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CoRE Working Group                                             M. Tiloca
Internet-Draft                                                   RISE AB
Intended status: Standards Track                              C. Amsuess
Expires: August 26, 2021
                                                         P. van der Stok
                                                              Consultant
                                                       February 22, 2021


      Discovery of OSCORE Groups with the CoRE Resource Directory
                 draft-tiloca-core-oscore-discovery-08

Abstract

   Group communication over the Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP)
   can be secured by means of Group Object Security for Constrained
   RESTful Environments (Group OSCORE).  At deployment time, devices may
   not know the exact security groups to join, the respective Group
   Manager, or other information required to perform the joining
   process.  This document describes how a CoAP endpoint can use
   descriptions and links of resources registered at the CoRE Resource
   Directory to discover security groups and to acquire information for
   joining them through the respective Group Manager.  A given security
   group may protect multiple application groups, which are separately
   announced in the Resource Directory as sets of endpoints sharing a
   pool of resources.  This approach is consistent with, but not limited
   to, the joining of security groups based on the ACE framework for
   Authentication and Authorization in constrained environments.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on August 26, 2021.






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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2021 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     1.1.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   2.  Registration of Group Manager Endpoints . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     2.1.  Parameters  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     2.2.  Relation Link to Authorization Server . . . . . . . . . .   9
     2.3.  Registration Example  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
       2.3.1.  Example in Link Format  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
       2.3.2.  Example in CoRAL  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   3.  Addition and Update of Security Groups  . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     3.1.  Addition Example  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
       3.1.1.  Example in Link Format  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
       3.1.2.  Example in CoRAL  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   4.  Discovery of Security Groups  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
     4.1.  Discovery Example #1  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
       4.1.1.  Example in Link Format  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
       4.1.2.  Example in CoRAL  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
     4.2.  Discovery Example #2  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
       4.2.1.  Example in Link Format  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
       4.2.2.  Example in CoRAL  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
   5.  Use Case Example With Full Discovery  . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
   6.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  25
   7.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  25
   8.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  25
     8.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  25
     8.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27
   Appendix A.  Use Case Example With Full Discovery (CoRAL) . . . .  28
   Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  33
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  33






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1.  Introduction

   The Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) [RFC7252] supports group
   communication over IP multicast [I-D.ietf-core-groupcomm-bis] to
   improve efficiency and latency of communication and reduce bandwidth
   requirements.  A set of CoAP endpoints constitutes an application
   group by sharing a common pool of resources, that can be efficiently
   accessed through group communication.  The members of an application
   group may be members of a security group, thus sharing a common set
   of keying material to secure group communication.

   The security protocol Group Object Security for Constrained RESTful
   Environments (Group OSCORE) [I-D.ietf-core-oscore-groupcomm] builds
   on OSCORE [RFC8613] and protects CoAP messages end-to-end in group
   communication contexts through CBOR Object Signing and Encryption
   (COSE)
   [I-D.ietf-cose-rfc8152bis-struct][I-D.ietf-cose-rfc8152bis-algs].  An
   application group may rely on one or more security groups, and a same
   security group may be used by multiple application groups at the same
   time.

   A CoAP endpoint relies on a Group Manager (GM) to join a security
   group and get the group keying material.  The joining process in
   [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm-oscore] is based on the ACE framework for
   Authentication and Authorization in constrained environments
   [I-D.ietf-ace-oauth-authz], with the joining endpoint and the GM
   acting as ACE Client and Resource Server, respectively.  That is, the
   joining endpoint accesses the group-membership resource exported by
   the GM and associated with the security group to join.

   Typically, devices store a static X509 IDevID certificate installed
   at manufacturing time [I-D.ietf-anima-bootstrapping-keyinfra].  This
   is used at deployment time during an enrollment process that provides
   the devices with an Operational Certificate, possibly updated during
   the device lifetime.  Operational Certificates may specify
   information to join security groups, especially a reference to the
   group-membership resources to access at the respective GMs.

   However, it is usually impossible to provide such precise information
   to freshly deployed devices, as part of their (early) Operational
   Certificate.  This can be due to a number of reasons: (1) the
   security group(s) to join and the responsible GM(s) are generally
   unknown at manufacturing time; (2) a security group of interest is
   created, or the responsible GM is deployed, only after the device is
   enrolled and fully operative in the network; (3) information related
   to existing security groups or to their GMs has changed.  This
   requires a method for CoAP endpoints to dynamically discover security




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   groups and their GM, and to retrieve relevant information about
   deployed groups.

   To this end, CoAP endpoints can use descriptions and links of group-
   membership resources at GMs, to discover security groups and retrieve
   the information required for joining them.  With the discovery
   process of security groups expressed in terms of links to resources,
   the remaining problem is the discovery of those links.  The CoRE
   Resource Directory (RD) [I-D.ietf-core-resource-directory] allows
   such discovery in an efficient way, and it is expected to be used in
   many setups that would benefit of security group discovery.

   This specification builds on this approach and describes how CoAP
   endpoints can use the RD to perform the link discovery steps, in
   order to discover security groups and retrieve the information
   required to join them through their GM.  In short, the GM registers
   as an endpoint with the RD.  The resulting registration resource
   includes one link per security group under that GM, specifying the
   path to the related group-membership resource to access for joining
   that group.

   Additional descriptive information about the security group is stored
   with the registered link.  In a RD based on Link Format [RFC6690] as
   defined in [I-D.ietf-core-resource-directory], this information is
   specified as target attributes of the registered link, and includes
   the identifiers of the application groups which use that security
   group.  This enables a lookup of those application groups at the RD,
   where they are separately announced by a Commissioning Tool (see
   Appendix A of [I-D.ietf-core-resource-directory]).

   When querying the RD for security groups, a CoAP endpoint can use
   CoAP observation [RFC7641].  This results in automatic notifications
   on the creation of new security groups or the update of existing
   groups.  Thus, it facilitates the early deployment of CoAP endpoints,
   i.e. even before the GM is deployed and security groups are created.

   Interaction examples are provided in Link Format, as well as in the
   Constrained RESTful Application Language CoRAL [I-D.ietf-core-coral]
   with reference to a CoRAL-based RD [I-D.hartke-t2trg-coral-reef].
   While all the CoRAL examples show the CoRAL textual serialization
   format, its binary serialization format is used on the wire.

   The approach in this document is consistent with, but not limited to,
   the joining of security groups defined in
   [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm-oscore].






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1.1.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP
   14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
   capitals, as shown here.

   This specification requires readers to be familiar with the terms and
   concepts discussed in [I-D.ietf-core-resource-directory] and
   [RFC6690], as well as in [I-D.ietf-core-coral].  Readers should also
   be familiar with the terms and concepts discussed in
   [RFC7252][I-D.ietf-core-groupcomm-bis],
   [I-D.ietf-core-oscore-groupcomm] and
   [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm-oscore].

