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GEOPRIV                                                       M. Thomson
Internet-Draft                                           J. Winterbottom
Intended status: Standards Track                      Andrew Corporation
Expires: September 11, 2011                               March 10, 2011


             Location Measurements for IEEE 802.16e Devices
              draft-thomson-geopriv-wimax-measurements-05

Abstract

   IEEE 802.16e defines means for true mobility within an 802.16
   wireless network.  Determining an accurate location for 802.16e
   devices requires information on radio parameters.  A format is
   defined for location-related measurement data that can be provided by
   an 802.16e device.  This measurement data can be used by a Location
   Information Server (LIS) to more accurately determine the location of
   the device.  A separate measurement used for identifying WiMAX
   session-related parameters is also provided.

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on September 11, 2011.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2011 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must



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   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.


Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  Conventions used in this document  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   3.  802.16e Radio Measurement Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     3.1.  Measurement Request Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
   4.  WiMAX Session-Related Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   5.  802.16e Measurement Schema . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   6.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   7.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     7.1.  URN Sub-Namespace Registration for
           urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:held:lm:802.16e . . . . . . . . . . 14
     7.2.  XML Schema Registration for 802.16e Measurement Schema . . 14
   8.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16































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1.  Introduction

   Determining the location of a device in an IEEE 802.16e [IEEE.80216E]
   mobile wireless network requires information from the device to
   improve the accuracy of the final result.  Radio timing information
   provided by the device can enable the calculation of a more accurate
   location estimate by a Location Information Server (LIS).

   This document describes a standard format for 802.16e measurement
   data that is based on radio measurements made of base stations near
   the device.








































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2.  Conventions used in this document

   This document builds on [I-D.ietf-geopriv-held-measurements] and
   consequently uses the same set of terminology.  Terminology from
   [IEEE.80216E] is used where appropriate.

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].










































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3.  802.16e Radio Measurement Data

   A subscriber station (SS) in an 802.16e network is able to observe
   radio signals from each base station (BS) in its proximity.  By
   observing the timing and strength of these signals, a SS is able to
   provide a LIS with information that can be used to determine its
   location.

   The most basic 802.16e measurement indicates the serving BS, as shown
   in Figure 1.

     <locationRequest xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:geopriv:held">
       <locationType exact="true">civic</locationType>
       <measurements xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:geopriv:lm">
         <w16e xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:geopriv:lm:802.16e">
           <servingBS id="00-21-43-65-87-a9"/>
         </w16e>
       </measurements>
     </locationRequest>

       Figure 1: HELD Location Request with 802.16e Measurement Data

   More measurement information can be provided, including timing
   measurement information for additional serving base stations (if fast
   base station switching (FBSS) or macro-diversity hand-over (MDHO) are
   in progress).  Information on neighbouring base stations can be
   provided in addition to that for the serving BS.

   The set of measurement data is chosen by the SS and the presence of
   specific elements will depend on the time the SS has available to
   acquire the measurements.  The following measurement information may
   be provided:

   id:  (Attribute) The base station identifier for the measured BS.
      Note that while this isn't a MAC address, it shares the encoding
      defined for the MAC address.

   rssi:  Receive signal strength indicator, calculated as defined in
      [IEEE.80216E].  This value is measured in units of dBm.  This
      datum optionally includes an RMS error in dB and sample count.

   cinr:  Carrier inteference to noise ratio (signal to noise),
      calculated as defined in [IEEE.80216E].  This value is measured in
      units of dB.  This datum optionally includes an RMS error and
      sample count.






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   rd:  Relative delay of the signal from the BS, measured relative to
      other base stations.  Since this value is relative, it MUST be
      included on at least two BS measurements to be of any use.  It is
      RECOMMENDED that this value be set to "0" for the first BS in the
      measured set.  This datum optionally includes an RMS error and
      sample count.

