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Versions: 00 01 02

ROLL                                                     P. Thubert, Ed.
Internet-Draft                                                     Cisco
Updates: 6282,6550,6775 (if approved)                      July 27, 2017
Intended status: Standards Track
Expires: January 28, 2018



   This specification extends RPL to provide unicast and multicast
   routing based on bitStrings such as used in Bit Index Explicit
   Replication and its source-routed Traffic Engineering variant, which
   correspond to RPL storing and non-storing modes respectively.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
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   This Internet-Draft will expire on January 28, 2018.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
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   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   3.  Applicability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   4.  Extensions to RFC 6550  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     4.1.  RPL-BIER MOPs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
       4.1.1.  RPL-BIER non-storing mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
       4.1.2.  RPL-BIER storing mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     4.2.  BitString Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   5.  Updating the 6LoWPAN Framework  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     5.1.  Extensions to  RFC 6775 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     5.2.  Extensions to RFC 6282  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     5.3.  New Neighbor Discovery Options and Messages . . . . . . .   9
       5.3.1.  6LoWPAN ND Bit Position Option  . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       5.3.2.  Address Mapping Message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   6.  BitString formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     6.1.  Bit-by-bit BitStrings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
       6.1.1.  Allocating a Bit Position in a Bit-by-bit BitString .  12
       6.1.2.  Aggregation of Bit-by-bit BitStrings  . . . . . . . .  13
       6.1.3.  Forwarding Based on Bit-by-bit BitStrings . . . . . .  13
       6.1.4.  Reliable Multicast based on Bit-by-bit BitStrings . .  14
     6.2.  Bloom Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
       6.2.1.  Computing and Saving Bloom Filters  . . . . . . . . .  15
       6.2.2.  Forwarding based on Bloom Filters . . . . . . . . . .  15
       6.2.3.  Hash Functions Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
   7.  Implementation Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
   8.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
   9.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
   10. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
   11. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
     11.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
     11.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
   Author's Address  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18

1.  Introduction

   The design of Low Power and Lossy Networks (LLNs) is generally
   focused on saving energy, which is the most constrained resource of
   all.  Other design constraints, such as a limited memory capacity,
   duty cycling of the LLN devices and low-power lossy transmissions,
   derive from that primary concern.

   The IETF produced the "Routing Protocol for Low Power and Lossy
   Networks" [RFC6550] (RPL) to provide routing services within such
   constraints.  In order to cope with lossy transmissions, RPL forms
   Direction-Oriented Directed Acyclic Graphs (DODAGs) that provide
   multiple forwarding solutions to most of the intermediate hops.

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   Because it is designed to adapt to fuzzy connectivity with lazy
   control, RPL can only provide a best effort routability, connecting
   most of the LLN nodes, most of the time.

   RPL is a Distance-Vector protocol, which, compared to link-state
   protocols, limits the amount of topological knowledge that needs to
   be installed and maintained in each node.  RPL also leverages Routing
   Stretch to reduce further the amount of control traffic and routing
   state that is required to operate the protocol.  Finally, broken
   routes may be fixed lazily and on-demand, based on dataplane
   inconsistency discovery, which avoids wasting energy in the proactive
   repair of unused paths.

   RPL enables various trade-offs between routing stretch, amount of
   routing state and packet size, with the introdution of different
   modes of operation (MOPs):

   o  With Reactive Discovery of Point-to-Point (P2P) Routes (aka on-
      demand) [RFC6997][I-D.ietf-roll-aodv-rpl], a limited number of
      routes are optimized on-demand, between select pairs of devices
      for which a service with some particular characteristics is
   o  In Storing mode of operation (aka storing mode), Multipoint to
      Point (MP2P) routes from the LLN nodes to the root and Point to
      Multipoint (P2MP) routes from the root to the LLN nodes are
      optimized, but P2P routes between LLN nodes are stretched via a
      common parent.  In storing mode, RPL requires that nodes maintain
      routing information for the maximum number of child nodes in their
      sub-DODAG.  If a network is composed of similar nodes, this means
      that each node should be able to store a number of routes that is
      in the order of the total number of nodes in the network.
   o  In Non-Storing mode of operation (aka non-storing mode), MP2P and
      P2MP routes are also optimized, but downwards routes can only be
      computed by the root and P2MP forwarding relies on strict source-
      routing.  This increases the size of the packets and limits the
      depth of the DODAG.  The non-storing mode also results in
      additional stretch for P2P routes, whereby all packets must
      transit via the root following the default route all the way up,
      to be then source-routed down.

