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Versions: 00 01 draft-ietf-opsawg-automated-network-configuration

Internet Engineering Task Force                                  T. Tsou
Internet-Draft                                       Huawei Technologies
Intended status: Informational                          J. Schoenwaelder
Expires: March 19, 2011                         Jacobs University Bremen
                                                                  Y. Shi
                                            Hangzhou H3C Tech. Co., Ltd.
                                                          T. Taylor, Ed.
                                                     Huawei Technologies
                                                      September 15, 2010

   Problem Statement for the Configuration of Large-Scale IP Networks


   This memo discusses the steps required to bring network devices in a
   service provider network into service in an automated fashion.  The
   memo identifies known solutions where they exist, but notes some gaps
   that require further specification.

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted to IETF in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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   The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at

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   This Internet-Draft will expire on March 19, 2011.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2010 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

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   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  Scenarios  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   3.  A Model of the Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   4.  Pre-configuration  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   5.  Bootstrapping  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     5.1.  Establishment of Link Layer Connectivity . . . . . . . . .  6
     5.2.  Acquisition of IP Addresses and Basic Routing
           Information  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     5.3.  Finding the Configuration Server . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     5.4.  Establishing a Secure Channel to the Configuration
           Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   6.  Initial Configuration and Configuration Updates  . . . . . . . 10
   7.  Configuration Auditing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   8.  Missing Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   9.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
   10. IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
   11. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
   12. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
   Appendix A.  Open Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

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1.  Introduction

   New service provider networks are being deployed that entail the
   installation of tens of thousands of new network devices.  To keep
   costs down, it is desirable to automate the establishment of such
   networks and the configuration of these network devices to the
   maximum extent possible.  A certain amount of the information needed
   to operate them must be pre-configured by the vendor or service
   provider before the devices are physically deployed.  Other
   information is best delivered after startup, to ensure that it is
   consistent with the physical deployment.

   3GPP work in progress describes requirements [TS_32_500] and an
   architectural specification [TS_36_300] for the self-configuration of
   edge node entities called eNodeBs.  (The expansion of eNodeB is too
   unwieldy to spell out.)  Specifically, procedures are specified for
   establishing transport connections to and for exchanging
   configuration data with control entities called MMEs (Mobility
   Management Entities) and with neighbouring eNodeBs.  [TS_36_300]
   currently assumes as a starting precondition that the eNodeB knows
   its own IP address and knows IP address endpoints for the target MMEs
   and neighbouring eNodeBs.

   IETF work on automated configuration goes back to BOOTP [RFC0951],
   followed eight years later by DHCP [RFC1531] and successors.  The
   years since have seen a steady growth in the number of DHCP options.

   The Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) [RFC3410] was designed
   to convey management information between SNMP entities such as
   managers and agents.  The number of SNMP MIB modules grew steadily,
   but SNMP has not historically seen only limited use for configuration
   [RFC3535].  For a period, IETF configuration efforts were focussed on
   the distribution of policy in the network.  [RFC3139] provides a good
   insight into this period.  More recently, NETCONF [RFC4741] was
   devised as an alternative to SNMP, but the development of standard
   NETCONF data models is just beginning.

   Recent IETF work closest in spirit to the 3GPP self-organizing
   network effort cited above is embodied in CAPWAP [RFC5415].  Like the
   3GPP work, CAPWAP focusses on the configuration of edge nodes, in a
   Wi-Fi rather than cellular network.  The CAPWAP work goes beyond that
   of 3GPP by specifying the process of AC (Access Controller) discovery
   rather than leaving discovery out of scope.  With regard to the
   configuration process itself, CAPWAP provides for the download of new
   images to the WTP (Wireless Termination Point).  In contrast,
   [TS_32_500] assumes that this has already been completed for the

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2.  Scenarios

   There are two different scenarios to consider.  In the first
   scenario, called the Intra-domain Scenario, the new network device N
   is attached to the network operated by the service provider which is
   also operating the new device.  In the second scenario, called the
   Inter-domain Scenario, the new device N is attached to a third party
   network providing connectivity to the network of the service provider
   operating the new device.

