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MULTIMOB Working Group                                       D. von Hugo
Internet-Draft                             Deutsche Telekom Laboratories
Intended status: Informational                                 H. Asaeda
Expires: December 9, 2010                                Keio University
                                                             B. Sarikaya
                                                              Huawei USA
                                                                P. Seite
                                                 France Telecom - Orange
                                                            June 8, 2010


 Evaluation of further issues on Multicast Mobility:  Potential future
                          work for WG MultiMob
              <draft-von-hugo-multimob-future-work-02.txt>

Abstract

   The WG MultiMob aims at defining a basic mobile multicast solution
   leveraging on network localized mobility management, i.e.  Proxy
   Mobile IPv6 protocol.  The solution would be basically based on
   multicast group management, i.e.  IGMP/MLD, proxying at the access
   gateway.  If such a basic solution is essential from an operational
   point of view, challenges with efficient resource utilization and
   user perceived service quality still persist.  These issues may
   prevent large scale deployments of mobile multicast applications.

   This document attempts to identify topics for near future extension
   of work such as modifying multimob base solution, PMIPv6 and MLD/
   IGMP for optimal multicast support, and adaptation of Handover
   optimization.  Far future items such as extending to and modifying
   of MIPv4/v6 and DSMIP, sender (source) mobility, consideration of
   multiple flows and multihoming will be dealt with in a future
   version.

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted to IETF in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups.  Note that
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   Drafts.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
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   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at



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   http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt.

   The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.

   This Internet-Draft will expire on December 9, 2010.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2010 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   2.  Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
   3.  IGMP/MLD Proxy Architecture  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
   4.  Problem Description  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     4.1.  Modification of base PMIPv6 for optimal multicast
           support  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     4.2.  Modification of MLD/IGMP for optimal multicast support . .  8
     4.3.  Consideration of Handover Optimization . . . . . . . . . .  9
     4.4.  Specific PMIP deployment issues  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   5.  Requirements on Solutions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   6.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   7.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   8.  Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   9.  References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     9.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     9.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
































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1.  Introduction

   Chartered work of WG MultiMob focuses on documentation of proper
   configuration and usage of existing (specified standard) protocols
   within both mobility and multicast related areas to enable and
   support mobility for multicast services and vice versa.  The current
   WG document [I-D.ietf-multimob-pmipv6-base-solution] does not address
   specific optimizations and efficiency improvements of multicast
   routing for network-based mobility and thus the operation may be not
   resource efficient nor grant the service quality expected by the end
   user.

   The described solution resolves the problem to ensure multicast
   reception in PMIPv6-enabled [RFC5213] networks without appropriate
   multicast support.  However it neither automatically minimizes
   multicast forwarding delay to provide seamless and fast handovers for
   real-time services nor minimizes packet loss and reordering that
   result from multicast handover management as stated in [RFC5757].
   Also Route Optimization is out of scope of the basic solution - an
   issue for reducing amount of transport resource usage and
   transmission delay.  Thus possible enhancements and issues for
   solutions beyond a basic solution need to be described to enable
   current PMIPv6 protocols to fully support efficient mobile multicast
   services.  Such extensions may include protocol modifications for
   both mobility and multicast related protocols to achieve
   optimizations for resource efficient and performance increasing
   multimob approaches.  The document includes the case of mobile
   multicast senders using Any Source Multicast (ASM) and Source
   Specific Multicast (SSM) [RFC4607].

   This document focuses on discussion work on multicast protocols
   such as IGMP/MLD operational tuning (e.g. as proposed in
   [I-D.asaeda-igmp-mld-optimization]) and enhancements of IGMP/MLD
   protocol behaviors and messages for optimal multicast support
   (proposed in [I-D.asaeda-igmp-mld-mobility-extension]).

   An alternative approach proposes the addition of acknowledgement
   messages on group management ([I-D.liu-multimob-reliable-igmp-mld])
   and changes the unreliable protocol concept.

