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Versions: 00 01 02

gwg                                                         S. Wadhwa
Internet Draft                                               K. DeSmedt
Intended status: Informational                                 P. Muley
Expires: September 11, 2019                                       Nokia
                                                              R. Shinde
                                                           Reliance Jio
                                                              J. Newton
                                                             R. Hoffman
                                                                S. Pani
                                                       Juniper Networks
                                                         March 11, 2019

      Requirements for Protocol between Control and User Plane on BNG

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

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   This Internet-Draft will expire on September 11, 2019.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2019 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors. All rights reserved.

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   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document. Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with
   respect to this document. Code Components extracted from this
   document must include Simplified BSD License text as described in
   Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without
   warranty as described in the Simplified BSD License.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document. Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with
   respect to this document.


   Traditionally, the BNG provides aggregation of fixed access nodes
   (such as DSLAM and OLTs) over Ethernet and provides subscriber
   management and traffic management functions for residential
   subscribers. The BNG has however evolved to become a multi-access
   edge device that also provides termination of subscribers over
   fixed-wireless and hybrid access. An overall architecture and
   interfaces required between separated control and user-plane for a
   multi-access BNG are described in draft-wadhwa-rtgwg-bng-cups-
   01.txt. This document discusses requirements for protocol between
   subscriber-management control-plane and user-plane for BNG to
   achieve separation.

   1. Introduction...................................................3
      1.1. Requirements Language.....................................3
   2. Requirements for "CUPS protocol"...............................3
      2.1. State Control Interface Requirements......................5
      2.2. Extensibility.............................................8
      2.3. Scalability and Performance...............................9
      2.4. Transport Protocol.......................................10
      2.5. In-band Control Channel Requirements.....................10
      2.6. Resiliency...............................................12
      2.7. Security.................................................13
   3. "CUPS protocol" candidate.....................................13
   4. Security Considerations.......................................14
   5. Management Interface Requirements.............................14

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   6. IANA Considerations...........................................15
   7. References....................................................15
      7.1. Normative References.....................................15
      7.2. Informative References...................................16

1. Introduction

   This document describes a set of requirements for protocol between
   subscriber-management control and user plane for BNG, that need to
   be met, in order to achieve separation. In rest of the document the
   control plane is referred to as CP, user plane as UP, and the
   separation is referred to as CUPS (control and user plane
   separation). The protocol between control and user-plane to achieve
   separation is referred to as "CUPS protocol". These requirements
   should form the basis for "CUPS protocol" selection. The functional
   decomposition between CP and UP, and applicability of CUPS to a BNG
   that can support multiple access technologies such as fixed (DSL or
   Fiber), fixed-wireless (LTE,5G) and hybrid access are described in

1.1. Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

2. Requirements for "CUPS protocol"

   [CUPS] defines overall operation and architecture for control and
   user-plane separation on BNG. It also defines key functional
   interfaces between CP and UP, as shown in Fig 1, to realize the
   separation. "CUPS protocol" MUST provide support for information
   exchange to realize the "state control interface" and "in-band
   signaling channel" as defined in [CUPS].

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               | +--------+ +-----+  +-----+  +-----+ |
               | | AAA    | |PCRF |  | OCS |  | OSS | |
               | | Server | +-----+  +-----+  +-----+ |
               | +--------+                           |
    "CUPS BNG"                  |
   |   CP                                                            |
   |   +--------------------------+--------------------------------+ |
   |   | +-----------+ +------------------+ +--------+ +---------+ | |
   |   | | Address   | | PPPoE, DHCPv4/v6 | | RADIUS | | S11/N11 | | |
   |   | | Pool Mmmt | | IPv6 RS/RA,      | | CLIENT | +---------+ | |
   |   | +-----------+ | L2TP LAC         | +--------+             | |
   |   |               +------------------+  +----+  +----+        | |
   |   |                                     | Gx |  | Gy |        | |
   |   |                                     +----+  +----+        | |
   |   +-----------------------------------------------------------+ |
   |          |                  |                   |               |
   |          | Management       |In-band            | State         |
   |          | Interface        |Signaling          | Control       |
   |          |                  |Channel            | Interface     |
   |          |                  |                   |               |
   |  --------+--+------------------+--+----------------+---+------- |
   |          |                        |                    |        |
   |    UP    |               UP       |            UP      |        |
   |    +-----+---------+    +---------+-----+    +---------+-----+  |
   |    | Local CP      |    | Local CP      |    | Local CP      |  |
   |    | Routing, MPLS |    | Routing, MPLS |    | Routing, MPLS |  |
   |    | IGMP, BFD     |    | IGMP, BFD     |    | IGMP, BFD     |  |
   |    +---------------+    +---------------+    +---------------+  |
   |    | Forwarding    |    | Forwarding    |    | Forwarding    |  |
   |    | Traffic Mgmt  |    | Traffic Mgmt  |    | Traffic Mgmt  |  |
   |    +---------------+    +---------------+    +---------------+  |
   |                                                                 |