   Terminology for constrained environments, such as "constrained
   device" and "constrained-node network", is defined in [RFC7228].

   Consistently with the definitions from Section 2.1 of
   [I-D.ietf-core-groupcomm-bis], this document also refers to the
   following terminology.

   o  CoAP group: a set of CoAP endpoints all configured to receive CoAP
      multicast messages sent to the group's associated IP multicast
      address and UDP port.  An endpoint may be a member of multiple
      CoAP groups by subscribing to multiple IP multicast addresses.

   o  Security group: a set of CoAP endpoints that share the same
      security material, and use it to protect and verify exchanged
      messages.  A CoAP endpoint may be a member of multiple security
      groups.  There can be a one-to-one or a one-to-many relation
      between security groups and CoAP groups.

      This document especially considers a security group to be an
      OSCORE group, where all members share one OSCORE Security Context
      to protect group communication with Group OSCORE
      [I-D.ietf-core-oscore-groupcomm].  However, the approach defined
      in this document can be used to support the discovery of different
      security groups than OSCORE groups.

   o  Application group: a set of CoAP endpoints that share a common set
      of resources.  An endpoint may be a member of multiple application
      groups.  An application group can be associated with one or more
      security groups, and multiple application groups can use the same
      security group.  Application groups are announced in the RD by a
      Commissioning Tool, according to the RD-Groups usage pattern (see
      Appendix A of [I-D.ietf-core-resource-directory]).



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2.  Registration of Group Manager Endpoints

   During deployment, a Group Manager (GM) can find the CoRE Resource
   Directory (RD) as described in Section 4 of
   [I-D.ietf-core-resource-directory].

   Afterwards, the GM registers as an endpoint with the RD, as described
   in Section 5 of [I-D.ietf-core-resource-directory].  The GM SHOULD
   NOT use the Simple Registration approach described in Section 5.1 of
   [I-D.ietf-core-resource-directory].

   When registering with the RD, the GM also registers the links to all
   the group-membership resources it has at that point in time, i.e. one
   for each of its security groups.

   In the registration request, each link to a group-membership resource
   has as target the URI of that resource at the GM.  Also, it specifies
   a number of descriptive parameters as defined in Section 2.1.

2.1.  Parameters

   For each registered link to a group-membership resource at a GM, the
   following parameters are specified together with the link.

   In the RD defined in [I-D.ietf-core-resource-directory] and based on
   Link Format, each parameter is specified in a target attribute with
   the same name.

   In a RD based on CoRAL, such as the one defined in
   [I-D.hartke-t2trg-coral-reef], each parameter is specified in a
   nested element with the same name.

   o  'ct', specifying the content format used with the group-membership
      resource at the Group Manager, with value "application/ace-
      groupcomm+cbor" registered in Section 8.2 of
      [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm].

      Note: The examples in this document use the provisional value
      65000 from the range "Reserved for Experimental Use" of the "CoAP
      Content-Formats" registry, within the "CoRE Parameters" registry.

   o  'rt', specifying the resource type of the group-membership
      resource at the Group Manager, with value "core.osc.gm" registered
      in Section 21.11 of [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm-oscore].

   o  'if', specifying the interface description for accessing the
      group-membership resource at the Group Manager, with value




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      "ace.group" registered in Section 8.10 of
      [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm].

   o  'sec-gp', specifying the name of the security group of interest,
      as a stable and invariant identifier, such as the group name used
      in [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm-oscore].  This parameter MUST
      specify a single value.

   o  'app-gp', specifying the name(s) of the application group(s)
      associated to the security group of interest indicated by 'sec-
      gp'.  This parameter MUST occur once for each application group,
      and MUST specify only a single application group.

      When a security group is created at the GM, the names of the
      application groups using it are also specified as part of the
      security group configuration (see [I-D.ietf-ace-oscore-gm-admin]).
      Thus, when registering the links to its group-membership resource,
      the GM is aware of the application groups and their names.

      If a different entity than the GM registers the security groups to
      the RD, e.g. a Commissioning Tool, this entity has to also be
      aware of the application groups and their names to specify.  To
      this end, it can obtain them from the GM or from the Administator
      that created the security groups at the GM (see
      [I-D.ietf-ace-oscore-gm-admin]).

   Optionally, the following parameters can also be specified.  If Link
   Format is used, the value of each of these parameters is encoded as a
   text string.

   o  'alg', specifying the AEAD algorithm used in the security group.
      If present, this parameter MUST specify a single value, which is
      taken from the 'Value' column of the "COSE Algorithms" Registry
      [COSE.Algorithms].

   o  'hkdf', specifying the HKDF algorithm used in the security group.
      If present, this parameter MUST specify a single value, which is
      taken from the 'Value' column of the "COSE Algorithms" Registry
      defined in [COSE.Algorithms].

   o  'cs_alg', specifying the algorithm used to countersign messages in
      the security group.  If present, this parameter MUST specify a
      single value, which is taken from the 'Value' column of the "COSE
      Algorithms" Registry [COSE.Algorithms].

   o  'cs_alg_crv', specifying the elliptic curve (if applicable) for
      the algorithm used to countersign messages in the security group.
      If present, this parameter MUST specify a single value, which is



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      taken from the 'Value' column of the "COSE Elliptic Curves"
      Registry [COSE.Elliptic.Curves].

   o  'cs_key_kty', specifying the key type of countersignature keys
      used to countersign messages in the security group.  If present,
      this parameter MUST specify a single value, which is taken from
      the 'Value' column of the "COSE Key Types" Registry
      [COSE.Key.Types].

   o  'cs_key_crv', specifying the elliptic curve (if applicable) of
      countersignature keys used to countersign messages in the security
      group.  If present, this parameter MUST specify a single value,
      which is taken from the 'Value' column of the "COSE Elliptic
      Curves" Registry defined in [COSE.Elliptic.Curves].

   o  'cs_kenc', specifying the encoding of the public keys used in the
      security group.  If present, this parameter MUST specify a single
      value.  This specification explicitly admits the signaling of COSE
      Keys [I-D.ietf-cose-rfc8152bis-struct] as encoding for public
      keys, which is indicated with "1", as taken from the 'Confirmation
      Key' column of the "CWT Confirmation Method" Registry defined in
      [RFC8747].  Future specifications may define additional values for
      this parameter.

   o  'ecdh_alg', specifying the ECDH algorithm used to derive pairwise
      encryption keys in the security group, e.g. as for the pairwise
      mode of Group OSCORE (see Section 2.3 of
      [I-D.ietf-core-oscore-groupcomm]).  If present, this parameter
      MUST specify a single value, which is taken from the 'Value'
      column of the "COSE Algorithms" Registry [COSE.Algorithms].

   o  'ecdh_alg_crv', specifying the elliptic curve for the ECDH
      algorithm used to derive pairwise encryption keys in the security
      group.  If present, this parameter MUST specify a single value,
      which is taken from the 'Value' column of the "COSE Elliptic
      Curves" Registry [COSE.Elliptic.Curves].

   o  'ecdh_key_kty', specifying the key type of keys used with an ECDH
      algorithm to derive pairwise encryption keys in the security
      group.  If present, this parameter MUST specify a single value,
      which is taken from the 'Value' column of the "COSE Key Types"
      Registry [COSE.Key.Types].

   o  'ecdh_key_crv', specifying the elliptic curve of keys used with an
      ECDH algorithm to derive pairwise encryption keys in the security
      group.  If present, this parameter MUST specify a single value,
      which is taken from the 'Value' column of the "COSE Elliptic
      Curves" Registry defined in [COSE.Elliptic.Curves].



