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Energy Management Working Group                               E. Tychon
Internet Draft                                               M. Laherty
Intended status: Informational                             B. Schoening
Expires: April 15, 2011                             Cisco Systems, Inc.


                                                       October 15, 2010




             Energy Management (EMAN) Applicability Statement
             draft-tychon-eman-applicability-statement-00.txt


Status of this Memo

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   This Internet-Draft will expire on April 15, 2011.




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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2010 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors. All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document. Please review these documents
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Abstract

   The Energy Management (EMAN) framework will work on the management
   of energy-aware devices. In this document we describe the
   applicability of the EMAN framework for a variety of applications.
   We show how network elements and applications can use EMAN, describe
   the relevant information elements (IEs) for those applications and
   present opportunities and limitations. We furthermore describe
   relations of the EMAN framework to other architectures and
   frameworks.



Table of Contents

   1. Introduction...................................................3
      1.1. Energy Measurement........................................3
      1.2. Energy Control............................................4
      1.3. Examples..................................................4
         1.3.1. Building Networks....................................4
         1.3.2. Home Energy Gateways.................................4
         1.3.3. Datacenters..........................................5
         1.3.4. Smart Power Strips...................................5
   2. Relation of EMAN to Other Frameworks and Technologies..........5
      2.1. IEC.......................................................6
      2.2. ISO.......................................................6
      2.3. ANSI C12..................................................8
      2.4. EnergyStar US EPA.........................................8
      2.5. DMTF......................................................8
         2.5.1. Desktop And Mobile Architecture for System Hardware
         (DASH)......................................................9
      2.6. SmartGrid................................................10


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      2.7. NAESB, ASHRAE and NEMA...................................11
      2.8. ZigBee...................................................12
   3. Limitations...................................................12
   4. Security Considerations.......................................13
      4.1. SmartGrid................................................13
      4.2. Cisco EnergyWise.........................................13
   5. IANA Considerations...........................................13
   6. References....................................................14
      6.1. Normative References.....................................14
      6.2. Informative References...................................14
   7. Acknowledgments...............................................14

1. Introduction

   The EMAN framework defines how Energy information can be retrieved,
   controlled and monitored from IP-enabled consumers. EMAN is to be
   need as a generic method of accessing this information, as
   traditional methods such as SNMP have proved not be sufficient.

   In this document, we describe typical applications of the EMAN
   framework, we will show opportunities and limitations of the
   framework. Furthermore, we describe other standards that are close
   to EMAN but addresses different needs or users. Applications of EMAN

   EMAN will enable heterogeneous energy consumers to report their own
   consumption, and will enable external system to control them. There
   are multiple scenarios where this is desirable, particularly today
   considering the increased importance of limiting our own carbon
   footprint and reducing operational expenses.

1.1. Energy Measurement

   Over time, more and more devices will be able to report their own
   energy consumption. Smart power strips and some Power-over-Ethernet
   switches are already able to consumption of the connected devices
   (proxies). Unfortunately, alone, this information is not really
   useful and will be better leveraged on a global system where the
   global power can be metered properly, in real time.

   One aspect of EMAN is to enable this reporting by providing a
   standard framework applicable to various devices, consumers or proxy
   devices.

   Being able to know who's consuming what, when and how at any time by
   leveraging existing networks, and across various equipment is one
   pillar of the EMAN framework.



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1.2. Energy Control

   There are many cases where reducing energy consumption is desirable,
   such as when the demand is already high, when there's no one using
   the resource, and so on.

   In some cases, you can't simply turn it off. For instance you cannot
   turn off all phones, because some still need to be available in case
   of emergency. You can't turn cooling off totally, but you can reduce
   the comfort level, and so on.

   In other cases, there are intermediate power levels between off and
   on, such as standby, sleep or deep sleep mode.

   The EMAN framework will provide a control mechanism that is generic
   for all devices, power states, and allows for fine-grained priority
   control, and emergency function.

1.3. Examples

1.3.1. Building Networks

   Buildings are big energy consumers, and companies are looking into
   ways to reduce their energy consumption, as well as to react
   positively in case of emergency, such as a risk of blackout.