   Furthermore a modification of PMIPv6 by introducing a dedicated
   multicast tunnel and support of local routing is discussed in
   [I-D.asaeda-multimob-pmip6-extension].  Other performance
   improvements have been outlined in
   [I-D.schmidt-multimob-fmipv6-pfmipv6-multicast] where extensions to
    Mobile IPv6 Fast Handovers (FMIPv6) [RFC5568], and the corresponding
   extension for Proxy MIPv6 operation [I-D.ietf-mipshop-pfmipv6].



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   Another type of multimob work aims directly at enhancements of the
   current multimob base solution
   [I-D.ietf-multimob-pmipv6-base-solution] towards introduction of
   multicast traffic replication mechanisms and a reduction of the
   protocol complexity in terms of time consuming tunnel set-up by
   definition of pre- or post-configured tunnels (as provided by e.g.
   [I-D.zuniga-multimob-smspmip]).  Further work within this topic deals
    with direct routing (e.g. [I-D.sijeon-multimob-mms-pmip6]) and with
   dynamic or automatic tunnel configuration (see e.g.
   [I-D.ietf-mboned-auto-multicast]).

   A large field of additional investigations which are partly described
   in detail in [RFC5757] will be mentioned for completeness and may be
   subject of a later WG re-chartering.

          +------+           +------+
          |  MN  |  =====>   |  MN  |
          +------+           +------+
             |                  .
             |                  .
          +--------+          +--------+
          | MAG 1  |          | MAG 2  |
          |IGMP/MLD|          |IGMP/MLD|
          |Proxy   |          |Proxy   |
          +--------+          +--------+
              |                |
              ***  ***  ***  ***
             *   **   **   **   *
            *                    *
             *  Internet Subnet *
            *                    *
             *   **   **   **   *
              ***  ***  ***  ***
               |               |
          +-------+          +-------+
          | LMA 1 |          | LMA 2 |
          +-------+          +-------+
              |                |
              ***  ***  ***  ***
             *   **   **   **   *
            *                    *
             *  Fixed Internet  *
            *                    *
             *   **   **   **   *
              ***  ***  ***  ***
                     |
                    +------+
                    |  CN  |
                    +------+

           Figure 1: MultiMob Scenario for chartered PMIP6 issue

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    +------+           +------+        +------+
    |  MN  |  =====>   |  MN  | ====>  |  MN  |
    +------+           +------+        +------+
       |                  .             .
       |                  .            .
       |                  .           .
    +--------+         +--------+  +--------+  +--------+
    | MAG 1  |         | MAG 2  |  |  AR 1  |  |  AR 2  |
    |IGMP/MLD|         |IGMP/MLD|  |IGMP/MLD|  |IGMP/MLD|
    | Proxy  |         | Proxy  |  | Proxy  |  | Proxy  |
    +--------+         +--------+  +--------+  +--------+
             \          /           |             |
       ***  ***   ***  ***        ***  ***   ***  ***
      *   **   ***   **   *      *   **   ***   **   *
     *                     *    *                     *
      * Internet Subnet 1 *      * Internet Subnet 2 *
     *                     *    *                     *
      *   **   ***   **   *      *   **   ***   **   *
       ***  ***   ***  ***        ***  ***   ***  ***
       |                 |         |
    +-------+          +-------+   |
    | LMA 1 |          | LMA 2 |  /
    +-------+          +-------+ /
         \                |     /
          ***  ***  ***  ***   /     ***  ***   ***   ***
         *   **   **   **   * /     *   **   ***   **    *
        *                    *     *                     *
         *  Fixed Internet  *       * Internet Subnet 3 *
        *                    *_____*                     *
         *   **   **   **   *       *   **   ***   **   *
          ***  ***  ***  ***         *** .***   ***  ***
               |                       .
           +-------+          +-------+
           |  CN   |  ====>   |  CN   |
           +-------+          +-------+

         Figure 2: MultiMob scenario for extended MultiMob issues


   Figure 1 illustrates the key components of the foreseen basic
   Multimob solution.  The extended multicast mobility scenario, leading
   to above issues, is sketched in Figure 2.