   In order to alleviate the issues above and improve the existing
   multicast operations, this specification introduces the use of
   bitStrings in RPL LLNs.  BitStrings are already used in the art as a
   datapath analog to one or more IPv6 [RFC8200] addresses:

   o  With the Bit Index Explicit Replication (BIER), introduced in the
      "BIER Architecture" [I-D.ietf-bier-architecture], each it in a
      bitStrings represents a particular destination.  This

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      specification introduces a RPL-BIER storing mode that applies BIER
      operations to RPL storing mode.
   o  "Traffic Engineering for Bit Index Explicit Replication"
      [I-D.eckert-bier-te-arch] (BIER-TE) adds support for Traffic
      Engineering by explicit hop-by-hop forwarding and loose hop
      forwarding of packets along a unicast route.  With BIER-TE, each
      bit in a bitStrings represents a particular intermediate link.
      This specification introduces a RPL-BIER non-storing mode that
      applies BIER-TE operations to RPL non-storing mode.

   This specification provides new signaling in RPL to enable RPL-BIER
   operations.  In addition to classical bitStrings, this specification
   proposes an new technique that derives from Bloom Filters.  This
   technique provides elasticity to the size of the bitString, which is
   not constrained to a fixed number of entries, and a trade-off between
   the number of bits that are needed for routing and the chances to
   waste energy forwarding down a path where no target exist.  The Bloom
   Filters mechanism applies to RPL-BIER in both modes of operations.

   In order to carry routing information in a concise fashion in a Low-
   Power Wireless Personal Area Network (6LoWPAN) for Route-Over use
   cases, the 6LoWPAN adaptation layer framework [RFC4944] [RFC6282] was
   extended with the 6LoWPAN Routing Header (6LoRH) specification
   [RFC8138], which uses the 6LoWPAN Paging Dispatch [RFC8025].  The
   original specification includes the formats necessary for RPL such as
   the Source Route Header (SRH) and is intended to be extended for
   additional routing artifacts.  A companion document to this, the
   "6loRH for BitStrings" [I-D.thubert-6lo-bier-dispatch],
   specification, proposes new 6LoRH formats to enable the concise
   encoding of the BIER bitstrings and of the Bloom Filters described

   In the current practive of LLN networks, the non-storing mode is
   largely favored, because it does not place a restriction on how large
   a network formed of a particular device can become.  One major
   benefit of introducing bitStrings is that the amount of state that is
   required for routing in storing mode is no more growing in the order
   of the total number of nodes in the network but linearly with the
   number of children attached to the RPL router.  In other words, the
   maximum number of children that a router is willing to accept
   determines both the size of the Neighbor Cache for 6LoWPAN Neighbor
   Discovery (6LoWPAN ND) [RFC6775][I-D.ietf-6lo-rfc6775-update] and the
   size of the routing table that is required in RPL-BIER storing mode.

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2.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in

   The Terminology used in this document is consistent with and
   incorporates that described in Terms Used in Routing for Low-Power
   and Lossy Networks (LLNs).  [RFC7102].

   Other terms in use in LLNs are found in Terminology for Constrained-
   Node Networks [RFC7228].

   The term "byte" is used in its now customary sense as a synonym for

   "RPL", "RPL Packet Information" (RPI) and "RPL Instance" are defined
   in the "RPL: IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks"
   [RFC6550] specification.

   The terms Bit-Forwarding Egress Routers (BFR), BFR-id and bitString
   are defined in [I-D.ietf-bier-architecture].  A bitString indicates a
   continuous sequence of bits indexed by an offset in the sequence.
   The leftmost bit is bit 0 and corresponds to the value 0x80 of the
   leftmost byte in the BitString.  With this specification, a bitString
   maybe used to encode one or more unsigned integer(s) as a bit
   position in the bitString (bit-by-bit), or a Bloom filter.

3.  Applicability

   BIER and other bit-indexed methods that would leverage bitStrings
   will generally require additional information in the packet to
   complement the bitString.  For instance, BIER has the concept of a
   BFR-id and an Entropy value in the BIER header.  Since those
   additional fields depend on the bit-indexed method, they are expected
   to be transported separately from the bitString.  This specification
   concentrates on the bitString and a group identifier which enables a
   network to grow beyond the size of one bitString.

   TBD Do we need entropy ?