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   Note that the values registered in the COSE Registries
   [COSE.Algorithms][COSE.Elliptic.Curves][COSE.Key.Types] are strongly
   typed.  On the contrary, Link Format is weakly typed and thus does
   not distinguish between, for instance, the string value "-10" and the
   integer value -10.

   Thus, in RDs that return responses in Link Format, string values
   which look like an integer are not supported.  Therefore, such values
   MUST NOT be advertised through the corresponding parameters above.

   A CoAP endpoint that queries the RD to discover security groups and
   their group-membership resource to access (see Section 4) would
   benefit from the information above as follows.

   o  The values of 'cs_alg', 'cs_alg_crv', 'cs_key_kty', 'cs_key_crv',
      'cs_kenc', 'ecdh_alg', 'ecdh_alg_crv', 'ecdh_key_kty' and
      'ecdh_key_crv' related to a group-membership resource provide an
      early knowledge of the format and encoding of public keys used in
      the security group.  Thus, the CoAP endpoint does not need to ask
      the GM for this information as a preliminary step before the
      joining process, or to perform a trial-and-error joining exchange
      with the GM.  Hence, the CoAP endpoint is able to provide the GM
      with its own public key in the correct expected format and
      encoding at the very first step of the joining process.

   o  The values of 'alg', 'hkdf', 'cs_alg' and 'ecdh_alg' related to a
      group-membership resource provide an early knowledge of the
      algorithms used in the security group.  Thus, the CoAP endpoint is
      able to decide whether to actually proceed with the joining
      process, depending on its support for the indicated algorithms.

2.2.  Relation Link to Authorization Server

   For each registered link to a group-membership resource, the GM MAY
   additionally specify the link to the ACE Authorization Server (AS)
   [I-D.ietf-ace-oauth-authz] associated to the GM, and issuing
   authorization credentials to join the security group as described in
   [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm-oscore].

   The link to the AS has as target the URI of the resource where to
   send an authorization request to.

   In the RD defined in [I-D.ietf-core-resource-directory] and based on
   Link Format, the link to the AS is separately registered with the RD,
   and includes the following parameters as target attributes.

   o  'rel', with value "authorization_server".




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   o  'anchor', with value the target of the link to the group-
      membership resource at the GM.

   In a RD based on CoRAL, such as the one defined in
   [I-D.hartke-t2trg-coral-reef], this is mapped (as describe there) to
   a link from the registration resource to the AS, using the
   <http://www.iana.org/assignments/relation/authorization_server> link
   relation type.

2.3.  Registration Example

   The example below shows a GM with endpoint name "gm1" and address
   2001:db8::ab that registers with the RD.

   The GM specifies the value of the 'sec-gp' parameter for accessing
   the security group with name "feedca570000", and used by the
   application group with name "group1" specified with the value of the
   'app-gp' parameter.

   The countersignature algorithm used in the security group is EdDSA
   (-8), with elliptic curve Ed25519 (6).  Public keys used in the
   security group are encoded as COSE Keys (1)
   [I-D.ietf-cose-rfc8152bis-struct].  The ECDH algorithm used in the
   security group is ECDH-SS + HKDF-256 (-27), with elliptic curve
   X25519 (4).

   In addition, the GM specifies the link to the ACE Authorization
   Server associated to the GM, to which a CoAP endpoint should send an
   Authorization Request for joining the corresponding security group
   (see [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm-oscore]).

2.3.1.  Example in Link Format

   Request: GM -> RD

   Req: POST coap://rd.example.com/rd?ep=gm1
   Content-Format: 40
   Payload:
   </ace-group/feedca570000>;ct=65000;rt="core.osc.gm";if="ace.group";
                                sec-gp="feedca570000";app-gp="group1";
                                cs_alg="-8";cs_alg_crv="6";
                                cs_kenc="1";ecdh_alg="-27";
                                ecdh_alg_crv="4",
   <coap://as.example.com/token>;
         rel="authorization-server";
         anchor="coap://[2001:db8::ab]/ace-group/feedca570000"

   Response: RD -> GM



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   Res: 2.01 Created
   Location-Path: /rd/4521

2.3.2.  Example in CoRAL

   Request: GM -> RD

   Req: POST coap://rd.example.com/rd?ep=gm1
   Content-Format: TBD123456 (application/coral+cbor)

   Payload:
   #using <http://coreapps.org/core.oscore-discovery#>
   #using reef = <http://coreapps.org/reef#>
   #using iana = <http://www.iana.org/assignments/relation/>

   #base <coap://[2001:db8::ab]/>
   reef:rd-item </ace-group/feedca570000> {
      reef:ct 65000
      reef:rt "core.osc.gm"
      reef:if "ace.group"
      sec-gp "feedca570000"
      app-gp "group1"
      cs_alg -8
      cs_alg_crv 6
      cs_kenc 1
      ecdh_alg -27
      ecdh_alg_crv 4
      iana:authorization-server <coap://as.example.com/token>
   }

   Response: RD -> GM

   Res: 2.01 Created
   Location-Path: /rd/4521

3.  Addition and Update of Security Groups

   The GM is responsible to refresh the registration of all its group-
   membership resources in the RD.  This means that the GM has to update
   the registration within its lifetime as per Section 5.3.1 of
   [I-D.ietf-core-resource-directory], and has to change the content of
   the registration when a group-membership resource is added/removed,
   or if its parameters have to be changed, such as in the following
   cases.

   o  The GM creates a new security group and starts exporting the
      related group-membership resource.




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   o  The GM dismisses a security group and stops exporting the related
      group-membership resource.

   o  Information related to an existing security group changes, e.g.
      the list of associated application groups.

   To perform an update of its registrations, the GM can re-register
   with the RD and fully specify all links to its group-membership
   resources.

   Alternatively, the GM can perform a PATCH/iPATCH [RFC8132] request to
   the RD, as per Section 5.3.3 of [I-D.ietf-core-resource-directory].
   This requires new media-types to be defined in future standards, to
   apply a new document as a patch to an existing stored document.