                                  CUPS BNG System

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2.1. State Control Interface Requirements

  .  "CUPS protocol" MUST support convergence on BNG, where the CPEs
     terminating connections on the BNG can have fixed-access (e.g.
     xDSL/PON/Ethernet), fixed-wireless access (LTE/5G) or hybrid-
     access (i.e. combined fixed and wireless access).

  . "CUPS protocol" MUST support messages and information exchange for
     node level management. There needs to exist a concept of
     association between CP and UP. When the CP or UP comes online it
     should setup an association with the configured or discovered
     peers via a message exchange. In association setup, the nodes
     should be able to exchange supported capabilities, version of
     software, load/overload information, and resource information.
     Also, any node-wide parameters can be exchanged during association

  . "CUPS protocol" MUST allow either node to update the association
     to report changed feature capabilities, overload condition,
     resource exhaustion or any other node-wide parameters.

  . "CUPS protocol" MUST provide support for UP to request a graceful
     association release from the CP.

  . "CUPS protocol" MUST support periodic node-level heartbeat
     exchange between CP and UP to detect if the peer is reachable and

  . "CUPS protocol" MUST support exchange of messages and information
     elements (IEs) between CP and UP for session level state
     management on the UP.
     A subscriber session is a single IP connection, such as an IPoE or
     PPPoE session. A CPE can have multiple sessions, if multiple IP
     connections are required (e.g. one per service, or one per device
     behind the CPE). The session level state on the UP, managed from
     the CP includes:

       o  Data-plane state for forwarding data traffic from subscriber
          sessions in upstream direction (access to network), and
          downstream direction (network to access).

       o  Forwarding state related to in-band control plane messages
          (such as messages for DHCP, PPPoE, SLAAC) that are forwarded

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          from CPE to CP via the UP (in upstream direction), and from
          CP to CPE via the UP (in downstream direction).
  . In addition to the basic forwarding state, the "CUPS protocol"
     MUST support messages and information elements (IEs) for CP to
     associate, update and disassociate other data-plane related state
     with the session e.g. state related to:
       o Filtering
       o SLA management
       o Statistics collection
       o Credit control (usage monitoring and reporting)
       o Traffic mirroring for legal intercept
       o NAT
       o Application (L4-L7) aware policies

  . Depending on the type of access and the network between access-
     nodes and the BNG, the subscriber traffic from the CPEs can be
     encapsulated and transported over an L2 connection or over an L3
     tunnel. Common scenarios for fixed access include Ethernet (q-in-
     q,.1q), L2oGRE, L2TPv3, VxLAN, and MPLS PW. For fixed-wireless the
     access is over a GTP tunnel (as defined in [CUPS]). The tunnel
     transport for L3 tunneled subscriber traffic can IPv4 or IPv6. The
     subscriber traffic itself can be IPv4, IPv6 or PPPoE. In case of
     PPPoE, the BNG can terminate PPPoE or tunnel it over L2TP to
     another gateway. The data-plane on the BNG decapsulates the
     upstream (access->network) traffic and routes it towards the
     network in appropriate routing-context, and optionally perform NAT
     before routing. It determines the subscriber for downstream
     (network->access) IP traffic, encapsulates it appropriately before
     forwarding towards the access. In addition, it does traffic-
     management and SLA management, maintains traffic statistics and
     optionally monitors and reports usage.  The "CUPS protocol" MUST
     be able to carry state from CP to UP for IPv4, IPv6 and PPPoE
     sessions, for various flavors of transport connections mentioned