                                         | CONF |
                   +---+     +---+          |
                   | N +-...-+ R +------+---+---+----...
                   +---+     +---+      |       |
                                    +--+--+ +--+---+
                                    | DNS | | DHCP |
                                    +-----+ +------+

                           |-- N's Service Provider --|

                      Figure 1: Intra-domain Scenario

   Figure 1 depicts the Intra-domain Scenario.  We assume that the new
   decive N attaches to a link connected to router R. Furthermore, we
   assume that the service provider provides a Domain Name System (DNS)
   server, a DHCP server, and a Configuration Server (CONF).  Overall,
   this scenario does not differ much from conventional network

                                                      | CONF |
     +---+     +---+                       +---+         |
     | N +-...-+ R +-----+---+---+-----...-+ R +-----+---+---+-----...
     +---+     +---+     |       |         +---+     |       |
                      +--+--+ +--+---+            +--+--+ +--+---+
                      | DNS | | DHCP |            | DNS | | DHCP |
                      +-----+ +------+            +-----+ +------+

             |-- Service Provider X ---| |-- N's Service Provider --|

                      Figure 2: Inter-domain Scenario

   Figure 2 depicts the Inter-domain Scenario where the new device N
   attaches to a router R owned by a different service provider X. The
   service provider X might offer its own DNS and DHCP services.  We

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   assume that the service provider X has connectivity to the service
   provider planning to operate the new device.

3.  A Model of the Process

   We introduce a model of the configuration process in order to
   identify the parts that have well-known solutions.  The remainder may
   be worth studying to see if the industry can agree on a solution.

   Some basic terminology is needed for the discussion.  Depending on
   the implementation, let us agree that "configuration data" consist of
   software and sets of configured parameters in some combination.
   Also, the system that provides the configuration data is called the
   "configuration server".  Finally, the term "joining device" is used
   to denote a network device that is in the process of being
   incorporated into the network.

   Broadly speaking, the configuration process can be broken into five

   Pre-configuration:  configuration carried out either by the vendor or
      by the service provider prior to physical installation.  One
      possible example is the pre-provisioning of certificates, as
      described in [RFC5415].

   Bootstrapping:  the portion of the process from the time that
      physical installation is complete until a secure connection is
      established between the joining device and the configuration

   Initial configuration:  downloading of the configuration data that
      the joining device needs to carry out its function in the network.

   Auditing of installed configuration:  tracking image versions and
      configuration parameters for each network device and verifying
      that the installed configuration data matches the physical
      installation, the network plan, and the records of what data was
      downloaded.  It is possible that an initial audit of the physical
      installation is done before initial configuration, so that the
      validity of the intended download can be verified.

   Configuration update:  transferring configuration data to a fully
      configured and operating device from time to time as the need

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4.  Pre-configuration

   This memo identifies a specific requirement for pre-configuration of
   an invariant device identity and authentication-related material in
   the form of pre-shared secrets or certificates.  There is, as one
   alternative, a requirement for pre-configuration of information that
   permits the joining device to discover the address of the
   configuration server.

5.  Bootstrapping

   [I-D.oflynn-core-bootstrapping] deals with the process of
   bootstrapping, with particular emphasis on the requirements for
   highly resource-constrained devices.  The document makes a
   distinction between a data channel, which is used during network
   operation, and a control channel, which is used during bootstrapping.
   While both channels can be the same physical channel, they can also
   be different (e.g., a wireless access point using an infrared control
   channel to receive bootstrapping information).  The draft proposes to
   define a generic secure bootstrapping protocol for resource
   constrained devices that can be executed in several bootstrapping
   rounds and can be adapted to the specific contexts in terms of the
   resources available within individual devices and for the network as
   a whole.

   For network devices in service provider networks, bootstrapping
   consists of several stages:

   1.  establishment of link layer connectivity with neighbouring nodes;

   2.  acquisition of IP addresses and basic routing information;

   3.  discovery of the configuration server;

   4.  establishment of a secure channel to the configuration server.