   In summary additional to a 'Single hop, link, flow' Proxy MIP
   mobility for listening MNs (scenario shown in Figure 1), future work
   towards a complete performance-optimized scenario of a 'Multi-hop,
   -homed, -flow' client mobility (i.e. including MIPv6 [RFC3775] and
   DSMIPv6 [RFC5555]) would cover a plurality of issues.  For the near


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   future we see the following issues as most important:

   o  Extension of multimob base solution

   o  Modification of base PMIPv6 and MLD/IGMP for optimal multicast
      support.

   o  Consideration of Handover optimization.

   All further issues which would include extensions to and
   modifications of MIPv4/v6 and DSMIP using IGMP/MLD Proxy and the
   Foreign Agent/Access Router, consideration of sender (source)
   mobility, support of multiple flows on multihomed mobile nodes,
   multi-hop transmission, Routing optimization, and so forth will be
   topics for a potential next stage of future work extension.


2.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in BCP 14 [RFC2119].

   This document uses the terminology defined in [RFC3775], [RFC3376],
   [RFC3810], [RFC5213], [RFC5757].


3.  IGMP/MLD Proxy Architecture

   Multimob basic solution is based on IGMPv3/MLDv2 Proxy support at the
   mobile access gateway (MAG) of Proxy Mobile IPv6 as shown in
   Figure 1.  IGMPv3/MLDv2 proxy keeps multicast state on the
   subscriptions of the mobile nodes and only an aggregate state is kept
   at the local mobility anchor (LMA).  When LMA receives multicast data
   it can forward it to the MAG without duplication because MAG takes of
   the packet duplication.  This leads to solving the avalanche problem.

   By keeping multicast state locally, IGMPv3/MLDv2 Proxy introduces
   mobility related problems such as possible packet loss when a mobile
   node does a handover to another MAG and its multicast state is not
   modified fast enough at the LMA.

   IGMPv3/MLDv2 introduces tunnel convergence problem which occurs when
   a given MAG serves MNs that belong to different LMAs and MNs
   subscribe to the same multicast group.  In that case MNs receive
   duplicate multicast data forwarded from more than one LMA.

   It can be foreseen that mobile access gateways will serve both mobile
   and fixed terminals concurrently.  The tuning of multicast-related


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   protocol parameters based on the terminal characteristics is needed.
   Parameters only applicable to mobile users need to be distinguished
   from the parameters applicable to fixed users.  It should be also
   possible to distinguish between slow and fast movement and handover
   frequency to form corresponding tunnels for mobile users.

   Based on the above observations we will state the problems next and
   then list the requirements on possible solutions.


4.  Problem Description

   The general issues of multicast mobility are extensively discussed
   and described in [RFC5757].  To reduce the complexity of the
   plethora of requirements listed in [RFC5757] and also in
   [I-D.deng-multimob-pmip6-requirement] this document summarises some
   lightweight solutions for multicast mobility which allow for easy
   deployment within realistic scenarios and architectures.  Moreover
   we focus on approaches building directly on basic MultiMob solution
   [I-D.ietf-multimob-pmipv6-base-solution] which is based on IGMP/MLD
   Proxy functionality at the mobile access gateway, and for which
   already solution proposals have been described.

4.1.  Modification of base PMIPv6 for optimal multicast support

   Currently discussed aspects of multicast optimization for PMIPv6
   include introduction of multicast tunnels and support of local
   routing such as described in [I-D.asaeda-multimob-pmip6-extension].
   For a PMIPv6 domain the establishment of a dedicated multicast tunnel
   is proposed which may either be dynamically set up and released or be
   pre-configured in a static manner.  Both mobility entities MAG and
   LMA may be operate as MLD proxy or multicast router.
   Since further functional enhancements of PMIPv6 are currently under
   way in NETEXT WG, both the impact of new features on Mobile Multicast
   as well as such a Multicast-initiated proposal for PMIPv6
   modification have to be considered in a continuous exchange process
   between MultiMob and NETEXT WGs.

4.2.  Modification of MLD/IGMP for optimal multicast support

   Potential approaches for enhancement of group management as specified
   e.g. by MLDv2 [RFC3810] include operational improvements such as
   proper tuning in terms of default timer value modification, specific
   query message introduction, and standard (query) reaction
   suppression, beside introducing multicast router attendance control
   in terms of e.g. specification of a Listener Hold message as proposed
   in [I-D.asaeda-multimob-igmp-mld-mobility-extensions].