  . Given the variety of access types on the CPE and type of transport
     networks between access-nodes and BNG (as outlined above) , the
     "CUPS protocol" MUST specify forwarding state information for the
     subscriber sessions, for both data and in-band control, as
     flexible packet matching rules and set of actions related to
     forwarding and traffic management, rather than just fixed-format
     lookup tables understood by particular UP implementation. Using
     the flexible match rules and actions conveyed in the "CUPS
     protocol" IEs, the UP should unambiguously be able to derive

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     various lookup tables and processing in the forwarding path to
     forward traffic to and from the CPE. The basic forwarding state in
     upstream direction (i.e. access to network) and downstream
     direction (i.e. network to access) fundamentally consists of
     session identification and one or more actions. Following shows a
     logical representation of a directive from CP to UP to install
     basic forwarding state on the UP for fixed L2 access (i.e. access
     from DSLAM or OLTs over Ethernet).

       o  Direction Upstream - Access to Network:
                 . Subscriber-session identification: Port/VLAN-tag(s)
                    + subscriber-MAC + Session IP address + PPPoE
                 . Action: remove encapsulation (i.e. Ethernet and
                    PPPoE/PPP headers), apply policer, do IP FIB
                    lookup, forward to network.

       o Direction Downstream - Network to Access:
                 . Subscriber-session identification: IP address
                 . Action: apply subscriber-shaper, build
                    encapsulation using (PPPoE session-id and
                    Port/VLAN-tag(s)+ subscriber-MAC), forward to

     Examples of actions and processing related to forwarding and
     traffic management include encapsulation/decapsulation, table
     lookups, drop, forward, mirror, count, redirect, police, classify,
     queue, shape etc.

  . In addition to packet-matching rules and actions to setup data-
     path on the UP, the "CUPS protocol" MUST allow CP to specify
     subscriber routing and IP interface related information. This
     includes the following:

          o  Aggregate IPv4 subnets and IPv6 prefixes that are used for
             assigning addresses or prefixes (e.g. IPv6 delegated-
             prefix) to subscribers on a UP. These are announced in
             routing by the UP to draw downstream traffic.
          o  UE's IP address and subnet mask.
          o  Default gateway IP address within the subscriber subnets.
             This is used to draw upstream traffic from the CPEs and
             the UP is required to respond to ICMP requests for this
             address from the CPEs.
          o  Subnets for network behind a CPE (also known as framed-

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  . The "CUPS protocol" MUST provide support for CP to specify session
     level HQOS related information to the UP. A common QOS hierarchy
     on BNG consists of at least a QoS layer per access-node, and per
     CPE. "CUPS protocol" MUST provide support for CP to specify QoS
     parameters (e.g. rates, queues, markings) and the QoS hierarchy to
     which the CPE belongs, to the UP. The CP may choose to signal this
     via a QoS policy that is locally pre-configured on the UP. "CUPS
     protocol" MUST provide support for CP to specify HQOS-policy that
     the session is associated with.

  . "CUPS protocol" MUST support asynchronous session level event
     notifications from UP to CP. Session level asynchronous
     notifications include:

       o Periodic usage-reports
       o Threshold based usage-reports
       o Inactivity timeout
       o Subscriber unreachability detection

  . "CUPS protocol" MUST support asynchronous node level event
     notifications from UP to CP. Example includes switchover
     notification in case ports or UP failures when node level
     redundancy is enabled.

2.2. Extensibility

     . "CUPS protocol" MUST support exchange of software version and
        feature capabilities when a node level association is setup
        between a CP and UP.

     . "CUPS protocol" MUST encode information in messages as TLVs.

     . "CUPS protocol" MUST allow extension to defined Information
        Elements (IEs) i.e. it MUST allow adding new information to
        existing IEs while maintaining backwards compatibility.

     . "CUPS protocol" MUST allow addition of new IEs exchanged in
        protocol messages.

     . "CUPS protocol" MUST support vendor specific IEs (modelled as
        TLVs) by carving out TLV space for vendor specific extensions.

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     . "CUPS protocol" processing on UP MUST support graceful handling
        when an unknown TLV is received. The UP MUST ignore unknown TLV
        and continue with normal message processing. This ensures the
        CP MAY send non-mandatory TLVs to the UP. However, CP MUST only
        send mandatory TLVs if it knows the UP will accept it (based on
        local configuration or based on capability exchange during
        association setup). A TLV is considered mandatory if session
        state cannot be installed or updated without it.

