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     Energy Management Working Group                           E. Tychon
     Internet Draft                                  Cisco Systems, Inc.
     Intended status: Informational                        B. Schoening
     Expires: December 24,2011                 Noveda Technologies, Inc.
                                                     Mouli Chandramouli
                                                      Cisco Systems Inc.
                                                          June 24, 2011
     
     
     
     
                  Energy Management (EMAN) Applicability Statement
                  draft-tychon-eman-applicability-statement-02
     
     
     Status of this Memo
     
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     Abstract
     
        The objective of Energy Management (EMAN) is to provide an energy
        management framework for networked devices. In this document the
        applicability of the EMAN framework for a variety of network
        scenarios is described. This document lists a number of use-cases
        that can implement the EMAN framework and the associated MIB
        modules. Furthermore, we describe the relationship of the EMAN
        framework to other energy monitoring standards and architectures.
     
     
     Table of Contents
     
        1. Introduction................................................3
           1.1. Energy Management Overview.............................4
           1.2. Energy Measurement.....................................4
           1.3. Energy Management......................................5
           1.4. EMAN framework Application.............................5
           1.5. EMAN WG Documents Overview.............................6
        2. Scenarios and Target devices................................7
           2.1. Network devices-Routers, switches....................7
           2.2. Devices attached to a network-PoE powered devices.....7
           2.3. Power probes and Smart Meters PDUs....................8
           2.4. Mid-level managers.....................................8
           2.5. Gateways to building networks..........................9
           2.6. Home energy gateways..................................10
           2.7. Data center devices...................................10
           2.8. Ganged outlets on a PDU-Multiple power sources......11
        3. Use case patterns..........................................12
           3.1. Internal or External Metering.........................12
           3.2. Power supply and Metering and/or Control..............12
           3.3. Metering and/or Control...............................13
           3.4. Multiple Power Sources................................13
        4. Relationship of EMAN to other Energy Standards.............13
           4.1. IEC...................................................13
           4.2. ANSI C12..............................................14
           4.3. DMTF..................................................14
              4.3.1. Common Information Model Profiles................15
     
     
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              4.3.2. DASH................................................15
           4.4. ODVA.....................................................16
           4.5. Ecma SDC.................................................16
           4.6. ISO......................................................16
           4.7. EnergyStar...............................................17
           4.8. SmartGrid................................................18
           4.9. NAESB, ASHRAE and NEMA...................................18
           4.10. ZigBee..................................................19
        5. Limitations...................................................20
        6. Security Considerations.......................................20
        7. IANA Considerations...........................................20
        8. References....................................................21
           8.1. Normative References.....................................21
           8.2. Informative References...................................21
        9. Acknowledgments...............................................22
     
     
     
     1. Introduction
     
        The focus of Energy Management (EMAN) framework is on energy
        monitoring and management of energy aware devices.  The scope of
        devices considered for energy management are network entities and
        devices connected to the network. As a fundamental objective, Energy
        Management framework enables devices to be energy aware; i.e. to
        report their power usage (directly or indirectly) and secondly to
        optimize their energy usage. EMAN framework enables heterogeneous
        devices to report their energy consumption, and if permissible,
        enable configuration of policies for power savings.  There are
        multiple scenarios where this is desirable, particularly today
        considering the increased importance of limiting consumption of
        finite energy resources and reducing operational expenses.
     
     
        The EMAN framework describes how energy information can be
        retrieved, controlled and monitored from IP-enabled energy aware
        devices using Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). In essence,
        the Energy Management framework defines Management Information Base
        (MIBs) for SNMP.
     
        In this document, typical applications of the EMAN framework are
        described; as well as opportunities and limitations of the
        framework. Furthermore, other standards that are similar to EMAN but
        address different domains are described. In addition, this document
        serves as an introductory reference for an overall understanding of
        Energy efficiency of networks and this document contains the
        references to other Energy standards.
     
     
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     1.1. Energy Management Overview
     
        Firstly, a brief introduction to the definitions of Energy and Power
        are presented.
     
        Energy is defined as the capacity to perform a particular work. The
        particular form of energy of interest is electrical energy
        consumption by energy aware devices. Electrical energy is typically
        expressed in kilowatt-hour units (noted kWh). One kilowatt-hour is
        defined as the electrical energy used by a 1 Kilowatt appliance for
        one hour. Power is defined as the rate of electrical energy consumed
        by the device. In other words, power = energy / time. Power is often
        measured in Watts. Billing is based on electrical energy (measured
        in Watt-hours) supplied by the utility.
     
