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Versions: 00 01 02 03 RFC 2942

Network Working Group                                    T. Ts'o, Editor
Internet-Draft                     Massachusetts Institute of Technology
draft-tso-telnet-krb5-03.txt                              September 1999

               Telnet Authentication: Kerberos Version 5

Status of this Memo

   This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with
   all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026.  Internet-Drafts are working
   documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its areas,
   and its working groups.  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference mate-
   rial or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt

   The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119.

0. Abstract

   This document describes how Kerberos Version 5 [1] is used with the
   telnet protocol.   It describes an telnet authentication sub-option
   to be used with the telnet authentication option [2].   This mecha-
   nism can also used to provide keying material to provide data confi-
   dentiality services in conjuction with the telnet encryption option
   [3].

1. Command Names and Codes

   Authentication Types

      KERBEROS_V5    2

   Sub-option Commands

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      AUTH               0
      REJECT             1
      ACCEPT             2
      RESPONSE           3
      FORWARD            4
      FORWARD_ACCEPT     5
      FORWARD_REJECT     6

2.  Command Meanings

   IAC SB AUTHENTICATION IS <authentication-type-pair> AUTH <Kerberos V5
   KRB_AP_REQ message> IAC SE

      This is used to pass the Kerberos V5 [1] KRB_AP_REQ message to the
      remote side of the connection.  The first octet of the <authenti-
      cation-type-pair> value is KERBEROS_V5, to indicate that Version 5
      of Kerberos is being used.  The Kerberos V5 authenticator in the
      KRB_AP_REQ message     must contain a Kerberos V5 checksum of the
      two-byte authentication type pair.  This checksum must be verified
      by the server to assure that the authentication type pair was cor-
      rectly negotiated.  The Kerberos V5 authenticator must also in-
      clude the optional subkey field, which shall be filled in with a
      randomly chosen key.  This key shall be used for encryption pur-
      poses if encryption is negotiated, and shall be used as the nego-
      tiated session key (i.e., used as keyid 0) for the purposes of the
      telnet encryption option; if the subkey is not filled in, then the
      ticket session key will be used instead.

      If data confidentiality services is desired the ENCRYPT_US-
      ING_TELOPT flag must be set in the authentication-type-pair as
      specified in [2].

   IAC SB AUTHENTICATION REPLY <authentication-type-pair> ACCEPT IAC SE

      This command indicates that the authentication was successful.

      If the AUTH_HOW_MUTUAL bit is set in the second octet of the au-
      thentication-type-pair, the RESPONSE command must be sent before
      the ACCEPT command is sent.

   IAC SB AUTHENTICATION REPLY <authentication-type-pair> REJECT <op-
   tional reason for rejection> IAC SE

      This command indicates that the authentication was not successful,
      and if there is any more data in the sub-option, it is an ASCII
      text message of the reason for the rejection.

   IAC SB AUTHENTICATION REPLY <authentication-type-pair> RESPONSE
   <KRB_AP_REP message> IAC SE

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      This command is used to perform mutual authentication.  It is only
      used when the AUTH_HOW_MUTUAL bit is set in the second octet of
      the authentication-type-pair.  After an AUTH command is verified,
      a RESPONSE command is sent which contains a Kerberos V5 KRB_AP_REP
      message to perform the mutual authentication.

   IAC SB AUTHENTICATION <authentication-type-pair> FORWARD <KRB_CRED
   message> IAC SE

      This command is used to forward kerberos credentials for use by
      the remote session.  The credentials are passed as a Kerberos V5
      KRB_CRED message which includes, among other things, the forwarded
      Kerberos ticket and a session key associated with the ticket. Part
      of the KRB_CRED message is encrypted in the key previously ex-
      changed for the telnet session by the AUTH suboption.

   IAC SB AUTHENTICATION <authentication-type-pair> FORWARD_ACCEPT IAC
   SE

      This command indicates that the credential forwarding was success-
      ful.

   IAC SB AUTHENTICATION <authentication-type-pair> FORWARD_REJECT <op-
   tional reason for rejection> IAC SE

      This command indicates that the credential forwarding was not suc-
      cessful, and if there is any more data in the sub-option, it is an
      ASCII text message of the reason for the rejection.

3.  Implementation Rules

   If the second octet of the authentication-type-pair has the AUTH_WHO
   bit set to AUTH_CLIENT_TO_SERVER, then the client sends the initial
   AUTH command, and the server responds with either ACCEPT or REJECT.
   In addition, if the AUTH_HOW bit is set to AUTH_HOW_MUTUAL, the serv-
   er will send a RESPONSE before it sends the ACCEPT.

   If the second octet of the authentication-type-pair has the AUTH_WHO
   bit set to AUTH_SERVER_TO_CLIENT, then the server sends the initial
   AUTH command, and the client responds with either ACCEPT or REJECT.
   In addition, if the AUTH_HOW bit is set to AUTH_HOW_MUTUAL, the
   client will send a RESPONSE before it sends the ACCEPT.

   The Kerberos principal used by the server will generally be of the
   form "host/<hostname>@realm".  That is, the first component of the
   Kerberos principal is "host"; the second component is the fully qual-
   ified lower-case hostname of the server; and the realm is the Ker-
   beros realm to which the server belongs.

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   Any Telnet IAC characters that occur in the KRB_AP_REQ or KRB_AP_REP
   messages, the KRB_CRED structure, or the optional rejection text
   string must be doubled as specified in [4].  Otherwise the following
   byte might be mis-interpreted as a Telnet command.