5.1.  Establishment of Link Layer Connectivity

   The protocol aspects of this phase are out of scope, since it
   involves non-IETF protocols only.  While some link-layer technologies
   may provide authentication and access control, this cannot be assumed
   to be available in the general case.

5.2.  Acquisition of IP Addresses and Basic Routing Information

   For IPv4, DHCPv4 [RFC2131] is widely deployed and the usual way to
   obtain an IPv4 address, the IPv4 address of a link-local router and

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   the IPv4 address of a DNS server.  For IPv6, a choice has to be made
   between stateful DHCPv6 [RFC3315] versus stateless DHCPv6 [RFC3736]
   combined with stateless address autoconfiguration [RFC4862].  In the
   latter case, DHCPv6 is needed to configure parameters such as DNS
   server addresses.  An experimental routing advertisement option to
   configure the IPv6 address of a DNS server as part of the stateless
   address autoconfiguration is defined in [RFC5006] and may become a
   standards-track specification.

   Some security protection is provided in this stage by using DHCP
   authentication [RFC3118].  However, security of the configuration
   process as a whole has to be assured by other means.  This is
   discussed further below.

   Currently the lack of a stable identifier for use in DHCPv6 messaging
   is an impediment to authentication of the joining device.
   [I-D.dhc-duid-uuid] discusses the problems with the current DHCPv6
   identifiers (DUIDs) and proposes a new form that could be a more
   stable alternative.

5.3.  Finding the Configuration Server

   Four alternatives are available for finding the configuration server:

   o  pre-configuration;

   o  DHCP configuration;

   o  Service Location Protocol [RFC2608]; or

   o  DNS service discovery using SRV records [RFC2782].

   Pre-configuration of an IP address is brittle and not recommended.
   Pre-configuration of a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) or fully
   qualified domain name (FQDN) is a better approach.  One variant that
   has been suggested is to burn the URI of a vendor server into the
   device's firmware along with a device identifier, and have that
   server redirect to the URI of the service provider's configuration
   server based on the device identity.  Such an approach requires that
   a device vendor offers such a service for the lifetime of their
   devices and that service providers are able to update the URI of the
   service provider's configuration server.  This requires a trust
   relationship between the vendor and the service provider and
   agreement on a protocol to update the redirect information on the
   vendor's server.

   DHCP configuration can use the usual DHCP options and is technically
   straightforward since DHCP is widely used by end user devices to

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   obtain basic configuration information.  There is, however, no
   standardized DHCP option to communicate the address of a
   configuration server.

   The Service Location Protocol (SLP) has seen some usage to locate
   services such as printers or file system shares.  Usage of SLP to
   locate configuration servers requires to define a new service
   template [RFC2609].

   The use of DNS SRV records requires the joining device to obtain the
   correct domain suffix first, presumably from DHCP or via Routing
   Advertisements in the case of IPv6 or preconfiguration.  A service
   type for the desired configuration protocol would have to be defined
   in the DNS for the purpose.  See Section 3.3 of [RFC5415] for a
   discussion of the corresponding discovery process for CAPWAP.

   The Inter-domain Scenario requires that the DHCP server or the SLP
   server of service provider X's network is able to provide the correct
   information to the joining devices.  To accomplish this, the
   discovery servers need to be able to match a device identification
   against a list of possible configuration servers.  Furthermore, there
   needs to be a mechanism for the service provider operating the
   joining device to provision the configuration server's address, e.g.
   by using an extension of the Extensible Provisioning Protocol (EPP)
   [RFC5730].  However, if the joining device has preconfigured
   information about the name of the service provider's network, DNS SRV
   records may be queried after obtaining IP connectivity, avoiding the
   need to provision information in service provider X's network.

5.4.  Establishing a Secure Channel to the Configuration Server

   It is essential that the configuration server and the joining device
   authenticate themselves to each other, since the steps leading up to
   this point in the process may not be fully secure.  This raises two
   issues: how the joining device identifies itself, and how
   authentication takes place.

   It seems best if the device has an invariant identity built in and
   accessible to whatever operating system is running on it.  If
   [I-D.dhc-duid-uuid], mentioned above, becomes a standard, the UUID on
   which that proposal is based would be the required invariant
   identity.  The vendor should make that identity available in a form
   that can be read and transferred into a database accessible to the
   configuration server along with the associated configuration data in
   advance of the bootstrapping stage (e.g., in bar-coded format on the
   device packaging).