        Towards the goal of attaining energy efficiency in networks, a first
        step is to enable devices to report the energy usage over time.
        Energy Management framework addresses this problem. An information
        model on how to model the device: its identity, the device
        context, the power measurement and measurement attributes are
        captured in an information model.
     
        SNMP based MIB module is proposed based on the information model.
        Any network device that has implementation of the MIB module, can
        report its energy consumption. In that context, from an energy-
        monitoring point of view, it is important to distinguish the device
        types; i.e.; devices that can report its energy usage and the other
        type of devices who collect and aggregate energy usage of a group of
        subtended devices.
     
        The scope of devices considered for Energy Management is listed in
        the Use case section with detailed examples.
     
     1.2. Energy Measurement
     
        More and more devices today are able to measure and report their own
        energy consumption. Smart power strips and some of the current
        generation Power-over-Ethernet switches are already able to meter
        consumption of the connected devices.  However, when managed and
        reported through proprietary means, this information is not really
        useful at the enterprise level.
     
        The primary goal of EMAN is to enable reporting and management
        within a standard framework that is applicable to a wide variety of
        today's end-devices, meters and proxies.
     
     
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        Being able to know who's consuming what, when and how at any time by
        leveraging existing networks, across various equipment, in a unified
        and consistent manner is one pillar of the EMAN framework.
     
        Given that a device can consume energy and possibly provide energy
        to other devices, it is possible to consider three types of meters
        for energy measurement; i.e., meter for energy consumed, meter for
        energy supplied to other devices, and a net (resultant) meter which
        is the sum of consumed and provided.
     
     
     1.3. Energy Management
     
     
        There are many cases where reducing energy consumption is desirable,
        such as when the demand is already high, when there's no one using
        the resource, and so on.
     
        In some cases, you can't simply turn it off without considering the
        context. For instance you cannot turn off all the phones, because
        some phones may still need to be available in case of emergency. You
        can't turn office cooling off totally during non-work hours, but you
        can reduce the comfort level, and so on.
     
        Beyond monitoring, the EMAN framework shall be generalized to
        consider the mechanisms for control of devices for power savings.
     
        Power control requires flexibility and support for different polices
        and mechanisms; including centralized management with a network
        management station, autonomous management by individual devices, and
        alignment with dynamic demand-response mechanisms.
     
     1.4. EMAN framework Application
     
        In this section, the typical application of EMAN framework is
        described. A network operator can install management software for
        collecting energy information for devices in the network. The scope
        of the devices considered for energy management is listed in Section
        2.
     
        A Network Management System (NMS) is the entity that requests
        information from compatible devices using SNMP. It may be a system
        which also implements other network management functions, e.g.
        security management, identity management and so on), or one that
        only deals with energy in which case it is called EMS (Energy
     
     
     
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        Management System).  It may be limited to monitoring energy use, or
        it may also implement control functions.
     
        Energy Management can be implemented by extending existing SNMP
        support to the EMAN specific MIBs to deal with energy reporting.
     
        By using SNMP, we have an industry proven and well-known technique
        to discover, secure, measure and control SNMP enabled end devices.
        EMAN framework provides an information and data model to unify
        access to a large range of devices.
     
     
     1.5. EMAN WG Documents Overview
     
        The EMAN working group at IETF and its charter is focused on a
        series of Internet standard drafts in the area of Energy management
        of networks. The following drafts are currently under discussion in
        the working group.
     
          Requirements draft [EMAN-REQ] This draft presents the
          requirements of Energy Monitoring and the scope of the devices
          considered.
     
          Applicability Statement draft [EMAN-AS] This draft presents the
          use cases and scenarios for energy monitoring. In addition, other
          relevant energy standards and architectures are listed.
     
          Framework draft [EMAN-FRAMEWORK] This draft defines the
          terminology and explains the different concepts associated with
          energy monitoring. These concepts are used in the MIB modules.
     
          Energy-Aware MIB draft [EMAN-AWARE-MIB] This draft proposes a
          MIB module that characterizes the identity of the device and the
          devices context.
     
          Monitoring MIB draft [EMAN-MONITORING-MIB] This draft contains a
          MIB module for monitoring the power and energy consumption of the
          device. In addition, the MIB module contains an optional module
          for the power quality metrics.
     
          Battery MIB draft [EMAN-BATTERY-MIB] This draft contains a MIB
          module for monitoring the energy consumption of a battery device.
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
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     2. Scenarios and Target devices
     
        In this section a selection of scenarios for energy management is
        presented. For each scenario, a list of target devices is given in
        the section heading, for which the energy management framework is
        required and thus can be applied.
     
