Protocol for IPv6 (DHCPv6) specifies a separate stateful service.
   This document presents IPv6ND extensions for providing a unified
   stateful/stateless configuration service.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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   Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
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   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on June 20, 2019.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2018 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of



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   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  DHCPv6 Options in IPv6 ND Messages  . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     2.1.  The DHCPv6 Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     2.2.  DHCPv6 Option Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     2.3.  Stateful Provisioning Requirements  . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     2.4.  Implementation Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   3.  PIO Options in RS Messages  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     3.1.  The PIO Option in RS Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     3.2.  PIO Option Usage  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     3.3.  Stateful Provisioning Requirements  . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     3.4.  Implementation Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   4.  Embedded Prefix Assertion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     4.1.  Embedded Prefix Assertion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     4.2.  Embedded Prefix Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     4.3.  Stateful Provisioning Requirements  . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     4.4.  Implementation Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   5.  Out-of-Band Network Login Messaging . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     5.1.  Out-of-Band Network Login . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     5.2.  Out-of-Band Network Login Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     5.3.  Stateful Provisioning Requirements  . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     5.4.  Implementation Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   6.  Implementation Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   7.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   8.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   9.  Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   10. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     10.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     10.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   Appendix A.  Change Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   Author's Address  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13

1.  Introduction

   IPv6 Neighbor Discovery (IPv6ND) [RFC4861] specifies a control
   message set for nodes to discover neighbors, routers, prefixes and
   other services on the link.  It also supports a manner of StateLess
   Address AutoConfiguration (SLAAC).  The Dynamic Host Configuration
   Protocol for IPv6 (DHCPv6) specifies a separate service for
   delegation of prefixes, addresses and any other stateful information
   [RFC3315][RFC3633].  This document presents IPv6ND extensions for
   providing a unified stateful/stateless configuration service.





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   If the network can provide such a unified service, multi-message
   procedures can be condensed into a single and concise message
   exchange.  This would ease network management as well as simplify
   host and router operations.  It would further accommodate both
   stateless and stateful services in a way that combines the best
   aspects of both.  The operating model is based on harnessing the IPv6
   ND Router Solicitation (RS) / Router Advertisement (RA) functions to
   provide all configuration information in a single message exchange.

   When a node first comes onto a link, it sends an RS to elicit an RA
   from one or more routers for the link.  If the node also needs to
   acquire stateful information it then sends a DHCPv6 Solicit message
   to elicit a Reply message from a DHCPv6 server.  This two round-trip
   message exchange can add delay as well as waste critical link
   bandwidth on low-end links (e.g., 6LoWPAN, satellite communications,
   aeronautical wireless, etc.).  While it is possible to start both
   round trip exchanges at the same time, this would still result in
   twice as many channel access transactions as necessary.  Moreover,
   the multicast nature of these messages could disturb other nodes on
   the link, e.g., resulting in an unnecessary wakeup from sleep mode.

   This document proposes methods for combining all stateless and
   stateful configuration operations into a single, unified exchange
   based on IPv6ND messaging extensions.  It notes that stateful
   exchanges should include:

   o  an explicit request for stateful information

   o  the identity of the requesting node

   o  a transaction identification that the requesting node can use to
      match replies with their corresponding requests

   o  any security parameters necessary for the requesting node to
      establish its authorization to receive stateful information

   The first method is through definition of a new IPv6ND option called
   the "DHCPv6 Option" that combines the IPv6ND router discovery and
   DHCPv6 stateful processes into a single message exchange.  Nodes
   include the DHCPv6 option in RS messages to solicit an RA message
   with a DHCPv6 option in return.  This allows the IPv6ND and DHCPv6
   functions to work together to supply the client with all needed
   configuration information in a minimum number of messages.

   The second method proposes the inclusion of Prefix Information
   Options (PIOs) in RS messages for the purpose of soliciting stateful
   information.  [I-D.naveen-slaac-prefix-management] discusses the




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   maintenance and management functions required for supporting the
   operation.