4.  Extensions to RFC 6550

   This specification introduces two new modes of operation for RPL, the
   RPL-BIER non-storing mode which is discussed in Section 4.1.1 and the
   RPL-BIER storing mode which is discussed in Section 4.1.2.  A new

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   Control Message Options (CMO) is introduced to transport the
   bitStrings in Section 4.2.


   In RPL-BIER modes of operation, one or more RPL Target Option are
   replaced by a new BitString Information Option which represent the
   advertised target(s) by a combination of a bitString and control

4.1.1.  RPL-BIER non-storing mode

   In Non-Storing RPL-BIER, a bit in classical BIER bit-by-bit
   bitStrings (see Section 6.1) or a set of bits in a Bloom Filter (see
   Section 6.2) is associated to a next-hop from the perspective of an
   intermediate router.  RPL non-storing mode DAO messages are used to
   advertise the relation between a target and its parent (transit)
   directly to the root.

   If multiple Targets Options were to be placed consecutively to
   factorize a Transit Information Option (TIO) in a classical RPL non-
   storing mode DAO message, they are replaced by a single BIO with the
   aggregated bitString that represents all these targets.

4.1.2.  RPL-BIER storing mode

   In RPL-BIER storing mode, a bit in classical BIER Bit-by-bit
   bitStrings (see Section 6.1) or a set of bits in a Bloom Filter (see
   Section 6.2) is associated to a final destination.  RPL storing mode
   DAO messages are used to advertise recursively the targets to the
   parent(s) all the way to the root.

   The BitString Information Option(s) in the DAO message contain
   collectively an aggregated bitString that represents the advertising
   node and all of its descendants.  Parents save the bitString per
   child, and use it to forward down the DODAG as discussed in
   Section 6.1.3.

   The Transit Information Option is not used.  The lack of transit
   information is compensated by a more frequent transmission of DAO
   messages and a full use of the RPL data plane loop avoidance and
   inconsistency detection mechanisms (section 11.2 of [RFC6550]), in
   collaboration with a periodic 6LoWPAN ND (re)registration that
   maintains the 6LBR and the root aware of which devices are actually
   present in the network with the associated lifetime and sequence

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4.2.  BitString Information

   Section 6.7 of [RFC6550] specifies optional CMOs to be placed in RPL
   messages such as the Destination Advertisement Object (DAO) message.
   The RPL Target Option and the Transit Information Option (TIO) are
   such optional fields; the former indicates a node to be reached and
   the latter specifies a parent that can be used to reach that node.
   Options may be factorized; one or more contiguous TIOs apply to the
   one or more contiguous Target options that immediately precede the
   TIOs in the RPL message.

   This specification introduces a new CMO, the BitString Information
   option (BIO).  A BIO is used as an alterate to one or more Target
   Option(s) in Storing and non-storing mode DAOs usig bit-by-bit
   bitStrings, and its format is as follows:

        0                   1                   2                   3
        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
       |   Type = 0x0B | Option Length | BitStringType |   Group ID    |
       |                                                               |
       +                                                               +
       .                                                               .
       .                     BitString                              .
       .                                                               .
       +                                                               +
       |                                                               |

               Figure 1: BitString Information option format

   Option Type:    0x0B (to be confirmed by IANA)
   Option Length:  In bytes; variable, depending on the Type.
   BitString Type: Indicates the size of the bitString field as
                   indicated in Table 1 below.

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                    | BitString Type | BitString Size |
                    |       15       | 8 bits         |
                    |       16       | 16 bits        |
                    |       17       | 48 bits        |
                    |       18       | 96 bits        |
                    |       19       | 160 bits       |

   Group ID :      8-bit unsigned integer.  The Group ID for the bit-by-
                   bit bitString.
   BitString:      8 to 160 bits, depending on the Type.