     2.1. Network devices-Routers, switches
     
     
        This scenario covers network devices and its components. Power
        management of network devices is considered as a fundamental
        requirement (basic first step) of Energy Management of networks. The
        objective of this example scenario is to illustrate monitoring of
        network devices and the granularity of monitoring.
     
        From an energy management perspective, it is important to monitor
        the power state and energy consumption of devices at a granularity
        level that is finer than just the device level. For these network
        devices, the chassis draws power from an outlet and feeds all its
        internal sub-components. It is highly desirable to have monitoring
        available for individual components, such as line cards, processors,
        hard drives but also peripherals like USB devices or display
        monitor.
     
        As an illustrative example of network device scenario, consider a
        switch with the following list of grouping of sub-entities of the
        switch for which monitoring the energy monitoring could be useful.
     
          .  physical view: chassis (or stack), line cards, service modules
             of the switch
          .  component view: CPU, ASICs, fans, power supply, ports (single
             port and port groups), storage and memory
          .  logical view: system, data-plane, control-plane, etc.
     
     2.2. Devices attached to a network, PoE powered devices
     
     
        This scenario covers devices using Power over Ethernet (PoE). Such a
        connection provides both network connectivity as well as power over
        a single connection. Down the PoE ports can be IP Phones, Wireless
        Access Points, IP Camera devices.
     
     
     
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        The switch uses its own power supply to power itself us, as well as
        all the downstream PoE ports. Monitoring the power consumption of
        the switch and the power consumption of the PoE endpoints is a
        simple use case of this scenario.
     
        A PoE Power Sourcing Equipment (PSE), a PoE switch, provides power
        to a Powered Device (PD), a PoE desktop phone. Here, the PSE
        provides means for controlling power supply (switching it on and
        off) and for monitoring actual power provided at a port to a
        specific PD.
     
     
     2.3. Power probes and Smart Meters-PDUs
     
        This use case describes the scenario of devices that can not measure
        their own power consumption. In this case, another piece of
        equipment can be used and measure the device power consumption.
        Examples are smart meter and smart PDUs.
     
        Some devices are not equipped with sufficient instrumentation to
        measure their own actual power and accumulated energy consumption.
        External probes can be connected to the power supply to measure
        these properties for a single device or for a set of devices.
     
        Power Distribution Unit (PDUs) attached to racks in a data center
        and other smart power strips are evolving in parallel with smart
        meters. Each socket of the PDU distributes power to a device in the
        rack. The smart meters at the PDUs report the power consumption of
        the device connected to the socket at PDU. Power consumption can be
        measured at socket level and the switch provides the network
        connectivity and can be the aggregator of power consumption for all
        entities. These PDUs have remote management functionality which can
        also be used to control power supply of each socket of the PDU.
        Homes, buildings, have smart meters that monitor and report
        accumulated power consumption of an entire home, a set of offices.
     
     
     2.4. Mid-level managers
     
     
        This use case describes the scenario of devices that receive power
        supply from one source. The reporting of power measurement and
        possibly control can be performed by some other entity.
     
        Sometimes it is useful to have mid-level managers that provide
        energy management functions not just for themselves but also for
     
     
     
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        a set of associated devices. For example, a switch can provide
        energy management functions for all devices connected to its ports,
        even if these devices are not powered by the switch, but have their
        own power supply as, for example, laptops..
     
        In a daisy-chain scenario, a switch port can have both a PoE
        connection powering the IP Phone, and a PC connected to the IP Phone
        for network connectivity. The PC draw power from the wall outlet,
        the phone draws power from the switch.
     
        However, it would be possible to monitor the power consumption of
        even those non-PoE devices. The devices report their power
        consumption to the switch and the switch is the aggregator for the
        power consumption of those non-PoE devices.
     
        Thus, the switch is the mid-level manager, offering reporting and
        aggregation of power consumption even for devices it does not supply
        power, devices connected to it and supplies power, and itself.
     
        Yet another similar use case is when laptop computers connected to
        the wireless access points. The wireless access points are connected
        to the PoE ports of the switch. The switch, acting as a mid-level
        manager, can aggregate the power consumption of those non-PoE
        devices.
     
     
     
     2.5. Gateways to building networks
     
     
        This use case describes the scenario of energy management of
        buildings. In these networks, there is a gateway interfacing to
        building network protocols.
     
        Building Management Systems (BMS) are often in place for many years
        and most of them are not based on IP. For the purpose of uniform
        management interface through EMAN, it is possible to have a gateway
        interfacing between the EMAN framework and building management
        network protocols.
     
