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Versions: 00 draft-ietf-lpwan-ipv6-static-context-hc

Network Working Group                                        A. Minaburo
Internet-Draft                                                    Acklio
Intended status: Informational                                L. Toutain
Expires: March 27, 2017        Institut MINES TELECOM ; TELECOM Bretagne
                                                      September 23, 2016


    LPWAN Static Context Header Compression (SCHC) for IPv6 and UDP
             draft-toutain-lpwan-ipv6-static-context-hc-00

Abstract

   This document describes a header compression scheme for IPv6, IPv6/
   UDP based on static contexts.  This technique is especially tailored
   for LPWA networks and could be extended to other protocol stacks.

   During the IETF history several compression mechanisms have been
   proposed.  First mechanisms, such as RoHC, are using a context to
   store header field values and send smaller incremental differences on
   the link.  Values in the context evolve dynamically with information
   contained in the compressed header.  The challenge is to maintain
   sender's and receiver's contexts synchronized even with packet
   losses.  Based on the fact that IPv6 contains only static fields,
   6LoWPAN developed an efficient context-free compression mechanisms,
   allowing better flexibility and performance.

   The Static Context Header Compression (SCHC) combines the advantages
   of RoHC context which offers a great level of flexibility in the
   processing of fields, and 6LoWPAN behavior to elide fields that are
   known from the other side.  Static context means that values in the
   context field do not change during the transmission, avoiding complex
   resynchronization mechanisms, incompatible with LPWA characteristics.
   In most of the cases, IPv6/UDP headers are reduced to a small
   identifier.

   This document focuses on IPv6/UDP headers compression, but the
   mechanism can be applied to other protocols such as CoAP.  It will be
   described in a separate document.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.



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   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on March 27, 2017.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2016 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

1.  Introduction

   Headers compression is mandatory to bring the internet protocols to
   the node within a LPWA network [I-D.minaburo-lp-wan-gap-analysis].

   Nevertheless, LPWA networks offer good properties for an efficient
   header compression:

   o  Topology is star oriented, therefore all the packets follows the
      same path.  For the needs of this draft, the architecture can be
      summarized to End-Systems (ES) exchanging information with LPWAN
      Application Server (LA).  The exchange goes trhough a single LPWA
      Compressor (LC).  In most of the cases, End Systems and LC form a
      star topology.  ESs and LC maintain a static context for
      compression.  Static context means that context information is not
      learned during the exchange.

   o  Traffic flows are mostly deterministic, since End-Systems embed
      built-in applications.  Contrary to computers or smartphones, new
      applications cannot be easily installed.

   First mechanisms such as RoHC use a context to store header field
   values and send smaller incremental differences on the link.  The
   first version of RoHC targeted IP/UDP/RTP stack.  RoHCv2 extends the
   principle to any protocol and introduces a formal notation [RFC4997]
   describing the header and associating compression functions to each



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   field.  To be efficient the sender and the receiver must check that
   the context remains synchronized (i.e. contains the same values).
   Context synchronization imposes to periodically send a full header or
   at least dynamic fields.  If fully compressed, the header can be
   compatible with LPWA constraints.  However, the first exchanges or
   context resynchronisations impose to send uncompressed headers, which
   may be bigger than the original one.  This will force the use of
   inefficient fragmentation mechanisms.  For some LPWA technologies,
   duty cycle limits can also delay the resynchronization.  Figure 1
   illustrates this behavior.

                       sync
             ^         +-+         sync     sync             ^
             | IPv6    | |         +-+       +-+             | IPv6
             v         | |         | |       | |             v
      +------------+   | +-+-+     | |       | |    +------------+
      |       +--+ |   | | | |     | |       | |    | +--+       |
      |       | c| |   | | | +-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+ |    | | c|       |
      |       | t| |   | | | | | | | | | | | | |    | | t|       |
      |       | x| |   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+    | | x|       |
      |       | t| | <----------------------------> | | t|       |
      |       +--+ |  header size of sent packets   | +--+       |
      +------------+                                +------------+



             Figure 1: RoHC Compressed Header size evolution.

