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Network Working Group                                    F. Templin, Ed.
Internet-Draft                              Boeing Research & Technology
Obsoletes: rfc6706 (if approved)                            May 29, 2014
Intended status: Standards Track
Expires: November 30, 2014


              Transmission of IPv6 Packets over AERO Links
                     draft-templin-aerolink-22.txt

Abstract

   This document specifies the operation of IPv6 over tunnel virtual
   Non-Broadcast, Multiple Access (NBMA) links using Asymmetric Extended
   Route Optimization (AERO).  Nodes attached to AERO links can exchange
   packets via trusted intermediate routers on the link that provide
   forwarding services to reach off-link destinations and/or redirection
   services to inform the node of an on-link neighbor that is closer to
   the final destination.  Operation of the IPv6 Neighbor Discovery (ND)
   protocol over AERO links is based on an IPv6 link local address
   format known as the AERO address.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on November 30, 2014.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2014 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents



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   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  Asymmetric Extended Route Optimization (AERO) . . . . . . . .   5
     3.1.  AERO Node Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     3.2.  AERO Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     3.3.  AERO Interface Characteristics  . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
       3.3.1.  Coordination of Multiple Underlying Interfaces  . . .   8
     3.4.  AERO Interface Neighbor Cache Maintenace  . . . . . . . .   9
     3.5.  AERO Interface Data Origin Authentication . . . . . . . .  10
     3.6.  AERO Interface MTU Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     3.7.  AERO Interface Encapsulation, Re-encapsulation and
           Decapsulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     3.8.  AERO Router Discovery, Prefix Delegation and Address
           Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
       3.8.1.  AERO Client Behavior  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
       3.8.2.  AERO Server Behavior  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
     3.9.  AERO Redirection  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
       3.9.1.  Reference Operational Scenario  . . . . . . . . . . .  16
       3.9.2.  Classical Redirection Approaches  . . . . . . . . . .  18
       3.9.3.  Concept of Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
       3.9.4.  Message Format  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
       3.9.5.  Sending Predirects  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
       3.9.6.  Processing Predirects and Sending Redirects . . . . .  21
       3.9.7.  Re-encapsulating and Relaying Redirects . . . . . . .  22
       3.9.8.  Processing Redirects  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
     3.10. Neighbor Reachability Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
     3.11. Mobility and Link-Layer Address Change Considerations . .  25
     3.12. Encapsulation Protocol Version Considerations . . . . . .  26
     3.13. Multicast Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
     3.14. Operation on AERO Links Without DHCPv6 Services . . . . .  26
     3.15. Operation on Server-less AERO Links . . . . . . . . . . .  26
     3.16. Other Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27
   4.  Implementation Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27
   5.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27
   6.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27
   7.  Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
   8.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
     8.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
     8.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  29
   Appendix A.  AERO Server and Relay Interworking . . . . . . . . .  31



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   Author's Address  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  33

1.  Introduction

   This document specifies the operation of IPv6 over tunnel virtual
   Non-Broadcast, Multiple Access (NBMA) links using Asymmetric Extended
   Route Optimization (AERO).  Nodes attached to AERO links can exchange
   packets via trusted intermediate routers on the link that provide
   forwarding services to reach off-link destinations and/or redirection
   services to inform the node of an on-link neighbor that is closer to
   the final destination.  This redirection provides a route
   optimization capability that addresses the requirements outlined in
   [RFC5522].

   Nodes on AERO links use an IPv6 link-local address format known as
   the AERO Address.  This address type has properties that avoid
   duplication and statelessly link IPv6 Neighbor Discovery (ND) to IPv6
   routing.  The AERO link can be used for tunneling to neighboring
   nodes on either IPv6 or IPv4 networks, i.e., AERO views the IPv6 and
   IPv4 networks as equivalent links for tunneling.  The remainder of
   this document presents the AERO specification.

2.  Terminology

   The terminology in the normative references applies; the following
   terms are defined within the scope of this document:

   AERO link
      a Non-Broadcast, Multiple Access (NBMA) tunnel virtual overlay
      configured over a node's attached IPv6 and/or IPv4 networks.  All
      nodes on the AERO link appear as single-hop neighbors from the
      perspective of IPv6.

   AERO interface
      a node's attachment to an AERO link.

   AERO address
      an IPv6 link-local address assigned to an AERO interface and
      constructed as specified in Section 3.2.

   AERO node
      a node that is connected to an AERO link and that participates in
      IPv6 Neighbor Discovery over the link.

   AERO Client ("client")
      a node that configures either a host interface or a router
      interface on an AERO link.




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   AERO Server ("server")
      a node that configures a router interface on an AERO link over
      which it can provide default forwarding and redirection services
      for other AERO nodes.

   AERO Relay ("relay")
      a node that relays IPv6 packets between Servers on the same AERO
      link, and/or that forwards IPv6 packets between the AERO link and
      the IPv6 Internet.  An AERO Relay may or may not also be
      configured as an AERO Server.

   ingress tunnel endpoint (ITE)
      an AERO interface endpoint that injects tunneled packets into an
      AERO link.

   egress tunnel endpoint (ETE)
      an AERO interface endpoint that receives tunneled packets from an
      AERO link.

   underlying network
      a connected IPv6 or IPv4 network routing region over which AERO
      nodes tunnel IPv6 packets.

   underlying interface
      an AERO node's interface point of attachment to an underlying
      network.

   link-layer address
      an IP address assigned to an AERO node's underlying interface.
      When UDP encapsulation is used, the UDP port number is also
      considered as part of the link-layer address.  Link-layer
      addresses are used as the encapsulation header source and
      destination addresses.

   network layer address
      the source or destination address of the encapsulated IPv6 packet.

   end user network (EUN)
      an IPv6 network attached to a downstream interface of an AERO
      Client (where the AERO interface is seen as the upstream
      interface).

   Throughout the document, the simple terms "Client", "Server" and
   "Relay" refer to "AERO Client", "AERO Server" and "AERO Relay",
   respectively.  Capitalization is used to distinguish these terms from
   DHCPv6 client/server/relay.  This is an important distinction, since
   an AERO Server may be a DHCPv6 relay, and an AERO Relay may be a
   DHCPv6 server.



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   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

3.  Asymmetric Extended Route Optimization (AERO)

   The following sections specify the operation of IPv6 over Asymmetric
   Extended Route Optimization (AERO) links:

3.1.  AERO Node Types

   AERO Relays relay packets between nodes connected to the same AERO
   link and also forward packets between the AERO link and the native
   IPv6 network.  The relaying process entails re-encapsulation of IPv6
   packets that were received from a first AERO node and are to be
   forwarded without modification to a second AERO node.

   AERO Servers configure their AERO interfaces as router interfaces,
   and provide default routing services to AERO Clients.  AERO Servers
   configure a DHCPv6 relay or server function and facilitate DHCPv6
   Prefix Delegation (PD) exchanges.  An AERO Server may also act as an
   AERO Relay.

   AERO Clients act as requesting routers to receive IPv6 prefixes
   through a DHCPv6 PD exchange via AERO Servers over the AERO link.
   (Clients typically associate with a single Server at a time; Clients
   MAY associate with multiple Servers, but associating with many
   Servers may result in excessive control message overhead.)  Each AERO
   Client receives at least a /64 prefix delegation, and may receive
   even shorter prefixes.

   AERO Clients that act as routers configure their AERO interfaces as
   router interfaces and sub-delegate portions of their received prefix
   delegations to links on EUNs.  End system applications on AERO
   Clients that act as routers bind to EUN interfaces (i.e., and not the
   AERO interface).

   AERO Clients that act as ordinary hosts configure their AERO
   interfaces as host interfaces and assign one or more IPv6 addresses
   taken from their received prefix delegations to the AERO interface
   but DO NOT assign the delegated prefix itself to the AERO interface.
   Instead, the host assigns the delegated prefix to a "black hole"
   route so that unused portions of the prefix are nullified.  End
   system applications on AERO Clients that act as hosts bind directly
   to the AERO interface.






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3.2.  AERO Addresses

   An AERO address is an IPv6 link-local address assigned to an AERO
   interface and with an IPv6 prefix embedded within the interface
   identifier.  The AERO address is formatted as:

      fe80::[IPv6 prefix]

   Each AERO Server configures the AERO address 'fe80::'; this
   corresponds to the IPv6 prefix '::/0' (i.e., "default") and provides
   a handle for Clients to insert into a neighbor cache entry.