   This leaves the mutual authentication process itself.  This has two

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   aspects: the security protocol used to perform authentication, and
   initial keying methodology.  The security protocol is tied together
   with the choice of configuration data transport, but the basic
   choices are:

   o  IP Security (IPsec) [RFC4301];

   o  Transport Layer Security (TLS) [RFC5246];

   o  Datagram Transport Layer Security (DTLS) [RFC4347];

   o  Secure Shell (SSH) [RFC4251], [RFC4252], [RFC4253], and [RFC4254];

   o  SNMPv3's User-based Security Model (USM) [RFC3414].

   For initial keying methodology, the two basic choices are between
   pre-shared secrets and certificates.  All of the security protocols
   listed above except USM support both methods.  USM supports pre-
   shared secrets only.

   The usual concern with pre-shared secrets is scalability.  In the
   bootstrapping case, the scale of operation required is linear with
   the number of devices to be configured, so it would definitely be a
   feasible approach if connection to the configuration system were the
   only consideration.  The most likely procedure would be for the
   secret to be configured in the device during preconfiguration and
   also captured in a database along with the device identity, for use
   by the configuration server.

   The problem with the use of pre-shared secrets is that the device
   needs to authenticate itself at an earlier stage, while it is
   establishing communications with its neighbours and acquiring IP
   addresses.  It seems undesirable to use the same secret for that
   purpose as for the connection to the configuration server, on the
   basic principle of limiting the potential damage from disclosure of a
   particular key.

   This need for additional pre-shared secrets argues for consideration
   of certificates as an alternative.  One issue for certificates is
   where the trust anchor resides.  It seems logical that it should
   reside with the service provider rather than the vendor, to make it
   easy to install equipment from multiple vendors.  On that basis,
   preconfiguration requires service provider input.

   CAPWAP (Section of [RFC5415]) makes use of the Extended Key
   Usage (EKU) certificate extension [RFC5280] to distinguish
   certificates identifying the Access Controllers (i.e., the

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   configuration servers in the CAPWAP case) from the Wireless Transfer
   Points (the configured devices in the CAPWAP case).  Thought should
   be given to whether such distinctions are required in the general
   case of network device configuration.

   CAPWAP (Section 12.8 of [RFC5415]) also discusses the use of the
   Common Name rather than SubjectAltName field of the certificate to
   carry device identity, due to lack of specifications allowing the use
   of SubjectAltName to carry MAC addresses.  This issue needs to be
   investigated further if another form of device unique identity is
   used, as discussed above.

6.  Initial Configuration and Configuration Updates

   As mentioned at the beginning, the configuration data being
   downloaded may be a combination of software and configuration
   parameters.  Some of the data will be vendor-specific, not subject to
   standardization.  It appears that there is a continuing debate on
   whether the configuration data should be pushed to the joining device
   or whether the device should pull the configuration data down.  In
   the latter case, the device needs to know about the existence of the
   data and the path to reach it before it can act.  One way to acquire
   this information is through DHCP.  DHCPv4 has provided the necessary
   options from its beginnings, inheriting them from BOOTP.  They are
   currently being added to DHCPv6; see [I-D.dhcpv6-opt-netboot].

   Protocols that can transport configuration data can be classified as
   follows: The first class consists of generic file transfer protocols
   that can carry configuration data serialized into configuration
   files.  The second class consists of protocols that manipulate
   structured configuration data directly.  The structure of the
   configuration data is defined by some data model.

   In the first class, we find the following file transfer protocols:

   o  The File Transfer Protocol (FTP) [RFC0959] can be used to move
      files containing configuration data.  It can be secured by running
      FTP over TLS [RFC4217].

   o  The Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) [RFC1350] has been used
      extensively to load boot images over the network.  However, it
      does not provide security and the only option is to rely on IP
      layer security (IPsec).

   o  The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) [RFC2616] can be used to
      transfer documents containing configuration data.  It is commonly
      secured by running HTTP over TLS [RFC2817] [RFC2818].