   On the other hand, 6LoWPAN [RFC4944] is context-free based on the
   fact that IPv6, its extensions or UDP headers do not contain
   incremental fields.  The compression mechanism described in [RFC6282]
   is based on sending a 2-byte bitmap, which describes how the header
   should be decompressed, either using some standard values or sending
   information after this bitmap.  [RFC6282] also allows for UDP
   compression.

   In the best case, when Hop limit is a standard value, flow label,
   DiffServ fields are set to 0 and Link Local addresses are used over a
   single hop network, the 6LoWPAN compressed header is reduced to 4
   bytes.  This compression ratio is possible because the IID are
   derived from the MAC addresses and the link local prefix is known
   from both sides.  In that case, the IPv6 compression is 4 bytes and
   UDP compression is 2 bytes, which fills half of the payload of a
   SIGFOX frame, or more than 10% of a LoRaWAN payload (with spreading
   factor 12).

   The Static Context Header Compression (SCHC) combines the advantages
   of RoHC context, which offers a great level of flexibility in the



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   processing of fields, and 6LoWPAN behavior to elide fields that are
   known from the other side.  Static context means that values in the
   context field do not change during the transmission, avoiding complex
   resynchronization mechanisms, incompatible with LPWA characteristics.
   In most of the cases, IPv6/UDP headers are reduced to a small context
   identifier.

2.  Static Context Header Compression

   Static Context Header Compression (SCHC) avoids context
   synchronization, which is the most bandwidth-consuming operation in
   RoHC.  Based on the fact that the nature of data flows is highly
   predictable in LPWA networks, a static context may be stored on the
   End-System (ES).  The other end, the LPWA Compressor (LC) can learn
   the context through a provisioning protocol during the identification
   phase (for instance, as it learns the encryption key).

   The context contains a list of rules (cf.  Figure 2).  Each rule
   contains itself a list of field descriptions composed of a target
   value (TV), a matching operator (MO) and a Compression/Decompression
   Function (CDF).

    +------------------------------------------------------------------+
    |                      Rule N                                      |
   +-----------------------------------------------------------------+ |
   |                    Rule i                                       | |
  +----------------------------------------------------------------+ | |
  |                Rule 1                                          | | |
  |         +--------------+-------------------+-----------------+ | | |
  | Field 1 | Target Value | Matching Operator | Comp/Decomp Fct | | | |
  |         +--------------+-------------------+-----------------+ | | |
  | Field 2 | Target Value | Matching Operator | Comp/Decomp Fct | | | |
  |         +--------------+-------------------+-----------------+ | | |
  | ...     |    ...       | ...               | ...             | | | |
  |         +--------------+-------------------+-----------------+ | |-+
  | Field N | Target Value | Matching Operator | Comp/Decomp Fct | | |
  |         +--------------+-------------------+-----------------+ |-+
  |                                                                |
  +----------------------------------------------------------------+

                Figure 2: Compression Decompression Context

   The rule does not describe the compressed/decompressed packet format
   which must be known from the compressor/decompressor.  The rule just
   describes the compression/decompression behavior for a field.

   The main idea of the compression scheme is to send the rule number
   (or rule id) to the other end instead of known field values.



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   Matching a field with a value and header compression are related
   operations; If a field matches a rule containing the value, it is not
   necessary to send it on the link.  Since contexts are synchronized,
   reading the rule's value is enough to reconstruct the field's value
   at the other end.

   On some other cases, the value need to be sent on the link to inform
   the other end.  The field value may vary from one packet to another,
   therefore the field cannot be used to select the rule id.

2.1.  Simple Example

   A simple header is composed of 3 fields (F1, F2, F3).  The compressor
   receives a packet containing respectively [F1:0x00, F2:0x1230,
   F3:0xABC0] in those fields.  The Matching Operators (as defined in
   Section 3) allow to select Rule 5 as represented in Figure 3; F1
   value is ignored and F2 and F3 packet field values are matched with
   those stored in the rule Target Values.