2.3. Scalability and Performance

     . A single CP VNF can control multiple UP nodes. Each UP can
        support its maximum scale of subscriber sessions as allowed by
        its data-plane. External control plane running as a VNF can
        horizontally scale-out as needed with the growth in CUPS
        system-wide subscriber scale. In typical deployments CP may be
        centralized whereas the UPs may be distributed, with multiple
        L2 or L3 hops between CP and UPs. There are scenarios where a
        large number of sessions may be getting created or deleted
        close in time via "CUPS protocol". It is important that latency
        to bring subscribers online is minimized. The transport
        protocol chosen for "CUPS protocol" MUST NOT suffer from head-
        of-line (HOL) blocking where transport of messages related to
        one subscriber can be adversely impacted by messages being
        exchanged for other subscribers.

     . "CUPS protocol" MUST limit chattiness by minimizing number of
        messages required to create fully functional subscriber on the
        UP with complete forwarding, traffic management, HQOS, and
        routing state. Ideally, a single request/response message
        exchange between CP and UP should be able to create subscriber
        with all the required state in the data-plane. The "CUPS
        protocol" message that creates the subscriber session MUST
        therefore be able to signal IEs for all the required subscriber

     . To further reduce latency the protocol MUST be binary encoded.

     . "CUPS protocol" MUST allow dynamic scale-out for control plane
        VNF with the growth in subscriber scale of the CUPS system, as
        more UPs are added to the CUPS system or more ports are enabled
        on a UP in a CUPS system.

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     . The "CUPS Protocol" MUST allow mechanism to provide balancing
        of processing load amongst compute resources of control-plane
        VNF that supports dynamic scale-out.

     . "CUPS protocol" SHOULD support signaling of overload state and
        optionally overload mitigation parameters from UP to CP, when
        UP determines the incoming signaling from CP is exceeding (or
        about to exceed) its nominal processing capacity. Overload
        mitigation can include a temporary message throttling on CP
        towards UP. Mitigation parameters can include message rate and
        validity time for the specified rate.

2.4. Transport Protocol

        . As mentioned in section 2.3, the transport protocol used for
           "CUPS protocol" MUST NOT suffer from HOL blocking.
           Therefore, TCP is not an option for the transport protocol.

        . Ideally, the transport protocol SHOULD preserve message
           boundary with datagram semantics and should be available or
           easily implementable on any simple forwarding devices.
           Therefore, UDP is the preferred option.

        . "CUPS protocol" MUST therefore support reliability and
           ordering for exchanged messages. The reliability and
           ordering can be based on request/response with message
           sequencing and re-transmissions.

2.5. In-band Control Channel Requirements

     . "CUPS protocol" MUST support setting up of control channel
        between UP and CP for transporting in-band control messages
        (e.g. DHCPv4/v6 and PPPoE) received on the UP (from CPEs) to
        the CP, and for return messages sent from CP to the UP
        (destined to CPEs).

     . There can be a L3 network between CP and UPs. Therefore, L3
        tunneling is required between CP and UP to carry messages for
        in-band control plane protocols. "CUPS protocol" MUST support
        exchange of tunnel identifiers between CP and UP.

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     . Because L2 access setup is in-band, control plane messages will
        arrive on the UP before any per-session state is learned.
        Therefore, "CUPS protocol" MUST support messages and
        information exchange to install forwarding state related to in-
        band control plane messages that do not match any existing
        subscriber session. These messages should be forwarded to the
        CP over a common default control channel.

     . The in-band control channel setup by "CUPS protocol" MUST have
        support for UP to pass access-circuit identifier over which the
        signaling messages are received from the CPEs. Based on type of
        access, access-circuit identifier can include port/VLAN tags or
        tunnel identifiers which includes tunnel endpoint IPs and de-
        multiplexers such as GTP TEID, MPLS labels, L2TP tunnel-id etc.
        "CUPS protocol" MUST support setting up logically separate
        control channels for in-band control messages per access-

     . In case of fixed-access CPEs with Ethernet based network
        between access-nodes and BNG, the control messages are received
        in Ethernet frames. The Ethernet frame carrying the control
        messages received on UP MUST be carried over the control
        channel to the CP, as outlined in [CUPS]. In case of fixed-
        wireless access, control messages (e.g. DHCPv4 and DHCPv6) are
        received on the UP over GTP-u tunnel from the RAN. The GTP-u
        tunnel directly carries IP payload. Therefore, control channel
        setup via "CUPS protocol" MUST support transporting both
        Ethernet and IP payloads.