   Each AERO Client configures an AERO address based on the prefix it
   has received from the AERO link prefix delegation authority (e.g.,
   the DHCPv6 server).  The address begins with the prefix fe80::/64 and
   includes in its interface identifier the base /64 prefix taken from
   the Client's delegated IPv6 prefix.  The base prefix is determined by
   masking the delegated prefix with the prefix length.  For example, if
   an AERO Client has received the prefix delegation:

      2001:db8:1000:2000::/56

   it would construct its AERO address as:

      fe80::2001:db8:1000:2000

   The AERO address remains stable as the Client moves between
   topological locations, i.e., even if its underlying address changes.

3.3.  AERO Interface Characteristics

   AERO interfaces use IPv6-in-IPv6 encapsulation [RFC2473] to exchange
   tunneled packets with AERO neighbors attached to an underlying IPv6
   network, and use IPv6-in-IPv4 encapsulation [RFC4213] to exchange
   tunneled packets with AERO neighbors attached to an underlying IPv4
   network.  AERO interfaces can also operate over secured tunnel types
   such as IPsec [RFC4301] or TLS [RFC5246] in environments where strong
   authentication and confidentiality are required.  When Network
   Address Translator (NAT) traversal and/or filtering middlebox
   traversal may be necessary, a UDP header is further inserted
   immediately above the IP encapsulation header.

   Servers assign the AERO address fe80:: to their AERO interfaces.
   Servers and Relays also use (non-AERO) administratively-assigned
   link-local addresses to support the operation of the inter-Server/
   Relay routing system (see: [IRON]).





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   Clients initially use a temporary IPv6 link-local address in the
   DHCPv6 PD exchanges used to receive an IPv6 prefix and derive an AERO
   address.  If the Client is pre-provisioned with an IPv6 prefix
   associated with the AERO service, it SHOULD use the AERO address
   derived from the prefix as the temporary address.  Otherwise, the
   Client can use any randomly-selected link-local address as the
   temporary address, as it is merely a placeholder in DHCPv6 messages
   and not used to create neighbor cache entries.  After the Client
   receives a prefix delegation, it assigns the corresponding AERO
   address to the AERO interface.  DHCPv6 is therefore used to bootstrap
   the assignment of unique link-local addresses on the AERO link.

   AERO interfaces maintain a neighbor cache and use an adaptation of
   standard unicast IPv6 ND messaging.  AERO interfaces use Neighbor
   Solicitation (NS), Neighbor Advertisement (NA), Router Solicitation
   (RS) and Router Advertisement (RA) messages the same as for any IPv6
   link.  AERO interfaces use two redirection message types -- the first
   being the standard Redirect message and the second known as a
   Predirect message (see Section 3.9).  AERO links further use link-
   local-only addressing; hence, Clients ignore any Prefix Information
   Options (PIOs) they may receive in RA messages.

   AERO interfaces use Source/Target Link Layer Address Options (S/
   TLLAOs) the same as for any IPv6 interface.  The S/TLLAO option
   format is shown in Figure 1:

        0                   1                   2                   3
        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |    Type = 2   |  Length = 1/3 |           Reserved            |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |    Link ID    |   Preference  |     UDP Port Number (or 0)    |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                                                               |
       +--                                                           --+
       |                                                               |
       +--       IP Address (Redirect/Predirect messages only)       --+
       |                                                               |
       +--                                                           --+
       |                                                               |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


                       Figure 1: AERO S/TLLAO Format

   In this format, Link ID is an integer value between 0 and 255
   corresponding to an underlying interface of the source/target node,
   and Preference is an integer value between 0 and 255 indicating the



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   node's preference for this underlying interface (with 0 being highest
   preference and 255 being lowest).  For Redirect/Predirect messages,
   Length is set to 3 and UDP Port Number/IP Address are set to the
   addresses used by the target node when it sends encapsulated packets
   over the underlying interface.  For other ND messages, Length is set
   to 1, UDP Port Number is set to 0 and IP Address is omitted.

   Each AERO Redirect/Predirect message includes one or more TLLAOs,
   i.e., one for each underlying interface the target node wishes to
   publish.  When no UDP encapsulation is used, UDP Port Number is set
   to 0.  When the encapsulation IP address family is IPv4, IP Address
   is formed as an IPv4-compatible IPv6 address [RFC4291].

   AERO interface Redirect/Predirect messages can both update and create
   neighbor cache entries.  Redirect/Predirect messages SHOULD include a
   Timestamp option (see Section 5.3 of [RFC3971]) that other AERO nodes
   can use to verify the message time of origin.

   Each AERO NS/NA/RS/RA message includes a single S/TLLAO with UDP Port
   Number set to 0 and IP Address omitted (since the node has no way of
   knowing whether it is behind a NAT and hence may be unable to convey
   the correct values).  Instead, AERO nodes determine the link-layer
   addresses of neighbors by examining the encapsulation header IP
   address and UDP port number of any NS/NA/RS/RA messages they receive.

   AERO interface NS/NA/RS/RA messages only update existing neighbor
   cache entires and do not create new neighbor cache entries.  NS/RS
   messages SHOULD include a Nonce option (see Section 5.3 of
   [RFC3971]).  If an NS/RS message contains a Nonce option, the
   recipient MUST echo the option back in the corresponding NA/RA
   response.  Unsolicited NA/RA messages are not used on AERO
   interfaces, and SHOULD be ignored on receipt.

3.3.1.  Coordination of Multiple Underlying Interfaces

   AERO interfaces may be configured over multiple underlying
   interfaces.  From the perspective of IPv6 Neighbor Discovery, the
   AERO interface therefore appears as a single logical interface with
   multiple link-layer addresses the same as described for "Inbound Load
   Balancing" in Section 3 of [RFC4861].  The load balancing paradigm
   applies to AERO Servers that are connected to stable backhaul
   networks, but may not necessarily be appropriate for AERO Clients
   that connect to multiple diverse media types.

   For example, common handheld devices of the modern era have both
   wireless local area network (aka "WiFi") and cellular wireless links.
   These links are typically used "one at a time" with low-cost WiFi
   preferred and highly-available cellular wireless as a cold standby.



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   In a more complex example, aircraft frequently have many wireless
   data link types (e.g. satellite-based, terrestrial, directional
   point-to-point, etc.) with diverse performance and cost properties.

   If a Client's multiple underlying interfaces are used "one at a time"
   (i.e., all other interfaces are disabled when one interface is
   active), then the S/TLLAOs in ND messages SHOULD use the same Link ID
   and Preference values regardless of the underlying interface and
   Predirect/Redirect messages SHOULD include only a single TLLAO.  If
   the Client enables multiple underlying interfaces, it instead SHOULD
   use a different Link ID and Preference value for the S/TLLAO
   corresponding to each interface and Predirect/Redirect messages MAY
   include multiple TLLAOs.  In that case, the Client would need to send
   separate NS/RS messages to each of its neighbors for each active
   underlying interface.

3.4.  AERO Interface Neighbor Cache Maintenace

   Each AERO interface maintains a conceptual neighbor cache that
   includes an entry for each neighbor it communicates with on the AERO
   link, the same as for any IPv6 interface (see [RFC4861]).  Neighbor
   cache entries are created and maintained as follows:

   When an AERO Server relays a DHCPv6 Reply message to an AERO Client,
   it creates or updates a neighbor cache entry for the Client based on
   the AERO address corresponding to the prefix in the IA_PD option as
   the Client's network layer address and with the Client's
   encapsulation IP address and UDP port number as the link-layer
   address.

   When an AERO Client receives a DHCPv6 Reply message from an AERO
   Server, it creates or updates a neighbor cache entry for the Server
   based on fe80:: as the network layer address and the Server's
   encapsulation IP address and UDP port number as the link-layer
   address.

   When an AERO Client receives a valid Predirect message it creates or
   updates a neighbor cache entry for the Predirect target network-layer
   and link-layer addresses, and also creates an IPv6 forwarding table
   entry for the Predirected (source) prefix.  The node then sets an
   "ACCEPT" timer for the neighbor and uses this timer to determine
   whether messages received from the predirected neighbor can be
   accepted.