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   o  The SSH File Transfer Protocol (SFTP) [I-D.SFTP] provides roughly
      the same services as FTP but runs over SSH and thus utilizes the
      security services provided by SSH.

   o  UNIX utilities to transfer files such as RCP and SCP provide
      limited flexibility and they differ in their degree of integration
      with SSH.

   o  The Control And Provisioning of Wireless Access Points (CAPWAP)
      protocol [RFC5415] can be used to control the download of images.
      CAPWAP can be secured by running CAPWAP over DTLS.

   In the second class, we find the following configuration protocols:

   o  Version 3 of the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMPv3)
      [RFC3411]-[RFC3418] can be used to manipulate MIB objects and to
      carry event notifications.  It has its own security protocol (USM)
      but can also run over SSH [RFC5592], TLS, or DTLS [RFC5953].

   o  The Common Open Policy Service for Policy Provisioning protocol
      (COPS-PR) [RFC3084] was designed to provision structured policy
      information from a Policy Decision Point (PDP) to a Policy
      Enforcement Point (PEP).  The COPS protocol [RFC2748] provides an
      integrity object that can achieve authentication, message
      integrity, and replay prevention.  Optionally, COPS and COPS-PR
      can run over TLS.

   o  The NETCONF protocol [RFC4741] provides mechanisms to install,
      manipulate, and delete the configuration of network devices.  A
      protocol extension provides an asychronous even notification
      delivery mechanism [RFC5277].  NETCONF by default runs over SSH
      but can also run over transports secured by TLS.

   o  The Control And Provisioning of Wireless Access Points protocol
      (CAPWAP) [RFC5415] supports the discovery of so called Access
      Controller (AC) by Wireless Termination Points (WTPs) and the
      configuration of WTPs by an AC.  While CAPWAP can be extended to
      configure other devices, its main focus are WTPs.  The CAPWAP
      protocol is protected by using DTLS after the discovery phase.

   Table 1 lists the protocols plus their security options.  Note that
   all protocols can be secured at the IP layer by using IPsec and hence
   this is not mentioned explicitly in Table 1.

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   | Transport | Security     | Data Transfer Model                    |
   | FTP       | TLS          | Push or pull of (configuration) files  |
   | TFTP      |              | Push or pull of (configuration) files  |
   | HTTP      | TLS          | Push or pull of (configuration) files  |
   | SFTP      | SSH          | Push or pull of (configuration) files  |
   | RCP       |              | Push or pull of (configuration) files  |
   | SCP       | SSH          | Push or pull of (configuration) files  |
   | CAPWAP    | DTLS         | AC pushes configuration parameters,    |
   |           |              | WTP pulls software                     |
   | SNMPv3    | USM [SSH,    | Push of structured configuration       |
   |           | TLS, DTLS]   | parameters, event notifications        |
   | COPS-PR   | TLS          | Push of structured policy information  |
   | NETCONF   | SSH [TLS]    | Push of structured configuration data, |
   |           |              | event notifications                    |

          Table 1: Protocols for transporting configuration data

   SNMPv3, NETCONF, and COPS-PR carry structured data specified in pre-
   defined data models.  SNMPv3 and COPS-PR have size limitations on the
   data objects and thus make the transport of larger software images
   difficult.  NETCONF does not suffer from hard size restrictions and
   can in principle carry software images inline.  However, there is
   currently no work in progress to standardize the transfer of software
   images over NETCONF.  An advantage of NETCONF over SNMPv3 and CAPWAP
   is the support or concurrent updates through locking mechanisms and
   the support of network wide configuration change transactions through
   the confirmed commit capability.  CAPWAP combines the functions of
   configuration parameter transport and software download.  The
   parameter transport aspect lacks the generality offered by SNMP,
   NETCONF, and COPS-PR, since the parameters are specified within the
   protocol specification itself.  The remaining transports are
   independent of the nature of the information being transferred.

