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Mobility for IPv6 (mip6)                                   H. Tschofenig
Internet-Draft                                                 T. Tsenov
Expires: April 26, 2006                                          Siemens
                                                             G. Giaretta
                                                                   TILab
                                                            J. Bournelle
                                                                 GET/INT
                                                        October 23, 2005


                Mobile IPv6 Bootstrapping using Diameter
              draft-tschofenig-mip6-aaa-ha-diameter-01.txt

Status of this Memo

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   This Internet-Draft will expire on April 26, 2006.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2005).

Abstract

   Both Mobile IPv6 bootstrapping solutions require use of a AAA
   interface.  In the split scenario, this interface is between the Home
   Agent and the AAA infrastructure of the Mobile Service Provider (MSP)
   and the Mobility Service Authorizer (MSA).  The first interface



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   should meet a list of requirements.  This document provides an
   overview of the capabilities and design of the Diameter protocol that
   could meet the specified goals.  In the integrated scenario, in
   addition to this interface, the impact of the MIPv6 bootstrapping on
   the AAA interface for network access authentication must be
   considered.  Basically, this interface is also used to carry Home
   Agent information.  This document defines the necessary AVP and how
   Diameter can be used in the integrated scenario.


Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   2.  Motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   3.  Goals  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     3.1.  General goals  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
       3.1.1.  G1.1 - G1.4 Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
       3.1.2.  Dead peer detection - the HA-AAA interface SHOULD
               support inactive peer detection. . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     3.2.  Service Authorization  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
       3.2.1.  G2.1. The HA-AAA interface SHOULD allow the use of
               Network Access Identifier (NAI) to identify the
               mobile node. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
       3.2.2.  G2.2. The HA SHOULD be able to query the AAAH
               server to verify Mobile IPv6 service authorization
               for the mobile node. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
       3.2.3.  G2.3. The AAAH server SHOULD be able to enforce
               explicit operational limitations and authorization
               restrictions on the HA.( e.g. packet filters, QoS
               parameters). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
       3.2.4.  G2.4 - G2.6. Issues addressing the maintenance of
               a Mobile IPv6 session by the AAAH server, e.g.
               authorization lifetime, extension of the
               authorization lifetime and explicit  session
               termination by the AAAH server side. . . . . . . . . .  7
       3.2.5.  G2.7. The AAAH server SHOULD be able to retrieve
               the Mobile IPv6 state associated to a specific MN
               from the correspondent HA. This MAY be useful to
               periodically verify the Mobile IPv6 service status.  .  8
     3.3.  Accounting - G3.1. The HA-AAA interface MUST support
           the transfer of accounting records needed for service
           control and charging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     3.4.  Mobile Node Authentication (G4.1. and G4.2.) . . . . . . .  8
     3.5.  Provisioning of configuration parameters . . . . . . . . .  9
   4.  Bootstrapping Mobile IPv6 in the split scenario  . . . . . . . 10
   5.  Bootstrapping Mobile IPv6 in the integrated scenario based
       on DHCP  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     5.1.  Home-Agent AVP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14



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   6.  Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
   7.  Security considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
   8.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
   9.  Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
   10. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
     10.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
     10.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
   Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 21










































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1.  Introduction

   In Mobile IPv6 deployment, authentication, authorization and
   accounting issues in the protocol operations are approached by using
   the AAA infrastructure.  The [8] document presents a number of
   bootstrapping scenarios using the HA-AAA interface and defines a list
   of requirements that this interface should cover.  In the first part,
   this document deals with the functional capabilities of the Diameter
   protocol as a AAA protocol applicable at the discussed interface.

   Currently, two Mobile IPv6 bootstrapping solutions exist depending on
   the considered scenario.  In the split scenario, only a HA-AAA
   interface is considered whereas in the integrated scenario both NAS-
   AAA and HA-AAA interface need to be addressed.  This document
   explains how to use Diameter and its EAP and NASREQ applications to
   handle the AAA part of the both Mobile IPv6 bootstrapping solutions.



