   The EMAN framework will enable building owners to control their own
   consumption and, unlike a meter, to break it down to who's consuming
   what and when.

   Laptops, air conditioning, phone, desktops, lighting and so on will
   all be metered and controlled using the EMAN framework. EMAN can,
   for instance, act as a communication protocol between a presence
   system to deactivate the cooling and phones when there's no one on
   the floor.

1.3.2. Home Energy Gateways

   Home Energy Gateways are devices with remote metering capabilities,
   and will let service providers and utility companies respond to
   demand by varying pricing according to time of usage.

   Within a home network, it is desirable to schedule tasks that can
   wait to a later time, provided it will be cheaper. For instance, it
   really does not matter when the dishwasher runs as long as it is
   done for the next day at the cheapest price.



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   Using the EMAN framework, the HEG will know that some appliances are
   waiting to be activated and based on pricing or other indicators may
   take the decision to trigger those appliances.

1.3.3. Datacenters

   Datacenters too are big energy consumers. All that equipment
   generates heat, and heat needs to be evacuated though a HVAC system.
   Reducing the datacenter consumption means slowing down or turning
   off equipment and cooling.

   Most organizations will target datacenter initially because the
   problem is centralized logically and physically, and a lot of money
   is involved in such projects. Some don't because datacenters are
   usually operated 24/7 and mission-critical.

   A data center spend 50% of its energy on cooling, 37% on IT
   infrastructure, 10% on electrical conversion loss, and 3% on
   lighting. [PARELLO]

   Within the IT infrastructure, energy consumption breakdown for
   datacenter is 45% for computing, 40% for storage and 15% for
   networking. [PARELLO]

   The EMAN framework will enable that level of control by providing a
   unified means of communication between heterogeneous devices over a
   network.

1.3.4. Smart Power Strips

   Smart Power Strips are power strips with communication capability to
   remotely enable / disable a particular plug, and sometimes to
   measure power consumption.

   Those strips are currently supporting either their own proprietary
   protocol, or at best SNMP, but EMAN will provide a framework that
   has been specifically designed for this purpose.



2. Relation of EMAN to Other Frameworks and Technologies

   EMAN as a framework is tied with other standards and efforts in the
   area. We will try to re-use existing standards as much as possible,
   as well as providing control to adjacent technologies such as Smart
   Grid.



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   We have listed most of them with a brief description of what is
   their objective and the current state.

2.1. IEC

   The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) has available a
   broad set of standards for power management.  Among these, the most
   applicable to our purposes is IEC 61850, a standard for the design
   of electrical substation automation.  The abstract data model
   defined in 61850 is built upon and extends the Common Information
   Model (CIM). The complete 61850 CIM model includes over hundred
   object classes and is widely used by utilities in the US and
   worldwide

   IEC TC57 WG19 is an ongoing working group to harmonize the CIM data
   model and 61850 standards.

   This set of standards is oriented to the substation. An electrical
   substation is a subsidiary station of an electricity generation,
   transmission and distribution system where voltage is transformed
   from high to low or the reverse using transformers. While the domain
   of 61850 is substation automation, the extensive model that resulted
   has been widely used in other areas, including Energy Management
   Systems (EMS) and forms the core of many Smart Grid standards.

2.2. ISO

   The ISO is developing an Energy Management framework called ISO
   50001.  The intent of the framework is to facilitate the creation of
   energy management programs for industrial, commercial and other
   entities.  The standard defines a process for energy management at a
   an organization level.  It is not expected to define the way in
   which devices report energy and consume energy. The IETF effort
   would be complementary.

   "The future ISO 50001 standard for energy management was recently
   approved as a Draft International Standard (DIS).

   ISO 50001 will establish a framework for industrial plants,
   commercial facilities or entire organizations to manage energy.
   Targeting broad applicability across national economic sectors, it
   is estimated that the standard could influence up to 60% of the
   world's energy use.