3.1.  Addition Example

   The example below shows how the GM from Section 2 re-registers with
   the RD.  When doing so, it specifies:

   o  The same previous group-membership resource associated to the
      security group with name "feedca570000".

   o  An additional group-membership resource associated to the security
      group with name "ech0ech00000" and used by the application group
      "group2".

   o  A third group-membership resource associated with the security
      group with name "abcdef120000" and used by two application groups,
      namely "group3" and "group4".

   Furthermore, the GM relates the same Authorization Server also to the
   security groups "ech0ech00000" and "abcdef120000".

3.1.1.  Example in Link Format

   Request: GM -> RD














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   Req: POST coap://rd.example.com/rd?ep=gm1
   Content-Format: 40
   Payload:
   </ace-group/feedca570000>;ct=65000;rt="core.osc.gm";if="ace.group";
                                sec-gp="feedca570000";app-gp="group1";
                                cs_alg="-8";cs_alg_crv="6";
                                cs_kenc="1";ecdh_alg="-27";
                                ecdh_alg_crv="4",
   </ace-group/ech0ech00000>;ct=65000;rt="core.osc.gm";if="ace.group";
                                sec-gp="ech0ech00000";app-gp="group2";
                                cs_alg="-8";cs_alg_crv="6";
                                cs_kenc="1";ecdh_alg="-27";
                                ecdh_alg_crv="4",
   </ace-group/abcdef120000>;ct=65000;rt="core.osc.gm";if="ace.group";
                                sec-gp="abcdef120000";app-gp="group3";
                                app-gp="group4";cs_alg="-8";
                                cs_alg_crv="6";cs_kenc="1";
                                ecdh_alg="-27";ecdh_alg_crv="4",
   <coap://as.example.com/token>;
         rel="authorization-server";
         anchor="coap://[2001:db8::ab]/ace-group/feedca570000",
   <coap://as.example.com/token>;
         rel="authorization-server";
         anchor="coap://[2001:db8::ab]/ace-group/ech0ech00000",
   <coap://as.example.com/token>;
         rel="authorization-server";
         anchor="coap://[2001:db8::ab]/ace-group/abcdef120000"

   Response: RD -> GM

   Res: 2.04 Changed
   Location-Path: /rd/4521

3.1.2.  Example in CoRAL

   Request: GM -> RD

   Req: POST coap://rd.example.com/rd?ep=gm1
   Content-Format: TBD123456 (application/coral+cbor)

   Payload:
   #using <http://coreapps.org/core.oscore-discovery#>
   #using reef = <http://coreapps.org/reef#>
   #using iana = <http://www.iana.org/assignments/relation/>

   #base <coap://[2001:db8::ab]/>
   reef:rd-item </ace-group/feedca570000> {
      reef:ct 65000



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      reef:rt "core.osc.gm"
      reef:if "ace.group"
      sec-gp "feedca570000"
      app-gp "group1"
      cs_alg -8
      cs_alg_crv 6
      cs_kenc 1
      ecdh_alg -27
      ecdh_alg_crv 4
      iana:authorization-server <coap://as.example.com/token>
   }
   reef:rd-item </ace-group/ech0ech00000> {
      reef:ct 65000
      reef:rt "core.osc.gm"
      reef:if "ace.group"
      sec-gp "ech0ech00000"
      app-gp "group2"
      cs_alg -8
      cs_alg_crv 6
      cs_kenc 1
      ecdh_alg -27
      ecdh_alg_crv 4
      iana:authorization-server <coap://as.example.com/token>
   }
   reef:rd-item </ace-group/abcdef120000> {
      reef:ct 65000
      reef:rt "core.osc.gm"
      reef:if "ace.group"
      sec-gp "abcdef120000"
      app-gp "group3"
      app-gp "group4"
      cs_alg -8
      cs_alg_crv 6
      cs_kenc 1
      ecdh_alg -27
      ecdh_alg_crv 4
      iana:authorization-server <coap://as.example.com/token>
   }

   Response: RD -> GM

   Res: 2.04 Changed
   Location-Path: /rd/4521








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4.  Discovery of Security Groups

   A CoAP endpoint that wants to join a security group, hereafter called
   the joining node, might not have all the necessary information at
   deployment time.  Also, it might want to know about possible new
   security groups created afterwards by the respective Group Managers.

   To this end, the joining node can perform a resource lookup at the RD
   as per Section 6.1 of [I-D.ietf-core-resource-directory], to retrieve
   the missing pieces of information needed to join the security
   group(s) of interest.  The joining node can find the RD as described
   in Section 4 of [I-D.ietf-core-resource-directory].

   The joining node uses the following parameter value for the lookup
   filtering.

   o  'rt' = "core.osc.gm", specifying the resource type of the group-
      membership resource at the Group Manager, with value "core.osc.gm"
      registered in Section 21.11 of
      [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm-oscore].

   The joining node may additionally consider the following parameters
   for the lookup filtering, depending on the information it has already
   available.

   o  'sec-gp', specifying the name of the security group of interest.
      This parameter MUST specify a single value.

   o  'ep', specifying the registered endpoint of the GM.

   o  'app-gp', specifying the name(s) of the application group(s)
      associated with the security group of interest.  This parameter
      MAY be included multiple times, and each occurrence MUST specify
      the name of one application group.

   o  'if', specifying the interface description for accessing the
      group-membership resource at the Group Manager, with value
      "ace.group" registered in Section 8.10 of
      [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm].

   The response from the RD may include links to a group-membership
   resource specifying multiple application groups, as all using the
   same security group.  In this case, the joining node is already
   expected to know the exact application group of interest.

   Furthermore, the response from the RD may include the links to
   different group-membership resources, all specifying a same




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   application group of interest for the joining node, if the
   corresponding security groups are all used by that application group.

   In this case, application policies on the joining node should define
   how to determine the exact security group to join (see Section 2.1 of
   [I-D.ietf-core-groupcomm-bis]).  For example, different security
   groups can reflect different security algorithms to use.  Hence, a
   client application can take into account what the joining node
   supports and prefers, when selecting one particular security group
   among the indicated ones, while a server application would need to
   join all of them.  Later on, the joining node will be anyway able to
   join only security groups for which it is actually authorized to be a
   member (see [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm-oscore]).

   Note that, with RD-based discovery, including the 'app-gp' parameter
   multiple times would result in finding only the group-membership
   resource that serves all the specified application groups, i.e. not
   any group-membership resource that serves either.  Therefore, a
   joining node needs to perform N separate queries with different
   values for 'app-gp', in order to safely discover the (different)
   group-membership resource(s) serving the N application groups.

   The discovery of security groups as defined in this document is
   applicable and useful to other CoAP endpoints than the actual joining
   nodes.  In particular, other entities can be interested to discover
   and interact with the group-membership resource at the Group Manager.
   These include entities acting as signature checkers, e.g.
   intermediary gateways, that do not join a security group, but can
   retrieve public keys of group members from the Group Manager, in
   order to verify counter signatures of group messages (see Section 3
   of [I-D.ietf-core-oscore-groupcomm]).