   The third method entails the encoding of a prefix in the IPv6 link-
   local source address of the RS message.  If the node is pre-
   configured with the prefix that it will solicit from the network, and
   if the network has a way of accepting the node's prefix assertion
   without the threat of spoofing, the network can then delegate the
   prefix and establish the necessary routing information.

   The fourth method uses out-of-band messaging for the node to request
   stateful information outside of the scope of IPv6ND messaging.  The
   out-of-band messaging could entail some sort of network login process
   (e.g., through Layer-2 (L2) messaging, etc.).

   The following sections present considerations for nodes that employ
   these approaches.

2.  DHCPv6 Options in IPv6 ND Messages

   The first method entails the inclusion of DHCPv6 messages within
   IPv6ND RS and RA messages, as discussed in the following sections.

2.1.  The DHCPv6 Option

   The DHCPv6 option is a new IPv6ND option that simply embeds a
   standard DHCPv6 message per section 6 of [RFC3315], beginning with
   the 'msg-type' followed by the 'transaction-id' and all DHCPv6
   'options'.  The format of the option is as follows:

        0                   1                   2                   3
        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |  Type = TBD   |    Length     | Pad |        Reserved         |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |    msg-type   |               transaction-id                  |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                                                               |
       .                            options                            .
       .                           (variable)        ...................
       |                                             .  Padding (0-7)  .
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                  Figure 1: IPv6 ND DHCPv6 Option Format

   In this format, 'Type' and 'Length' are exactly as defined in
   Section 4.6 of [RFC4861], 'Pad' is a 3-bit integer that encodes the
   padding length, 'Reserved' is included for alignment and future use,



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   and the rest of the option is formatted as specified in Section 6 of
   [RFC3315] except with trailing null padding added as necessary for 8
   octet alignment.  The length of the full DHCPv6 message is determined
   by ((('Length' * 8) - 4) - 'Pad'), for a maximum message length of
   2036 octets.

   The 'Reserved' field MUST be set to 0 on transmission and ignored on
   reception.  Future specifications MAY define new uses for these bits.

2.2.  DHCPv6 Option Usage

   When a node first comes onto the link, it creates an RS message
   containing a DHCPv6 option that embeds a DHCPv6 Solicit message.  The
   Solicit may include a Rapid Commit option if a two-message exchange
   (i.e., instead of four) is required.  The RS message may also include
   a Nonce option to provide an extended transaction identifier
   [RFC3971].  The node then sends the RS message either to the unicast
   address of a specific router on the link, or to the all-routers
   multicast address.

   When a router receives an RS message with a DHCPv6 option, if it does
   not recognize the option and/or does not employ a DHCPv6 relay agent
   or server, it returns an RA message as normal with any stateless
   configuration information and without including a DHCPv6 option.  By
   receiving the RA message with no DHCPv6 option, the node can
   determine that the router does not recognize the option and/or does
   not support a DHCPv6 relay/server function.  In this way, no harm
   will have come from the node including the DHCPv6 option in the RS,
   and the function is fully backwards compatible.

   When a router receives an RS message with a DHCPv6 option, if it
   recognizes the option and employs a DHCPv6 relay agent or server, it
   extracts the encapsulated DHCPv6 message and forwards it to the relay
   agent or server.  When the DHCPv6 message reaches a DHCPv6 server,
   the server processes the DHCPv6 Solicit message and prepares either
   an Advertise (four message) or Reply (two message) DHCPv6 message
   containing any delegated addresses, prefixes and/or any other
   information the server is configured to send.  The server then
   returns the Advertise/Reply message to the router.

   When the router receives the DHCPv6 Advertise/Reply message, it
   creates a Router Advertisement (RA) message that includes any
   autoconfiguration information necessary for the link and also embeds
   the DHCPv6 message in a DHCPv6 option within the body of the RA.
   (The RA also echos the Nonce value if a Nonce was included in the RS
   message.)  The router then returns the RA as a unicast message
   response to the node that sent the RS.