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   The document is based on the common elements found in all of ISO's
   management system standards, assuring a high level of compatibility
   with ISO 9001 (quality management) and ISO 14001 (environmental
   management). ISO 50001 will provide the following benefits:

  - A framework for integrating energy efficiency into management
     practices
  - Making better use of existing energy-consuming assets
  - Benchmarking, measuring, documenting, and reporting energy
     intensity improvements and their projected impact on reductions in
     greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions
  - Transparency and communication on the management of energy
     resources
  - Energy management best practices and good energy management
     behaviors
  - Evaluating and prioritizing the implementation of new energy-
     efficient technologies
  - A framework for promoting energy efficiency throughout the supply
     chain
  - Energy management improvements in the context of GHG emission
     reduction projects.

  ISO 50001 is being developed by ISO project committee ISO/PC 242,
  Energy management. The secretariat of ISO/PC 242 is provided by the
  partnership of the ISO members for the USA (ANSI) and Brazil (ABNT).
  Forty-two ISO member countries are participating in its development,
  with another 10 as observers.

  Now that ISO 50001 has advanced to the DIS stage, national member
  bodies of ISO have been invited to vote and comment on the text of
  the standard during the five-month balloting period.

  If the outcome of the DIS voting is positive, the modified document
  will then be circulated to the ISO members as a Final Draft
  International Standard (FDIS). If that vote is positive, ISO 50001 is
  expected to be published as an International Standard by early 2011."

   http://www.iso.org/iso/pressrelease.htm?refid=Ref1337






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2.3. ANSI C12

   The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) has defined a
   collection of power meter standards under ANSI C12.  The primary
   standards include communication protocols (C12.18, 21 and 22), data
   and schema definitions (C12.19), measurement accuracy (C12.20).
   European equivalent standards are provided by the IEC.

   ANSI C12.20 defines accuracy classes for watt-hour meters.  Typical
   accuracy classes are class 0.5, class 1, and class 3; which
   correspond to +/- 0.5%, +/- 1% and +/- 3% accuracy thresholds.

   All of these standards are targeted toward the meter itself, and are
   therefore very specific and oriented toward electricity distributors
   and producers.



2.4. EnergyStar US EPA

   The US Environmental Protection Agency and US Department of Energy
   jointly sponsor the Energy Star program.  The program promotes the
   development of energy efficient products and practices.

   Energy Star approved appliances in the home or business must meet
   specific energy efficiency targets set by the EPA and US Department
   of Energy.  The Energy Star program also provides planning tools and
   technical documentation to help homeowners design more energy
   efficient homes. Energy Star is a program; it's not a protocol or
   standard.

   For businesses and data centers, Energy Star offers technical
   support to help companies establish energy conservation practices.
   Energy Star provides best practices for measuring current energy
   performance, goal setting, and tracking improvement.  The Energy
   Star tools offered include a rating system for building performance.
   The rating system can be used for benchmarking against other
   buildings.

   http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=about.ab_history

2.5. DMTF

   The DMTF continues to develop and enhance its standardized
   management solutions that include full power-state configuration and
   management of any heterogeneous managed environment.



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   Currently there are two primary specifications that would address or
   benefit EMAN-like behavior, they are listed below.  Both
   specifications are fully extensible to meet any existing physical,
   logical or virtual system management requirements specific to power-
   state control.

   Through various Working Group efforts these specifications continue
   to evolve and advance in features and functionalities.  Both
   specifications can be found at the DMTF web site:

   http://www.dmtf.org

   The DMTF uses CIM-based (Common Information Model)'Profiles' that
   extend the management capabilities of referencing profiles and
   managers to represent and manage power utilization and configuration
   of any managed element.

   The key 'Profile' is titled and labeled 'Power Utilization
   Management Profile'  DSP 1085.

   The Profile defines via configuration of the Power Managed Element
   power utilization modes, capping values and levels, among other
   features.

   Included in the Profile is the power management service that
   represents the behavior of the power utilization management modes
   and related classes of a Power Managed Element.  Systems that
   support power management modes are capable of operating at, and
   being controlled at, different rates of power consumption.  This
   management profile allows full span of control for this behavior.

   Power capping functions of any managed element is also included
   behavior and is part of the active management capabilities that is
   based on dynamic and static configuration features for system
   operation.

2.5.1. Desktop And Mobile Architecture for System Hardware (DASH)

   The DMTF has addressed the challenges of managing heterogeneous
   desktop and mobile systems (including power) via in-band and out-of-
   band environments.