        Due to the potential energy savings, energy management of buildings
        has received significant attention. There are gateway network
        elements to manage the multiple components of a building energy
        management network such as Heating Ventilating Air Conditioning
        (HVAC), lighting, electrical, fire and emergency systems, elevators
        etc. The gateway device communicates building network protocols with
     
     
     
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        those devices and collects their energy usage and reports the
        measurement to the network management systems.
     
        This is an example of a proxy with possibly different protocols for
        the network domain and building infrastructure domain. At the top of
        the network hierarchy of a building network is a gateway device that
        can perform protocol conversion between many facility management
        devices. The south building gateway communicates to the controllers,
        via RS-232/RS-485 interfaces, Ethernet interfaces, and building
        management protocols such as BACNET or MODBUS.  Each controller is
        associated with a specific energy-consuming function, such as HVAC,
        electrical or lighting.  The controllers are in turn connected to
        the actual building energy management devices:  meters, sub-meters,
        valves, actuators, etc.  Controller 1 is associated with a meter for
        the HVAC system and controller 2 can be associated with a meter for
        the Lighting.
     
     
     2.6. Home energy gateways
     
     
        This use case describes the scenario of energy management of a home.
        The home gateway scenario is an example of a proxy with interfaces
        to electrical appliances and devices and the electrical grid.
     
     
        Home energy gateway can be used for energy management of a home.
        This gateway can manage the appliances (refrigerator,
        heating/cooling, washing machine etc.) and interface with the
        electrical grid. The gateway can implement policies based on
        demand/response and energy pricing from the grid.
     
     
     2.7. Data center devices
     
     
        This use case describes the scenario of energy management of a Data
        Center.
     
        Energy efficiency of data centers has become a fundamental challenge
        of data center operation. The motivation is due to the fact that
        datacenters are big energy consumers. The equipment generates heat,
        and heat needs to be evacuated though a HVAC (Heating, Ventilating,
        and Air Conditioning) system.
     
     
     
     
     
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        Energy management can be implemented on different aggregation
        levels, such as network level, Power Distribution Unit (PDU) level,
        and server level.
     
        A typical data center network consists of a hierarchy of switches.
        At the bottom of the hierarchy are servers mounted on a rack, and
        these are connected to the top-of-the-rack switches.
     
     
        The top switches are connected to aggregation switches that are
        in turn connected to core switches.  As an example, Server 1 and
        Server 2 are connected to different switch ports of the top switch.
     
        Power consumption of all network elements and the servers in the
        Data center should be measured. The switch can be the aggregator for
        the power consumption of the data center.
     
        Scenario 8: Battery powered devices
     
        Some devices have a battery as a back-up source of power. Given the
        finite capacity and lifetime of a battery, means for reporting the
        actual charge, age, and state of a battery are required.
     
        The battery scenario useful for providing backup power for a finite
        duration for a single device can be generalized to energy storage
        devices that can provide backup power for many devices contained in
        data centers. Energy monitoring of such energy storage devices is
        vital from a data center network operations point of view.
     
        A server with an internal battery is shown. When the connection to
        the PDU is disconnected, the Server runs on the internal battery. It
        is important to monitor the power consumption of the battery.
     
     2.8. Ganged outlets on a PDU Multiple power sources
     
     
        This use case describes the scenario of multiple power sources of a
        devices and logical groupings
     
        Some PDUs allow physical entities like outlets to be "ganged"
        together as a logical entity for simplified management purposes.
        This is particularly useful for servers with multiple power
        supplies, where each power supply is connected to a different
        physical outlet. Other implementations allow "gangs" to be created
        based on common ownership of outlets, such as business units or load
        shed priority or other non-physical relationships.
     
     
     
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        Current implementations allow for an "M-to-N" mapping between outlet
        "gangs" and physical outlets.  An example of this mapping
        includes the following:
     
          . Outlet 1 - physical entity
          . Outlet 2 - physical entity
          . Outlet 3 - physical entity
          . Outlet 4 - physical entity
          . Outlet Gang A - virtual entity
          . Outlet Gang B - virtual entity
     
               o Gang A -> Outlets 1, 2 and 3
               o Gang B -> Outlets 3 and 4
     
     
        Note the allowed overlap on Outlet 3, where Outlet 3 belongs to both
        "gangs."
     
        Each "Outlet Gang" entity reports the aggregated data from the
        individual outlet entities that comprise it and enables a single
        point of control for all the individual outlet entities.
     