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   In a two message exchange, the stateless/stateful exchange is
   completed when the node receives the RA.  In a four message exchange,
   the requesting node can Decline any stateful information it does not
   wish to accept and/or send unicast Request options in subsequent RSes
   to get RA messages with Reply options back from the router or routers
   of its choosing.

   At any time after the initial RS/RA exchange, the node may need to
   issue DHCPv6 Renew, Release or Rebind messages to manage address/
   prefix lifetimes.  In that case, the node prepares a DHCPv6 message
   option and inserts it in an RS message which it then sends via
   unicast to the router.  The router in turn processes the message the
   same as for DHCPv6 Solicit/Reply.

   At any time after the initial RS/RA exchange, the DHCPv6 server may
   need to issue a DHCPv6 Reconfigure message.  In that case, when the
   router receives the DHCPv6 Reconfigure message it prepares a unicast
   RA message with a DHCPv6 option that encodes the Reconfigure and
   sends the RA as an unsolicited unicast message to the node.  The node
   then follows the DHCPv6 client procedures for processing and
   responding to Reconfigure messages.

   At any time after the initial RS/RA exchange, the router can initiate
   an unsolicited RA/Reply, e.g., to cause the node to update its
   configuration information quickly.  In this method, the router sends
   a synthesized DHCPv6 Renew or Information-request message that
   induces the server to return a DHCPv6 Reply.  The message includes
   the same DHCPv6 transaction-id and IPv6 ND Nonce values that the
   router had echoed in its initial Reply.  The server then wraps the
   Reply message in the body of an RA message, and sends the unsolicited
   RA/Reply.  When the node receives the unsolicited RA/Reply message,
   it matches the transaction-id and Nonce values with the initial RA/
   Reply it had received from the router.  If the identification
   information matches, the node processes the message and initiates a
   new RS/RA exchange if necessary; otherwise it drops the message.

2.3.  Stateful Provisioning Requirements

   Using the DHCPv6 Option, the message itself includes sub-options to
   request stateful information.  The DHCPv6 Device Unique IDentifier
   (DUID) provides the identity of the requesting node, and the DHCPv6
   transaction-id and IPv6 ND Nonce provide a unique identifier for
   matching RS and RA messages.  Finally, the message can be protected
   using SEcure Neighbor Discovery (SEND) [RFC3971].







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2.4.  Implementation Considerations

   The IPv6ND and DHCPv6 functions are typically implemented in separate
   router modules.  In that case, the IPv6ND function extracts the
   DHCPv6 message from the option included in the RS message and wraps
   it in IP/UDP headers with the same addresses and port numbers the
   soliciting node would have used had it send an ordinary IP/UDP/DHCPv6
   message.  The IPv6ND function then acts as a Lightweight DHCPv6 Relay
   Agent (LDRA) [RFC6221] to forward the message to the DHCPv6 relay or
   server function on-board the router.

   The forwarded DHCPv6 message then traverses any additional relays on
   the reverse path until it reaches the DHCPv6 server.  When the DHCPv6
   server processes the message, it delegates any necessary resources
   and returns a Reply via the same relay agent path as had occurred on
   the reverse path so that the Reply will eventually arrive back at the
   IPv6ND function.  The IPv6ND function then prepares an RA message
   with any autoconfiguration information associated with the link,
   embeds the DHCPv6 message body in an IPv6ND DHCPv6 option, and
   returns the message via unicast to the node that sent the RS.

   In an ideal implementation, the IPv6ND and DHCPv6 functions could be
   co-located in the same module on the router.  In that way the two
   functions would be coupled as though they were in fact a single
   unified function without the need for any LDRA processing.

3.  PIO Options in RS Messages

   The second method entails the inclusion of Prefix Information Options
   (PIOs) in IPv6ND RS messages, as discussed in the following sections.