   When an AERO Client receives a valid Redirect message it creates or
   updates a neighbor cache entry for the Redirect target network-layer
   and link-layer addresses, and also creates an IPv6 forwarding table
   entry for the redirected (destination) prefix.  The node then sets a



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   "FORWARD" timer for the neighbor and uses this timer to determine
   whether packets can be sent directly to the redirected neighbor.  The
   node also maintains a constant value MAX_RETRY to limit the number of
   keepalives sent when a neighbor may have gone unreachable.

   When an AERO Client receives a valid NS message it (re)sets the
   ACCEPT timer for the neighbor to ACCEPT_TIME.

   When an AERO Client receives a valid NA message, it (re)sets the
   FORWARD timer for the neighbor to FORWARD_TIME.

   It is RECOMMENDED that FORWARD_TIME be set to the default constant
   value 30 seconds to match the default REACHABLE_TIME value specified
   for IPv6 neighbor discovery [RFC4861].

   It is RECOMMENDED that ACCEPT_TIME be set to the default constant
   value 40 seconds to allow a 10 second window so that the AERO
   redirection procedure can converge before the ACCEPT timer decrements
   below FORWARD_TIME.

   It is RECOMMENDED that MAX_RETRY be set to 3 the same as described
   for IPv6 neighbor discovery address resolution in Section 7.3.3 of
   [RFC4861].

   Different values for FORWARD_TIME, ACCEPT_TIME, and MAX_RETRY MAY be
   administratively set, if necessary, to better match the AERO link's
   performance characteristics; however, if different values are chosen,
   all nodes on the link MUST consistently configure the same values.
   In particular, ACCEPT_TIME SHOULD be set to a value that is
   sufficiently longer than FORWARD_TIME to allow the AERO redirection
   procedure to converge.

3.5.  AERO Interface Data Origin Authentication

   AERO nodes use a simple data origin authentication for encapsulated
   packets they receive from other nodes.  In particular, AERO nodes
   accept encapsulated packets with a link-layer source address
   belonging to one of their current AERO Servers and accept
   encapsulated packets with a link-layer source address that is correct
   for the network-layer source address.

   The AERO node considers the link-layer source address correct for the
   network-layer source address if there is an IPv6 forwarding table
   entry that matches the network-layer source address as well as a
   neighbor cache entry corresponding to the next hop that includes the
   link-layer address and the ACCEPT timer is non-zero.  An exception is
   that neighbor discovery messages may include a different link-layer




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   address than the one currently in the neighbor cache for this Link
   ID, and the new link-layer address updates the neighbor cache entry.

3.6.  AERO Interface MTU Considerations

   The AERO link Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) is 64KB minus the
   encapsulation overhead for IPv4 [RFC0791] and 4GB minus the
   encapsulation overhead for IPv6 [RFC2675].  This is the most that
   IPv4 and IPv6 (respectively) can convey within the constraints of
   protocol constants, but actual sizes available for tunneling will
   frequently be much smaller.

   The base tunneling specifications for IPv4 and IPv6 typically set a
   static MTU on the tunnel interface to 1500 bytes minus the
   encapsulation overhead or smaller still if the tunnel is likely to
   incur additional encapsulations on the path.  This can result in path
   MTU related black holes when packets that are too large to be
   accommodated over the AERO link are dropped, but the resulting ICMP
   Packet Too Big (PTB) messages are lost on the return path.  As a
   result, AERO nodes use the following MTU mitigations to accommodate
   larger packets.

   AERO nodes set their AERO interface MTU to the larger of the
   underlying interface MTU minus the encapsulation overhead, and 1500
   bytes.  (If there are multiple underlying interfaces, the node sets
   the AERO interface MTU according to the largest underlying interface
   MTU, or 64KB /4G minus the encapsulation overhead if the largest MTU
   cannot be determined.)  AERO nodes optionally cache other per-
   neighbor MTU values in the underlying IP path MTU discovery cache
   initialized to the underlying interface MTU.

   AERO nodes admit packets that are no larger than 1280 bytes minus the
   encapsulation overhead (*) as well as packets that are larger than
   1500 bytes into the tunnel without fragmentation, i.e., as long as
   they are no larger than the AERO interface MTU before encapsulation
   and also no larger than the cached per-neighbor MTU following
   encapsulation.  For IPv4, the node sets the "Don't Fragment" (DF) bit
   to 0 for packets no larger than 1280 bytes minus the encapsulation
   overhead (*) and sets the DF bit to 1 for packets larger than 1500
   bytes.  If a large packet is lost in the path, the node may
   optionally cache the MTU reported in the resulting PTB message or may
   ignore the message, e.g., if there is a possibility that the message
   is spurious.

   For packets destined to an AERO node that are larger than 1280 bytes
   minus the encapsulation overhead (*) but no larger than 1500 bytes,
   the node uses IP fragmentation to fragment the encapsulated packet
   into two pieces (where the first fragment contains 1024 bytes of the



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   original IPv6 packet) then admits the fragments into the tunnel.  If
   the encapsulation protocol is IPv4, the node admits each fragment
   into the tunnel with DF set to 0 and subject to rate limiting to
   avoid reassembly errors [RFC4963][RFC6864].  For both IPv4 and IPv6,
   the node also sends a 1500 byte probe message (**) to the neighbor,
   subject to rate limiting.

   To construct a probe, the node prepares an NS message with a SLLAO, a
   Nonce option, plus trailing padding octets added to a length of 1500
   bytes without including the length of the padding in the IPv6 Payload
   Length field.  The node then encapsulates the NS in the encapsulation
   headers (while including the length of the padding in the
   encapsulation header length fields), sets DF to 1 (for IPv4) and
   sends the padded NS message to the neighbor.  If the neighbor returns
   an NA message with a correct Nonce value, the node may then send
   whole packets within this size range and (for IPv4) relax the rate
   limiting requirement.  (Note that the trailing padding SHOULD NOT be
   included within the Nonce option itself but rather as padding beyond
   the last option in the NS message; otherwise, the (large) Nonce
   option would be echoed back in the solicited NA message and may be
   lost at a link with a small MTU along the reverse path.)

   AERO nodes MUST be capable of reassembling packets up to 1500 bytes
   plus the encapsulation overhead length.  It is therefore RECOMMENDED
   that AERO nodes be capable of reassembling at least 2KB.

   (*) Note that if it is known without probing that the minimum Path
   MTU to an AERO node is MINMTU bytes (where 1280 < MINMTU < 1500) then
   MINMTU can be used instead of 1280 in the fragmentation threshold
   considerations listed above.

   (**) It is RECOMMENDED that no probes smaller than 1500 bytes be used
   for MTU probing purposes, since smaller probes may be fragmented if
   there is a nested tunnel somewhere on the path to the neighbor.
   Probe sizes larger than 1500 bytes MAY be used, but may be
   unnecessary since original sources are expected to implement
   [RFC4821] when sending large packets.  Also, if the neighbor can be
   reached by multiple underlying interfaces the paths via each
   interface must be probed independently.

3.7.  AERO Interface Encapsulation, Re-encapsulation and Decapsulation

   AERO interfaces encapsulate IPv6 packets according to whether they
   are entering the AERO interface for the first time or if they are
   being forwarded out the same AERO interface that they arrived on.
   This latter form of encapsulation is known as "re-encapsulation".





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   AERO interfaces encapsulate packets per the specifications in
   [RFC2473][RFC4213][RFC4301][RFC5246] except that the interface copies
   the "Hop Limit", "Traffic Class" and "Congestion Experienced" values
   in the packet's IPv6 header into the corresponding fields in the
   encapsulation header.  For packets undergoing re-encapsulation, the
   AERO interface instead copies the "TTL/Hop Limit", "Type of Service/
   Traffic Class" and "Congestion Experienced" values in the original
   encapsulation header into the corresponding fields in the new
   encapsulation header (i.e., the values are transferred between
   encapsulation headers and *not* copied from the encapsulated packet's
   network-layer header).

   When AERO UDP encapsulation is used, the AERO interface encapsulates
   the packet per the specifications in [RFC2473][RFC4213] except that
   it inserts a UDP header between the encapsulation header and IPv6
   packet header.  The AERO interface sets the UDP source port to a
   constant value that it will use in each successive packet it sends,
   sets the UDP checksum field to zero (see: [RFC6935][RFC6936]) and
   sets the UDP length field to the length of the IPv6 packet plus 8
   bytes for the UDP header itself.  For packets sent via a Server, the
   AERO interface sets the UDP destination port to 8060 (i.e., the IANA-
   registered port number for AERO) when AERO-only encapsulation is
   used.  For packets sent to a neighboring Client, the AERO interface
   sets the UDP destination port to the port value stored in the
   neighbor cache entry for this neighbor.