     
     
     
     3. Use case patterns
     
        The list of use cases presented can be abstracted in to one of the
        following broad patterns.
     
     3.1. Internal or External Metering
     
     
          . Entities that consume power can perform internal power metering
             on its own
     
          . Entities that consume power but have an external power meter
     
     
     3.2. Power supply and Metering and/or Control
     
     
          . Entities that supply power for other devices however does not
             perform power metering for devices
     
          . Entities that supply power for other devices and also perform
             power metering function
     
     
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          . Entities supply power for other devices and also perform power
             metering and control for other devices
     
     
     3.3. Metering and/or Control
     
     
     
          . Entities that do not supply power but perform only metering
             function for other designated devices
     
          . Entities which do not supply power but perform both metering
             and control for other designated devices
     
     
     
     3.4. Multiple Power Sources
     
     
     
          . Entities that have multiple power sources and metering and
             control is performed by one source
     
          . Entities that have multiple power sources and metering and is
             performed by one source and control another source
     
     
     
     4. Relationship of EMAN to other Energy Standards
     
        EMAN as a framework is tied with other standards and efforts in the
        energy arena. Existing standards are leveraged as much as possible,
        as well as providing control to adjacent technologies such as Smart
        Grid.
     
        Most of them are listed below with a brief description of their
        objectives and the current state.
     
     4.1. IEC
     
        The International Electro technical Commission (IEC) has developed a
        broad set of standards for power management.  Among these, the most
        applicable to our purposes is IEC 61850, a standard for the design
        of electric utility automation.  The abstract data model defined in
        61850 is built upon and extends the Common Information Model (CIM).
     
     
     
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        The complete 61850 CIM model includes over a hundred object classes
        and is widely used by utilities in the US and worldwide.
     
        This set of standards was originally conceived to automate control
        of a substation. An electrical substation is a subsidiary station of
        an electricity generation, transmission and distribution system
        where voltage is transformed from high to low or the reverse using
        transformers. While the original domain of 61850 is substation
        automation, the extensive model that resulted has been widely used
        in other areas, including Energy Management Systems (EMS) and forms
        the core of many Smart Grid standards.
     
        IEC TC57 WG19 is an ongoing working group to harmonize the CIM data
        model and 61850 standards.
     
        Concepts from IEC Standards have been reused in the EMAN WG drafts.
        In particular, AC Power Quality measurements have been reused from
        IEC 61850-7-4. The concept of Accuracy Classes for measurement of
        power and energy has been reused IEC 62053-21 and IEC 62053-22.
     
     4.2. ANSI C12
     
        The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) has defined a
        collection of power meter standards under ANSI C12.  The primary
        standards include communication protocols (C12.18, 21 and 22), data
        and schema definitions (C12.19), and measurement accuracy (C12.20).
        European equivalent standards are provided by the IEC 62053-22.
     
        ANSI C12.20 defines accuracy classes for watt-hour meters.  Typical
        accuracy classes are class 0.5, class 1, and class 3; which
        correspond to +/- 0.5%, +/- 1% and +/- 3% accuracy thresholds.
        All of these standards are oriented toward the meter itself, and are
        therefore very specific and used by electricity distributors and
        producers.
     
        The EMAN standard should be compatible with existing ANSI C12 and
        IEC standards.
     
     4.3. DMTF
     
        The DMTF [DMTF] has standardized management solutions for managing
        servers and desktops, including power-state configuration and
        management of elements in a heterogeneous environment.  These
        specifications provide physical, logical and virtual system
        management requirements for power-state control.
     
     
     
     
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        Through various Working Group efforts these specifications continue
        to evolve and advance in features and functionalities.
     
        The EMAN standard should reuse the concepts of Power Profile from
        DMTF and has advocated that as one of the possible Power State
        Series.
     
     
     4.3.1. Common Information Model Profiles
     
        The DMTF uses CIM-based (Common Information Model) 'Profiles' to
        represent and manage power utilization and configuration of a
        managed element.  The key profiles are 'Power Supply' (DSP 1015),
        'Power State' (DSP 1027) and 'Power Utilization Management' (DSP
        1085).
     
        These profiles define monitoring and configuration of a Power
        Managed Element's static and dynamic power saving modes, power
        allocation limits and power states, among other features.
     
        Power saving modes can be established as static or dynamic.  Static
        modes are fixed policies that limit power to a utilization or
        wattage limit. Dynamic power saving modes rely upon internal
        feedback to control power consumption.
     