5.  Updating the 6LoWPAN Framework

5.1.  Extensions to RFC 6775

   It is noted that RPL does not provide a Duplicate Address Detection
   (DAD) and relies on 6LoWPAN ND to ensure that addresses are unique
   within the network.  For that purpose, a 6LoWPAN Border Router (6LBR)
   maintains the list of addresses that are currently in use in the
   network that it serves.  In the case of a RPL LLN, the 6LBR is
   typically collocated with the RPL root, and serves the RPL DODAG.
   With 6LoWPAN ND[RFC6775] [I-D.ietf-6lo-rfc6775-update], a Duplicate
   Address Request (DAR) / Duplicate Address Confirmation (DAC) exchange
   is used to perform the DAD operation .  Scalability is achieved by
   federating multiple DODAGs with IPv6 Backbone Routers (6BBRs)

   In that context, it makes sense to also leverage the 6LBR to ensure
   that a tuple (groupID, bitString) is assigned unequivocally to an
   IPv6 address for the bit-by-bit operation.  This specification
   extends the role of a 6LBR to 1) assign the tuple to the IPv6 address
   and 2) resolve an IPv6 address into a tuple.  To achieve this, RFC
   6775 is updated as follows:

   o  A BIER Address Resolution (BAR) / BIER Address Confirmation (BAC)
      exchange is introduced for the purpose of the bitString lookup
      operation (see Section 6.1.1).
   o  A new Bit Position Option (BPO) is introduced to carry the
      corresponding bit position bitString in 6LoWPAN ND exchanges.  The
      BPO is transported in BAC, NA and DAC messages in response to BAR,
      NS and DAR messages, respectively (see Section 5.3.1).

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5.2.  Extensions to RFC 6282

   This specification also extends the 6LoWPAN framework with the
   capability to transform an address into a tuple (Control field,
   bitString) as part of the 6LoWPAN Header Compression [RFC6282]
   (6LoWPAN HC).  Since the 6LBR and the Header Compression functions
   are typically collocated, the latter may exploit local tables built
   by the former to map a destination IPv6 address into a bitString.

   In storing mode, P2P stretched routing via a common parent can be
   obtained if the destination is expressed as a tuple (Control field,
   bitString).  This can be achieved with a BAR/BAC exchange with the

5.3.  New Neighbor Discovery Options and Messages

   In order to allocate and lookup a bitString, this specification
   extends 6LoWPAN ND with the following new messages and formats.

5.3.1.  6LoWPAN ND Bit Position Option

   The Bit Position Option (BPO) is intended to be used to return a
   bitString and related information in 6LoWPAN ND BA, DAC and BAC
   messages with a Status of 0 indicating success, the NA and DAC
   messages transporting an Address Registration Option (ARO) indicating
   the IPv6 address that is mapped with the bit position.  Its format is
   as follows:

        0                   1                   2                   3
        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
       |      Type     |     Length    |   Group ID    | Bit Position  |
       |                         Reserved                              |

                   Figure 2: Bit Position Option format

   Option Fields

   Type:           38 (to be confirmed by IANA)
   Length:         8-bit unsigned integer.  The length of the option
                   (including the type and length fields) in units of 8
                   bytes.  The Length MUST be set to 1.
   Group ID:       8-bit unsigned integer.  The GroupID for the bit-by-
                   bit bitString.
   Bit Position:   8-bit unsigned integer.  The offset in the the bit-
                   by-bit bitString.

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5.3.2.  Address Mapping Message

   For the multihop lookup exchanges between a 6LR that needs to perform
   a Header Compression including the bitString for the destination, and
   its 6LBR, which knows if the mapping exists and what it is, this
   specification introduces two new ICMPv6 message called the BIER
   Address Resolution (BAR) and the BIER Address Confirmation (BAC).  We
   avoid reusing the NS and NA messages for this purpose, since these
   messages are not subject to the hop limit=255 check as they are
   forwarded by intermediate 6LRs.

   The BAR and BAC use the same ICMPv6 type value which this
   specification, allocates for a generic Address Mapping service, but
   use different Codes.  This is done to save addressable space in the
   ICMPv6 type values which is getting crowded, and because it is
   expected that in the future, other mapping techniques may be needed
   as well.

   The Status field and Information Lifetime are not meaningful in the
   BAR message.  When and only when the BAC message carries a status of
   0, indicating success, the Information Lifetime must contain valid
   information and the message must carry a Bit Position Option
   (Section 5.3.1).

       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      |     Type      |     Code      |          Checksum             |
      |    Status     |   Reserved    |     Information Lifetime      |
      |                                                               |
      +                                                               +
      |                                                               |
      +                       Looked-up Address                       +
      |                                                               |
      +                                                               +
      |                                                               |

                 Figure 3: Address Mapping Message format

   Message Fields

   Type:           160 (to be confirmed by IANA)
   Code:           8-bit unsigned integer. 1 for BAR and 2 for BAC.
                   Other values are reserved.
   Checksum::      The ICMP checksum.  See [RFC4443].