   The AERO interface next sets the IP protocol number in the
   encapsulation header to the appropriate value for the first protocol
   layer within the encapsulation (e.g., IPv6, UDP, IPsec, etc.).  When
   IPv6 is used as the encapsulation protocol, the interface then sets
   the flow label value in the encapsulation header the same as
   described in [RFC6438].  When IPv4 is used as the encapsulation
   protocol, the AERO interface sets the DF bit as discussed in
   Section 3.6.

   AERO interfaces decapsulate packets destined either to the node
   itself or to a destination reached via an interface other than the
   receiving AERO interface.  When AERO UDP encapsulation is used (i.e.,
   when a UDP header with destination port 8060 is present) the
   interface examines the first octet of the encapsulated packet.  If
   the most significant four bits of the first octet encode the value
   '0110' (i.e., the version number value for IPv6), the packet is
   accepted and the encapsulating UDP header is discarded; otherwise,
   the packet is discarded.

   Further decapsulation then proceeds according to the appropriate
   tunnel type [RFC2473][RFC4213][RFC4301][RFC5246].




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3.8.  AERO Router Discovery, Prefix Delegation and Address Configuration

3.8.1.  AERO Client Behavior

   AERO Clients observe the IPv6 node requirements defined in [RFC6434].
   AERO Clients first discover the link-layer addresses of AERO Servers
   via static configuration, or through an automated means such as DNS
   name resolution.  In the absence of other information, the Client
   resolves the Fully-Qualified Domain Name (FQDN)
   "linkupnetworks.domainname", where "domainname" is the DNS domain
   appropriate for the Client's attached underlying network.  The Client
   then creates a neighbor cache entry with fe80:: as the link-local
   address and the discovered addresses of one or more Servers as the
   link-layer addresses.

   Next, the Client acts as a requesting router to request an IPv6
   prefix through DHCPv6 PD [RFC3633] via each AERO Server it wishes to
   associate with using a temporary link-local address (see Section 3.3)
   as the IPv6 source address and fe80:: as the IPv6 destination
   address.  The Client includes a DHCPv6 Unique Identifier (DUID) in
   the Client Identifier option of its DHCPv6 messages
   [RFC3315][RFC6355] and includes any additional authenticating
   information necessary to authenticate itself to the DHCPv6 server.
   If the Client is pre-provisioned with an IPv6 prefix associated with
   the AERO service, it MAY also include the prefix in an IA_PD option
   in its DHCPv6 Request to indicate its preferred prefix to the DHCPv6
   server.  The Client then sends the encapsulated DHCPv6 request via
   one of its active underlying interfaces (i.e., the "primary"
   underlying interface for DHCPv6 transactions).

   After the Client receives its prefix delegation, it assigns the link-
   local AERO address taken from the prefix to the AERO interface and
   sub-delegates the prefix to nodes and links within its attached EUNs
   (the AERO link-local address thereafter remains stable as the Client
   moves).  The Client also sets both the ACCEPT and FORWARD timers for
   each Server to infinity, since the Client will remain with this
   Server unless it explicitly terminates the association.  The Client
   further renews its prefix delegation via standard DHCPv6 procedures
   by sending DHCPv6 Renew messages with its AERO address as the IPv6
   source address, fe80:: as the IPv6 destination address and the same
   DUID value in the Client Identifier option.

   The Client then sends an RS message to each of its associated Servers
   to receive an RA message with a default router lifetime and any other
   link-specific parameters.  When the Client receives an RA message, it
   configures a default route according to the default router lifetime
   but ignores any Prefix Information Options (PIOs) included in the RA
   message since the AERO link is link-local-only.  The Client further



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   ignores any RS messages it might receive, since only Servers may
   process RS messages.

   The Client then sends periodic RS messages to each Server (subject to
   rate limiting) to obtain new RA messages for Neighbor Unreachability
   Detection (NUD), to refresh any network state, and to update the
   default router lifetime and any other link-specific parameters.  (If
   the Client has multiple active underlying interfaces, it sends
   periodic RS messages over each underlying interface.)  The Client can
   also forward IPv6 packets destined to networks beyond its local EUNs
   via a Server as an IPv6 default router.  The Server may in turn
   return a redirection message informing the Client of a neighbor on
   the AERO link that is topologically closer to the final destination
   as specified in Section 3.9.

   Note that, since the Client's AERO address is configured from the
   unique DHCPv6 prefix delegation it receives, there is no need for
   Duplicate Address Detection (DAD) on AERO links.  Other nodes
   maliciously attempting to hijack an authorized Client's AERO address
   will be denied due to an unacceptable link-layer address and/or
   security parameters (see: Security Considerations).

3.8.2.  AERO Server Behavior

   AERO Servers observe the IPv6 router requirements defined in
   [RFC6434] and further configure a DHCPv6 relay function on their AERO
   links.  When the AERO Server relays a Client's DHCPv6 PD messages to
   the DHCPv6 server, it wraps each message in a "Relay-forward" message
   per [RFC3315] and includes a DHCPv6 Interface Identifier option that
   encodes a value that identifies the AERO link to the DHCPv6 server.

   The Server then includes the Client's link-layer address in a DHCPv6
   Client Link Layer Address Option (CLLAO) [RFC6939] with the link-
   layer address format shown in Figure 1.  The Server sets the CLLAO
   'option-length' field to 22 (2 plus the length of the link-layer
   address) and sets the 'link-layer type' field to TBD (see: IANA
   Considerations).  The Server finally includes a DHCPv6 Echo Request
   Option (ERO) [RFC4994] that encodes the option code for the CLLAO in
   a 'requested-option-code-n' field.  The CLLAO information will
   therefore subsequently be echoed back in the DHCPv6 Server's "Relay-
   reply" message.

   When the DHCPv6 server issues the IPv6 prefix delegation in a "Relay-
   reply" message via the AERO Server (acting as a DHCPv6 relay), the
   AERO Server obtains the Client's link-layer address from the echoed
   CLLAO option and obtains the Client's delegated prefix from the
   included IA_PD option.  The Server then creates a neighbor cache
   entry for the Client's AERO address with the Client's link-layer



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   address as the link-layer address for the neighbor cache entry.  The
   neighbor cache entry is created with both ACCEPT and FORWARD timers
   set to infinity, since the Client will remain with this Server unless
   it explicitly terminates the association.

   The Server also configures an IPv6 forwarding table entry that lists
   the Client's AERO address as the next hop toward the delegated IPv6
   prefix with a lifetime derived from the DHCPv6 lease lifetime.  The
   Server finally injects the Client's prefix as an IPv6 route into the
   inter-Server/Relay routing system (see: [IRON]) then relays the
   DHCPv6 message to the Client while using fe80:: as the IPv6 source
   address, the link-local address found in the "peer address" field of
   the Relay-reply message as the IPv6 destination address, and the
   Client's link-layer address as the destination link-layer address.

   Servers respond to RS/NS messages from Clients on their AERO
   interfaces by returning an RA/NA message.  When the Server receives
   an RS/NS message, it updates the neighbor cache entry using the
   network-layer source address as the neighbor's network-layer address
   and using the link-layer source address of the RS/NS message as the
   neighbor's link-layer address.  The Server SHOULD NOT include PIOs in
   the RA messages it sends to Clients, since the Client will ignore any
   such options.

   Servers ignore any RA messages they may receive from a Client.
   Servers MAY examine RA messages received from other Servers for
   consistency verification purposes.

   When the Server forwards a packet via the same AERO interface on
   which it arrived, it initiates an AERO route optimization procedure
   as specified in Section 3.9.