        Power states are eight named operational and non operational levels.
        These are On, Sleep-Light, Sleep-Deep, Hibernate, Off-Soft, and Off-
        Hard.  Power change capabilities provide immediate, timed interval,
        and graceful transitions between on, off, and reset power states.
        Table 3 of the Power State Profile defines the correspondence
        between the ACPI and DMTF power state models, although it is not
        necessary for a managed element to support ACPI. Optionally, a
        TransitingToPowerState property can represent power state
        transitions in progress.
     
     
     4.3.2.  DASH
     
        DMTF DASH (DSP0232) (Desktop And Mobile Architecture for System
        Hardware ) has addressed the challenges of managing heterogeneous
        desktop and mobile systems (including power) via in-band and out-of-
        band environments.  Utilizing the DMTF's WS-Management web services
        and the CIM data model, DASH provides management and control of
        managed elements like power, CPU etc.
     
     
     
     
     
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        Both in service and out-of-service systems can be managed with the
        DASH specification in a fully secured remote environment.  Full
        power lifecycle management is possible using out-of-band management.
     
     
     4.4. ODVA
     
     
        ODVA is an association consisting of members from industrial
        automation companies. ODVA supports standardization of network
        technologies based on the Common Industrial Protocol (CIP). Within
        ODVA, there is a special interest group focused on energy and
        standardization and inter-operability of energy Aware devices.
     
        While there are many similar concepts between the ODVA and EMAN
        framework, in particular, the concept of different energy meters
        based on the device properties has been reused.
     
     
     4.5. Ecma SDC
     
        The Ecma International committee on Smart Data Centre (TC38-TG2 SDC
        [Ecma-SDC]) is in the process of defining semantics for management
        of entities in a data center such as servers, storage, network
        equipment, etc.  It covers energy as one of many functional
        resources or attributes of systems for monitoring and control.  It
        only defines messages and properties, and does not reference any
        specific protocol.  Its goal is to enable interoperability of such
        protocols as SNMP, BACNET, and HTTP by ensuring a common semantic
        model across them. Four power states are defined, Off, Sleep, Idle
        and Active.  The standard does not include actual power measurements
        in kw or kwh.
             th
        The 14  draft of SDC process was published in March 2001 and the
        development of the standard is still underway. When used with EMAN,
        the SDC standard will provide a thin abstraction on top of the more
        detailed data model available in EMAN.
     
     
     
     
     4.6. ISO
     
        The ISO [ISO] is developing an energy management standard called ISO
        50001, and complements ISO 9001 for quality management, and ISO
        14001 for environment management.  The intent of the framework is to
        facilitate the creation of energy management programs for
     
     
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        industrial, commercial and other entities.  The standard defines a
        process for energy management at an organization level.  It does not
        define the way in which devices report energy and consume energy.
        The IETF effort would be complementary.
     
        ISO 50001 is based on the common elements found in all of ISO's
        management system standards, assuring a high level of compatibility
        with ISO 9001 (quality management) and ISO 14001 (environmental
        management). ISO 50001 benefits includes:
     
       o Integrating energy efficiency into management practices and
          throughout the supply chain
       o Energy management best practices and good energy management
          behaviors
       o benchmarking, measuring, documenting, and reporting energy
          intensity improvements and their projected impact on reductions in
          greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions
       o Evaluating and prioritizing the implementation of new energy-
          efficient technologies
     
        ISO 50001 has been developed by ISO project committee ISO/PC 242,
        Energy management.
     
     4.7. EnergyStar
     
        The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and US Department of
        Energy (DOE) jointly sponsor the Energy Star program [ESTAR].  The
        program promotes the development of energy efficient products and
        practices.
     
        To earn Energy Star approval, appliances in the home or business
        must meet specific energy efficiency targets.  The Energy Star
        program also provides planning tools and technical documentation to
        help homeowners design more energy efficient homes. Energy Star is a
        program; it's not a protocol or standard.
     
        For businesses and data centers, Energy Star offers technical
        support to help companies establish energy conservation practices.
        Energy Star provides best practices for measuring current energy
        performance, goal setting, and tracking improvement.  The Energy
        Star tools offered include a rating system for building performance
        and comparative benchmarks.
     
        There is no immediate link between EMAN and EnergyStar, one being a
        protocol and the other a set of recommendations to develop energy
        efficient products.
     