7.  Configuration Auditing

   To complete the process, it must be possible to audit the
   configuration status of the device in some detail.  This is likely to
   begin even before all the configuration data has been downloaded.
   For instance, configuration management may wish to collect basic
   information such as the MAC addresses of the device's interfaces, the
   link-local addresses assigned to them, and similar information for
   the neighbours of the joining device.

   SNMP and SNMP MIB modules are obviously one way to collect this

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   information.  NETCONF [RFC4741] is an alternative, but the necessary
   data models have to be defined.  YANG modules for NETCONF [I-D.YANG]
   can be prepared relatively quickly from existing SNMP MIB modules by
   translating the SNMP modules into YANG modules.  Work to standardize
   such translations is currently being chartered in the NETMOD working

   Another important auditing activity is the analysis of system events.
   The SYSLOG protocol [RFC5424] is widely used for this purpose but
   SNMPv3 and NETCONF can ship event notifications as well.
   Translations of SNMP notifications into structured SYSLOG messages
   and vice versa do exist [RFC5675] [RFC5676].  NETCONF can carry
   SYSLOG content as well [RFC5277].

8.  Missing Specifications

   This document discussed the automated configuration of devices in
   service provider networks.  Several gaps were identified requiring
   further specification:

   G1:  Definition of stable unique device identifiers such as the work
        described in [I-D.dhc-duid-uuid].

   G2:  Definition of a DHCP option to provide the IPv4/IPv6 address of
        a configuration server.  Such an option allows a joining device
        to pickup the configuration server's address as part of the DHCP
        exchange.  This is particularly interesting for Intra-domain

   G3:  Definition of DNS SRV records for locating configuration
        servers.  Such an option allows a joining device to lookup the
        configuration server's in the DNS; this is particularly useful
        in an Inter-domain Scenario.

   G4:  Definition of a SLP template for discovering configuration
        servers.  Such a template is useful only in environments where
        SLP is used also for other purposes.

   G5:  Definition of NETCONF data models to support the download /
        update of software images through NETCONF.

   G6:  Definition of NETCONF data models for collecting basic system
        information and integrity information (e.g., checksums of
        software images) and for sending configuration management
        related notifications.

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9.  Security Considerations

   The security of a configuration management solution is of crucial
   importance.  Section 6 discusses the security options of several
   protocols that might be used.  The relevant protocol definitions
   should be consulted to learn more about the specific security aspects
   of the various protocols.

   It should be noted that some steps in the described process, in
   particular the bootstrapping phase, may not be secure and it is thus
   important to verify the identity of the device and the identity of
   the configuration server when a secure connection to a configuration
   server is established.  Usage of IPsec, which is focusses on securing
   the IP layer, may not be sufficient for this.

   During the choice of protocols, the available security mechanisms and
   the required key management infrastructures may play a major role in
   the selection of protocols.  Easy integration into existing
   Authentication, Authorization and Accounting (AAA) infrastructures
   can significantly reduce the operational costs associated with the
   security management of the configuration system.

10.  IANA Considerations

   This memo includes no request to IANA.

11.  Contributors

   Thanks to Cathy Zhou and Mehmet Ersue for help in preparing this

12.  Informative References

              Galbraith, J. and O. Saarenmaa, "SSH File Transfer
              Protocol (Work in progress)", July 2006.


              Bjorklund, M., "YANG - A data modeling language for the
              Network Configuration  Protocol (NETCONF) (Work in
              progress)", June 2010.


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              Narten, T. and J. Johnson, "Definition of the UUID-based
              DHCPv6 Unique Identifier (DUID-UUID) (Work in progress)",
              May 2010.

              Huth, T., Freimann, J., Zimmer, V., and D. Thaler, "DHCPv6
              option for network boot (Work in progress)", June 2010.

              O'Flynn, C. and B. Sarikawa, "Initial Configuration of
              Resource-Constrained Devices (Work in progress)",
              July 2010.

   [RFC0951]  Croft, B. and J. Gilmore, "Bootstrap Protocol", RFC 951,
              September 1985.

   [RFC0959]  Postel, J. and J. Reynolds, "File Transfer Protocol",
              STD 9, RFC 959, October 1985.