        (V) _
         |   `- _ t[1]
         |       `- _       t[2]
         | BS1       ` . - - - - - - - - - - (V)
                      _|`.                    |
                     |U|  `. t[3]             |
                     |_|    `.            BS2 |
                 Target SS    `.
                                (V)
                                 |
                                 |
                                 | BS3

                       Figure 2: Relative Delay Example

      Based on the example in Figure 2, relative delay can be calculated
      based on the relative time that signals transmitted simultaneously
      (or with known relative times) by base stations can be calculated.
      If the time of receipt of the signal from each base station is
      t[x] and the relative delay for BS1 is set to zero, the relative
      time for each subsequent measured base station is t[x] - t[1].

   rtd:  Round trip delay of the signal from the SS to the BS and back.
      This measurement datum is only applicable for each serving BS.
      This value is measured in seconds.  This datum optionally includes
      an RMS error and sample count.

   The "rmsError" attribute for signal to noise and received signal
   strength MAY be calculated using the continuous weighted average
   method described in [IEEE.80216E].  Values of "alpha_AVG" and "k" are
   selected by the SS.

   The XML format described in this document provides a greater range of
   values than the Scanning Results Report ("MOB_SCN-REP") or the
   Channel measurement Report Response ("REP-RSP") message.  This allows
   for the reporting of measurements in a manner less constrained by
   encoding.  A greater range of values does not necessarily imply
   anything about the uncertainty in those measurements; the RMS error
   is used to indicate the magnitude of any error.





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3.1.  Measurement Request Parameters

   A request that does not contain sufficient measurement data can
   result in an error response.  [I-D.ietf-geopriv-held-measurements]
   defines a measurement request that indicates what parameters might be
   necessary to complete the request.  These parameters might also be
   present in a response that includes an indication that the requested
   location quality [I-D.thomson-geopriv-location-quality] was not
   provided.

   The elements present in a radio measurement are all optional.  In
   order for a Device to know which of these is requested, the
   "parameter" element is defined for radio measurement data.  This
   identifies each requested element using a qualified name.

   The following example shows a HELD error response that indicates that
   RSSI and CINR measurement would aid in fulfilling the request.

     <error xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:geopriv:held"
            code="locationUnknown">
       <message xml:lang="en">Insufficient measurement data</message>
       <measurementRequest
           xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:geopriv:lm"
           xmlns:w16e="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:geopriv:lm:802.16e">
         <measurement type="w16e:w16e">
           <w16e:parameter>w16e:rssi</wifi:parameter>
           <w16e:parameter>w16e:cinr</wifi:parameter>
         </measurement>
       </measurementRequest>
     </error>

                                 Figure 3



















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4.  WiMAX Session-Related Measurements

   In Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) networks
   [WiMAX.LBS], an SS might have a particular access network designated
   as a "home network".  In some configurations the network is designed
   in such a way that the SS only has access to a location server in the
   home network, known as a home location server, or hLS.  However, a
   server in the current (visited) access network - the vLS - could be
   the only server that is capable of communicating with the access
   network to determine the location of the SS.  In this case the hLS
   provides WiMAX session information to the vLS, giving the vLS the
   information necessary to identify a session and generate location
   information.

   Figure 4 shows an example measurement that contains information
   regarding a session.  This contains the session identifier that is
   assigned by the anchor authenticator.  The Network Access Identifier
   (NAI) [RFC4282] of the device and the address of the anchor
   authenticator is included.

     <measurements xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:geopriv:lm">
       <wimaxSession xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:geopriv:lm:802.16e">
         <sessionID>19abd9e9f923978f80310d</sessionID>
         <nai>user.206417@example.realm</nai>
         <anchor ip="2001:DB8::f:301">f-301.aa.example.com</anchor>
       </wimaxSession>
     </measurements>

                                 Figure 4

   Session parameters are used to identify a particular network
   attachment session:

   sessionID:  A temporary identifier given to a particular session.
      This value is a binary value that is expressed in hexadecimal.

   nai:  The NAI [RFC4282] used by the device to gain network
      authorization.

   anchor:  The domain name of the anchor authenticator in the visited
      network.  Optionally, this includes an attribute that indicates an
      IP address in addition to the domain name.

   The formal grammar for NAI [RFC4282] permits invalid UTF-8, which
   cannot be expressed using XML.  Therefore, this lexical
   representation of NAI permits escaping.  Non-unicode characters (and
   any other character) are expressed using a backslash ('\') followed
   by two hexadecimal digits representing the value of a single octet.