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4.3.  Consideration of Handover Optimization

   Ideally the customer experience while using multicast services should
   not be affected by transmission issues whether the terminal is
   operated in a fixed or a mobile environment.  This implies not only
   that the terminal should be unaware of changes at network layer
   connectivity (seamless communication) as is typically the case in a
   PMIPv6 domain, but also that any impact of connectivity changes
   (handover) should be minimized.  In the framework of Multimob this
   relates to reduction of delay, packet loss, and packet reordering
   effort for mobile multicast by applying fast handover mechanisms,
   which have originally been developed for unicast traffic to multicast
   group management.  [I-D.schmidt-multimob-fmipv6-pfmipv6-multicast]
   works on specification of extension of the Mobile IPv6 Fast Handovers
   (FMIPv6) [RFC5568] and the Fast Handovers for Proxy Mobile IPv6
   (PFMIPv6) [I-D.ietf-mipshop-pfmipv6] protocols to include multicast
   traffic management in fast handover operations.  Issues for further
   work are details of including multicast group messaging in context
   transfer, for both predictive and reactive handover mode, as well as
   details of corresponding message exchange protocols and message
   design.



4.4.  Specific PMIP deployment issues

   Currently several proposals are under work which describe extensions
   of the base protocol WG draft
   [I-D.ietf-multimob-pmipv6-base-solution].  While MAG operation will
   remain that of an MLD proxy additional LMA functionalities are
   described in [I-D.zuniga-multimob-smspmip] which allow for
   replication of multicast traffic and solution of the tunnel
   convergence problem.  The dedicated multicast LMA may either set up
   dedicated multicast tunnels dynamically or a-priory via
   pre-configuration or a delayed release.


   Another solution on dynamic and/or automatic tunnel configuration is
   proposed within multicast WG MBONED [I-D.ietf-mboned-auto-multicast].


   A direct or local routing approach is described in
   [I-D.sijeon-multimob-mms-pmip6].  This scenario may hold for short
   term deployment focusing on an architecture where multicast traffic
   is provided via the home network.  However, depending on the network
   topology, namely the location of the content delivery network, the
   LMA may not be on the optimal multicast service delivery path.  This
   enables mobile nodes to access locally available multicast services
   such as local channels.

   Figure 3 illustrates the use-case for local routing.

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                                 +----+
                                 |LMA |
                                 +----+
                                   |
                                   |
                           ***  ***  ***  ***
                          *   **   **   **   *
                         *                    *        +-------------+
                          *  Local Routing   *   _____ | Content     |
                         *                    *        | Delivery    |
                                                       | Network     |
                          *   **   **   **   *         +-------------+
                           ***  ***  ***  ***
                            ||            ||
                          +----+        +----+
                          |MAG1|        |MAG2|
                          +----+        +----+
                           |  |            |
                           |  |            |
                          MN1 MN2          MN3



                     Figure 3: local Multicast routing

   In such a case, the MAG should act as a multicast router to construct
   the optimal multicast delivery path.  If the MAG also supports MLD
   proxy function issue raises up on the dual mode behaviour.  In such a
   case, a pragmatic approach could be to leverage only on multicast
   routing at the MAG in the PMIP domain.

   Whatever is the MAG operation mode, the multicast state is locally
   kept at the access gateway, so unknown from the mobility anchor.  In
   other words, the multicast service is independent from the mobility
   service that the mobile node is receiving from the network in the
   form of PMIPv6 or DSMIPv6.  However, handover support is still
   desirable but cannot be provided by the mobility anchor (i.e.  HA or
   LMA).  In such a case mobility support for locally available
   multicast should be provided by extending multicast protocols of IGMP
   or MLD.


5.  Requirements on Solutions

   This section tries to identify requirements from the issues discussed
   in previous section.