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2.  Motivation

   Designed to cover network access requirements for AAA protocols [1],
   Diameter protocol provides a framework for applications offering AAA
   services.  This design approach gives to the protocol extensibility,
   interoperability and flexibility in offering AAA solutions in
   comparison to other AAA protocols.  Support of definition of new
   application Ids, commands and AVPs provides extensibility.
   Recommended re-use of commands and AVPs and careful consideration of
   the level of AVP's support provides interoperability.  Usage of IPsec
   and TLS for transport hop-by-hop security, possible support for AVP
   integrity and confidentiality and usage of peer-to-peer model (any
   Diameter node can initiate a request message) provide flexibility of
   the Diameter AAA applications to fit to specific requirements.

   In the following sections we try to specify by which means a possible
   Diameter application would cover the requirements for the HA-AAA
   interface specified in [8].

































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3.  Goals

   In presentation of the analysis of goals and possible design
   solutions by Diameter we follow the classification, labels and naming
   assigned in the document [8], where these goals are identified.
   Since several of the issues MIGHT be addressed in similar way or by
   similar Diameter functionality, we have grouped these issues and have
   given a general description of the groups.

3.1.  General goals

3.1.1.  G1.1 - G1.4 Security

   As design goals for an AAA interface, G1.1 - G1.4 goals specify
   standard requirements for a AAA protocol - mutual authentication of
   the peers, integrity, replay protection and confidentiality.  IPsec
   or TLS provide the hop-by-hop security.  Combined, they SHOULD be
   able to provide the range of security services required for the HA-
   AAA interface.

3.1.2.  Dead peer detection - the HA-AAA interface SHOULD support
        inactive peer detection.

   Two possible approaches MIGHT be considered here:

   o  AAAH server and Home Agent establish a transport connection
      between each other.  In this case Diameter heartbeat messages
      called Watch-Dog-Request/Answer, which are exchanged over this
      connection to test for its aliveness, MAY be used to detect
      inactivity in any of the two Diameter peers.


   o  AAAH server and Home Agent do not have transport connection.  In
      this case inactive peer detection functionality SHOULD be provided
      into the Diameter session - service stateless Diameter sessions
      MIGHT be established between the AAAH server and the range of
      MSP's Home Agents for detecting HAs availability.


3.2.  Service Authorization

3.2.1.  G2.1. The HA-AAA interface SHOULD allow the use of Network
        Access Identifier (NAI) to identify the mobile node.

   Identification by User-Name AVP [1], which has a format consistent
   with the NAI specifications, is common for Diameter applications.
   Diameter provides functionality for routing of Diameter requests
   based on the information included in the User-Name AVP.



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3.2.2.  G2.2. The HA SHOULD be able to query the AAAH server to verify
        Mobile IPv6 service authorization for the mobile node.

   Based on the peer-to-peer model, Diameter design gives the
   functionality that any Diameter node can initiate a request message.
   This, combined with the support of EAP, would provide flexible
   solutions for this issue.  Currently several Diameter application
   standardized or under work-in-progress address different types of
   authorization - network access [2], credit control [9], quality of
   service [10].  This MIGHT allow re-use of present AVPs over the
   AAAH-HA interface.

3.2.3.  G2.3. The AAAH server SHOULD be able to enforce explicit
        operational limitations and authorization restrictions on the
        HA.( e.g. packet filters, QoS parameters).

   Several present Diameter applications, standardized or under work-in-
   progress address an operation and authorization control over specific
   services and have defined appropriate AVPs.  NAS-Filter-Rule AVP,
   defined by Diameter NASREQ application [2], provides IP packet filter
   description.  QoS-Filter-Rule AVP defined by Diameter NASREQ
   application and QSPEC AVP defined by Diameter QoS Authorization [10]
   provide QoS parameter description.  Credit Control application [9]
   provides cost control over requested services.  AVPs MAY be re-used
   for providing required functionality over the AAAH-HA interface.
   This, combined with the possibility that any node can initiate
   request message, gives control to the AAAH server over HA's
   functionality.

3.2.4.  G2.4 - G2.6. Issues addressing the maintenance of a Mobile IPv6
        session by the AAAH server, e.g. authorization lifetime,
        extension of the authorization lifetime and explicit  session
        termination by the AAAH server side.