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   The value-space representation of an NAI is the sequence of octets
   that is produced from the concatenation of UTF-8 encoded sequences of
   unescaped characters and octets derived from escaped components.
   This sequence MUST conform to the constraints in [RFC4282].















































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5.  802.16e Measurement Schema

   Note:  The pattern for NAI has extra whitespace added to conform to
      formatting restrictions.  The actual value does not contain
      whitespace.


  <?xml version="1.0"?>
  <xs:schema
      targetNamespace="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:geopriv:lm:802.16e"
      xmlns:w16e="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:geopriv:lm:802.16e"
      xmlns:bt="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:geopriv:lm:basetypes"
      xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
      elementFormDefault="qualified"
      attributeFormDefault="unqualified">

    <xs:annotation>
      <xs:documentation source="https://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfcXXXX.txt">
        <!-- [[NOTE TO RFC-EDITOR: Please replace above URL with URL of
             published RFC and remove this note.]] -->
        This document defines a location-related measurement format
        for 802.16e mobile wireless devices.
      </xs:documentation>
    </xs:annotation>

    <xs:import namespace="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:geopriv:lm:basetypes"/>

    <xs:element name="w16e" type="w16e:w16eType"/>
    <xs:complexType name="w16eType">
      <xs:complexContent>
        <xs:restriction base="xs:anyType">
          <xs:sequence>
            <xs:choice>
              <xs:element ref="w16e:servingBS" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
              <xs:element ref="w16e:neighbourBS"/>
            </xs:choice>
            <xs:element ref="w16e:neighbourBS"
                        minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
          </xs:sequence>
        </xs:restriction>
      </xs:complexContent>
    </xs:complexType>

    <xs:element name="neighbourBS" type="w16e:bsType"/>

    <xs:complexType name="bsType">
      <xs:complexContent>
        <xs:restriction base="xs:anyType">



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          <xs:sequence>
            <xs:element name="rssi" type="bt:doubleWithRMSError"
                        minOccurs="0"/>
            <xs:element name="cinr" type="bt:doubleWithRMSError"
                        minOccurs="0"/>
            <xs:element name="rd" type="bt:doubleWithRMSError"
                        minOccurs="0"/>
            <xs:any namespace="##other" processContents="lax"
                    minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
          </xs:sequence>
          <xs:attribute name="id" type="bt:macAddressType"/>
        </xs:restriction>
      </xs:complexContent>
    </xs:complexType>

    <xs:element name="servingBS" type="w16e:servingBsType"/>

    <xs:complexType name="servingBsType">
      <xs:complexContent>
        <xs:extension base="w16e:bsType">
          <xs:sequence>
            <xs:element name="rtd" type="bt:nnDoubleWithRMSError"
                        minOccurs="0"/>
          </xs:sequence>
        </xs:extension>
      </xs:complexContent>
    </xs:complexType>

    <xs:element name="wimaxSession" type="w16e:wimaxSessionType"/>

    <xs:complexType name="wimaxSessionType">
      <xs:complexContent>
        <xs:restriction base="xs:anyType">
          <xs:sequence>
            <xs:element name="sessionID" type="xs:hexBinary"/>
            <xs:element name="nai" type="w16e:naiType"/>
            <xs:element name="anchor" type="w16e:anchorType"/>
            <xs:any namespace="##other" processContents="lax"
                    minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
          </xs:sequence>
        </xs:restriction>
      </xs:complexContent>
    </xs:complexType>

    <xs:complexType name="anchorType">
      <xs:simpleContent>
        <xs:extension base="w16e:domainType">
          <xs:attribute name="ip" type="bt:ipAddressType"/>



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        </xs:extension>
      </xs:simpleContent>
    </xs:complexType>

    <xs:simpleType name="domainType">
      <xs:restriction base="xs:token">
        <xs:pattern
            value="([a-zA-Z0-9]([a-zA-Z0-9-]*[a-zA-Z0-9])?\.?)+"/>
      </xs:restriction>
    </xs:simpleType>

    <xs:simpleType name="naiType">
      <xs:restriction base="xs:token">
        <xs:pattern
            value="([^\\]|\\[\dA-Fa-f]{2})*
                   (@([A-Za-z\d]([A-Za-z\d\-]*[A-Za-z\d])*\.)+
                    [A-Za-z\d]([A-Za-z\d\-]*[A-Za-z\d])*)?"/>
      </xs:restriction>
    </xs:simpleType>
  </xs:schema>































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6.  Security Considerations

   The considerations of [I-D.ietf-geopriv-held-measurements] apply.
   The receiver of 802.16e measurement information requires knowledge of
   the location of base stations to make effective use of the
   information.