3.9.  AERO Redirection

3.9.1.  Reference Operational Scenario

   Figure 2 depicts the AERO redirection reference operational scenario.
   The figure shows an AERO Server('A'), two AERO Clients ('B', 'D') and
   three ordinary IPv6 hosts ('C', 'E', 'F'):












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                    .-(::::::::)
                 .-(::: IPv6 :::)-.   +-------------+
                (:::: Internet ::::)--|    Host F   |
                 `-(::::::::::::)-'   +-------------+
                    `-(::::::)-'       2001:db8:2::1
                         |
                  +--------------+
                  | AERO Server A|
                  | (C->B; E->D) |
                  +--------------+
                       fe80::
                       L2(A)
                         |
       X-----+-----------+-----------+--------X
             |       AERO Link       |
            L2(B)                  L2(D)
     fe80::2001:db8:0:0      fe80::2001:db8:1:0         .-.
     +--------------+         +--------------+       ,-(  _)-.
     | AERO Client B|         | AERO Client D|    .-(_ IPv6  )-.
     | (default->A) |         | (default->A) |--(__    EUN      )
     +--------------+         +--------------+     `-(______)-'
     2001:DB8:0::/48           2001:DB8:1::/48           |
             |                                     2001:db8:1::1
            .-.                                   +-------------+
         ,-(  _)-.      2001:db8:0::1             |    Host E   |
      .-(_ IPv6  )-.   +-------------+            +-------------+
    (__    EUN      )--|    Host C   |
       `-(______)-'    +-------------+

               Figure 2: AERO Reference Operational Scenario

   In Figure 2, AERO Server ('A') connects to the AERO link and connects
   to the IPv6 Internet, either directly or via an AERO Relay (not
   shown).  Server ('A') assigns the address fe80:: to its AERO
   interface with link-layer address L2(A).  Server ('A') next arranges
   to add L2(A) to a published list of valid Servers for the AERO link.

   AERO Client ('B') receives the IPv6 prefix 2001:db8:0::/48 in a
   DHCPv6 PD exchange via AERO Server ('A') then assigns the address
   fe80::2001:db8:0:0 to its AERO interface with link-layer address
   L2(B).  Client ('B') configures a default route and neighbor cache
   entry via the AERO interface with next-hop address fe80:: and link-
   layer address L2(A), then sub-delegates the prefix 2001:db8:0::/48 to
   its attached EUNs.  IPv6 host ('C') connects to the EUN, and
   configures the address 2001:db8:0::1.

   AERO Client ('D') receives the IPv6 prefix 2001:db8:1::/48 in a
   DHCPv6 PD exchange via AERO Server ('A') then assigns the address



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   fe80::2001:db8:1:0 to its AERO interface with link-layer address
   L2(D).  Client ('D') configures a default route and neighbor cache
   entry via the AERO interface with next-hop address fe80:: and link-
   layer address L2(A), then sub-delegates the prefix 2001:db8:1::/48 to
   its attached EUNs.  IPv6 host ('E') connects to the EUN, and
   configures the address 2001:db8:1::1.

   Finally, IPv6 host ('F') connects to an IPv6 network outside of the
   AERO link domain.  Host ('F') configures its IPv6 interface in a
   manner specific to its attached IPv6 link, and assigns the address
   2001:db8:2::1 to its IPv6 link interface.

3.9.2.  Classical Redirection Approaches

   With reference to Figure 2, when the IPv6 source host ('C') sends a
   packet to an IPv6 destination host ('E'), the packet is first
   forwarded via the EUN to AERO Client ('B').  Client ('B') then
   forwards the packet over its AERO interface to AERO Server ('A'),
   which then re-encapsulates and forwards the packet to AERO Client
   ('D'), where the packet is finally forwarded to the IPv6 destination
   host ('E').  When Server ('A') re-encapsulates and forwards the
   packet back out on its advertising AERO interface, it must arrange to
   redirect Client ('B') toward Client ('D') as a better next-hop node
   on the AERO link that is closer to the final destination.  However,
   this redirection process applied to AERO interfaces must be more
   carefully orchestrated than on ordinary links since the parties may
   be separated by potentially many underlying network routing hops.

   Consider a first alternative in which Server ('A') informs Client
   ('B') only and does not inform Client ('D') (i.e., "classical
   redirection").  In that case, Client ('D') has no way of knowing that
   Client ('B') is authorized to forward packets from the claimed source
   address, and it may simply elect to drop the packets.  Also, Client
   ('B') has no way of knowing whether Client ('D') is performing some
   form of source address filtering that would reject packets arriving
   from a node other than a trusted default router, nor whether Client
   ('D') is even reachable via a direct path that does not involve
   Server ('A').

   Consider a second alternative in which Server ('A') informs both
   Client ('B') and Client ('D') separately, via independent redirection
   control messages (i.e., "augmented redirection").  In that case, if
   Client ('B') receives the redirection control message but Client
   ('D') does not, subsequent packets sent by Client ('B') could be
   dropped due to filtering since Client ('D') would not have a route to
   verify the claimed source address.  Also, if Client ('D') receives
   the redirection control message but Client ('B') does not, subsequent
   packets sent in the reverse direction by Client ('D') would be lost.



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   Since both of these alternatives have shortcomings, a new redirection
   technique (i.e., "AERO redirection") is needed.

3.9.3.  Concept of Operations

   Again, with reference to Figure 2, when source host ('C') sends a
   packet to destination host ('E'), the packet is first forwarded over
   the source host's attached EUN to Client ('B'), which then forwards
   the packet via its AERO interface to Server ('A').

   Server ('A') then re-encapsulates and forwards the packet out the
   same AERO interface toward Client ('D') and also sends an AERO
   "Predirect" message forward to Client ('D') as specified in
   Section 3.9.5.  The Predirect message includes Client ('B')'s
   network- and link-layer addresses as well as information that Client
   ('D') can use to determine the IPv6 prefix used by Client ('B') .
   After Client ('D') receives the Predirect message, it process the
   message and returns an AERO Redirect message destined for Client
   ('B') via Server ('A') as specified in Section 3.9.6.  During the
   process, Client ('D') also creates or updates a neighbor cache entry
   for Client ('B') and creates an IPv6 forwarding table entry for
   Client ('B')'s IPv6 prefix.

   When Server ('A') receives the Redirect message, it re-encapsulates
   the message and forwards it on to Client ('B') as specified in
   Section 3.9.7.  The message includes Client ('D')'s network- and
   link-layer addresses as well as information that Client ('B') can use
   to determine the IPv6 prefix used by Client ('D').  After Client
   ('B') receives the Redirect message, it processes the message as
   specified in Section 3.9.8.  During the process, Client ('B') also
   creates or updates a neighbor cache entry for Client ('D') and
   creates an IPv6 forwarding table entry for Client ('D')'s IPv6
   prefix.

   Following the above Predirect/Redirect message exchange, forwarding
   of packets from Client ('B') to Client ('D') without involving Server
   ('A) as an intermediary is enabled.  The mechanisms that support this
   exchange are specified in the following sections.

3.9.4.  Message Format

   AERO Redirect/Predirect messages use the same format as for ICMPv6
   Redirect messages depicted in Section 4.5 of [RFC4861], but also
   include a new "Prefix Length" field taken from the low-order 8 bits
   of the Redirect message Reserved field (valid values for the Prefix
   Length field are 0 through 64).  The Redirect/Predirect messages are
   formatted as shown in Figure 3:




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        0                   1                   2                   3
        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |  Type (=137)  |  Code (=0/1)  |          Checksum             |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                   Reserved                    | Prefix Length |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                                                               |
       +                                                               +
       |                                                               |
       +                       Target Address                          +
       |                                                               |
       +                                                               +
       |                                                               |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                                                               |
       +                                                               +
       |                                                               |
       +                     Destination Address                       +
       |                                                               |
       +                                                               +
       |                                                               |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |   Options ...
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-

             Figure 3: AERO Redirect/Predirect Message Format

3.9.5.  Sending Predirects

   When a Server forwards a packet out the same AERO interface that it
   arrived on, the Server sends a Predirect message forward toward the
   AERO Client nearest the destination instead of sending a Redirect
   message back to the Client nearest the source.

   In the reference operational scenario, when Server ('A') forwards a
   packet sent by Client ('B') toward Client ('D'), it also sends a
   Predirect message forward toward Client ('D'), subject to rate
   limiting (see Section 8.2 of [RFC4861]).  Server ('A') prepares the
   Predirect message as follows:

   o  the link-layer source address is set to 'L2(A)' (i.e., the
      underlying address of Server ('A')).

   o  the link-layer destination address is set to 'L2(D)' (i.e., the
      underlying address of Client ('D')).