   Diameter base protocol provides a powerful set of commands and AVPs
   for management of the authorization and accounting sessions.  A
   number of AVPs (Auth-Lifetime-AVP, Grace-Period-AVP, Session-Timeout-
   AVP) handle the duration (in time) of an authorization session [1].
   Additional AVPs for measuring the authorization duration in units
   different that time are specified too [9].  Exchanging of application
   specific authorization request/answer messages provides extension of
   the authorization session.  Initiation of the re-authorization by
   both sides could be supported.  Both sides could initiate session
   termination, by using Diameter Session Termination and Abort Session
   messages.

   All these are applied to the Diameter session used for authorization
   of a Mobile IPv6 session and need to be applied appropriately to this



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   Mobile IPv6 session too.

3.2.5.  G2.7. The AAAH server SHOULD be able to retrieve the Mobile IPv6
        state associated to a specific MN from the correspondent HA.
        This MAY be useful to periodically verify the Mobile IPv6
        service status.

   This issue has two sides:

   1.  How the AAAH SHOULD know which HA to contact to retrieve current
       status of MN's Mobile IPv6 service in case of stateless MSP
       architecture and several servicing AAA servers? - As analyzed
       into the [11], this need would be required for re-authorization
       and in this case the provision of HA info could be provided from
       the MN during the re-authentication session between NM and AAAH
       server.


   2.  Once having the HA info, AAAH SHOULD contact it to verify the
       status of MN's Mobile IPv6 service. - This could be performed by
       Request/Response messages initiated by the AAAH server.  This
       functionality is supported by the Diameter protocol and currently
       is applied into Diameter SIP application for updating user
       profiles at Diameter client (i.e., SIP server).


3.3.  Accounting - G3.1. The HA-AAA interface MUST support the transfer
      of accounting records needed for service control and charging

   Diameter accounting protocol provides a variety of options - real-
   time accounting, event/session-type accounting records, fault
   resilience, correlation of accounting records.  Requirements for the
   accounting services over AAAH-HA interface are standard.  Definition
   or re-used of AVPs for the specific accounting records combined with
   the functionality of the Diameter accounting protocol SHOULD provide
   desired accounting services.

3.4.  Mobile Node Authentication (G4.1. and G4.2.)

   These issues require the functionality of AAAH server working as a
   back-end authentication server and HA working as NAS and EAP
   authenticator in pass-through mode for providing a mobile node
   authentication.  These functionalities are provided by Diameter
   NASREQ and EAP applications, and MIGHT be re-used at the AAAH-AH
   interface.[2], [3]






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3.5.  Provisioning of configuration parameters

   Issues G5.1 - G5.3 are related to capability of exchanging and
   negotiating of operational parameters for Mobile IPv6 protocol
   bootstrapping and providing appropriate security level for this
   information.

   Diameter provides secure transport by means of IPsec, TLS and
   possible AVPs integrity and confidentiality support (currently with
   no interest from the community).  Several AVPs could be re-used for
   carrying the operational parameters for the Mobile IPv6
   bootstrapping.  Framed-IPv6-Prefix AVP, Login-IPv6-Host AVP, Framed-
   Interface-Id AVP, Framed-IPv6-Route AVP defined by NASREQ MIGHT be
   used for home address provision and AVPs defined in EAP application
   MIGHT be used for key transport [3].




































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4.  Bootstrapping Mobile IPv6 in the split scenario

   In the split scenario for bootstrapping Mobile IPv6 [4], the MN
   discovers HA through DNS mechanism.  Then it uses IKEv2 [5] to setup
   IPsec SAs.  IKEv2 supports EAP to authenticate the Initiator and thus
   the MN.  As such, the MN can use its credentials (obtained from the
   MSA) to be authenticated for the IPv6 mobility service.  The HA MAY
   rely on a EAP server co-located on a AAA server for this purpose.  In
   this case, a HA-AAA interface is needed.  This interface MUST support
   transport of EAP packets.