                  Rule 5
             Target Value   Matching Operator   Comp/Decomp Fct
           +--------------+-------------------+-----------------+
        F1 | 0x00         | Ignore            | not-sent        |
           +--------------+-------------------+-----------------+
        F2 | 0x1230       | Equal             | not-sent        |
           +--------------+-------------------+-----------------+
        F3 | 0xABC0       | Equal             | not-sent        |
           +--------------+-------------------+-----------------+

                          Figure 3: Matching Rule

   The Compression/Decompression Function (as defined in Section 4
   describes how the fields are compressed.  In this example, all the
   fields are elided and only the rule number has to be sent to the
   other end.

   The decompressor receives the rule number and reconstructs the header
   using the values stored in the Target Value column.

   Note that F1 value will be set to 0x00 by the decompressor, even if
   the original header field was carrying a different value.

   To allow a range of values for field F2 and F3, the MSB() Matching
   Operator and LSB() Compression/Decompression Function can be used (as
   defined in Section 3 and Section 4).  In that case the rule will be
   rewritten as defined in Figure 4.





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                  Rule 5
             Target Value   Matching Operator   Comp/Decomp Fct
           +--------------+-------------------+-----------------+
        F1 | 0x00         | Ignore            | not-sent        |
           +--------------+-------------------+-----------------+
        F2 | 0x1230       | MSB(12)           | LSB(4)          |
           +--------------+-------------------+-----------------+
        F3 | 0xABC0       | MSB(12)           | LSB(4)          |
           +--------------+-------------------+-----------------+

                          Figure 4: Matching Rule

   In that case, if a packet with the following header fields [F1:0x00,
   F2:0x1234, F3:0xABCD] arrives to the compressor, the new rule 5 will
   be selected and sent to the other end.  The compressed header will be
   composed of the single byte [0x4D].  The decompressor receives the
   compressed header and follows the rule to reconstruct [0x00, 0x1234,
   0xABCD] applying a OR operator between the target value stored in the
   rule and the compressed field value sent.

2.2.  Packet processing

   The compression/decompression process follows several steps:

   o  compression rule selection: the goal is to identify which rule
      will be used to compress the headers.  To each field is associated
      a matching rule for compression.  Each header field's value is
      compared to the corresponding target value stored in the rule for
      that field using the matching operator.  If all the fields
      satisfied the matching operator, the packet is processed using
      this Compression Decompression Function functions.  Otherwise the
      next rule is tested.  If no eligible rule is found, then the
      packet is dropped.

   o  sending: The rule number is sent to the other end followed by data
      resulting from the field compression.  The way the rule number is
      sent depends of the layer two technology and will be specified in
      a specific document.  For exemple, it can either be included in a
      Layer 2 header or sent in the first byte of the L2 payload.

   o  decompression: The receiver identifies the sender through its
      device-id (e.g.  MAC address) and select the appropriate rule
      through the rule number.  It applies the compression decompression
      function to reconstruct the original header fields.







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3.  Matching operators

   It may exist some intermediary cases, where part of the value may be
   used to select a field and a variable part has to be sent on the
   link.  This is true for Least Significant Bits (LSB) where the most
   significant bit can be used to select a rule id and the least
   significant bits have to be sent on the link.

   Several matching operators are defined:

   o  equal: a field value in a packet matches with a field value in a
      rule if they are equal.

   o  ignore: no check is done between a field value in a packet and a
      field value in the rule.  The result is always true.

   o  MSB(length): a field value of length T in a packet matches with a
      field value in a rule if the most significant "length" bits are
      equal.

4.  Compression Decompression Functions (CDF)

   The Compression Decompression Functions (CDF) describe the action
   taken during the compression and inversely the action taken by the
   decompressor to restore the original value.

   /--------------------+-------------+--------------------------\
   | Function           | Compression | Decompression            |
   |                    |             |                          |
   +--------------------+-------------+--------------------------+
   |not-sent            |elided       |use value stored in ctxt  |
   |value-sent          |send         |build from received value |
   |LSB(length)         |send LSB     |ctxt value OR rcvd value  |
   |compute-IPv6-length |elided       |compute IPv6 length       |
   |compute-UDP-length  |elided       |compute UDP length        |
   |compute-UDP-checksum|elided       |compute UDP checksum      |
   |ESiid-DID           |elided       |build IID from L2 ES addr |
   |LAiid-DID           |elided       |build IID from L2 LA addr |
   \--------------------+-------------+--------------------------/


             Figure 5: Compression and Decompression Functions

   Figure 5 lists all the functions defined to compress and decompress a
   field.  The first column gives the function's name.  The second and
   third columns outlines the compression/decompression process.