4.  Examples

   User "joe" may wish to log in as user "pete" on machine "foo".  If
   "pete" has set things up on "foo" to allow "joe" access to his ac-
   count, then the client would send IAC SB AUTHENTICATION NAME "pete"
   IAC SE IAC SB AUTHENTICATION IS KERBEROS_V5 AUTH <KRB_AP_REQ_MESSAGE>
   IAC SE

   The server would then authenticate the user as "joe" from the
   KRB_AP_REQ_MESSAGE, and if the KRB_AP_REQ_MESSAGE was accepted by
   Kerberos, and if "pete" has allowed "joe" to use his account, the
   server would then continue the authentication sequence by sending a
   RESPONSE (to do mutual authentication, if it was requested) followed
   by the ACCEPT.

   If forwarding has been requested, the client then sends IAC SB AU-
   THENTICATION IS KERBEROS_V5 CLIENT|MUTUAL FORWARD <KRB_CRED structure
   with credentials to be forwarded> IAC SE.  If the server succeeds in
   reading the forwarded credentials, the server sends FORWARD_ACCEPT
   else, a FORWARD_REJECT is sent back.

       Client                           Server
                                        IAC DO AUTHENTICATION
       IAC WILL AUTHENTICATION

       [ The server is now free to request authentication information.
         ]

                                        IAC SB AUTHENTICATION SEND
                                        KERBEROS_V5 CLIENT|MUTUAL
                                        KERBEROS_V5 CLIENT|ONE_WAY IAC
                                        SE

       [ The server has requested mutual Version 5 Kerberos
         authentication.  If mutual authentication is not supported,
         then the server is willing to do one-way authentication.

         The client will now respond with the name of the user that it
         wants to log in as, and the Kerberos ticket.  ]

       IAC SB AUTHENTICATION NAME
       "pete" IAC SE
       IAC SB AUTHENTICATION IS
       KERBEROS_V5 CLIENT|MUTUAL AUTH
       <KRB_AP_REQ message> IAC SE

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       [ Since mutual authentication is desired, the server sends across
         a RESPONSE to prove that it really is the right server.  ]

                                        IAC SB AUTHENTICATION REPLY
                                        KERBEROS_V5 CLIENT|MUTUAL
                                        RESPONSE <KRB_AP_REP message>
                                        IAC SE

       [ The server responds with an ACCEPT command to state that the
         authentication was successful.  ]

                                        IAC SB AUTHENTICATION REPLY KER-
                                        BEROS_V5 CLIENT|MUTUAL ACCEPT
                                        IAC SE

       [ If so requested, the client now sends the FORWARD command to
         forward credentials to the remote site.  ]

       IAC SB AUTHENTICATION IS KER-
       BEROS_V5 CLIENT|MUTUAL
       FORWARD <KRB_CRED message> IAC
       SE

       [ The server responds with a FORWARD_ACCEPT command to state that
         the credential forwarding was successful.  ]

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                                        IAC SB AUTHENTICATION REPLY KER-
                                        BEROS_V5 CLIENT|MUTUAL FOR-
                                        WARD_ACCEPT IAC SE

5. Security Considerations

   The selection of the random session key in the Kerberos V5 authenti-
   cator is critical, since this key will be used for encrypting the
   telnet data stream if encryption is enabled.  It is strongly advised
   that the random key selection be done using cryptographic techniques
   that involve the Kerberos ticket's session key.  For example, using
   the current time, encrypting it with the ticket session key, and then
   correcting for key parity is a strong way to generate a subsession
   key, since the ticket session key is assumed to be never disclosed to
   an attacker.

   Care should be taken before forwarding a user's Kerberos credentials
   to the remote server.  If the remote server is not trustworthy, this
   could result in the user's credentials being compromised.  Hence, the
   user interface should not forward credentials by default; it would be
   far safer to either require the user to explicitly request creden-
   tials forwarding for each connection, or to have a trusted list of
   hosts for which credentials forwarding is enabled, but to not enable
   credentials forwarding by default for all machines.

6. Acknowledgments

   This document was originally written by Dave Borman of Cray Research,
   Inc.  Theodore Ts'o of MIT revised it to reflect the latest implemen-
   tation experience.  Cliff Neuman and Prasad Upasani of USC's Informa-
   tion Sciences Institute developed the credential forwarding support.

   In addition, the contributions of the Telnet Working Group are also
   gratefully acknowledged.

7. References

   [1] Kohl, J. and B. Neuman, "The Kerberos Network Authentication Sys-
       tem (V5)", RFC 1510, USC/Information Sciences Institute, Septem-
       ber 1993.

   [2] Internet Engineering Task Force, "Telnet Authentication", draft-
       tso-telnet-auth-enc-04.txt, T. Ts'o, Editor, VA Linux Systems,
       September 1999.

   [3] Internet Engineering Task Force, "Telnet Data Encryption Option",
       draft-tso-telnet-encryption-04.txt, T. Ts'o, Editor, VA Linux
       Systems, September 1999.

   [4] Postel, J.B. and J. Reynolds, "Telnet Option Specifications", RFC

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       855, STD 8, USC/Information Sciences Institute, May 1983.

Editor's Address

   Theodore Ts'o
   Massachusetts Institute of Technology
   MIT Room E40-343
   77 Massachusetts Avenue
   Cambridge, MA 02139

   Phone: (617) 253-8091
   EMail: tytso@mit.edu

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