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Versions: 00 01 02 draft-edprop-opsawg-multi-layer-oam-ps

Operations and Management Area Working Group                       Q. Wu
Internet-Draft                                                 M. Wexler
Intended status: Standards Track                                  Huawei
Expires: December 7, 2014                                        P. Jain
                                                          Nuage Networks
                                                            June 5, 2014


Problem Statement and Architecture for Transport Independent OAM in the
                         multiple layer network
                 draft-ww-opsawg-multi-layer-oam-00.txt

Abstract

   Operations, Administration, and Maintenance (OAM) mechanisms
   [RFC6291] are basic building blocks for every communication layer and
   technology.  The current practice is that many technologies and
   layers have their own OAM protocols.  In the current situation there
   is a little or no re-use of software and hardware in the existing OAM
   protocols.  Vendors and operators waste a lot through the whole OAM
   life-cycle when a new technology is introduced.  Integration of OAM
   across multiple technologies is extremely difficult.  In many cases
   it is desirable to have a generic OAM to cover heterogeneous
   networking technologies.  An example to this generic approach is the
   Bidirectional Forwarding Detection [BFD] mechanism that offers a way
   to monitor, troubleshoot and maintain the network and services in
   support multi-layer OAM independent of media, data protocols, and
   routing protocols.  Generic OAM tools can be deployed over various
   encapsulating protocols, and in various medium types.

   An example of an environment in which a generic and integrated OAM
   protocol would be valuable is Service Function Chaining.  A Service
   Function Chaining is composed by series of service Functions, that
   can act in different layers but providing an end-to-end chain or path
   from a source to destination in a given order [I.D-ietf-sfc-problem-
   statement].  In service function chaining environment it is necessary
   to provide end to end OAM across certain or all entities and
   involving many layers.  OAM information should be exchanged between
   service functions in different layers while using various
   encapsulating protocols.  In some cases OAM should cross different
   administration and/or maintenance domains.

   This document sets out the problem statement and architecture for the
   Generic OAM in the Service Layer Routing.  This document will cover
   at least the basic OAM functions and information such as Connectivity
   Verification (CV), Path Verification and Continuity Checks (CC),Path
   Discovery / Fault Localization and Performance Monitoring necessary
   to monitor and maintain the network.



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Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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   This Internet-Draft will expire on December 7, 2014.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2014 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
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   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     1.1.  What is Generic OAM in the multi-layer network? . . . . .   4
   2.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     2.1.  Standards Language  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   3.  Overview of Use Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     3.1.  Fault localization in multi-layer network . . . . . . . .   5
     3.2.  Multi-layer OAM in support of service function chain  . .   5
   4.  Problem Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     4.1.  Use of Existing Protocol Mechanisms . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     4.2.  Strong Technology dependency  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     4.3.  Weakness of cross-layer OAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     4.4.  Lack of OAM above Layer 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     4.5.  Issues of Abstraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     4.6.  Issue of OAM information gathering from Service Function    8



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   5.  Existing Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   6.  Architectural Consideration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     6.1.  Basic Components  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       6.1.1.  Interconnect OAM at different layers  . . . . . . . .   9
       6.1.2.  Interconnect OAM at the same shim layer above layer 3   9
     6.2.  OAM Functions in Data Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       6.2.1.  Continuity Check  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       6.2.2.  Connectivity Verification . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       6.2.3.  Path Discovery  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       6.2.4.  Performance measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       6.2.5.  Protection Switching  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       6.2.6.  Alarm/defect indication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
       6.2.7.  Maintenance commands  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     6.3.  OAM in Management plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   7.  Building on Existing Protocols  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   8.  Scoping Future Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   9.  Manageability Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   10. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   11. Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   12. Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   13. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     13.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     13.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12

1.  Introduction

   Operations, Administration, and Maintenance (OAM) mechanisms
   [RFC6291] are basic building blocks for every communication layer and
   technology.  The basic concepts of OAM and the functional roles in
   monitoring and diagnosing the behavior of telecommunications networks
   have been long term studied at the Layer 1&2 & Layer 3 levels.
   Certain OAM functions are used in many management applications for
   (i) defect and failure detection, (ii) reporting the defect/failure
   information, (iii) defect/failure localization, (iv) performance
   monitoring, and (v) service recovery.