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   As with 6LoWPAN, the compression process may produce some data, where
   fields that were not compressed (or were partially compressed) will
   be sent in the order of the original packet.  Information added by
   the compression phase must be aligned on byte boundaries, but each
   individual compression function may generate any size.














































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/--------------+-------------------+-----------------------------------\
| Field        |Comp Decomp Fct    | Behavior                          |
+--------------+-------------------+-----------------------------------+
|IPv6 version  |not-sent           |The value is not sent, but each    |
|IPv6 DiffServ |                   |end agrees on a value, which can   |
|IPv6 FL       |                   |be different from 0.               |
|IPv6 NH       |value-sent         |Depending on the matching operator,|
|              |                   |the entire field value is sent or  |
|              |                   |an adjustment to the context value |
+--------------+-------------------+-----------------------------------+
|IPv6 Length   |compute-IPv6-length|Dedicated fct to reconstruct value |
+--------------+-------------------+-----------------------------------+
|IPv6 Hop Limit|not-sent+MO=ignore |The receiver takes the value stored|
|              |                   |in the context. It may be different|
|              |                   |from one originally sent, but in a |
|              |                   |star topology, there is no risk of |
|              |                   |loops                              |
|              |not-sent+matching  |Receiver and sender agree on a     |
|              |                   |specific value.                    |
|              |value-sent         |Explicitly sent                    |
+--------------+-------------------+-----------------------------------+
|IPv6 ESPrefix |not-sent           |The 64 bit prefix is stored on     |
|IPv6 LAPrefix |                   |the context                        |
|              |value-sent         |Explicitly send 64 bits on the link|
+--------------+-------------------+-----------------------------------+
|IPv6 ESiid    |not-sent           |IID is not sent, but stored in the |
|IPv6 LAiid    |                   |context                            |
|              |ESiid-DID|LAiid-DID|IID is built from the ES/LA Dev. ID|
|              |value-sent         |IID is explicitly sent on the link.|
|              |                   |Size depends of the L2 technology  |
+--------------+-------------------+-----------------------------------+
|UDP ESport    |not-sent           |In the context                     |
|UDP LAport    |value-sent         |Send the 2 bytes of the port number|
|              |LSB(length)        |or least significant bits if MSB   |
|              |                   |matching is specified in the       |
|              |                   |matching operator.                 |
+--------------+-------------------+-----------------------------------+
|UDP length    |compute-UDP-length |Dedicated fct to reconstruct value |
+--------------+-------------------+-----------------------------------+
|UDP Checksum  |compute-UDP-checksum|Dedicated fct to reconstruct value|
+--------------+-------------------+-----------------------------------+

       Figure 6: SCHC functions' example assignment for IPv6 and UDP

   Figure 6 gives an example of function assignment to IPv6/UDP fields.






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4.1.  Compression Decompression Functions (CDF)

4.1.1.  not-sent

   The compressor do not sent the field value on the link.  The
   decompressor restore the field value with the one stored in the
   matched rule.

4.1.2.  value-sent

   The compressor send the field value on the link, if the matching
   operator is "=".  Otherwise the matching operator indicates the
   information that will be sent on the link.  For a LSB operator only
   the Least Significant Bits are sent.

4.1.3.  LSB(length)

   The compressor sends the "length" Least Significant Bits.  The
   decompressor combines with a OR operator the value received with the
   Target Value.

4.1.4.  ESiid-DID, LAiid-DID

   These functions are used to process respectively the End System and
   the LA Device Identifier (DID).  The IID value is computed from
   device ID present in the Layer 2 header.  The computation depends on
   the technology and the device ID size.