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   Status:         8-bit unsigned integer.  Indicates the status of the
                   lookup in the BAC.  See Table 2 below.

          | Status |                Description                 |
          |   0    |                  Success                   |
          |   1    |        Looked-up Address not Found         |
          | 2..255 | Allocated using Standards Action [RFC5226] |

   Information Lifetime:  16-bit unsigned integer.  The length of time
                   in units of 60 seconds (relative to the time the
                   packet is received) that this mapping information is
                   valid.  A value of all zero bits (0x0) assumes a
                   default value of 10,000 (~one week).
   Looked-up Address:  128-bit field.  Carries the IPv6 address that is
                   being mapped.

6.  BitString formats

   This specification introduces two BitString formats, the bit-by-bit
   and the Bloom Filter.

6.1.  Bit-by-bit BitStrings

   In the bit-by-bit case, each bit is mapped in an unequivocal fashion
   with a single addressable resource in the network.  In RPL-BIER
   storing mode, this is an IPv6 address as advertised in RPL storing
   mode DAO messages, whereas in RPL-BIER non-storing mode, this is a
   parent-child relationship as advertised in RPL non-storing mode DAO

   if every node in a large network is given one or more bits in a bit-
   by-bit bitString, then the bitString may grow very large and lead to
   undesirably large overhead in the data plane.  BIER allows to divide
   a potentially the very large abstract bitString into segments, aka
   groups, indexed by a groupID.

   In the protocol elements that use a bitString, only the relevant
   group(s) are transported, and the advertised bitString is in fact the
   segment that corresponds to the groupID.  It results that a bit
   position in the large abstract bitString is advertised either as the
   tuple (groupID, segment) or the tuple (groupID, bit position within

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   For simplicity, when dealing with protocol elements, the
   specification uses the term bitString to refer to the tuple (groupID,
   segment) and a bitwise operation between bitStrings is really a
   bitwise operation between segments of a same groupID.

   TBD: do we allow multiple (groupID, bitString) tuples in one packet?

6.1.1.  Allocating a Bit Position in a Bit-by-bit BitString

   Several methods may be used to associate a bit in a biString to an
   IPv6 address.  In order to guarantee interoperability, this
   specification RECOMMENDS that all implementations provide at least
   the method described therein.

   With 6LoWPAN ND, a 6LoWPAN Node (6LN) registers with address(es) to
   one or more 6LoWPAN Router [RFC6775] to perform Duplicate Address
   Detection (DAD).  As part of the DAD process, the 6LN validates that
   a Global Unicast Address (GUA) or a Unique Local Address (ULA) is
   effectively unique using a unicast DAR/DAC exchange with the 6LBR
   (this procedure is updated in [I-D.ietf-6lo-rfc6775-update]).

   In a network that supports this specification, the 6LBR maintains a
   configurable number of groups (up to 32, indexed by groupID), and for
   each group, it maintains a pool of free bit positions.  Upon a new
   registration, the 6LBR selects a groupID and a free bit position and
   associates it to the IPv6 address.

   The bitString Size in any given group should be configurable.  The
   policy for selecting the groupID for a new registration is left to
   implementation.  It is noted that in large networks that require
   multiple groups, associating groups with immediate children of the
   root may be an option to limit the number of groups that the RPL
   routers must be aware of.

   If the 6LBR accepts the registration, then it returns a DAC message
   with a status of 0 indicating success, adding a 6LoWPAN ND Bit
   Position Option (Section 5.3.1) to the DAC message to indicate the
   groupID and bit.

   The 6LR maintains a binding cache entry (BCE) for the 6LN based on
   successful DAC messages.  With this specification, the 6LR also
   stores the matching between the address and the bitString and uses it
   for searching its children when forwarding packets in non-storing
   mode (see Section 6.1.3).

   If the 6LN child does not support the BIER encoding
   (e.g.[I-D.thubert-6lo-bier-dispatch]), then the packet is converted
   in a format that the child supports (e.g.[RFC8138]).

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6.1.2.  Aggregation of Bit-by-bit BitStrings

   BitStrings are aggregated by a 'OR' operation so that all the bits
   that are set in either bitString is set in the resulting bitString.
   In the concise form of a tuple (groupID, bitString), the aggregation
   is done on a group-by-group basis, between segments of a same group.