   +----+      IKEv2  +----+    Diameter EAP      +---+
   | MN |<----------->| HA |<-------------------->|AAA|
   +----+             +----+                      +---+


   Figure 1: Diameter EAP as the HA-AAA interface in Split scenario

   For this purpose, the HA can use Diameter EAP Application [3] (cf.
   Figure 1).  As shown in the previous section, this protocol fulfill
   goals described in [8]






























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   MN                             HA                      AAAH
   --                             --                      ----
            IKE_SA_INIT
   <------------------------------>

    HDR, SK{IDi,[CERTREQ,] [IDr,]
            SAi2, TSi, TSr}
   ------------------------------->
                                       DER (EAP-Response)
                                    ------------------------>
                                       DEA (EAP-Request)
                                    <------------------------
    HDR, SK {IDr, [CERT,] AUTH,
             EAP }
   <-------------------------------
    HDR, SK {EAP}
   -------------------------------->
                                       DER (EAP-Response)
                                    ------------------------>
                                       DEA (EAP-Request)
                                    <------------------------
    HDR, SK{EAP-Request}
   <-------------------------------
    HDR, SK{EAP-Response}
   -------------------------------->
                                       DER (EAP-Response)
                                    ------------------------>
             ...                           ...

                                       DEA (EAP-Success)
                                    <------------------------
    HDR, SK{EAP-Success}
   <-------------------------------
    HDR, SK{AUTH}
   ------------------------------->
    HDR, SK {AUTH, SAr2, TSi, TSr }
   <-------------------------------


   Figure 2: IKEv2 Diameter EAP

   MN and HA start with an IKE_SA_INIT to setup the IKE SA.  The MN
   indicates its desire to use EAP by not including the AUTH payload in
   the third message.  However it indicates its identity (e.g.  NAI) by
   using the IDi field.  If the HA supports EAP for authentication, it
   forwards the identity to the AAAH by sending a Diameter-EAP-Request
   (DER) message containing the identity in the EAP-Payload AVP and in
   the User-Name AVP.  Based on this identity, the AAAH chooses an



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   authentication method and sends the first EAP-Request in the
   Diameter-EAP-Answer message.  During the EAP authentication phase,
   the HA relays EAP packets between the MN and the AAAH.  If the
   authentication succeeds and if the MN is authorized to use Mobile
   IPv6 service, the AAAH sends a DEA message containing the EAP-success
   and the AAA-Key derived from the EAP authentication method .  Note
   that EAP authentication methods that do not derive keys are not
   recommended.  This key is used by both MN and HA to generate the AUTH
   payload.  In the latter message, MN and HA finish to setup IPsec SAs
   for Mobile IPv6.









































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5.  Bootstrapping Mobile IPv6 in the integrated scenario based on DHCP

   The Figure 3 represents the components and architecture of the Mobile
   IPv6 bootstrapping solution in the integrated scenario.  This figure
   is extracted from [6].


                                         |
                     ASP(/MSP)           |   ASA/MSA(/MSP)
                                         |
                                         |
                     +-------+           |        +-----+
                     | AAAL  |-----------|--------|AAAH |
                     +-------+           |        +-----+
                         |               |
                         |               |
                         |               |
                         |               |
                         |               |
                     +-----+    +------+ |
         +----+      |     |    |DHCP  | |
         | MN |------| NAS/|----|Server| |
         +----+      |Relay|    |      | |
                     +-----+    +------+ |
                                         |
                                         |
                     +--------+          |      +--------+
                     | HA     |          |      | HA     |
                     | in ASP |          |      |in MSP  |
                     +--------+          |      +--------+


   Figure 3: Mobile IPv6 Bootstrapping: Integrated scenario

   In the solution for the Integrated scenario based on DHCP [6], the HA
   is allocated during the network access authentication phase.  Then,
   the MN queries a HA by using DHCPv6 (the NAS acting as a DCHPv6
   relay).  In this scenario, it is the same entity that authorizes
   Network Access (ASA) and Mobility Service (MSA).  The current
   solution [6] allows the MN to require a local HA (in the visited ASP)
   by specifying it in its DHCPv6 request.  Even in this case, the AAAH
   allocates a HA from the home MSP.  The Home Agent information is sent
   during the AAA exchange for network access authentication.  After
   this, the MN initiates an IKEv2 exchange with the allocated HA as
   described in the previous section.

   Diameter EAP [3] or NASREQ [2] applications are used as Diameter AAA
   protocols for network access.  As we are combining network access and



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   mobility authorization, the Home Agent information SHOULD be sent
   when the MN is correctly authenticated.  For this reason, the AVP
   containing HA information MUST be sent in a AAA message containing
   the success authentication.  For Diameter EAP, this AVP will be
   carried in a DEA message containing the EAP-Payload AVP with EAP-
   Success.  For Diameter-NASREQ, the AVP MUST be carried in AA-Answer
   containing the Result-Code AVP indicating a success.