     . "CUPS protocol" MUST provide support for CP to specify the
        control protocols that should be forwarded by the UP over in-
        band control channel to the CP.

     . The "CUPS protocol" SHOULD have support for CP to specify rate-
        limits for specific control protocols and optionally specific
        messages within a control protocol, that the UP should enforce.

     . The "CUPS protocol" SHOULD provide support for CP to direct the
        UP to drop certain control messages received on a particular

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     . The "CUPS protocol" SHOULD provide support for CP to prioritize
        reception of certain control messages over others.

2.6. Resiliency

     . "CUPS protocol" MUST allow support for both 1:1 (hot standby)
        and N:M (warm standby) UP node level redundancy.

     . "CUPS protocol" MUST provide support for CP to specify the
        "redundancy domain" that a subscriber session is associated
        with during session level state creation on the UP. The
        "redundancy domain" is set of resources that share fate with
        respect to switchover on failure, e.g. a set of VLANs on a
        port, or a set of ports on a UP, or entire UP. "CUPS protocol"
        MUST also provide support for CP to provide relevant parameters
        to UP about the "redundancy domains". The UPs can then locally
        preform failure detection and switchover for the redundancy

     . The "CUPS protocol" MUST provide support for UP to notify the
        CP about switchover event. This notification must be on the
        granularity of "redundancy domain" on a UP.

     . For warm standby redundancy, "CUPS protocol" MUST provide
        support for CP to create session level state on the backup UP
        node(s) for all subscribers associated with the impacted
        "redundancy domain".

     . "CUPS protocol" MUST support in-service software upgrade (ISSU)
        on UPs. The protocol MUST provide support for UP to notify CP
        when it is completed ISSU to the new software release.

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2.7. Security

   "CUPS protocol" MUST be compatible with proven security mechanisms
   such as IPSEC or DTLS to satisfy following security requirements:

     . Data-integrity and confidentiality MUST be ensured for the
        information exchanged via "CUPS protocol".

     . Protection against man-in-the-middle attacks MUST be provided.

     . Anti-replay protection MUST be provided.

3. "CUPS protocol" candidate

   3GPP has defined PFCP (Packet Forwarding Control Protocol) in
   [TS29244] as the interface between CP and UP for LTE gateways. This
   protocol is suited for large scale state management between CP and
   UP and can be extended for BNG providing converged access. The
   protocol provides a good base for satisfying the requirements
   outlined in this draft for BNG "CUPS protocol". Following are some
   of the key attributes of this protocol/

     . It supports management of forwarding and QOS enforcement state
        on the UP from CP.

     . It also supports usage reporting from UP to CP.

     . It is over UDP transport and doesn't suffer from any HOL

     . It provides reliable operation based on request/response with
        message sequencing and retransmissions.

     . It provides support for graceful handling of overload on UP.

     . The protocol is extensible and allows addition of new IEs.

     . For fixed access BNG, the protocol requires simple extensions
        in the form of additional IEs. The required extensions are
        mainly due to fact that typically a fixed access BNG requires
        tighter control over L2 behavior and manages access and
        subscriber using L2 identifiers (such as VLANs and MAC

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        addresses), whereas mobile access works in terms of L3, either
        routed or tunneled.

     . [TS29244] also describes an in-band signaling channel based on
        GTP-u tunnel between CP and UP. GTP-u (GPRS Tunneling protocol
        User Plane) is defined in 3GPP [TS29281] and defines a
        tunneling protocol which carries IP payloads. The protocol runs
        over a UDP/IP stack and uses UDP port number 2152. Data within
        a tunnel can be multiplexed based on Tunnel Endpoint
        Identifiers (TEIDs). The protocol supports optional sequence
        numbers. The protocol supports extension headers to allow
        development of new features. GTP-u tunnels are signaled between
        CP and UP, and it is possible to associate filters to forward
        or block certain control packets from UP to CP. The payload
        type carried by GTP-u can be extended to Ethernet (via payload
        type in extension header). The tunnel encapsulation can also be
        extended by introducing an additional NSH (network services
        header) to carry any required meta-data.