   In RPL-BIER storing mode, the bit-by-bit BitStrings are passed from
   child to parent using DAO messages, in a fashion similar to RPL
   storing mode [RFC6550].  The BitString Information option (Figure 1)
   is used in replacement of the Target option.  A DAO message contains
   one BIO per group, and the parent that receives the messages
   associates the BIO information to the advertising child.  In order to
   build a DAO message, the parent regenerates its own BIO, one per
   group, by aggregating the bitStrings from all of its children with
   its own, and places the resulting BIOs in the DAO message.

6.1.3.  Forwarding Based on Bit-by-bit BitStrings

   Forwarding is based on matching a bitString in a packet with those of
   children.  For unicast packets, only one matching child gets the
   packet.  For multicast packets, all matching children get a copy.
   Matches are found by scanning all children and performing bitwise
   operations as follows.

   In order to search for a match, a reference bitString is initialized
   with the destination bitString in the packet.  A match is found with
   a child if the bitwise 'AND' between the reference bitString and the
   bitString stored for that child does not result in a NULL bitString
   of all zeroes.

   In non-storing mode, a packet is copied to all matching children,
   which are found by trying all children.

   In non-storing mode, if a child is selected for forwarding, then an
   'XOR' operation is performed between the reference bitString and the
   bitString resulting from the 'AND' operation.  If the 'XOR' operation
   does not result in a NULL bitString, denoting that more children
   should get the packet, then the result of the 'XOR' operation becomes
   the new reference bitString and the search continues.  The 'XOR'
   operation allows to stop the search loop as soon as all matches are
   found; it also avoids forwarding twice to a same destination along
   different downwards path in the DODAG.

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6.1.4.  Reliable Multicast based on Bit-by-bit BitStrings

   Multicast from the root to a a collection of target 6LNs can be made
   reliable with the following operation:

   A multicast packet is identified by a unique packetID which is also
   found in the acknowledgments.  The root signals the set of targets
   with a destination bitString that has the bits set for each of them,
   and the message is forwarded as described on Section 6.1.3.

   Listeners acknowledge with an acknowledgment packet that contains the
   same information, the packetID and the bitString representing the
   listener.  The bitStrings in acknowledgment packets are aggregated
   recursively on the way back as indicated in Section 6.1.2.

   The root aggregates the bitStrings from its children into one
   acknowledgment bitString.  It then checks that the acknowledgment
   bitString is correct, by and 'AND' operation with the destination
   bitString that should result in the acknowledgment bitString.  If
   this is not the case, bits that are set in the acknowledgment
   bitString and not in the destination bitString are in the
   acknowledgment bitString.

   The root generates the bitString of the devices that did not
   acknowledge the multicast message by a bitwise 'XOR' operation
   between the destination bitString and the acknowledgment bitString,
   and may use it to selectively retry the multicast.

6.2.  Bloom Filters

   A Bloom Filter can be seen as an additional compression technique for
   the bitString representation.  A Bloom Filter may generate false
   positives, which, in the case of BIER, result in undue forwarding of
   a packet down a path where no listener exists.

   As an example, the Constrained-Cast [I-D.bergmann-bier-ccast]
   specification employs Bloom Filters as a compact representation of a
   match or non-match for elements in a set that may be larger than the
   number of bits in the BitString.

   In the case of a Bloom Filter, a number of Hash functions must be run
   to obtain a multi-bit signature of an encoded element.  This
   specification uses the 5-bits Control field to signal an Identifier
   of the set of Hash functions being used to generate a certain
   bitString, so as to enable the migration from a set of Hash functions
   to the next.

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6.2.1.  Computing and Saving Bloom Filters

6.2.2.  Forwarding based on Bloom Filters

6.2.3.  Hash Functions Distribution

7.  Implementation Status


8.  Security Considerations


9.  IANA Considerations

   This document extends the IANA registry created by RFC 6550 for RPL
   Control Codes as follows:

                  | Code | Description | Reference     |
                  | 0x0B | bitString   | This document |

                             RPL Control Codes

   This document is updating the registry created by RFC 6550 for the
   RPL 3-bit Mode of Operation (MOP) as follows:

   | MOP value | Description                           | Reference     |
   |     6     | RPL-BIER non-storing mode of          | This document |
   |           | operation                             |               |
   |           |                                       |               |
   |     7     | RPL-BIER Storing mode of operation    | This document |

                           DIO Mode of operation

10.  Acknowledgments

11.  References

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11.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,