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   o  Seamless handover (low latency and during the handover).
   o  Similar packet loss to unicast service.
   o  Multiple LMAs architecture.
   o  Agnostic mobile host re-subscription.  So, MAGs must be able to
      retrieve multicast contexts of the mobile nodes.
   o  Solution address IPv6, IPv4 only and dual stack nodes.
   o  Supports sender (source) mobility.
   o  Optimal local routing.
   o  To be completed...


6.  Security Considerations

   This draft introduces no additional messages.  Compared to [RFC3376],
   [RFC3810], [RFC3775], and [RFC5213] there have no additional threats
   been introduced.


7.  IANA Considerations

   Whereas this document does not explicitly introduce requests to IANA
   some of the proposals referenced above (such as
   [I-D.asaeda-multimob-pmip6-extension] and
   [I-D.schmidt-multimob-fmipv6-pfmipv6-multicast]) specify flags for
   mobility messages or options.  For details please see those
   documents.


8.  Acknowledgements

   The authors would thank all active members of MultiMob WG, especially
   (in no specific order) Gorry Fairhurst, Jouni Korhonen, Thomas
   Schmidt, Suresh Krishnan and Matthias Waehlisch for providing
   continuous support and helpful comments.


9.  References

9.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC3314]  Wasserman, M., "Recommendations for IPv6 in Third
              Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) Standards",
              RFC 3314, September 2002.

   [RFC3376]  Cain, B., Deering, S., Kouvelas, I., Fenner, B., and A.
              Thyagarajan, "Internet Group Management Protocol, Version
              3", RFC 3376, October 2002.

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   [RFC3775]  Johnson, D., Perkins, C., and J. Arkko, "Mobility Support
              in IPv6", RFC 3775, June 2004.

   [RFC3810]  Vida, R. and L. Costa, "Multicast Listener Discovery
              Version 2 (MLDv2) for IPv6", RFC 3810, June 2004.

   [RFC4607]  Holbrook, H. and B. Cain, "Source-Specific Multicast for
              IP", RFC 4607, August 2006.

   [RFC5213]  Gundavelli, S., Leung, K., Devarapalli, V., Chowdhury, K.,
              and B. Patil, "Proxy Mobile IPv6", RFC 5213, August 2008.

   [RFC5555]  Soliman, H., "Mobile IPv6 Support for Dual Stack Hosts and
              Routers", RFC 5555, June 2009.

9.2.  Informative References

   [23246]    "3GPP TS 23.246 V8.2.0, Multimedia Broadcast/Multicast
              Service (MBMS); Architecture and functional description
              (Release 8).", 2008.

   [23401]    "3GPP TS 23.401 V8.2.0, General Packet Radio Service
              (GPRS) enhancements for Evolved Universal Terrestrial
              Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN) access (Release 8).", 2008.

   [23402]    "3GPP TS 23.402 V8.4.1, Architecture enhancements for non-
              3GPP accesses (Release 8).", 2009.

   [I-D.asaeda-multimob-igmp-mld-mobility-extensions]
              Asaeda, H. and T. Schmidt, "IGMP and MLD Hold and Release
              Extensions for Mobility",
              draft-asaeda-multimob-igmp-mld-mobility-extensions-03
              (work in progress), July 2009.

   [I-D.asaeda-multimob-igmp-mld-optimization]
              Asaeda, H. and S. Venaas, "Tuning the Behavior of IGMP
              and MLD for Mobile Hosts and Routers",
              draft-asaeda-multimob-igmp-mld-optimization-02 (work in
              progress), March 2010.

   [I-D.asaeda-multimob-pmip6-extension]
              Asaeda, H., Seite, P., and J. Xia, "PMIPv6 Extensions for
              Multicast", draft-asaeda-multimob-pmip6-extension-02 (work
              in progress), July 2009.

   [I-D.deng-multimob-pmip6-requirement]
              Deng, H., Chen, G., Schmidt, T., Seite, P., and P. Yang,
              "Multicast Support Requirements for Proxy Mobile IPv6",
              draft-deng-multimob-pmip6-requirement-02 (work in
              progress), July 2009.

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   [I-D.liu-multimob-reliable-igmp-mld]
              Liu, H. and Q. Wu, "Reliable IGMP and MLD Protocols in
              Wireless Environment",
              draft-liu-multimob-reliable-igmp-mld-00 (work in
              progress), March 2010.