3.1.  The PIO Option in RS Messages

   This document proposes the inclusion of PIOs in RS messages to
   solicit and maintain prefixes that are delegated in subsequent RA
   messages.  Prefix management is performed as discussed in
   [I-D.naveen-slaac-prefix-management] (an alternate prefix management
   proposal based on unsolicited advertisements with special flag
   settings is found in [I-D.pioxfolks-6man-pio-exclusive-bit]).

3.2.  PIO Option Usage

   When a node that wishes to request a prefix delegation first comes
   onto the link, it creates an RS message containing a PIO.  It sets
   the Prefix Length to either the length of the prefix it wishes to
   receive or '0' (unspecified) if it will defer to the router's
   preference.  The node then sets the Valid and Preferred Lifetimes to
   either its preferred values or '0' (unspecified) if it will defer to



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   the router's preference.  The node then sets the Prefix to either the
   prefix it wishes to receive, or '0' (unspecified) if it will defer to
   the router's preference.  The node then sends the RS message either
   to the unicast address of a specific router on the link, or to the
   all-routers multicast address.

   When a router receives an RS message with a PIO, if it is not
   configured to accept PIOs in RS messages it returns an RA message as
   normal and without including a PIO.  By receiving the RA message with
   no PIO, the node can determine that the router does not recognize the
   option and/or does not support an IPv6ND-based prefix delegation
   service.  In this way, no harm will have come from the node including
   the PIO in the RS, and the function is fully backwards compatible.

   When a router receives an RS message with a PIO, if it is configured
   to accept the option and can provide prefix delegation services it
   examines the fields in the message and selects a prefix to delegate
   to the node.  If the PIO included a specific Prefix, the router
   delegates the node's preferred prefix if possible.  Otherwise, the
   router selects a prefix to delegate to the node with length based on
   the node's Prefix Length.  The router sets lifetimes matching the
   lifetimes requested by the node if possible, or shorter lifetimes if
   the node's requested lifetimes are too long.  The router finally
   prepares a PIO containing this information and inserts it into an RA
   message to send back to the source of the RS.

3.3.  Stateful Provisioning Requirements

   Using the PIO in RS messages, the option itself requests stateful
   information.  The RS message link-layer address can be used as the
   identity of the requesting node.  The RS message includes a Nonce
   option [RFC3971] to provide a transaction identifier for matching RS
   and RA messages.  Finally, the message can be protected using SEND
   the same as for the DHCPv6 option.

3.4.  Implementation Considerations

   Each router can implement a stateful database management service of
   their own choosing, but a functional alternative would be to use the
   standard DHCPv6 service as the back-end management service.  In this
   way, all communications between the router's link to the requesting
   node are via RS/RA messaging.  But, when the router receives an RS
   message with a PIO it can create a synthesized DHCPv6 Solicit message
   to send to the DHCPv6 server.  This can be done in the same way as
   for the approach discussed in Section 2.4.  In this way, the node on
   the link over which the PIO is advertised only ever sees RS/RA
   messages on the front end, and the router gets to use the DHCPv6
   service for stateful configuration management on the back end.



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4.  Embedded Prefix Assertion

   The third method entails a simple RS/RA exchange with no additional
   options where the node asserts a prefix by embedding the prefix in
   the source address of the RS message.  The following sections provide
   further details.

4.1.  Embedded Prefix Assertion

   In this method, the node is pre-provisioned with the prefix it will
   use on its downstream networks (e.g., through network management,
   manual configuration, etc.).  To invoke this method, the node
   includes its pre-provisioned prefix in the link-local source address
   of its RS message according to the AERO address format
   [I-D.templin-6man-aeroaddr].  For example, if the node is pre-
   provisioned with the prefix 2001:db8:1000:2000, it creates its IPv6
   link-local source address as fe80::2001:db8:1000:2000.

4.2.  Embedded Prefix Usage

   When a node that wishes to assert a prefix first comes onto the link,
   it statelessly configures an AERO address based on its pre-
   provisioned prefix.  The node then includes the AERO address as the
   source address of a standard RS message.  If a router that receives
   the RS message has a way of verifying that the node is authorized to
   receive the solicited prefix, the router injects the prefix into the
   routing system and returns a standard RA message.  When the node
   receives the RA message, it then has assurance that the proper
   routing state has been established.