   The DMTF has produced the DASH (Desktop and Mobile Architecture for
   System Hardware) specifications as a solution.

   Based on the DMTF's WS-Management and CIM (Common Information Model)
   the solution provides for a standardized and comprehensive framework


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   that delivers the syntax and semantics necessary to manage and
   control (among other things) configuration and consumption of
   managed elements like power, CPU etc.

   Through the use of the common syntax and semantics the creation of
   an API / Interface set is realized.

   The DASH specification is DSP0232.

   Both in service and out-of-service systems can be managed with the
   DASH specification in a fully secured remote environment.

   Full power-state management is afforded by DASH including full
   'remote control' of the state of any managed device through a full
   power lifecycle.

2.6. SmartGrid

   The Smart Grid standards efforts underway in the United States are
   overseen by the US National Institute of Standards and Technology
   [NIST].  NIST was given the charter to oversee the development of
   smart grid related standards by the Energy Independence and Security
   Act of 2007.  NIST is responsible for coordinating a public-private
   partnership with key energy and consumer stakeholders in order to
   facilitate the development of smart grid standards.

   The smart grid standards activity (sponsored and hosted by NIST) is
   monitored and facilitated by the SGIP (Smart Grid Interoperability
   Panel).  This group has several sub groups called working groups.
   These teams examine smaller parts of the smart grid.  They include
   B2G, I2G, and H2G and others (Building to Grid; Industrial to Grid
   and Home to Grid).

   http://collaborate.nist.gov/twiki-
   sggrid/bin/view/SmartGrid/SGIPWorkingGroupsAndCommittees

   When a working group detects a standard or technology gap, the team
   seeks approval from the SGIP for the creation of a Priority Action
   Plan (PAP).  The PAP is a private-public partnership with a charter
   to close a specific gap.  There are currently 17 Priority Action
   Plans (PAP).

   PAP 10 Addresses "Standard Energy Usage Information".

   According to the PAP website, "Customers will benefit from
   standardized energy usage information that enables them to make
   better decisions and take other actions consistent with the goals of


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   Sections 1301 and 1305 of EISA. An understanding of energy usage
   informs better decisions about energy use and conservation, and is
   the basis for performance feedback on the operation of customer
   owned energy management systems and understanding device energy
   usage and management.

   Some states have already mandated customer access to meter-based
   usage information. As part of this action plan a limited set of
   requirements are driving a specification.


   Subsequent work will drive a standardized information model for
   broader exchange of usage information. This model for cross-domain
   interaction needs the characteristics of integration models as
   described elsewhere in this document."

2.7. NAESB, ASHRAE and NEMA

   As an output of the PAP10's work on the standard information model,
   multiple stakeholders agreed to work on a utility centric model in
   NAESB (North American Electric Standards Board) and the building
   side information model in a joint effort by American Society of
   Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) and
   National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA).

   The NAESB effort is a NAESB REQ/WEQ.
   http://www.naesb.org/smart_grid_PAP10.asp

   The ASHRAE effort is SPC201.   http://collaborate.nist.gov/twiki-
   sggrid/bin/view/SmartGrid/PAP17Information

   The output of both ANSI approved SDO's is an information model.  It
   is not a device level monitoring protocol.

   After the ASHRAE SPC201 group formed as a result of initial work
   done by the PAP 10, the SGIP added PAP17 in order to focus
   specifically on in-building standards for energy using devices.

   PAP 17 "will lead to development of a data model standard to enable
   energy consuming devices and control systems in the customer
   premises to manage electrical loads and generation sources in
   response to communication with the Smart Grid. It will be possible
   to communicate information about those electrical loads to
   utilities, other electrical service providers, and market operators.

   The term "Facility Smart Grid Information" is intended to convey the
   nature of critical information originating from the customer


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   operated "facility" which deals with the representation and dynamics
   of loads including prediction, measurement and shedding. It also
   helps to distinguish between this PAP and that of PAP10 which deals
   exclusively with the representation of energy usage.

