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Versions: 00

  HIP Working Group                                            P. Urien
  Internet Draft                                      Telecom ParisTech
  Intended status: Informational                       October 16, 2009

  Expires: April 16, 2010

                                  HIP for IoT
                          draft-urien-hip-iot-00.txt

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                               HIP for IoT               October 2009

Abstract

   The goal of this document is to analyze issues raised by the
   deployment of the Internet Of Things, and to propose a framework
   based on an Identity Layer such as the HIP protocol

Conventions used in this document

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC-2119.


Table of Contents

   Abstract........................................................... 2
   Conventions used in this document.................................. 2
   Table of Contents.................................................. 2
      1 Introduction.................................................. 3
      1.1 Tags and Internet Of Things................................. 3
      1.2 Smart Objects and Internet of Things........................ 3
   2 Open issues...................................................... 3
      2.1 What is a thing?............................................ 3
      2.2 What is the identifier of a thing?.......................... 4
      2.3 Authentication.............................................. 4
      2.4 Identity Protection......................................... 4
      2.5 Communication Protocol...................................... 4
      2.6 Things to Things communications............................. 4
   3 HIP for the Internet Of Things................................... 4
      3.1 HIP Benefits................................................ 4
      3.2 HIP issues for the Internet Of things....................... 5
   4 IANA Considerations.............................................. 5
   5 Security Considerations.......................................... 5
   6 References....................................................... 5
      6.1 Normative References........................................ 5
      6.2 Informative References...................................... 5
   Author's Addresses................................................. 6
   Full Copyright Statement........................................... 6














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                               HIP for IoT               October 2009

1 Introduction

   There are currently two main definitions for the Internet Of Things
   (IoT): IoT dealing with tags, and IoT based on IP Smart Objects.

1.1 Tags and Internet Of Things

   The term Internet of Things (IoT) was invented by the MIT Auto-ID
   Center, in 2001, and refers to an architecture that comprises four
   levels,

   - Passive tags, such as Class-1 Generation-2 UHF RFIDs, introduced
   by the EPC Global consortium and operating in the 860-960 MHz range.

   - Readers plugged to a local (computing) system, which read the
   Electronic Product Code [EPC].

   - A local system, offering IP connectivity, which collects
   information pointed by the EPC thanks to a protocol called Object
   Naming Service (ONS)

   - EPCIS (EPC Information Services) servers, which process incoming
   ONS requests and returns PML (Physical Markup Language) files [PML],
   e.g. XML documents that carry meaningful information linked to tags.

1.2 Smart Objects and Internet of Things

   According to [IP-IOT], the IP protocol should be used to extend the
   Internet Of Things to smart objects. Until recently, smart objects
   were realized with limited communication capabilities, such as RFID
   tags, but the new generation of devices has bidirectional wireless
   communication and sensors that provide real-time data such as
   temperature, pressure, vibrations, and energy measurement.
   Smart objects can be battery-operated, but not always and typically
   have three components:
   - a CPU (8-, 16- or 32-bit micro-controller),
   - memory (a few tens of kilobytes)
   - and a low-power wireless communication device (from a few
   kilobits/s to a few hundreds of kilobits/s).
   The size is small and the price is low: a few square mm and few
   dollars.

2 Open issues

2.1 What is a thing?

   We distinguish two classes of things

   1- Things that are computers equipped with communication interfaces.
   2- Things that are not computers, but who are associated with
   computers equipped with communication interfaces.

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2.2 What is the identifier of a thing?

   They are several proposals:

   1- A serial number, such as an EPC code.
   2- An IP address.
   3- Other, for example a fix hash value such HIT proposed by [HIP],
   or adhoc naming scheme [HIP-Naming].

2.3 Authentication

   Is there a way to authenticate a thing? In other words is it
   possible and needed to prove the identity of a thing. This proof
   could establish the physical/logical integrity of a computer, or the
   integrity of an electronic passport.

2.4 Identity Protection

   Things can be used to track people or objects, which are identified
   by a set of things. Identity protection enforces privacy by hiding
   things identities thanks to cryptographic means. For example such
   mechanisms are described in [HIP-TAG].

2.5 Communication Protocol

   A thing communicates with the Internet network by various interfaces

   1- Via MAC (OSI2) radio protocols, as defined in [EPCGLOBAL]
   2- Thanks the IP protocol, in that case the thing is an IP node, and
   is natively plugged in the Internet Cloud.
   3- Other, for example the Host Identity Protocol [HIP]

2.6 Things to Things communications

   In some cases, things communicate with other things. If identity
   protection is required, the associated infrastructure is complex
   from a cryptographic or physical point of view, because classical
   routing techniques can't be used.

3 HIP for the Internet Of Things

3.1 HIP Benefits

   We suggest defining a new version of the HIP protocol, dedicated to
   the Internet Of Things issues, according to the following arguments

   1- Things are associated to Identifiers. IP addresses are usually
   understood as locators and not identifiers. In this identity-based
   approach the infrastructure to which the thing is connected belongs
   to the internet network, but even if the thing comprises an IP
   stack, the IP address is not correlated with the thing identity.

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   2- The actual version of HIP provides inter HIP nodes communications
   thanks to ESP secure channels. This paradigm could be re-used for
   things to things communication, compatible with the IP
   infrastructure.

3.2 HIP issues for the Internet Of things

   1- Identifiers. HIP Identifiers (HIT) rely on cryptographic
   procedures, i.e. a digest of an RSA public key. A new naming scheme
   SHOULD be defined

   2- Identity Protection. No Identity Protection is supported.
   Therefore HIP nodes MAY be easily tracked. We believe that Identity
   Protection MUST be supported.

   3- Communication Architecture. If identity protection is supported,
   some trusted gateways SHOULD be used in order to establish
   communications with things.

4 IANA Considerations


5 Security Considerations


6 References

6.1 Normative References

   [HIP] R. Moskowitz, P. Nikander, P. Jokela, T. Henderson, Host
   Identity Protocol, RFC 5201, April 2008

6.2 Informative References

   [EPC] Brock, D.L, The Electronic Product Code (EPC), A Naming Scheme
   for Physical Objects, MIT AUTO-ID CENTER, 2001.

   [PML] Brock, D.L - The Physical Markup Language, MIT AUTO-ID CENTER,
   2001.

   [EPCGLOBAL] EPCglobal, EPC Radio Frequency Identity Protocols Class
   1 1516 Generation 2 UHF RFID Protocol for Communications at 860 MHz-
   960 MHz Version 1517 1.0.9, EPCglobal Standard, January 2005.

   [HIP-TAG] HIP support for RFID, draft-urien-hip-tag-02.txt

   [HIP-Naming] Naming Architecture for Object to Object
   Communications, draft-lee-object-naming-00.txt

   [IP-IOT] http://www.ipso-alliance.org

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                               HIP for IoT               October 2009

Author's Addresses

   Pascal Urien
   Telecom ParisTech
   37/39 rue Dareau, 75014 Paris, France

   Email: Pascal.Urien@enst.fr


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