4.1.5.  Compute-*

   These functions compute the field value based on received
   information.  They are elided during the compression and
   reconstructed during the decompression.

   o  compute-ipv6-length: compute the IPv6 length field as described in
      [RFC2460].

   o  compute-udp-length: compute the IPv6 length field as described in
      [RFC0768].

   o  compute-udp-checksum: compute the IPv6 length field as described
      in [RFC0768].

5.  Examples

   This section gives some scenarios of the compression mechanism for
   IPv6/UDP.  The goal is to illustrate the SCHC behavior.




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5.1.  IPv6/UDP compression in a star topology

   The most common case will be a LPWA end-system embeds some
   applications running over CoAP.  In this example, the first flow is
   for the device management based on CoAP using Link Local addresses
   and UDP ports 123 and 124.  The second flow will be a CoAP server for
   measurements done by the end-system (using ports 5683) and Global
   Addresses alpha::IID/64 to beta::1/64.  The last flow is for legacy
   applications using different ports numbers, the destination is
   gamma::1/64.

   Figure 7 presents the protocol stack for this end-system.  IPv6 and
   UDP are represented with dotted lines since these protocols are
   compressed on the radio link.


    Managment    Data
   +----------+---------+---------+
   |   CoAP   |  CoAP   | legacy  |
   +----||----+---||----+---||----+
   .   UDP    .  UDP    |   UDP   |
   ................................
   .   IPv6   .  IPv6   .  IPv6   .
   +------------------------------+
   |      6LPWA L2 technologies   |
   +------------------------------+
         End System or LPWA GW


              Figure 7: Simplified Protocol Stack for LP-WAN

   Note that in some LPWA technologies, only End Systems have a device
   ID . Therefore it is necessary to define statically an IID for the
   Link Local address for the LPWA Compressor.

     Rule 0
     +----------------+---------+--------+-------------++------+
     | Field          | Value   | Match  | Function    || Sent |
     +----------------+---------+----------------------++------+
     |IPv6 version    |6        | equal  | not-sent    ||      |
     |IPv6 DiffServ   |0        | equal  | not-sent    ||      |
     |IPv6 Flow Label |0        | equal  | not-sent    ||      |
     |IPv6 Length     |         | ignore | comp-IPv6-l ||      |
     |IPv6 Next Header|17       | equal  | not-sent    ||      |
     |IPv6 Hop Limit  |255      | ignore | not-sent    ||      |
     |IPv6 ESprefix   |FE80::/64| equal  | not-sent    ||      |
     |IPv6 ESiid      |         | ignore | ESiid-DID   ||      |
     |IPv6 LCprefix   |FE80::/64| equal  | not-sent    ||      |



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     |IPv6 LAiid      |::1      | equal  | not-sent    ||      |
     +================+=========+========+=============++======+
     |UDP ESport      |123      | equal  | not-sent    ||      |
     |UDP LAport      |124      | equal  | not-sent    ||      |
     |UDP Length      |         | ignore | comp-UDP-l  ||      |
     |UDP checksum    |         | ignore | comp-UDP-c  ||      |
     +================+=========+========+=============++======+

     Rule 1
     +----------------+---------+--------+-------------++------+
     | Field          | Value   | Match  | Function    || Sent |
     +----------------+---------+--------+-------------++------+
     |IPv6 version    |6        | equal  | not-sent    ||      |
     |IPv6 DiffServ   |0        | equal  | not-sent    ||      |
     |IPv6 Flow Label |0        | equal  | not-sent    ||      |
     |IPv6 Length     |         | ignore | comp-IPv6-l ||      |
     |IPv6 Next Header|17       | equal  | not-sent    ||      |
     |IPv6 Hop Limit  |255      | ignore | not-sent    ||      |
     |IPv6 ESprefix   |alpha/64 | equal  | not-sent    ||      |
     |IPv6 ESiid      |         | ignore | ESiid-DID   ||      |
     |IPv6 LAprefix   |beta/64  | equal  | not-sent    ||      |
     |IPv6 LAiid      |::1000   | equal  | not-sent    ||      |
     +================+=========+========+=============++======+
     |UDP ESport      |5683     | equal  | not-sent    ||      |
     |UDP LAport      |5683     | equal  | not-sent    ||      |
     |UDP Length      |         | ignore | comp-UDP-l  ||      |
     |UDP checksum    |         | ignore | comp-UDP-c  ||      |
     +================+=========+========+=============++======+