   The node examines the default router lifetime in the RA message as
   guidance for when subsequent RS/RA exchanges are necessary, i.e., the
   same as for normal IPv6ND.  The node sends additional RS messages
   before the default router lifetime expires in order to keep the
   prefix assertion alive in the network.  The RS messages may be sent
   either to the all-routers multicast address or to the unicast
   address(es) of the router(s) it received previous RAs from.

4.3.  Stateful Provisioning Requirements

   Using embedded prefix assertion, the network must have some way of
   determining the node's authority to assert its claimed prefix.  This
   could be, e.g., through examination of the link-layer source address
   of the RS message.  The network must also have some way of knowing
   the node's claimed prefix length, as the length cannot be conveyed in
   the RS message.  If necessary, the exchange can also include some
   form of transaction identifier, e.g., by including a Nonce option in




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   the RS.  Finally, the exchange can be protected using SEND the same
   as for the previous two methods.

4.4.  Implementation Considerations

   This method can be conducted using standard RS/RA messages with no
   extra options added to either message.  It entails an administrative
   assignment of the node's AERO address to the upstream interface over
   which it will send the RS.  When the router receives the standard RS
   message, it statelessly derives the node's prefix from the AERO
   address and injects the prefix into the routing system.  The router
   then returns a standard RA message.

   When the router returns the RA message, if it is configured to do so
   it can include a PIO option as discussed in Section 3.1.  The PIO
   option includes prefix lifetimes and the prefix length.  This
   "hybrid" combination of methods two and three could be useful in some
   deployment scenarios.

   As for the PIO-based service discussed in Section 3.4, DHCPv6 can be
   used as the back-end service for stateful configuration management.

5.  Out-of-Band Network Login Messaging

   The fourth method entails an out-of-band messaging exchange through a
   "network login" procedure.  During the network login, the requesting
   node could have an out-of-band messaging exchange with the network to
   set the stage for the router eventually sending an RA message as
   discussed in the following sections

5.1.  Out-of-Band Network Login

   In the out-of-band network login, the node signs into the network
   using, e.g., a login/password, a security certificate, etc.  The node
   authenticates itself to the network, and can optionally have an
   iterative exchange to request certain aspects of the node's desired
   stateful configuration information.  The first-hop router is then
   signaled to prepare an RA message to return to the node, i.e., either
   through some out-of-band signaling or through the node sending an RS
   message.

5.2.  Out-of-Band Network Login Usage

   When a node first comes onto the link, it engages in a network login
   session using some form of out-of-band messaging such as Layer-2 (L2)
   messaging.  The session entails a security exchange where the node
   authenticates itself to the network and proves its authorization to
   receive the stateful configuration information.  The network then



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   signals the router to send an RA message to the node, either
   unsolicited or in response to the node's RS message.

5.3.  Stateful Provisioning Requirements

   Using out-of-band messaging, the node engages in an iterative
   exchange where a request for stateful configuration information is
   conveyed.  The exchange includes an identity for the requesting node
   and provides a unique per-message identifier so that the node can
   correlate its message requests with the responses it gets back from
   the network.  Finally, the message exchange itself contains security
   parameters for authenticating the requesting node.

5.4.  Implementation Considerations

   The network login system and routers must be tightly coupled so that
   the network login can securely convey the requesting node's identity
   to the router.

   As for the PIO-based service discussed in Section 3.4, DHCPv6 can be
   used as the back-end service for managing the stateful configuration
   database.

6.  Implementation Status

   The approach discussed in Section 2 has been implemented as
   extensions to the OpenVPN open source software distribution.  The
   implementation is available at: http://linkupnetworks.net/aero/AERO-
   OpenVPN-2.0.tgz.