   NAI is used as identification information for a device.  The
   connection of this information with other session parameters provides
   a potential link between identity and location.  In addition, unless
   care is taken to verify this information, this datum could be
   exploited by an attacker to gain access to another user's location
   information.  See the privacy and security considerations of
   [I-D.ietf-geopriv-held-identity-extensions] for details on using
   identity parameters.




































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7.  IANA Considerations

7.1.  URN Sub-Namespace Registration for
      urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:held:lm:802.16e

   This section registers a new XML namespace,
   "urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:held:lm:802.16e", following the guidelines in
   [RFC3688].

      URI: urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:held:lm

      Registrant Contact: IETF, GEOPRIV working group,
      (geopriv@ietf.org), Martin Thomson (martin.thomson@andrew.com).

      XML:

         BEGIN
           <?xml version="1.0"?>
           <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN"
             "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd">
           <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xml:lang="en">
             <head>
               <title>802.16e Measurements</title>
             </head>
             <body>
               <h1>Namespace for 802.16e Measurements</h1>
               <h2>urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:held:lm:802.16e</h2>
   [[NOTE TO IANA/RFC-EDITOR: Please update RFC URL and replace XXXX
       with the RFC number for this specification.]]
               <p>See <a href="[[RFC URL]]">RFCXXXX</a>.</p>
             </body>
           </html>
         END

7.2.  XML Schema Registration for 802.16e Measurement Schema

   This section registers an XML schema following the guidelines in
   [RFC3688].

   URI:  urn:ietf:params:xml:schema:held:lm:802.16e

   Registrant Contact:  IETF, GEOPRIV working group, (geopriv@ietf.org),
      Martin Thomson (martin.thomson@andrew.com).

   Schema:  The XML for this schema can be found in Section 5 of this
      document.





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8.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC3688]  Mealling, M., "The IETF XML Registry", BCP 81, RFC 3688,
              January 2004.

   [RFC4282]  Aboba, B., Beadles, M., Arkko, J., and P. Eronen, "The
              Network Access Identifier", RFC 4282, December 2005.

   [I-D.ietf-geopriv-held-measurements]
              Thomson, M. and J. Winterbottom, "Using Device-provided
              Location-Related Measurements in Location Configuration
              Protocols", draft-ietf-geopriv-held-measurements-02 (work
              in progress), October 2010.

   [I-D.ietf-geopriv-held-identity-extensions]
              Winterbottom, J., Thomson, M., Tschofenig, H., and R.
              Barnes, "Use of Device Identity in HTTP-Enabled Location
              Delivery (HELD)",
              draft-ietf-geopriv-held-identity-extensions-06 (work in
              progress), November 2010.

   [I-D.thomson-geopriv-location-quality]
              Thomson, M. and J. Winterbottom, "Specifying Location
              Quality Requirements in Location Protocols",
              draft-thomson-geopriv-location-quality-07 (work in
              progress), January 2011.

   [IEEE.80216E]
              IEEE, "Air Interface for Fixed and Mobile Broadband
              Wireless Access Systems; Physical and Medium Access
              Control Layers for Combined Fixed and Mobile Operation in
              Licensed Bands", Std 802.16E, February 2006.

   [WiMAX.LBS]
              WiMAX Forum, "WiMAX Network Protocols and Architecture for
              Location Based Services", Network Release 1.5 1.0.0 Draft,
              November 2008.











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Authors' Addresses

   Martin Thomson
   Andrew Corporation
   Andrew Building (39)
   Wollongong University Campus
   Northfields Avenue
   Wollongong, NSW  2522
   AU

   Email: martin.thomson@andrew.com


   James Winterbottom
   Andrew Corporation
   Andrew Building (39)
   Wollongong University Campus
   Northfields Avenue
   Wollongong, NSW  2522
   AU

   Email: james.winterbottom@andrew.com





























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