     Rule 2
     +----------------+---------+--------+-------------++------+
     | Field          | Value   | Match  | Function    || Sent |
     +----------------+---------+--------+-------------++------+
     |IPv6 version    |6        | equal  | not-sent    ||      |
     |IPv6 DiffServ   |0        | equal  | not-sent    ||      |
     |IPv6 Flow Label |0        | equal  | not-sent    ||      |
     |IPv6 Length     |         | ignore | comp-IPv6-l ||      |
     |IPv6 Next Header|17       | equal  | not-sent    ||      |
     |IPv6 Hop Limit  |255      | ignore | not-sent    ||      |
     |IPv6 ESprefix   |alpha/64 | equal  | not-sent    ||      |
     |IPv6 ESiid      |         | ignore | ESiid-DID   ||      |
     |IPv6 LAprefix   |gamma/64 | equal  | not-sent    ||      |
     |IPv6 LAiid      |::1000   | equal  | not-sent    ||      |
     +================+=========+========+=============++======+
     |UDP ESport      |8720     | MSB(12)| LSB(4)      || lsb  |
     |UDP LAport      |8720     | MSB(12)| LSB(4)      || lsb  |
     |UDP Length      |         | ignore | comp-UDP-l  ||      |
     |UDP checksum    |         | ignore | comp-UDP-c  ||      |



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     +================+=========+========+=============++======+



                          Figure 8: Context rules

   All the fields described in the three rules Figure 8 are present in
   the IPv6 and UDP headers.  The ESDevice-ID value is found in the L2
   header.

   The second and third rules use global addresses.  The way the ES
   learn the prefix is not in the scope of the document.  One possible
   way is to use a management protocol to set up in both end rules the
   prefix used on the LPWA network.

   The third rule compresses port numbers on 4 bits.  This value is
   selected to maintain alignment on byte boundaries for the compressed
   header.

6.  Acknowledgements

   Thanks to Dominique Barthel, Arunprabhu Kandasamy, Antony Markovski,
   Alexander Pelov, Juan Carlos Zuniga for useful design consideration.

7.  Normative References

   [I-D.minaburo-lp-wan-gap-analysis]
              Minaburo, A., Pelov, A., and L. Toutain, "LP-WAN GAP
              Analysis", draft-minaburo-lp-wan-gap-analysis-01 (work in
              progress), February 2016.

   [RFC0768]  Postel, J., "User Datagram Protocol", STD 6, RFC 768,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC0768, August 1980,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc768>.

   [RFC2460]  Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6
              (IPv6) Specification", RFC 2460, DOI 10.17487/RFC2460,
              December 1998, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2460>.

   [RFC4944]  Montenegro, G., Kushalnagar, N., Hui, J., and D. Culler,
              "Transmission of IPv6 Packets over IEEE 802.15.4
              Networks", RFC 4944, DOI 10.17487/RFC4944, September 2007,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4944>.

   [RFC4997]  Finking, R. and G. Pelletier, "Formal Notation for RObust
              Header Compression (ROHC-FN)", RFC 4997,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4997, July 2007,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4997>.



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Internet-Draft                 LPWAN SCHC                 September 2016


   [RFC6282]  Hui, J., Ed. and P. Thubert, "Compression Format for IPv6
              Datagrams over IEEE 802.15.4-Based Networks", RFC 6282,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6282, September 2011,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6282>.

Authors' Addresses

   Ana Minaburo
   Acklio
   2bis rue de la Chataigneraie
   35510 Cesson-Sevigne Cedex
   France

   Email: ana@ackl.io


   Laurent Toutain
   Institut MINES TELECOM ; TELECOM Bretagne
   2 rue de la Chataigneraie
   CS 17607
   35576 Cesson-Sevigne Cedex
   France

   Email: Laurent.Toutain@telecom-bretagne.eu



























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