   [RFC1350]  Sollins, K., "The TFTP Protocol (Revision 2)", STD 33,
              RFC 1350, July 1992.

   [RFC1531]  Droms, R., "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol",
              RFC 1531, October 1993.

   [RFC2131]  Droms, R., "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol",
              RFC 2131, March 1997.

   [RFC2608]  Guttman, E., Perkins, C., Veizades, J., and M. Day,
              "Service Location Protocol, Version 2", RFC 2608,
              June 1999.

   [RFC2609]  Guttman, E., Perkins, C., and J. Kempf, "Service Templates
              and Service: Schemes", RFC 2609, June 1999.

   [RFC2616]  Fielding, R., Gettys, J., Mogul, J., Frystyk, H.,
              Masinter, L., Leach, P., and T. Berners-Lee, "Hypertext
              Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1", RFC 2616, June 1999.

   [RFC2748]  Durham, D., Boyle, J., Cohen, R., Herzog, S., Rajan, R.,
              and A. Sastry, "The COPS (Common Open Policy Service)
              Protocol", RFC 2748, January 2000.

   [RFC2782]  Gulbrandsen, A., Vixie, P., and L. Esibov, "A DNS RR for
              specifying the location of services (DNS SRV)", RFC 2782,
              February 2000.

   [RFC2817]  Khare, R. and S. Lawrence, "Upgrading to TLS Within

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              HTTP/1.1", RFC 2817, May 2000.

   [RFC2818]  Rescorla, E., "HTTP Over TLS", RFC 2818, May 2000.

   [RFC3084]  Chan, K., Seligson, J., Durham, D., Gai, S., McCloghrie,
              K., Herzog, S., Reichmeyer, F., Yavatkar, R., and A.
              Smith, "COPS Usage for Policy Provisioning (COPS-PR)",
              RFC 3084, March 2001.

   [RFC3118]  Droms, R. and W. Arbaugh, "Authentication for DHCP
              Messages", RFC 3118, June 2001.

   [RFC3139]  Sanchez, L., McCloghrie, K., and J. Saperia, "Requirements
              for Configuration Management of IP-based Networks",
              RFC 3139, June 2001.

   [RFC3315]  Droms, R., Bound, J., Volz, B., Lemon, T., Perkins, C.,
              and M. Carney, "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for
              IPv6 (DHCPv6)", RFC 3315, July 2003.

   [RFC3410]  Case, J., Mundy, R., Partain, D., and B. Stewart,
              "Introduction and Applicability Statements for Internet-
              Standard Management Framework", RFC 3410, December 2002.

   [RFC3411]  Harrington, D., Presuhn, R., and B. Wijnen, "An
              Architecture for Describing Simple Network Management
              Protocol (SNMP) Management Frameworks", STD 62, RFC 3411,
              December 2002.

   [RFC3414]  Blumenthal, U. and B. Wijnen, "User-based Security Model
              (USM) for version 3 of the Simple Network Management
              Protocol (SNMPv3)", STD 62, RFC 3414, December 2002.

   [RFC3418]  Presuhn, R., "Management Information Base (MIB) for the
              Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)", STD 62,
              RFC 3418, December 2002.

   [RFC3535]  Schoenwaelder, J., "Overview of the 2002 IAB Network
              Management Workshop", RFC 3535, May 2003.

   [RFC3736]  Droms, R., "Stateless Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
              (DHCP) Service for IPv6", RFC 3736, April 2004.

   [RFC4217]  Ford-Hutchinson, P., "Securing FTP with TLS", RFC 4217,
              October 2005.

   [RFC4251]  Ylonen, T. and C. Lonvick, "The Secure Shell (SSH)
              Protocol Architecture", RFC 4251, January 2006.

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   [RFC4252]  Ylonen, T. and C. Lonvick, "The Secure Shell (SSH)
              Authentication Protocol", RFC 4252, January 2006.

   [RFC4253]  Ylonen, T. and C. Lonvick, "The Secure Shell (SSH)
              Transport Layer Protocol", RFC 4253, January 2006.

   [RFC4254]  Ylonen, T. and C. Lonvick, "The Secure Shell (SSH)
              Connection Protocol", RFC 4254, January 2006.