4.1.  Discovery Example #1

   Consistently with the examples in Section 2 and Section 3, the
   examples below consider a joining node that wants to join the
   security group associated with the application group "group1", but
   that does not know the name of the security group, the responsible GM
   and the group-membership resource to access.

4.1.1.  Example in Link Format

   Request: Joining node -> RD

   Req: GET coap://rd.example.com/rd-lookup/res
     ?rt=core.osc.gm&app-gp=group1

   Response: RD -> Joining node



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   Res: 2.05 Content
   Payload:
   <coap://[2001:db8::ab]/ace-group/feedca570000>;ct=65000;
       rt="core.osc.gm";if="ace.group";sec-gp="feedca570000";
       app-gp="group1";cs_alg="-8";cs_alg_crv="6";
       cs_kenc="1";ecdh_alg="-27";ecdh_alg_crv="4";
       anchor="coap://[2001:db8::ab]"

   By performing the separate resource lookup below, the joining node
   can retrieve the link to the ACE Authorization Server associated to
   the GM, where to send an Authorization Request for joining the
   corresponding security group (see
   [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm-oscore]).

   Request: Joining node -> RD

   Req: GET coap://rd.example.com/rd-lookup/res
     ?rel=authorization-server&
      anchor=coap://[2001:db8::ab]/ace-group/feedca570000

   Response: RD -> Joining node

   Res: 2.05 Content
   Payload:
   <coap://as.example.com/token>

   To retrieve the multicast IP address of the CoAP group used by the
   application group "group1", the joining node performs an endpoint
   lookup as shown below.  The following assumes that the application
   group "group1" had been previously registered as per Appendix A of
   [I-D.ietf-core-resource-directory], with ff35:30:2001:db8::23 as
   multicast IP address of the associated CoAP group.

   Request: Joining node -> RD

   Req: GET coap://rd.example.com/rd-lookup/ep
     ?et=core.rd-group&ep=group1

   Response: RD -> Joining node

   Res: 2.05 Content
   Payload:
   </rd/501>;ep="group1";et="core.rd-group";
             base="coap://[ff35:30:2001:db8::23]";rt="core.rd-ep"







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4.1.2.  Example in CoRAL

   Request: Joining node -> RD

   Req: GET coap://rd.example.com/rd-lookup/res
     ?rt=core.osc.gm&app-gp=group1
   Accept: TBD123456 (application/coral+cbor)

   Response: RD -> Joining node

   Res: 2.05 Content
   Content-Format: TBD123456 (application/coral+cbor)

   Payload:
   #using <http://coreapps.org/core.oscore-discovery#>
   #using reef = <http://coreapps.org/reef#>
   #using iana = <http://www.iana.org/assignments/relation/>

   #base <coap://[2001:db8::ab]/>
   reef:rd-item </ace-group/feedca570000> {
      reef:ct 65000
      reef:rt "core.osc.gm"
      reef:if "ace.group"
      sec-gp "feedca570000"
      app-gp "group1"
      cs_alg -8
      cs_alg_crv 6
      cs_kenc 1
      ecdh_alg -27
      ecdh_alg_crv 4
      iana:authorization-server <coap://as.example.com/token>
   }

   To retrieve the multicast IP address of the CoAP group used by the
   application group "group1", the joining node performs an endpoint
   lookup as shown below.  The following assumes that the application
   group "group1" had been previously registered, with
   ff35:30:2001:db8::23 as multicast IP address of the associated CoAP
   group.

   Request: Joining node -> RD

   Req: GET coap://rd.example.com/rd-lookup/ep
     ?et=core.rd-group&ep=group1
   Accept: TBD123456 (application/coral+cbor)

   Response: RD -> Joining node




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   Res: 2.05 Content
   Content-Format: TBD123456 (application/coral+cbor)

   Payload:
   #using <http://coreapps.org/core.oscore-discovery#>
   #using reef = <http://coreapps.org/reef#>

   reef:rd-unit <./rd/501> {
      reef:ep "group1"
      reef:et "core.rd-group"
      reef:base <coap://[ff35:30:2001:db8::23]>
      reef:rt "core.rd-ep"
   }

4.2.  Discovery Example #2

   Consistently with the examples in Section 2 and Section 3, the
   examples below consider a joining node that wants to join the
   security group with name "feedca570000", but that does not know the
   responsible GM, the group-membership resource to access, and the
   associated application groups.

   The examples also show how the joining node uses CoAP observation
   [RFC7641], in order to be notified of possible changes to the
   parameters of the group-membership resource.  This is also useful to
   handle the case where the security group of interest has not been
   created yet, so that the joining node can receive the requested
   information when it becomes available.

4.2.1.  Example in Link Format

   Request: Joining node -> RD

   Req: GET coap://rd.example.com/rd-lookup/res
     ?rt=core.osc.gm&sec-gp=feedca570000
   Observe: 0

   Response: RD -> Joining node

   Res: 2.05 Content
   Observe: 24
   Payload:
   <coap://[2001:db8::ab]/ace-group/feedca570000>;ct=65000;
       rt="core.osc.gm";if="ace.group";sec-gp="feedca570000";
       app-gp="group1";cs_alg="-8";cs_alg_crv="6";
       cs_kenc="1";ecdh_alg="-27";ecdh_alg_crv="4";
       anchor="coap://[2001:db8::ab]"




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   Depending on the search criteria, the joining node performing the
   resource lookup can get large responses.  This can happen, for
   instance, when the lookup request targets all the group-membership
   resources at a specified GM, or all the group-membership resources of
   all the registered GMs, as in the example below.

   Request: Joining node -> RD

   Req: GET coap://rd.example.com/rd-lookup/res?rt=core.osc.gm

   Response: RD -> Joining node

   Res: 2.05 Content
   Payload:
   <coap://[2001:db8::ab]/ace-group/feedca570000>;ct=65000;
       rt="core.osc.gm";if="ace.group";sec-gp="feedca570000";
       app-gp="group1";cs_alg="-8";cs_alg_crv="6";
       cs_kenc="1";ecdh_alg="-27";ecdh_alg_crv="4";
       anchor="coap://[2001:db8::ab]",
   <coap://[2001:db8::ab]/ace-group/ech0ech00000>;ct=65000;
       rt="core.osc.gm";if="ace.group";sec-gp="ech0ech00000";
       app-gp="group2";cs_alg="-8";cs_alg_crv="6";
       cs_kenc="1";ecdh_alg="-27";ecdh_alg_crv="4";
       anchor="coap://[2001:db8::ab]",
   <coap://[2001:db8::ab]/ace-group/abcdef120000>;ct=65000;
       rt="core.osc.gm";if="ace.group";sec-gp="abcdef120000";
       app-gp="group3";app-gp="group4";cs_alg="-8";cs_alg_crv="6";
       cs_kenc="1";ecdh_alg="-27";ecdh_alg_crv="4";
       anchor="coap://[2001:db8::ab]"

   Therefore, it is RECOMMENDED that a joining node which performs a
   resource lookup with the CoAP Observe option specifies the value of
   the parameter 'sec-gp' in its GET request sent to the RD.