     
     
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     4.8. SmartGrid
     
        The Smart Grid standards efforts underway in the United States are
        overseen by the US National Institute of Standards and Technology
        [NIST].  NIST was given the charter to oversee the development of
        smart grid related standards by the Energy Independence and Security
        Act of 2007.  NIST is responsible for coordinating a public-private
        partnership with key energy and consumer stakeholders in order to
        facilitate the development of smart grid standards.
        The smart grid standards activity (sponsored and hosted by NIST) is
        monitored and facilitated by the SGIP (Smart Grid Interoperability
        Panel).  This group has several sub groups called working groups.
        These teams examine smaller parts of the smart grid.  They include
        B2G, I2G, and H2G and others (Building to Grid; Industrial to Grid
        and Home to Grid).
     
        When a working group detects a standard or technology gap, the team
        seeks approval from the SGIP for the creation of a Priority Action
        Plan (PAP).  The PAP is a private-public partnership with a charter
        to close a specific gap.  There are currently 17 Priority Action
        Plans (PAP).
     
        PAP 10 Addresses "Standard Energy Usage Information".
        Smart Grid standards will provide distributed intelligence in the
        network and allow enhanced load shedding.  For example, pricing
        signals will enable selective shutdown of non critical activities
        during peak load pricing periods. These actions can be effected
        through both centralized and distributed management controls.
        Similarly, brown-outs, air quality alerts, and peak demand limits
        can be managed through the smart grid data models, based upon IEC
        61850.
     
        There is an obvious functional link between SmartGrid and EMAN in
        the form of demand/response, even if the EMAN framework does not
        take any specific step toward SmartGrid communication.
     
     4.9. NAESB, ASHRAE and NEMA
     
        As an output of the PAP10's work on the standard information model,
        multiple stakeholders agreed to work on a utility centric model in
        NAESB (North American Electric Standards Board)and the building side
        information model in a joint effort by American Society of Heating,
        Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) and National
     
     
     
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        Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA). The NAESB effort is a
        NAESB REQ/WEQ [NAESB].
        The output of both ANSI approved SDO's is an information model.  It
        is not a device level monitoring protocol.
        After the ASHRAE SPC201 group formed as a result of initial work
        done by the PAP 10, the SGIP added PAP17 in order to focus
        specifically on in-building standards for energy using devices.
     
        PAP 17 "will lead to development of a data model standard to enable
        energy consuming devices and control systems in the customer
        premises to manage electrical loads and generation sources in
        response to communication with the Smart Grid. It will be possible
        to communicate information about those electrical loads to
        utilities, other electrical service providers, and market operators.
        The term "Facility Smart Grid Information" is intended to convey the
        nature of critical information originating from the customer
        operated "facility" which deals with the representation and dynamics
        of loads including prediction, measurement and shedding. It also
        helps to distinguish between this PAP and that of PAP10 which deals
        exclusively with the representation of energy usage.
     
        This data model standard will complement the flow, aggregation,
        summary, and forecasting of energy usage information being
        standardized by NAESB in PAP10 through the definition of additional
        distinct model components. While the NAESB standard is focusing on
        "a single limited-scope information model" that "will not cover all
        interactions associated with energy in the home or commercial space"
        including, for example, load management ("Report to the SGIP
        Governing Board: PAP10 plan," June 15, 2010), these new components
        will address load modeling and behavior necessary to manage on-site
        generation, demand response, electrical storage, peak demand
        management, load shedding capability estimation, and responsive
        energy load control."
     
     
     
     4.10. ZigBee
     
        The Zigbee Smart Energy 2.0 effort[ZIGBEE] currently focuses on
        wireless communication to smart home appliances.  It is intended to
        enable home energy management and direct load control by utilities.
     
        ZigBee protocols are intended for use in embedded applications
        requiring low data rates and low power consumption. ZigBee's current
        focus is to define a general-purpose, inexpensive, self-organizing
        mesh network that can be used for industrial control, embedded
     
     
     
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        sensing, medical data collection, smoke and intruder warning,
        building automation, home automation, etc.
        It is not known if the Zigbee Alliance plans to extend support to
        business class devices.  There also does not appear to be a plan for
        context aware marking.
     
        Zigbee is currently not an ANSI recognized SDO.
     
        The EMAN framework addresses the needs of IP-enabled networks
        through the usage of SNMP, while Zigbee looks for completely
        integrated and inexpensive mesh solution.
     
     5. Limitations
     
        EMAN Framework shall address the needs of energy monitoring in term
        of measurement and, to a lesser extent, on the control aspects of
        energy monitoring of networks.
     
        It is not the purpose of EMAN to create a new protocol stack for
        energy-aware endpoints, but rather to create a data and information
        model to measure and report energy and other metrics over SNMP.
     