4. Security Considerations

   For security between CP and UP, Network Domain Security (NDS) as
   defined in [TS33210] can be considered. As per NDS, the network can
   be split into security domains. Communication within a single
   security domain is considered secure, and protocols can operate
   without any additional security. When communication has to cross
   security domains, then IPSEC can be used.

5. Management Interface Requirements

     . The CP MUST provide a single point for management of "CUPS BNG"
        system to the operator.

     . Management interface for the CUPS system MUST provide support
        for both configuration of UPs, and state retrieval. The
        interface MUST minimally support BNG specific configuration and

     . Management interface SHOULD support transactional configuration
        from CP to UPs, based on a well-defined data schema.
        Transactional configuration may be achieved by editing a
        candidate configuration on the UP which is subsequently
        activated (commit) or by providing the whole transaction in a

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        single command. In case UP data-stores are used, it MUST be
        possible for the CP to lock a data-store for exclusive access.

     . The management interface SHOULD support transaction
        confirmation, where an unconfirmed transaction gets reverted
        automatically after a timeout even if the transaction
        succeeded. This is to avoid configuration errors where a valid
        configuration breaks communication between UP and CP, requiring
        on-site intervention.

     . The management interface SHOULD support state retrieval based
        on a well-defined data schema. This includes retrieval for any
        state that is not signaled via the state control interface.

     . The management interface SHOULD support unsolicited signaling
        of state changes (events) from UP to CP i.e. SHOULD provide
        telemetry for events. Even while state changes are sent
        unsolicited, the CP SHOULD be able to subscribe to a specific
        subset of state it is interested in.

     . The management interface MUST provide security through an
        existing mechanism such as (D)TLS or IPSEC to guarantee
        confidentiality and authenticity and protect against replay and
        man in the middle attacks.

6. IANA Considerations


7. References

7.1. Normative References

  [RFC2119]    Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
               Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

  [CUPS]      Wadhwa, S. et al., "Architecture for control and user
               plane separation on BNG, July 2019.

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   [TS29244]   3GPP, "Interface between the Control Plane and the User
               Plane Nodes", TS 29.244 15.2.0, June 2018,

   [TS29281]   3GPP, "General Packet Radio System (GPRS) Tunneling
               Protocol User Plane (GTPv1-U)", TS 29.281 15.3.0, June

  [TS33210]    3GPP, "Network Domain Security (NDS); IP network layer
               security", TS 33.210 15.0.0, June 2018,

7.2. Informative References

  [RFC2131]    Droms, R., "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol", RFC
               2131, DOI 10.17487/RFC2131, March 1997, https://www.rfc-

  [RFC2516]    Mamakos, L., Lidl, K., Evarts, J., Carrel, D., Simone,
               D., and R. Wheeler, "A Method for Transmitting PPP Over
               Ethernet (PPPoE)", RFC 2516, DOI 10.17487/RFC2516,
               February 1999, https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2516.

  [RFC3315]    Droms, R., Ed., Bound, J., Volz, B., Lemon, T., Perkins,
               C., and M. Carney, "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
               for IPv6 (DHCPv6)", RFC 3315, DOI 10.17487/RFC3315, July
               2003, https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3315.

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Authors' Addresses

   Sanjay Wadhwa
   777 East Middlefield Road
   Mountain View

   Email: Sanjay.wadhwa@nokia.com

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Internet-Draft    Protocol Requirements for BNG CUPS         March 2019

   Killian De Smedt
   Copernicuslaan 50

   Email: Killian.de_smedt@nokia.com

   Praveen Muley
   805. E. Middle Field Rd.
   Mountain View, CA, 94043

   Email: praveen.muley@nokia.com

   Rajesh Shinde
   Reliance Jio Infocomm Ltd.
   Reliance Corporate Park
   Thane Belapur Road, Ghansoli
   Navi Mumbai 400710

   Email: Rajesh.A.Shinde@ril.com

   Jonathan Newton
   Waterside House
   United Kingdom

   Email: jonathan.newton@vodafone.com

   Ryan Hoffman
   1525 10th Ave SW
   Calgary, Alberta

   Email: ryan.hoffman@telus.com

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   Subrat Pani
   Juniper Networks
   10 Technology Park Dr.
   Westford, MA

   Email: spani@juniper.net

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