   This data model standard will complement the flow, aggregation,
   summary, and forecasting of energy usage information being
   standardized by NAESB in PAP10 through the definition of additional
   distinct model components. While the NAESB standard is focusing on
   "a single limited-scope information model" that "will not cover all
   interactions associated with energy in the home or commercial space"
   including, for example, load management ("Report to the SGIP
   Governing Board: PAP10 plan," June 15, 2010), these new components
   will address load modeling and behavior necessary to manage on-site
   generation, demand response, electrical storage, peak demand
   management, load shedding capability estimation, and responsive
   energy load control."

   http://collaborate.nist.gov/twiki-
   sggrid/bin/view/SmartGrid/PAP17FacilitySmartGridInformationStandard



2.8. ZigBee

   The "Zigbee Smart Energy 2.0 effort" currently focuses on wireless
   communication to smart home appliances.  It is intended to enable
   home energy management and direct load control by utilities.

   ZigBee protocols are intended for use in embedded applications
   requiring low data rates and low power consumption. ZigBee's current
   focus is to define a general-purpose, inexpensive, self-organizing
   mesh network that can be used for industrial control, embedded
   sensing, medical data collection, smoke and intruder warning,
   building automation, home automation, etc.

   It is not known if the Zigbee Alliance plans to extend support of
   SEP 2.0 to business class devices.  There also does not appear to be
   a plan for context aware marking.

   Zigbee is currently not an ANSI recognized SDO-but they are working
   toward formal recognition.

3. Limitations

   EMAN will address the needs of the network operators both in term of
   measurement and control over IP networks. Other protocols may


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   already exists (ModBus), but are not designed initially to work on
   IP, even if in some cases it is possible to transport them over IP
   with some limitations.

   The EMAN framework does not aim to address questions regarding
   Smartgrid, Electricity producers, distributors even if there is
   obvious link between them.

4. Security Considerations

   The whole context of energy management has brought a lot of
   attention from the security experts, particularly since SmartGrid is
   often depicted as a big security risk.

   To a more limited extent, the EMAN framework may suffer the same
   security risk, more specifically when the notion of "control" is
   being used. No one wants to jeopardize the service's stability by
   letting hacker shut down critical equipment.

   Multiple mechanisms and solutions can be envisioned, and this is
   what others have been doing in this area:

4.1. SmartGrid

   Even if discussing SmartGrid security is not the scope of this
   document, NIST has found at least five standards that are directly
   related to smart grid security. That includes standards from NERC,
   IEEE, AMI System Security Requirements, UtilityAMI Home Area Network
   System Requirements and IEC standards.

   The SmartGrid security issue is more difficult being actually an
   open network, spawning entire territories and devices from smart
   meters, secondary and primary sub stations, etc...

   EDITOR'S NODE: TO BE EXPANDED

4.2. Cisco EnergyWise

   EnergyWise security uses secret shared secret in a layer fashion.
   Devices within a layer share the same password, and devices talking
   to upper / lower layers also know the password. The password can be
   made more resistant against replay and man-in-the-middle attacks by
   incorporating a time-of-day component as part of it.

5. IANA Considerations

   This memo includes no request to IANA.


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6. References

6.1. Normative References

6.2. Informative References

    [PARELLO] IP-Enabled Energy Management: A Proven Strategy for
             Administering Energy as a Service. Rob Aldrich, John
             Parello. ISBN: 978-0-470-60725-1. October 2010.

    [NIST]  http://www.nist.gov/smartgrid/





7. Acknowledgments

   This document was prepared using 2-Word-v2.0.template.dot.

   The authors would like to thank Jeff Wheeler for its contribution to
   the DMTF section.





   Copyright (c) 2010 IETF Trust and the persons identified as authors
   of the code. All rights reserved.

   Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
   modification, is permitted pursuant to, and subject to the license
   terms contained in, the Simplified BSD License set forth in Section
   4.c of the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info).

Authors' Addresses

   Emmanuel Tychon
   Cisco Systems, Inc.
   De Keleetlaan, 6A
   B1831 Diegem
   Belgium
   Email: etychon@cisco.com





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   Matthew Laherty
   Cisco Systems, Inc.
   Email: mlaherty@cisco.com




   Brad Schoening
   Cisco Systems, Inc.
   44 Rivers Edge Drive
   Little Silver, NJ 07739
   USA
   Email: braschoe@cisco.com


































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