   [RFC4301]  Kent, S. and K. Seo, "Security Architecture for the
              Internet Protocol", RFC 4301, December 2005.

   [RFC4347]  Rescorla, E. and N. Modadugu, "Datagram Transport Layer
              Security", RFC 4347, April 2006.

   [RFC4741]  Enns, R., "NETCONF Configuration Protocol", RFC 4741,
              December 2006.

   [RFC4862]  Thomson, S., Narten, T., and T. Jinmei, "IPv6 Stateless
              Address Autoconfiguration", RFC 4862, September 2007.

   [RFC5006]  Jeong, J., Park, S., Beloeil, L., and S. Madanapalli,
              "IPv6 Router Advertisement Option for DNS Configuration",
              RFC 5006, September 2007.

   [RFC5246]  Dierks, T. and E. Rescorla, "The Transport Layer Security
              (TLS) Protocol Version 1.2", RFC 5246, August 2008.

   [RFC5277]  Chisholm, S. and H. Trevino, "NETCONF Event
              Notifications", RFC 5277, July 2008.

   [RFC5280]  Cooper, D., Santesson, S., Farrell, S., Boeyen, S.,
              Housley, R., and W. Polk, "Internet X.509 Public Key
              Infrastructure Certificate and Certificate Revocation List
              (CRL) Profile", RFC 5280, May 2008.

   [RFC5415]  Calhoun, P., Montemurro, M., and D. Stanley, "Control And
              Provisioning of Wireless Access Points (CAPWAP) Protocol
              Specification", RFC 5415, March 2009.

   [RFC5424]  Gerhards, R., "The Syslog Protocol", RFC 5424, March 2009.

   [RFC5592]  Harrington, D., Salowey, J., and W. Hardaker, "Secure
              Shell Transport Model for the Simple Network Management
              Protocol (SNMP)", RFC 5592, June 2009.

   [RFC5675]  Marinov, V. and J. Schoenwaelder, "Mapping Simple Network
              Management Protocol (SNMP) Notifications to SYSLOG

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              Messages", RFC 5675, October 2009.

   [RFC5676]  Schoenwaelder, J., Clemm, A., and A. Karmakar,
              "Definitions of Managed Objects for Mapping SYSLOG
              Messages to Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
              Notifications", RFC 5676, October 2009.

   [RFC5730]  Hollenbeck, S., "Extensible Provisioning Protocol (EPP)",
              STD 69, RFC 5730, August 2009.

   [RFC5953]  Hardaker, W., "Transport Layer Security (TLS) Transport
              Model for the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)",
              RFC 5953, August 2010.

              3rd Generation Partnership Project, "3rd Generation
              Partnership Project; Technical Specification Group
              Services and System Aspects; Telecommunication Management;
              Self-Organizing Networks (SON); Concepts and requirements
              (Release 9)", 3GPP TS 32.500, 2010.

              3rd Generation Partnership Project, "3rd Generation
              Partnership Project; Technical Specification Group Radio
              Access Network; Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access
              (E-UTRA)  and Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access
              Network  (E-UTRAN); Overall description; Stage 2 (Release
              9)", 3GPP TS 36.300, 2010.

Appendix A.  Open Issues

   The document should discuss the usage of VPNs in the Inter-domain

Authors' Addresses

   Tina Tsou
   Huawei Technologies
   Bantian, Longgang District
   Shenzhen  518129
   P.R. China

   Email: tena@huawei.com

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   Juergen Schoenwaelder
   Jacobs University Bremen
   Campus Ring 1
   Bremen  28759

   Email: j.schoenwaelder@jacobs-university.de

   Yang Shi
   Hangzhou H3C Tech. Co., Ltd.
   Beijing R&D Center of H3C, Digital Technology Plaza,
   NO.9 Shangdi 9th Street, Haidian District,

   Phone: +86 010 82775276
   Email: young@h3c.com

   Tom Taylor (editor)
   Huawei Technologies
   1852 Lorraine Ave.
   Ottawa  K1H 6Z8

   Email: tom111.taylor@bell.net

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