   [RFC4443]  Conta, A., Deering, S., and M. Gupta, Ed., "Internet
              Control Message Protocol (ICMPv6) for the Internet
              Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) Specification", STD 89,
              RFC 4443, DOI 10.17487/RFC4443, March 2006,

   [RFC6550]  Winter, T., Ed., Thubert, P., Ed., Brandt, A., Hui, J.,
              Kelsey, R., Levis, P., Pister, K., Struik, R., Vasseur,
              JP., and R. Alexander, "RPL: IPv6 Routing Protocol for
              Low-Power and Lossy Networks", RFC 6550,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6550, March 2012,

   [RFC6775]  Shelby, Z., Ed., Chakrabarti, S., Nordmark, E., and C.
              Bormann, "Neighbor Discovery Optimization for IPv6 over
              Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPANs)",
              RFC 6775, DOI 10.17487/RFC6775, November 2012,

   [RFC8200]  Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6
              (IPv6) Specification", STD 86, RFC 8200,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8200, July 2017,

11.2.  Informative References

              Bergmann, O., Bormann, C., Gerdes, S., and H. Chen,
              "Constrained-Cast: Source-Routed Multicast for RPL",
              draft-bergmann-bier-ccast-02 (work in progress), October

              Eckert, T., Cauchie, G., Braun, W., and M. Menth, "Traffic
              Engineering for Bit Index Explicit Replication BIER-TE",
              draft-eckert-bier-te-arch-05 (work in progress), June

              Thubert, P., "IPv6 Backbone Router", draft-ietf-6lo-
              backbone-router-04 (work in progress), July 2017.

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              Thubert, P., Nordmark, E., and S. Chakrabarti, "An Update
              to 6LoWPAN ND", draft-ietf-6lo-rfc6775-update-06 (work in
              progress), June 2017.

              Wijnands, I., Rosen, E., Dolganow, A., Przygienda, T., and
              S. Aldrin, "Multicast using Bit Index Explicit
              Replication", draft-ietf-bier-architecture-07 (work in
              progress), June 2017.

              Anamalamudi, S., Zhang, M., Sangi, A., Perkins, C., and S.
              Anand, "Asymmetric AODV-P2P-RPL in Low-Power and Lossy
              Networks (LLNs)", draft-ietf-roll-aodv-rpl-01 (work in
              progress), March 2017.

              Thubert, P., Brodard, Z., Jiang, H., and G. Texier, "A
              6loRH for BitStrings", draft-thubert-6lo-bier-dispatch-03
              (work in progress), July 2017.

   [RFC4944]  Montenegro, G., Kushalnagar, N., Hui, J., and D. Culler,
              "Transmission of IPv6 Packets over IEEE 802.15.4
              Networks", RFC 4944, DOI 10.17487/RFC4944, September 2007,

   [RFC5226]  Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an
              IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", RFC 5226,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5226, May 2008,

   [RFC6282]  Hui, J., Ed. and P. Thubert, "Compression Format for IPv6
              Datagrams over IEEE 802.15.4-Based Networks", RFC 6282,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6282, September 2011,

   [RFC6997]  Goyal, M., Ed., Baccelli, E., Philipp, M., Brandt, A., and
              J. Martocci, "Reactive Discovery of Point-to-Point Routes
              in Low-Power and Lossy Networks", RFC 6997,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6997, August 2013,

   [RFC7102]  Vasseur, JP., "Terms Used in Routing for Low-Power and
              Lossy Networks", RFC 7102, DOI 10.17487/RFC7102, January
              2014, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7102>.

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   [RFC7228]  Bormann, C., Ersue, M., and A. Keranen, "Terminology for
              Constrained-Node Networks", RFC 7228,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7228, May 2014,

   [RFC8025]  Thubert, P., Ed. and R. Cragie, "IPv6 over Low-Power
              Wireless Personal Area Network (6LoWPAN) Paging Dispatch",
              RFC 8025, DOI 10.17487/RFC8025, November 2016,

   [RFC8138]  Thubert, P., Ed., Bormann, C., Toutain, L., and R. Cragie,
              "IPv6 over Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Network
              (6LoWPAN) Routing Header", RFC 8138, DOI 10.17487/RFC8138,
              April 2017, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8138>.

Author's Address

   Pascal Thubert (editor)
   Cisco Systems, Inc
   Building D
   45 Allee des Ormes - BP1200
   MOUGINS - Sophia Antipolis  06254

   Phone: +33 497 23 26 34
   Email: pthubert@cisco.com

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