   [I-D.schmidt-multimob-fmipv6-pfmipv6-multicast]
              Schmidt, T., Waehlisch, M., Koodli, R., and G. Fairhurst,
              "Multicast Listener Extensions for MIPv6 and PMIPv6 Fast
              Handovers",
              draft-schmidt-multimob-fmipv6-pfmipv6-multicast-01 (work
              in progress), March 2010.

   [I-D.sijeon-multimob-mms-pmip6]
              Jeon, S. and Y. Kim, "Mobile Multicasting Support in
              Proxy Mobile IPv6", draft-sijeon-multimob-mms-pmip6-02
              (work in progress), March 2010

   [I-D.zuniga-multimob-smspmip]
              Zuniga, J., Lu, G., and A. Rahman, "Support Multicast
              Services Using Proxy Mobile IPv6",
              draft-zuniga-multimob-smspmip-02 (work in progress),
              June 2010.

   [I-D.ietf-mboned-auto-multicast]
              Thaler, D., Talwar, M., Aggarwal, A., Vicisano, L., and
              T. Pusateri, "Automatic IP Multicast Without Explicit
              Tunnels (AMT)", draft-ietf-mboned-auto-multicast-10 (work
              in progress), March 2010

   [I-D.ietf-16ng-ipv4-over-802-dot-16-ipcs]
              Madanapalli, S., Park, S., Chakrabarti, S., and G.
              Montenegro, "Transmission of IPv4 packets over IEEE
              802.16's IP Convergence Sublayer",
              draft-ietf-16ng-ipv4-over-802-dot-16-ipcs-07 (work in
              progress), June 2010.

   [I-D.ietf-manet-smf]
              Macker, J. (editor), "Simplified Multicast Forwarding",
              draft-ietf-manet-smf-10 (work in progress), March 2010.

   [I-D.ietf-mipshop-pfmipv6]
              Yokota, H., Chowdhury, K., Koodli, R., Patil, B., and F.
              Xia, "Fast Handovers for Proxy Mobile IPv6",
              draft-ietf-mipshop-pfmipv6-14 (work in progress), May
              2010



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   [I-D.ietf-multimob-pmipv6-base-solution]
              Schmidt, T., Waehlisch, M., and S. Krishnan, "Base
              Deployment for Multicast Listener Support in PMIPv6
              Domains",
              draft-ietf-multimob-pmipv6-base-solution-02 (work in
              progress), May 2010.

   [RFC5757]  Schmidt, T., Waehlisch, M., and G. Fairhurst, "Multicast
              Mobility in MIPv6: Problem Statement and Brief Survey",
              RFC 5757, June 2010.

   [RFC3963]  Devarapalli, V., Wakikawa, R., Petrescu, A., and P.
              Thubert, "Network Mobility (NEMO) Basic Support Protocol",
              RFC 3963, January 2005.

   [RFC5121]  Patil, B., Xia, F., Sarikaya, B., Choi, JH., and S.
              Madanapalli, "Transmission of IPv6 via the IPv6
              Convergence Sublayer over IEEE 802.16 Networks", RFC 5121,
              February 2008.


Authors' Addresses

   Dirk von Hugo
   Deutsche Telekom Laboratories
   Deutsche-Telekom-Allee 7
   64295 Darmstadt, Germany

   Email: dirk.von-hugo@telekom.de


   Hitoshi Asaeda
   Keio University
   Graduate School of Media and Governance
   5322 Endo
   Fujisawa, Kanagawa  252-8520
   Japan

   Email: asaeda@wide.ad.jp
   URI:   http://www.sfc.wide.ad.jp/~asaeda/



   Behcet Sarikaya
   Huawei USA
   1700 Alma Dr. Suite 500
   Plano, TX  75075

   Email: sarikaya@ieee.org

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   Pierrick Seite
   France Telecom - Orange
   4, rue du Clos Courtel
   BP 91226
   Cesson-Sevigne, BZH  35512
   France

   Email: pierrick.seite@orange-ftgroup.com



































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