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   o  the network-layer source address is set to fe80:: (i.e., the link-
      local address of Server ('A')).

   o  the network-layer destination address is set to fe80::2001:db8:1:0
      (i.e., the AERO address of Client ('D')).

   o  the Type is set to 137.

   o  the Code is set to 1 to indicate "Predirect".

   o  the Prefix Length is set to the length of the prefix to be applied
      to Target address.

   o  the Target Address is set to fe80::2001:db8:0::0 (i.e., the AERO
      address of Client ('B')).

   o  the Destination Address is set to the IPv6 source address of the
      packet that triggered the Predirection event.

   o  the message includes one or more TLLAOs set to 'L2(B)' and any
      other underlying address(es) of Client ('B').

   o  the message includes a Redirected Header Option (RHO) that
      contains the originating packet truncated to ensure that at least
      the network-layer header is included but the size of the message
      does not exceed 1280 bytes.

   Server ('A') then sends the message forward to Client ('D').

3.9.6.  Processing Predirects and Sending Redirects

   When Client ('D') receives a Predirect message, it accepts the
   message only if the message has a link-layer source address of the
   Server, i.e.  'L2(A)'.  Client ('D') further accepts the message only
   if it is willing to serve as a redirection target.  Next, Client
   ('D') validates the message according to the ICMPv6 Redirect message
   validation rules in Section 8.1 of [RFC4861].

   In the reference operational scenario, when Client ('D') receives a
   valid Predirect message, it either creates or updates a neighbor
   cache entry that stores the Target Address of the message as the
   network-layer address of Client ('B') and stores the link-layer
   address(es) found in the TLLAO(s) as the link-layer address(es) of
   Client ('B').  Client ('D') then sets the neighbor cache entry ACCEPT
   timer with timeout value ACCEPT_TIME.  Next, Client ('D') applies the
   Prefix Length to the Interface Identifier portion of the Target
   Address and records the resulting IPv6 prefix in its IPv6 forwarding
   table.



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   After processing the message, Client ('D') prepares a Redirect
   message response as follows:

   o  the link-layer source address is set to 'L2(D)' (i.e., the link-
      layer address of Client ('D')).

   o  the link-layer destination address is set to 'L2(A)' (i.e., the
      link-layer address of Server ('A')).

   o  the network-layer source address is set to 'L3(D)' (i.e., the AERO
      address of Client ('D')).

   o  the network-layer destination address is set to 'L3(B)' (i.e., the
      AERO address of Client ('B')).

   o  the Type is set to 137.

   o  the Code is set to 0 to indicate "Redirect".

   o  the Prefix Length is set to the length of the prefix to be applied
      to the Target and Destination address.

   o  the Target Address is set to fe80::2001:db8:1::1 (i.e., the AERO
      address of Client ('D')).

   o  the Destination Address is set to the IPv6 destination address of
      the packet that triggered the Redirection event.

   o  the message includes one or more TLLAOs with UDP port number and
      IP address set to '0' and with Link ID and Preference values set
      to the appropriate values for the underlying interfaces Client
      ('D') wishes to enable for accepting encapsulated packets from
      Client ('B').

   o  the message includes as much of the RHO copied from the
      corresponding AERO Predirect message as possible such that at
      least the network-layer header is included but the size of the
      message does not exceed 1280 bytes.

   After Client ('D') prepares the Redirect message, it sends the
   message to Server ('A').

3.9.7.  Re-encapsulating and Relaying Redirects

   When Server ('A') receives a Redirect message from Client ('D'), it
   accepts the message only if it has a neighbor cache entry that
   associates the message's link-layer source address with the network-
   layer source address.  Next, Server ('A') validates the message



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   according to the ICMPv6 Redirect message validation rules in
   Section 8.1 of [RFC4861] and also verifies that Client ('D') is
   authorized to use the Prefix Length in the Redirect message when
   applied to the AERO address in the network-layer source of the
   Redirect message.  If validation fails, Server ('A') discards the
   message; otherwise, it copies the correct UDP port numbers and IP
   addresses into the TLLAOs supplied by Client ('D') according to the
   Link ID in each TLLAO.

   Server ('A') then re-encapsulates the Redirect and relays it on to
   Client ('B') by changing the link-layer source address of the message
   to 'L2(A)', changing the network-layer source address of the message
   to fe80::, and changing the link-layer destination address to 'L2(B)'
   . Server ('A') finally forwards the re-encapsulated message to the
   ingress node ('B') without decrementing the network-layer IPv6 header
   Hop Limit field.

   While not shown in Figure 2, AERO Relays relay Redirect and Predirect
   messages in exactly this same fashion described above.  See Figure 4
   in Appendix A for an extension of the reference operational scenario
   that includes Relays.

3.9.8.  Processing Redirects

   When Client ('B') receives the Redirect message, it accepts the
   message only if it has a link-layer source address of the Server,
   i.e.  'L2(A)'.  Next, Client ('B') validates the message according to
   the ICMPv6 Redirect message validation rules in Section 8.1 of
   [RFC4861].  Following validation, Client ('B') then processes the
   message as follows.

   In the reference operational scenario, when Client ('B') receives the
   Redirect message, it either creates or updates a neighbor cache entry
   that stores the Target Address of the message as the network-layer
   address of Client ('D') and stores the link-layer address(es) found
   in the TLLAO(s) as the link-layer address(es) of Client ('D').
   Client ('D') then sets the neighbor cache entry FORWARD timer with
   timeout value FORWARD_TIME.  Next, Client ('B') applies the Prefix
   Length to the Interface Identifier portion of the Target Address and
   records the resulting IPv6 prefix in its IPv6 forwarding table.

   Now, Client ('B') has an IPv6 forwarding table entry for
   Client('D')'s prefix and a neighbor cache entry with a valid FORWARD
   time, while Client ('D') has an IPv6 forwarding table entry for
   Client ('B')'s prefix with a valid ACCEPT time.  Thereafter, Client
   ('B') may forward ordinary network-layer data packets directly to
   Client ("D") without involving Server ('A') and Client ('D') can
   verify that the packets came from an acceptable source.  (In order



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   for Client ('D') to forward packets to Client ('B') a corresponding
   Predirect/Redirect message exchange is required in the reverse
   direction.)

3.10.  Neighbor Reachability Maintenance

   AERO nodes send unicast NS messages to elicit NA messages from
   neighbors the same as described for Neighbor Unreachability Detection
   (NUD) in [RFC4861].  When an AERO node sends an NS/NA message, it
   MUST use its AERO address as the IPv6 source address and the AERO
   address of the neighbor as the IPv6 destination address.  When an
   AERO node receives an NS/NA message, it accepts the message if it has
   a neighbor cache entry for the neighbor; otherwise, it ignores the
   message.

   When a source Client is redirected to a target Client it SHOULD test
   the direct path to the target by sending an initial NS message to
   elicit a solicited NA response.  While testing the path, the source
   Client SHOULD continue sending packets via the Server until target
   Client reachability has been confirmed.  The source Client SHOULD
   thereafter continue to test the direct path to the target Client (see
   Section 7.3 of [RFC4861]) in order to keep neighbor cache entries
   alive.  In particular, the source Client sends NS messages to the
   target Client subject to rate limiting in order to receive solicited
   NA messages.  If at any time the direct path over all underlying
   interfaces appears to be failing, the source Client can resume
   sending packets via the Server which may or may not result in a new
   redirection event.

   When a target Client receives an NS message from a source Client, it
   resets the ACCEPT timer to ACCEPT_TIME if a neighbor cache entry
   exists; otherwise, it discards the NS message.

   When a source Client receives a solicited NA message from a target
   Client, it resets the FORWARD timer to FORWARD_TIME if a neighbor
   cache entry exists; otherwise, it discards the NA message.

   When the FORWARD timer on a neighbor cache entry expires, the source
   Client resumes sending any subsequent packets via the Server and may
   (eventually) receive a new Redirect message.  When the ACCEPT timer
   on a neighbor cache entry expires, the target Client discards any
   subsequent packets received directly from the source Client.  When
   both the FORWARD and ACCEPT timers on a neighbor cache entry expire,
   the Client deletes both the neighbor cache entry and the
   corresponding IPv6 forwarding table entry.

   If the source Client is unable to elicit an NA response from the
   target Client after MAX_RETRY attempts, it SHOULD consider the direct



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   path unusable for forwarding purposes.  Otherwise, the source Client
   considers the path usable and SHOULD thereafter process any link-
   layer errors as a hint that the direct path to the target Client has
   either failed or has become intermittent.