7.  IANA Considerations

   The IANA is instructed to assign an IPv6ND option Type value TBD for
   the DHCPv6 option.

   The IANA is instructed to create a registry for the DHCPv6 option
   "Reserved" field (with no initial assignments) so that future uses of
   the field can be coordinated.

8.  Security Considerations

   Security considerations for IPv6 Neighbor Discovery [RFC4861] and
   DHCPv6 [RFC3315][RFC3633] apply to this document.

   SEcure Neighbor Discovery (SEND) [RFC3971] can provide authentication
   for IPv6 ND messages with no need for additional securing mechanisms.





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9.  Acknowledgements

   This work was motivated by discussions on the 6man and v6ops list.
   Those individuals who provided encouragement and critical review are
   acknowledged.

   The following individuals provided useful comments that improved the
   document: Mikael Abrahamsson, Fred Baker, Ron Bonica, Naveen
   Kottapalli, Ole Troan, Bernie Volz.

   The following individuals developed IPv6ND and DHCPv6 extensions for
   OpenVPN: Kyle Bae, Wayne Benson, Eric Yeh.

   This work is aligned with the NASA Safe Autonomous Systems Operation
   (SASO) program under NASA contract number NNA16BD84C.

   This work is aligned with the FAA as per the SE2025 contract number
   DTFAWA-15-D-00030.

   This work is aligned with the Boeing Information Technology (BIT)
   MobileNet program and the Boeing Research & Technology (BR&T)
   enterprise autonomy program.

10.  References

10.1.  Normative References

   [RFC3315]  Droms, R., Ed., Bound, J., Volz, B., Lemon, T., Perkins,
              C., and M. Carney, "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
              for IPv6 (DHCPv6)", RFC 3315, DOI 10.17487/RFC3315, July
              2003, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3315>.

   [RFC3633]  Troan, O. and R. Droms, "IPv6 Prefix Options for Dynamic
              Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) version 6", RFC 3633,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3633, December 2003,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3633>.

   [RFC4861]  Narten, T., Nordmark, E., Simpson, W., and H. Soliman,
              "Neighbor Discovery for IP version 6 (IPv6)", RFC 4861,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4861, September 2007,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4861>.

   [RFC8200]  Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6
              (IPv6) Specification", STD 86, RFC 8200,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8200, July 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8200>.





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10.2.  Informative References

   [I-D.naveen-slaac-prefix-management]
              Kottapalli, N., "IPv6 Stateless Prefix Management", draft-
              naveen-slaac-prefix-management-00 (work in progress),
              November 2018.

   [I-D.pioxfolks-6man-pio-exclusive-bit]
              Kline, E. and M. Abrahamsson, "IPv6 Router Advertisement
              Prefix Information Option eXclusive Flag", draft-
              pioxfolks-6man-pio-exclusive-bit-02 (work in progress),
              March 2017.

   [I-D.templin-6man-aeroaddr]
              Templin, F., "The AERO Address", draft-templin-6man-
              aeroaddr-03 (work in progress), November 2018.

   [RFC3971]  Arkko, J., Ed., Kempf, J., Zill, B., and P. Nikander,
              "SEcure Neighbor Discovery (SEND)", RFC 3971,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3971, March 2005,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3971>.

   [RFC6221]  Miles, D., Ed., Ooghe, S., Dec, W., Krishnan, S., and A.
              Kavanagh, "Lightweight DHCPv6 Relay Agent", RFC 6221,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6221, May 2011,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6221>.

Appendix A.  Change Log

   << RFC Editor - remove prior to publication >>

   Changes from -06 to -07:

   o  Added "unsolicited DHCPv6 Reply" considerations

   o  Added refeence to new IPv6ND-based PD proposal.

   o  No longer associate the term "autoconfiguration" with the term
      "stateful".

   o  Added URL for implementation.

Author's Address








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   Fred L. Templin (editor)
   Boeing Research & Technology
   P.O. Box 3707
   Seattle, WA  98124
   USA

   Email: fltemplin@acm.org












































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