4.2.2.  Example in CoRAL

   Request: Joining node -> RD

   Req: GET coap://rd.example.com/rd-lookup/res
     ?rt=core.osc.gm&sec-gp=feedca570000
   Accept: TBD123456 (application/coral+cbor)
   Observe: 0

   Response: RD -> Joining node







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   Res: 2.05 Content
   Observe: 24
   Content-Format: TBD123456 (application/coral+cbor)

   Payload:
   #using <http://coreapps.org/core.oscore-discovery#>
   #using reef = <http://coreapps.org/reef#>
   #using iana = <http://www.iana.org/assignments/relation/>

   #base <coap://[2001:db8::ab]/>
   reef:rd-item </ace-group/feedca570000> {
      reef:ct 65000
      reef:rt "core.osc.gm"
      reef:if "ace.group"
      sec-gp "feedca570000"
      app-gp "group1"
      cs_alg -8
      cs_alg_crv 6
      cs_kenc 1
      ecdh_alg -27
      ecdh_alg_crv 4
      iana:authorization-server <coap://as.example.com/token>
   }

5.  Use Case Example With Full Discovery

   In this section, the discovery of security groups is described to
   support the installation process of a lighting installation in an
   office building.  The described process is a simplified version of
   one of many processes.

   The process described in this section is intended as an example and
   does not have any particular ambition to serve as recommendation or
   best practice to adopt.  That is, it shows a possible workflow
   involving a Commissioning Tool (CT) used in a certain way, while it
   is not meant to prescribe how the workflow should necessarily be.

   Assume the existence of four luminaires that are members of two
   application groups.  In the first application group, the four
   luminaires receive presence messages and light intensity messages
   from sensors or their proxy.  In the second application group, the
   four luminaires and several other pieces of equipment receive
   building state schedules.

   Each of the two application groups is associated to a different
   security group and to a different CoAP group with its own dedicated
   multicast IP address.




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   The Fairhair Alliance describes how a new device is accepted and
   commissioned in the network [Fairhair], by means of its certificate
   stored during the manufacturing process.  When commissioning the new
   device in the installation network, the new device gets a new
   identity defined by a newly allocated certificate, following the
   BRSKI specification.

   Section 7.3 of [I-D.ietf-core-resource-directory] describes how the
   CT assigns an endpoint name based on the CN field, (CN=ACME) and the
   serial number of the certificate (serial number = 123x, with 3 < x <
   8).  Corresponding ep-names ACME-1234, ACME-1235, ACME-1236 and
   ACME-1237 are also assumed.

   It is common practice that locations in the building are specified
   according to a coordinate system.  After the acceptance of the
   luminaires into the installation network, the coordinate of each
   device is communicated to the CT.  This can be done manually or
   automatically.

   The mapping between location and ep-name is calculated by the CT.
   For instance, on the basis of grouping criteria, the CT assigns: i)
   application group "grp_R2-4-015" to the four luminaires; and ii)
   application group "grp_schedule" to all schedule requiring devices.
   Also, the device with ep name ACME-123x has been assigned IP address:
   [2001:db8:4::x].  The RD is assigned IP address: [2001:db8:4:ff].
   The used multicast addresses are: [ff05::5:1] and [ff05::5:2].

   The following assumes that each device is pre-configured with the
   name of the two application groups it belongs to.  Additional
   mechanisms can be defined in the RD, for supporting devices to
   discover the application groups they belong to.

   Appendix A provides this same use case example in CoRAL.

   *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** ***

   The CT defines the application group "grp_R2-4-015", with resource
   /light and base address [ff05::5:1], as follows.

   Request: CT -> RD

   Req: POST coap://[2001:db8:4::ff]/rd
     ?ep=grp_R2-4-015&et=core.rd-group&base=coap://[ff05::5:1]
   Content-Format: 40
   Payload:
   </light>;rt="oic.d.light"

   Response: RD -> CT



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   Res: 2.01 Created
   Location-Path: /rd/501

   Also, the CT defines a second application group "grp_schedule", with
   resource /schedule and base address [ff05::5:2], as follows.

   Request: CT -> RD

   Req: POST coap://[2001:db8:4::ff]/rd
     ?ep=grp_schedule&et=core.rd-group&base=coap://[ff05::5:2]
   Content-Format: 40
   Payload:
   </schedule>;rt="oic.r.time.period"

   Response: RD -> CT

   Res: 2.01 Created
   Location-Path: /rd/502

   *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** ***

   Finally, the CT defines the corresponding security groups.  In
   particular, assuming a Group Manager responsible for both security
   groups and with address [2001:db8::ab], the CT specifies:

   Request: CT -> RD

   Req: POST coap://[2001:db8:4::ff]/rd
     ?ep=gm1&base=coap://[2001:db8::ab]
   Content-Format: 40
   Payload:
   </ace-group/feedca570000>;ct=65000;rt="core.osc.gm";if="ace.group";
                             sec-gp="feedca570000";
                             app-gp="grp_R2-4-015",
   </ace-group/feedsc590000>;ct=65000;rt="core.osc.gm";if="ace.group";
                             sec-gp="feedsc590000";
                             app-gp="grp_schedule"

   Response: RD -> CT

   Res: 2.01 Created
   Location-Path: /rd/4521

   *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** ***

   The device with IP address [2001:db8:4::x] can retrieve the multicast
   IP address of the CoAP group used by the application group
   "grp_R2-4-015", by performing an endpoint lookup as shown below.



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   Request: Joining node -> RD

   Req: GET coap://[2001:db8:4::ff]/rd-lookup/ep
     ?et=core.rd-group&ep=grp_R2-4-015

   Response: RD -> Joining node

   Res: 2.05 Content
   Content-Format: 40
   Payload:
   </rd/501>;ep="grp_R2-4-015";et="core.rd-group";
             base="coap://[ff05::5:1]";rt="core.rd-ep"

   Similarly, to retrieve the multicast IP address of the CoAP group
   used by the application group "grp_schedule", the device performs an
   endpoint lookup as shown below.

   Request: Joining node -> RD

   Req: GET coap://[2001:db8:4::ff]/rd-lookup/ep
     ?et=core.rd-group&ep=grp_schedule

   Response: RD -> Joining node

   Res: 2.05 Content
   Content-Format: 40
   Payload:
   </rd/502>;ep="grp_schedule";et="core.rd-group";
             base="coap://[ff05::5:2]";rt="core.rd-ep"

   *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** ***

   Consequently, the device learns the security groups it has to join.
   In particular, it does the following for app-gp="grp_R2-4-015".