3.11.  Mobility and Link-Layer Address Change Considerations

   When a Client needs to change one of its link-layer addresses (e.g.,
   due to a mobility event), it sends an immediate NS message to each of
   its active neighbors (including the Server) using the new link-layer
   address as the encapsulation source address and with the correct Link
   ID and Preference values in the SLLAO.  The Client processes any NA
   messages returned as an indication that the neighbor has received the
   update and is ready to accept encapsulated packets with the new link-
   layer address.

   When a Client needs to associate with a new Server, it issues a new
   DHCPv6 Request message via the new Server as the DHCPv6 relay.  The
   new Server then relays the message to the DHCPv6 server and processes
   the resulting exchange.  After the Client receives the resulting
   DHCPv6 Reply message, it sends an RS message to the new Server to
   receive a new RA message and update its neighbor cache entry for
   fe80::.

   When a Client disassociates with an existing Server, it sends a
   "terminating RS" message to the old Server.  The terminating RS
   message is prepared exactly the same as for an ordinary RS message,
   except that the Code field contains the value '1'.  When the old
   Server receives the terminating RS message, it withdraws the IPv6
   route from the routing system and deletes the neighbor cache entry
   and IPv6 forwarding table entry for the Client.  The old Server then
   returns an RA message with default router lifetime set to 0 which the
   Client can use to verify that the termination signal has been
   processed.  The client then deletes both the default route and the
   neighbor cache entry for the old Server.  (Note that the Client and
   the old Server MAY impose a small delay before deleting the neighbor
   cache and IPv6 forwarding table entries so that any packets already
   in the system can still be delivered to the Client.)

   An alternative to sending a "terminating RS" message would be for the
   Client to somehow perform a DHCPv6 exchange with the DHCPv6 relay
   function on the old AERO Server but without involving the DHCPv6
   server.  This would be insecure because the Client only has a DHCPv6
   security association with the DHCPv6 server and not the DHCPv6 relay.
   Conversely, the Client and Server already require an authentic
   exchange of IPv6 Neighbor Discovery messages.





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3.12.  Encapsulation Protocol Version Considerations

   A source Client may connect only to an IPvX underlying network, while
   the target Client connects only to an IPvY underlying network.  In
   that case, the target and source Clients have no means for reaching
   each other directly (since they connect to underlying networks of
   different IP protocol versions) and so must ignore any redirection
   messages and continue to send packets via the Server.

3.13.  Multicast Considerations

   When the underlying network does not support multicast, AERO nodes
   map IPv6 link-scoped multicast addresses (including
   "All_DHCP_Relay_Agents_and_Servers") to the underlying IP address of
   a Server.

   When the underlying network supports multicast, AERO nodes use the
   multicast address mapping specification found in [RFC2529] for IPv4
   underlying networks and use a direct multicast mapping for IPv6
   underlying networks.  (In the latter case, "direct multicast mapping"
   means that if the IPv6 multicast destination address of the
   encapsulated packet is "M", then the IPv6 multicast destination
   address of the encapsulating header is also "M".)

3.14.  Operation on AERO Links Without DHCPv6 Services

   When the AERO link does not provide DHCPv6 services, operation can
   still be accommodated through administrative configuration of
   prefixes on AERO Clients.  In that case, administrative
   configurations of IPv6 routes and AERO interface neighbor cache
   entries on both the Server and Client are also necessary.  However,
   this may preclude the ability for Clients to dynamically change to
   new Servers, and can expose the AERO link to misconfigurations unless
   the administrative configurations are carefully coordinated.

3.15.  Operation on Server-less AERO Links

   In some AERO link scenarios, there may be no Servers on the link and/
   or no need for Clients to use a Server as an intermediary trust
   anchor.  In that case, each Client can then act as its own Server to
   establish neighbor cache entries and IPv6 forwarding table entries by
   performing direct Client-to-Client Predirect/Redirect exchanges, and
   some other form of trust basis must be applied so that each Client
   can verify that the prospective neighbor is authorized to use its
   claimed prefix.

   When there is no Server on the link, Clients must arrange to receive
   prefix delegations and publish the delegations via a secure alternate



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   prefix delegation authority through some means outside the scope of
   this document.

3.16.  Other Considerations

   IPv6 hosts serviced by an AERO Client can reach IPv4-only services
   via a NAT64 gateway [RFC6146] within the IPv6 network.

   AERO nodes can use the Default Address Selection Policy with DHCPv6
   option [RFC7078] the same as on any IPv6 link.

   All other (non-multicast) functions that operate over ordinary IPv6
   links operate in the same fashion over AERO links.

4.  Implementation Status

   An application-layer implementation is in progress.

5.  IANA Considerations

   The IANA is instructed to assign a new 2-octet Hardware Type number
   for AERO in the "arp-parameters" registry per Section 2 of [RFC5494].
   The number is assigned from the 2-octet Unassigned range with
   Hardware Type "AERO" and with this document as the reference.

6.  Security Considerations

   AERO link security considerations are the same as for standard IPv6
   Neighbor Discovery [RFC4861] except that AERO improves on some
   aspects.  In particular, AERO is dependent on a trust basis between
   Clients and Servers, where the Clients only engage in the AERO
   mechanism when it is facilitated by a trust anchor.

   AERO links must be protected against link-layer address spoofing
   attacks in which an attacker on the link pretends to be a trusted
   neighbor.  Links that provide link-layer securing mechanisms (e.g.,
   WiFi networks) and links that provide physical security (e.g.,
   enterprise network wired LANs) provide a first line of defense that
   is often sufficient.  In other instances, additional securing
   mechanisms such as Secure Neighbor Discovery (SeND) [RFC3971], IPsec
   [RFC4301] or TLS [RFC5246] may be necessary.

   AERO Clients MUST ensure that their connectivity is not used by
   unauthorized nodes on EUNs to gain access to a protected network,
   i.e., AERO Clients that act as IPv6 routers MUST NOT provide routing
   services for unauthorized nodes.  (This concern is no different than
   for ordinary hosts that receive an IP address delegation but then




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   "share" the address with unauthorized nodes via an IPv6/IPv6 NAT
   function.)

   On some AERO links, establishment and maintenance of a direct path
   between neighbors requires secured coordination such as through the
   Internet Key Exchange (IKEv2) protocol [RFC5996] to establish a
   security association.

7.  Acknowledgements

   Discussions both on IETF lists and in private exchanges helped shape
   some of the concepts in this work.  Individuals who contributed
   insights include Mikael Abrahamsson, Fred Baker, Stewart Bryant,
   Brian Carpenter, Wojciech Dec, Brian Haberman, Joel Halpern, Sascha
   Hlusiak, Lee Howard, Joe Touch and Bernie Volz.  Members of the IESG
   also provided valuable input during their review process that greatly
   improved the document.  Special thanks go to Stewart Bryant, Joel
   Halpern and Brian Haberman for their shepherding guidance.

   This work has further been encouraged and supported by Boeing
   colleagues including Keith Bartley, Dave Bernhardt, Cam Brodie,
   Balaguruna Chidambaram, Wen Fang, Anthony Gregory, Jeff Holland, Ed
   King, Gen MacLean, Kent Shuey, Mike Slane, Julie Wulff, Yueli Yang,
   and other members of the BR&T and BIT mobile networking teams.

   Earlier works on NBMA tunneling approaches are found in
   [RFC2529][RFC5214][RFC5569].

8.  References

8.1.  Normative References

   [RFC0768]  Postel, J., "User Datagram Protocol", STD 6, RFC 768,
              August 1980.

   [RFC0791]  Postel, J., "Internet Protocol", STD 5, RFC 791, September
              1981.

   [RFC0792]  Postel, J., "Internet Control Message Protocol", STD 5,
              RFC 792, September 1981.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC2460]  Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6
              (IPv6) Specification", RFC 2460, December 1998.





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   [RFC2473]  Conta, A. and S. Deering, "Generic Packet Tunneling in
              IPv6 Specification", RFC 2473, December 1998.

   [RFC3315]  Droms, R., Bound, J., Volz, B., Lemon, T., Perkins, C.,
              and M. Carney, "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for
              IPv6 (DHCPv6)", RFC 3315, July 2003.

   [RFC3633]  Troan, O. and R. Droms, "IPv6 Prefix Options for Dynamic
              Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) version 6", RFC 3633,
              December 2003.

   [RFC3971]  Arkko, J., Kempf, J., Zill, B., and P. Nikander, "SEcure
              Neighbor Discovery (SEND)", RFC 3971, March 2005.