5.1.  Home-Agent AVP

   The Home-Agent AVP (AVP Code To Be Assigned) is of type OctetString
   and contains the IPv6 address of the allocated Home Agent.  The 'M"
   bit in the header of the Home-Agent AVP MUST be cleared, otherwise if
   the NAS does not support it, the authentication will fail.





































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6.  Conclusion

   This document provides information about the Diameter usage for both
   split and integrated scenarios for Mobile IPv6 bootstrapping.  It is
   not yet complete since the goals for the HA-AAA interface [8] are
   still work in progress.













































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7.  Security considerations

   [Editor's Note: Since the document is not complete it is necessary to
   state that the security consideration section is incomplete as well.
   Hence, it is only possible to refer to the security issues raised in
   the Mobile IPv6 and Diameter protocol related documents mentioned
   here, such as [11], [8] and [1].]












































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8.  IANA Considerations

   The AVP code for the Home-Agent AVP needs to be allocated.
















































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9.  Acknowledgements

   We would like to thank the MIPv6 Bootstrapping Design Team for their
   comments.  Additionally, we would like to thank Junghoon Jee for his
   feedback.














































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10.  References

10.1.  Normative References

   [1]  Calhoun, P., Loughney, J., Guttman, E., Zorn, G., and J. Arkko,
        "Diameter Base Protocol", RFC 3588, September 2003.

   [2]  Calhoun, P., Zorn, G., Spence, D., and D. Mitton, "Diameter
        Network Access Server Application", RFC 4005, August 2005.

   [3]  Eronen, P., Hiller, T., and G. Zorn, "Diameter Extensible
        Authentication Protocol (EAP) Application", RFC 4072,
        August 2005.

   [4]  Giaretta, G., "Mobile IPv6 bootstrapping in split scenario",
        draft-ietf-mip6-bootstrapping-split-01 (work in progress),
        October 2005.

   [5]  Kaufman, C., "Internet Key Exchange (IKEv2) Protocol",
        draft-ietf-ipsec-ikev2-17 (work in progress), October 2004.

   [6]  Chowdhury, K. and A. Yegin, "MIP6-bootstrapping via DHCPv6 for
        the Integrated Scenario",
        draft-ietf-mip6-bootstrapping-integrated-dhc-00 (work in
        progress), October 2005.

   [7]  Hamilton, M. and R. Wright, "Use of DNS Aliases for Network
        Services", BCP 17, RFC 2219, October 1997.

10.2.  Informative References

   [8]   Giaretta, G., "Goals for AAA-HA interface",
         draft-ietf-mip6-aaa-ha-goals-00 (work in progress), May 2005.

   [9]   Mattila, L., Koskinen, J., Stura, M., Loughney, J., and H.
         Hakala, "Diameter Credit-control Application",
         draft-ietf-aaa-diameter-cc-06 (work in progress), August 2004.

   [10]  Alfano, F., "Diameter Quality of Service Application",
         draft-alfano-aaa-qosprot-04 (work in progress), September 2005.

   [11]  Giaretta, G., "MIPv6 Authorization and Configuration based on
         EAP", draft-giaretta-mip6-authorization-eap-02 (work in
         progress), October 2004.







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Authors' Addresses

   Hannes Tschofenig
   Siemens
   Otto-Hahn-Ring 6
   Munich, Bavaria  81739
   Germany

   Email: Hannes.Tschofenig@siemens.com


   Tseno Tsenov
   Siemens
   Otto-Hahn-Ring 6
   Munich, Bayern  81739
   Germany

   Email: tseno.tsenov@mytum.de


   Gerardo Giaretta
   Telecom Italia Lab
   via G. Reiss Romoli, 274
   TORINO,   10148
   Italy

   Email: gerardo.giaretta@tilab.com


   Julien Bournelle
   GET/INT
   9 rue Charles Fourier
   Evry  91011
   France

   Email: julien.bournelle@int-evry.fr















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Intellectual Property Statement

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Tschofenig, et al.       Expires April 26, 2006                [Page 21]


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