   Request: Joining node -> RD

   Req: GET coap://[2001:db8:4::ff]/rd-lookup/res
     ?rt=core.osc.gm&app-gp=grp_R2-4-015

   Response: RD -> Joining Node

   Res: 2.05 Content
   Content-Format: 40
   Payload:
   <coap://[2001:db8::ab]/ace-group/feedca570000>;ct=65000;
       rt="core.osc.gm";if="ace.group";sec-gp="feedca570000";
       app-gp="grp_R2-4-015";anchor="coap://[2001:db8::ab]"



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   Similarly, the device does the following for app-gp="grp_schedule".

   Req: GET coap://[2001:db8:4::ff]/rd-lookup/res
     ?rt=core.osc.gm&app-gp=grp_schedule

   Response: RD -> Joining Node

   Res: 2.05 Content
   Content-Format: 40
   Payload:
   <coap://[2001:db8::ab]/ace-group/feedsc590000>;ct=65000;
       rt="core.osc.gm";if="ace.group";sec-gp="feedsc590000";
       app-gp="grp_schedule";anchor="coap://[2001:db8::ab]"

   *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** ***

   After this last discovery step, the device can ask permission to join
   the security groups, and effectively join them through the Group
   Manager, e.g. according to [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm-oscore].

6.  Security Considerations

   The security considerations as described in Section 8 of
   [I-D.ietf-core-resource-directory] apply here as well.

7.  IANA Considerations

   This document has no actions for IANA.

8.  References

8.1.  Normative References

   [COSE.Algorithms]
              IANA, "COSE Algorithms",
              <https://www.iana.org/assignments/cose/
              cose.xhtml#algorithms>.

   [COSE.Elliptic.Curves]
              IANA, "COSE Elliptic Curves",
              <https://www.iana.org/assignments/cose/
              cose.xhtml#elliptic-curves>.

   [COSE.Key.Types]
              IANA, "COSE Key Types",
              <https://www.iana.org/assignments/cose/cose.xhtml#key-
              type>.




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   [I-D.ietf-core-coral]
              Hartke, K., "The Constrained RESTful Application Language
              (CoRAL)", draft-ietf-core-coral-03 (work in progress),
              March 2020.

   [I-D.ietf-core-groupcomm-bis]
              Dijk, E., Wang, C., and M. Tiloca, "Group Communication
              for the Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP)", draft-
              ietf-core-groupcomm-bis-03 (work in progress), February
              2021.

   [I-D.ietf-core-oscore-groupcomm]
              Tiloca, M., Selander, G., Palombini, F., Mattsson, J., and
              J. Park, "Group OSCORE - Secure Group Communication for
              CoAP", draft-ietf-core-oscore-groupcomm-11 (work in
              progress), February 2021.

   [I-D.ietf-core-resource-directory]
              Amsuess, C., Shelby, Z., Koster, M., Bormann, C., and P.
              Stok, "CoRE Resource Directory", draft-ietf-core-resource-
              directory-26 (work in progress), November 2020.

   [I-D.ietf-cose-rfc8152bis-algs]
              Schaad, J., "CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE):
              Initial Algorithms", draft-ietf-cose-rfc8152bis-algs-12
              (work in progress), September 2020.

   [I-D.ietf-cose-rfc8152bis-struct]
              Schaad, J., "CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE):
              Structures and Process", draft-ietf-cose-rfc8152bis-
              struct-15 (work in progress), February 2021.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC6690]  Shelby, Z., "Constrained RESTful Environments (CoRE) Link
              Format", RFC 6690, DOI 10.17487/RFC6690, August 2012,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6690>.

   [RFC7252]  Shelby, Z., Hartke, K., and C. Bormann, "The Constrained
              Application Protocol (CoAP)", RFC 7252,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7252, June 2014,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7252>.






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   [RFC8174]  Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
              2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
              May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>.

   [RFC8747]  Jones, M., Seitz, L., Selander, G., Erdtman, S., and H.
              Tschofenig, "Proof-of-Possession Key Semantics for CBOR
              Web Tokens (CWTs)", RFC 8747, DOI 10.17487/RFC8747, March
              2020, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8747>.

8.2.  Informative References

   [Fairhair]
              FairHair Alliance, "Security Architecture for the Internet
              of Things (IoT) in Commercial Buildings", White Paper, ed.
              Piotr Polak , March 2018, <https://openconnectivity.org/
              wp-content/uploads/2019/11/fairhair_security_wp_march-
              2018.pdf>.

   [I-D.hartke-t2trg-coral-reef]
              Hartke, K., "Resource Discovery in Constrained RESTful
              Environments (CoRE) using the Constrained RESTful
              Application Language (CoRAL)", draft-hartke-t2trg-coral-
              reef-04 (work in progress), May 2020.

   [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm]
              Palombini, F. and M. Tiloca, "Key Provisioning for Group
              Communication using ACE", draft-ietf-ace-key-groupcomm-11
              (work in progress), February 2021.

   [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm-oscore]
              Tiloca, M., Park, J., and F. Palombini, "Key Management
              for OSCORE Groups in ACE", draft-ietf-ace-key-groupcomm-
              oscore-10 (work in progress), February 2021.

   [I-D.ietf-ace-oauth-authz]
              Seitz, L., Selander, G., Wahlstroem, E., Erdtman, S., and
              H. Tschofenig, "Authentication and Authorization for
              Constrained Environments (ACE) using the OAuth 2.0
              Framework (ACE-OAuth)", draft-ietf-ace-oauth-authz-37
              (work in progress), February 2021.

   [I-D.ietf-ace-oscore-gm-admin]
              Tiloca, M., Hoeglund, R., Stok, P., Palombini, F., and K.
              Hartke, "Admin Interface for the OSCORE Group Manager",
              draft-ietf-ace-oscore-gm-admin-02 (work in progress),
              February 2021.





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   [I-D.ietf-anima-bootstrapping-keyinfra]
              Pritikin, M., Richardson, M., Eckert, T., Behringer, M.,
              and K. Watsen, "Bootstrapping Remote Secure Key
              Infrastructures (BRSKI)", draft-ietf-anima-bootstrapping-
              keyinfra-45 (work in progress), November 2020.

   [RFC7228]  Bormann, C., Ersue, M., and A. Keranen, "Terminology for
              Constrained-Node Networks", RFC 7228,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7228, May 2014,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7228>.

   [RFC7641]  Hartke, K., "Observing Resources in the Constrained
              Application Protocol (CoAP)", RFC 7641,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7641, September 2015,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7641>.

   [RFC8132]  van der Stok, P., Bormann, C., and A. Sehgal, "PATCH and
              FETCH Methods for the Constrained Application Protocol
              (CoAP)", RFC 8132, DOI 10.17487/RFC8132, April 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8132>.

   [RFC8613]  Selander, G., Mattsson, J., Palombini, F., and L. Seitz,
              "Object Security for Constrained RESTful Environments
              (OSCORE)", RFC 8613, DOI 10.17487/RFC8613, July 2019,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8613>.