   [RFC4213]  Nordmark, E. and R. Gilligan, "Basic Transition Mechanisms
              for IPv6 Hosts and Routers", RFC 4213, October 2005.

   [RFC4861]  Narten, T., Nordmark, E., Simpson, W., and H. Soliman,
              "Neighbor Discovery for IP version 6 (IPv6)", RFC 4861,
              September 2007.

   [RFC4862]  Thomson, S., Narten, T., and T. Jinmei, "IPv6 Stateless
              Address Autoconfiguration", RFC 4862, September 2007.

   [RFC6434]  Jankiewicz, E., Loughney, J., and T. Narten, "IPv6 Node
              Requirements", RFC 6434, December 2011.

8.2.  Informative References

   [IRON]     Templin, F., "The Internet Routing Overlay Network
              (IRON)", Work in Progress, June 2012.

   [RFC0879]  Postel, J., "TCP maximum segment size and related topics",
              RFC 879, November 1983.

   [RFC2529]  Carpenter, B. and C. Jung, "Transmission of IPv6 over IPv4
              Domains without Explicit Tunnels", RFC 2529, March 1999.

   [RFC2675]  Borman, D., Deering, S., and R. Hinden, "IPv6 Jumbograms",
              RFC 2675, August 1999.

   [RFC4291]  Hinden, R. and S. Deering, "IP Version 6 Addressing
              Architecture", RFC 4291, February 2006.

   [RFC4301]  Kent, S. and K. Seo, "Security Architecture for the
              Internet Protocol", RFC 4301, December 2005.





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   [RFC4821]  Mathis, M. and J. Heffner, "Packetization Layer Path MTU
              Discovery", RFC 4821, March 2007.

   [RFC4963]  Heffner, J., Mathis, M., and B. Chandler, "IPv4 Reassembly
              Errors at High Data Rates", RFC 4963, July 2007.

   [RFC4994]  Zeng, S., Volz, B., Kinnear, K., and J. Brzozowski,
              "DHCPv6 Relay Agent Echo Request Option", RFC 4994,
              September 2007.

   [RFC5214]  Templin, F., Gleeson, T., and D. Thaler, "Intra-Site
              Automatic Tunnel Addressing Protocol (ISATAP)", RFC 5214,
              March 2008.

   [RFC5246]  Dierks, T. and E. Rescorla, "The Transport Layer Security
              (TLS) Protocol Version 1.2", RFC 5246, August 2008.

   [RFC5494]  Arkko, J. and C. Pignataro, "IANA Allocation Guidelines
              for the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)", RFC 5494,
              April 2009.

   [RFC5522]  Eddy, W., Ivancic, W., and T. Davis, "Network Mobility
              Route Optimization Requirements for Operational Use in
              Aeronautics and Space Exploration Mobile Networks", RFC
              5522, October 2009.

   [RFC5569]  Despres, R., "IPv6 Rapid Deployment on IPv4
              Infrastructures (6rd)", RFC 5569, January 2010.

   [RFC5996]  Kaufman, C., Hoffman, P., Nir, Y., and P. Eronen,
              "Internet Key Exchange Protocol Version 2 (IKEv2)", RFC
              5996, September 2010.

   [RFC6146]  Bagnulo, M., Matthews, P., and I. van Beijnum, "Stateful
              NAT64: Network Address and Protocol Translation from IPv6
              Clients to IPv4 Servers", RFC 6146, April 2011.

   [RFC6204]  Singh, H., Beebee, W., Donley, C., Stark, B., and O.
              Troan, "Basic Requirements for IPv6 Customer Edge
              Routers", RFC 6204, April 2011.

   [RFC6355]  Narten, T. and J. Johnson, "Definition of the UUID-Based
              DHCPv6 Unique Identifier (DUID-UUID)", RFC 6355, August
              2011.

   [RFC6438]  Carpenter, B. and S. Amante, "Using the IPv6 Flow Label
              for Equal Cost Multipath Routing and Link Aggregation in
              Tunnels", RFC 6438, November 2011.



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   [RFC6691]  Borman, D., "TCP Options and Maximum Segment Size (MSS)",
              RFC 6691, July 2012.

   [RFC6706]  Templin, F., "Asymmetric Extended Route Optimization
              (AERO)", RFC 6706, August 2012.

   [RFC6864]  Touch, J., "Updated Specification of the IPv4 ID Field",
              RFC 6864, February 2013.

   [RFC6935]  Eubanks, M., Chimento, P., and M. Westerlund, "IPv6 and
              UDP Checksums for Tunneled Packets", RFC 6935, April 2013.

   [RFC6936]  Fairhurst, G. and M. Westerlund, "Applicability Statement
              for the Use of IPv6 UDP Datagrams with Zero Checksums",
              RFC 6936, April 2013.

   [RFC6939]  Halwasia, G., Bhandari, S., and W. Dec, "Client Link-Layer
              Address Option in DHCPv6", RFC 6939, May 2013.

   [RFC6980]  Gont, F., "Security Implications of IPv6 Fragmentation
              with IPv6 Neighbor Discovery", RFC 6980, August 2013.

   [RFC7078]  Matsumoto, A., Fujisaki, T., and T. Chown, "Distributing
              Address Selection Policy Using DHCPv6", RFC 7078, January
              2014.

Appendix A.  AERO Server and Relay Interworking

   Figure 2 depicts a reference AERO operational scenario with a single
   Server on the AERO link.  In order to support scaling to larger
   numbers of nodes, the AERO link can deploy multiple Servers and
   Relays, e.g., as shown in Figure 4.



















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                             .-(::::::::)
                          .-(::: IPv6 :::)-.
                         (:: Internetwork ::)
                          `-(::::::::::::)-'
                             `-(::::::)-'
                                  |
       +--------------+    +------+-------+    +--------------+
       |AERO Server C |    | AERO Relay D |    |AERO Server E |
       | (default->D) |    | (A->C; G->E) |    | (default->D) |
       |    (A->B)    |    +-------+------+    |    (G->F)    |
       +-------+------+            |           +------+-------+
               |                   |                  |
       X---+---+-------------------+------------------+---+---X
           |                  AERO Link                   |
     +-----+--------+                            +--------+-----+
     |AERO Client B |                            |AERO Client F |
     | (default->C) |                            | (default->E) |
     +--------------+                            +--------------+
           .-.                                         .-.
        ,-(  _)-.                                   ,-(  _)-.
     .-(_ IPv6  )-.                              .-(_ IPv6  )-.
    (__    EUN      )                           (__    EUN      )
       `-(______)-'                                `-(______)-'
            |                                           |
        +--------+                                  +--------+
        | Host A |                                  | Host G |
        +--------+                                  +--------+

                 Figure 4: AERO Server/Relay Interworking

   In this example, Client ('B') associates with Server ('C'), while
   Client ('F') associates with Server ('E').  Furthermore, Servers
   ('C') and ('E') do not associate with each other directly, but rather
   have an association with Relay ('D') (i.e., a router that has full
   topology information concerning its associated Servers and their
   Clients).  Relay ('D') connects to the AERO link, and also connects
   to the native IPv6 Internetwork.

   When host ('A') sends a packet toward destination host ('G'), IPv6
   forwarding directs the packet through the EUN to Client ('B'), which
   forwards the packet to Server ('C') in absence of more-specific
   forwarding information.  Server ('C') forwards the packet, and it
   also generates an AERO Predirect message that is then forwarded
   through Relay ('D') to Server ('E').  When Server ('E') receives the
   message, it forwards the message to Client ('F').

   After processing the AERO Predirect message, Client ('F') sends an
   AERO Redirect message to Server ('E').  Server ('E'), in turn,



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   forwards the message through Relay ('D') to Server ('C').  When
   Server ('C') receives the message, it forwards the message to Client
   ('B') informing it that host 'G's EUN can be reached via Client
   ('F'), thus completing the AERO redirection.

   The network layer routing information shared between Servers and
   Relays must be carefully coordinated in a manner outside the scope of
   this document.  In particular, Relays require full topology
   information, while individual Servers only require partial topology
   information (i.e., they only need to know the EUN prefixes associated
   with their current set of Clients).  See [IRON] for an architectural
   discussion of routing coordination between Relays and Servers.

Author's Address

   Fred L. Templin (editor)
   Boeing Research & Technology
   P.O. Box 3707
   Seattle, WA  98124
   USA

   Email: fltemplin@acm.org





























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