        Other legacy protocols may already exist (MODBUS), but are not
        designed initially to work on IP, even if in some cases it is
        possible to transport them over IP with some limitations.
        The EMAN framework does not aim to address questions regarding
        SmartGrid, electricity producers, and distributors even if there is
        obvious link between them.
     
     
     
     6. Security Considerations
     
        EMAN shall use SNMP protocol for energy monitoring and thus has the
        functionality of  SNMP's security capabilities. More specifically,
        SNMPv3 [RFC3411] provides important security features such as
        confidentiality, integrity, and authentication.
     
     
     7. IANA Considerations
     
        This memo includes no request to IANA.
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
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     8. References
     
     8.1. Normative References
     
        [RFC3411] An Architecture for Describing Simple Network Management
                Protocol (SNMP) Management Frameworks
     
     
     8.2. Informative References
     
     
     
     
        [DASH] "Desktop and mobile Architecture for System Hardware",
                http://www.dmtf.org/standards/mgmt/dash/
     
        [NIST]  http://www.nist.gov/smartgrid/
     
        [Ecma-SDC] Ecma TC38 / SDC Task Group, "Smart Data Centre Resource
                Monitoring and Control (DRAFT)", March 2011.
     
        [ENERGY] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kilowatt_hour
     
        [EMAN-AS] Tychon, E., Laherty, M., and B. Schoening, "Energy
                Management (EMAN) Applicability Statement", draft-tychon-
                eman-applicability-statement-01.txt, work in progress, March
                2011.
     
        [EMAN-REQ] Quittek, J., Winter, R., Dietz, T., Claise, B., and M.
                Chandramouli, " Requirements for Energy Management ", draft-
                ietf-eman-requirements-01 (work in progress),March 2011.
     
        [EMAN-MONITORING-MIB] M. Chandramouli, Schoening, B., Dietz, T.,
                Quittek, J. and B. Claise  "Energy and Power Monitoring MIB
                ", draft-claise-energy-monitoring-mib-08, May 2011.
     
        [EMAN-AWARE-MIB] J. Parello, and B. Claise, "draft-ietf-eman-energy-
                aware-mib-01 ", work in progress, March 2011.
     
        [EMAN-FRAMEWORK] Claise, B., Parello, J., Schoening, B., and J.
                Quittek, "Energy Management Framework", draft-ietf-eman-
                framework-01 , March 2011.
     
        [EMAN-BATTERY-MIB] Quittek, J., Winter, R., and T. Dietz,
                "Definition of Managed Objects for Battery Monitoring"
                draft-ietf-eman-battery-mib-00.txt, April 2011.
     
     
     
     
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        [DMTF] "Power State Management Profile DMTF  DSP1027  Version 2.0"
                December 2009.
                http://www.dmtf.org/sites/default/files/standards/documents/
                DSP1027_2.0.0.pdf
     
        [ESTAR]  http://www.energystar.gov/[ISO]
                http://www.iso.org/iso/pressrelease.htm?refid=Ref1434
     
        [SGRID]  http://collaborate.nist.gov/twiki-
                sggrid/bin/view/SmartGrid/SGIPWorkingGroupsAndCommittees
     
        [NAESB] http://www.naesb.org/smart_grid_PAP10.asp
     
        [ASHRAE] http://collaborate.nist.gov/twiki-
                sggrid/bin/view/SmartGrid/PAP17Information
     
        [PAP17] http://collaborate.nist.gov/twiki-
                sggrid/bin/view/SmartGrid/PAP17FacilitySmartGridInformationS
                tandard
     
        [ZIGBEE] http://www.zigbee.org/
     
        [ISO]  http://www.iso.org/iso/pressrelease.htm?refid=Ref1337
     
     
     
     
     9. Acknowledgments
     
     
        The authors would like to thank Jeff Wheeler, Benoit Claise, Juergen
        Quittek, Chris Verges, John Parello, Matt Laherty, and Bruce Nordman
        for their valuable contributions.
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
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     Authors' Addresses
     
        Emmanuel Tychon
        Cisco Systems, Inc.
        De Keleetlaan, 6A
        B1831 Diegem
        Belgium
        Email: etychon@cisco.com
     
     
        Brad Schoening
        44 Rivers Edge Drive
        Little Silver, NJ 07739
        USA
        Email: brad@bradschoening.com
     
     
        Mouli Chandramouli
        Cisco Systems, Inc.
        Sarjapur Outer Ring Road
        Bangalore,
        IN
     
        Phone: +91 80 4426 3947
        Email: moulchan@cisco.com
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
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