Appendix A.  Use Case Example With Full Discovery (CoRAL)

   This section provides the same use case example of Section 5, but
   specified in CoRAL [I-D.ietf-core-coral].

   *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** ***

   The CT defines the application group "grp_R2-4-015", with resource
   /light and base address [ff05::5:1], as follows.

   Request: CT -> RD














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   Req: POST coap://[2001:db8:4::ff]/rd
   Content-Format: TBD123456 (application/coral+cbor)

   Payload:
   #using reef = <http://coreapps.org/reef#>

   #base <coap://[ff05::5:1]/>
   reef:ep "grp_R2-4-015"
   reef:et "core.rd-group"
   reef:rd-item </light> {
      reef:rt "oic.d.light"
   }

   Response: RD -> CT

   Res: 2.01 Created
   Location-Path: /rd/501

   Also, the CT defines a second application group "grp_schedule", with
   resource /schedule and base address [ff05::5:2], as follows.

   Request: CT -> RD

   Req: POST coap://[2001:db8:4::ff]/rd?ep=grp_schedule&et=core.rd-group
   Content-Format: TBD123456 (application/coral+cbor)

   Payload:
   #using reef = <http://coreapps.org/reef#>

   #base <coap://[ff05::5:2]/>
   reef:rd-item </schedule> {
      reef:rt "oic.r.time.period"
   }

   Response: RD -> CT

   Res: 2.01 Created
   Location-Path: /rd/502

   *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** ***

   Finally, the CT defines the corresponding security groups.  In
   particular, assuming a Group Manager responsible for both security
   groups and with address [2001:db8::ab], the CT specifies:

   Request: CT -> RD





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   Req: POST coap://[2001:db8:4::ff]/rd?ep=gm1
   Content-Format: TBD123456 (application/coral+cbor)

   Payload:
   #using <http://coreapps.org/core.oscore-discovery#>
   #using reef = <http://coreapps.org/reef#>

   #base <coap://[2001:db8::ab]/>
   reef:rd-item </ace-group/feedca570000> {
      reef:ct 65000
      reef:ct 41
      reef:rt "core.osc.gm"
      reef:if "ace.group"
      sec-gp "feedca570000"
      app-gp "grp_R2-4-015"
   }
   reef:rd-item </ace-group/feedsc590000> {
      reef:ct 65000
      reef:ct 41
      reef:rt "core.osc.gm"
      reef:if "ace.group"
      sec-gp "feedsc590000"
      app-gp "grp_schedule"
   }

   Response: RD -> CT

   Res: 2.01 Created
   Location-Path: /rd/4521

   *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** ***

   The device with IP address [2001:db8:4::x] can retrieve the multicast
   IP address of the CoAP group used by the application group
   "grp_R2-4-015", by performing an endpoint lookup as shown below.

   Request: Joining node -> RD

   Req: GET coap://[2001:db8:4::ff]/rd-lookup/ep
     ?et=core.rd-group&ep=grp_R2-4-015

   Response: RD -> Joining node









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   Res: 2.05 Content
   Content-Format: TBD123456 (application/coral+cbor)

   Payload:
   #using reef = <http://coreapps.org/reef#>

   #base <coap://[2001:db8:4::ff]/rd/>
   reef:rd-unit <501> {
      reef:ep "grp_R2-4-015"
      reef:et "core.rd-group"
      reef:base <coap://[ff05::5:1]/>
      reef:rt "core.rd-ep"
   }

   Similarly, to retrieve the multicast IP address of the CoAP group
   used by the application group "grp_schedule", the device performs an
   endpoint lookup as shown below.

   Request: Joining node -> RD

   Req: GET coap://[2001:db8:4::ff]/rd-lookup/ep
     ?et=core.rd-group&ep=grp_schedule

   Response: RD -> Joining node

   Res: 2.05 Content
   Content-Format: TBD123456 (application/coral+cbor)

   Payload:
   #using reef = <http://coreapps.org/reef#>

   #base <coap://[2001:db8:4::ff]/rd/>
   reef:rd-unit <502> {
      reef:ep "grp_schedule"
      reef:et "core.rd-group"
      reef:base <coap://[ff05::5:2]/>
      reef:rt "core.rd-ep"
   }

   *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** ***

   Consequently, the device learns the security groups it has to join.
   In particular, it does the following for app-gp="grp_R2-4-015".

   Request: Joining node -> RD

   Req: GET coap://[2001:db8:4::ff]/rd-lookup/res
     ?rt=core.osc.gm&app-gp=grp_R2-4-015



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   Response: RD -> Joining Node

   Res: 2.05 Content
   Content-Format: TBD123456 (application/coral+cbor)

   Payload:
   #using <http://coreapps.org/core.oscore-discovery#>
   #using reef = <http://coreapps.org/reef#>

   #base <coap://[2001:db8::ab]/>
   reef:rd-item </ace-group/feedca570000> {
      reef:ct 65000
      reef:rt "core.osc.gm"
      reef:if "ace.group"
      sec-gp "feedca570000"
      app-gp "grp_R2-4-015"
   }

   Similarly, the device does the following for app-gp="grp_schedule".

   Req: GET coap://[2001:db8:4::ff]/rd-lookup/res
     ?rt=core.osc.gm&app-gp=grp_schedule

   Response: RD -> Joining Node

   Res: 2.05 Content
   Content-Format: TBD123456 (application/coral+cbor)

   Payload:
   #using <http://coreapps.org/core.oscore-discovery#>
   #using reef = <http://coreapps.org/reef#>

   #base <coap://[2001:db8::ab]/>
   reef:rd-item </ace-group/feedsc590000> {
      reef:ct 65000
      reef:rt "core.osc.gm"
      reef:if "ace.group"
      sec-gp "feedsc590000"
      app-gp "grp_schedule"
   }

   *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** ***

   After this last discovery step, the device can ask permission to join
   the security groups, and effectively join them through the Group
   Manager, e.g. according to [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm-oscore].





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Acknowledgments

   The authors sincerely thank Carsten Bormann, Klaus Hartke, Jaime
   Jimenez, Francesca Palombini, Dave Robin and Jim Schaad for their
   comments and feedback.

   The work on this document has been partly supported by VINNOVA and
   the Celtic-Next project CRITISEC; by the H2020 project SIFIS-Home
   (Grant agreement 952652); and by the EIT-Digital High Impact
   Initiative ACTIVE.

Authors' Addresses

   Marco Tiloca
   RISE AB
   Isafjordsgatan 22
   Kista  SE-16440 Stockholm
   Sweden

   Email: marco.tiloca@ri.se


   Christian Amsuess
   Hollandstr. 12/4
   Vienna  1020
   Austria

   Email: christian@amsuess.com


   Peter van der Stok
   Consultant

   Phone: +31-492474673 (Netherlands), +33-966015248 (France)
   Email: consultancy@vanderstok.org
   URI:   www.vanderstok.org















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