   The current practice is that many technologies and layers have their
   own OAM protocols.  There is little or no re-use of software and
   hardware for each OAM protocol.  Vendors and operators waste a lot
   through the whole OAM life-cycle when a new technology is introduced.
   Integration of OAM across multiple technologies is extremely
   difficult.  When having networks with more than one technology,
   maintenance and troubleshooting are done per technology and layer,
   operation process can be very cumbersome.  In many cases it is
   desirable to have a generic OAM to cover heterogeneous networking
   technologies.  Generic OAM tools should be deployed over various
   encapsulating protocols, and in various medium types.  An example to



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   this generic approach is the Bidirectional Forwarding Detection [BFD]
   mechanism that offers a way to monitor, troubleshoot and maintain the
   network and services in support multi- layer OAM independent of
   media, data protocols, and routing protocols.

   An example of an environment in which a generic and integrated OAM
   protocol would be valuable is Service Function Chaining.  A Service
   Function Chaining is composed by a series of service Functions, that
   can act in different layers but providing an end-to- end chain or
   path from a source to destination in a given order [I.D -ietf-sfc-
   problem-statement].  In service function chaining Environment, it is
   necessary to provide end to end OAM across certain or all entities
   and involving many layers.  OAM information should be exchanged
   between service functions in different layers while using various
   encapsulating protocols.  In some cases OAM should cross different
   administration and/or maintenance domains.

   This document sets out the problem statement and architecture for the
   Generic OAM in the multi-layer network and outlines the problems
   encountered with existing OAM protocol variety and their impact on
   introduction of new technologies.  The scope of this document will at
   least cover the basic OAM functions and information (Connectivity
   Verification (CV), Path Verification and Continuity Checks (CC),Path
   Discovery / Fault Localization,Performance Monitoring) necessary to
   monitor and diagnose network.

1.1.  What is Generic OAM in the multi-layer network?

   In an multi-layer network, generic OAM is the ability to exchange OAM
   information across layers between nodes along forwarding path and
   gather and provide it to the management application through unified
   interface.  OAM information includes OAM configuration and
   operational data abstracted from various network technologies,
   protocols and layers.

2.  Terminology

2.1.  Standards Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

3.  Overview of Use Cases







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3.1.  Fault localization in multi-layer network

   A user who wishes to issue a Ping command or a Traceroute or initiate
   a session monitoring can do so in the same manner regardless of the
   underlying protocol or technology.  Consider a scenario where an IP
   ping to device B from Device A failed.  Between device A and B there
   are IEEE 802.1 bridges a,b and c.  Let's assume a,b and c are using
   [8021Q] CFM.  Upon detecting IP layer ping failure, the user may wish
   to "go down" to the Ethernet layer and issue the corresponding fault
   verification (LBM) and fault isolation (LTM) tools, using the same
   API.

3.2.  Multi-layer OAM in support of service function chain

   In service function chain, the service packets is steered through a
   set of service nodes distributed in the network.When the service
   packet enters the network OAM information needs to be imposed by
   ingress node of the network into the packet and pass throught the
   network in the same route as the service nodes.  In case several SFs
   are co-located in the same service node, the packet is processed by
   all SFs in the service node, Once the packet is successfully handled
   by one SF, the packet is forwarded to the next SF that is in the same
   service node.  When the packet leave the network, the OAM information
   needs to stripped out from the packet.  To provide unified view of
   OAM information, these OAM information needs to gathered from various
   layer using different encapsulation and tunneling techniques and
   abstracted and provided to the management application via the unified
   management interface.

4.  Problem Statement

   OAM mechanisms are usually oriented to a single network technology or
   a single layer.  Each technology or layer has its best suited OAM
   tools.  Some of them providing rich functionality in one protocol,
   the other providing each function with a different protocol and each
   technology is developed independently.  In the current situation
   There is little or no re-use of software and hardware for each OAM
   protocol.  Integration of OAM across multiple technologies is
   extremely difficult.  Vendors and operators waste a lot through the
   whole OAM life-cycle when a new technology is introduced. (1) Design
   and development: For every new protocol we invest in design and
   development of data, control and management planes.  In some cases,
   even adding a single OAM function requires the above whole life-cycle
   (2) Operation and Maintenance: There is a need to train operation
   people for every new technology or feature.  The above causes a slow
   time-to-market and a waste of time and effort for any new technology
   and/or OAM function.




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   Specifically, in service function chaining environment, every
   function may operate in a different layer and may use different
   encapsulation and tunneling techniques.  When taking into account
   virtualization related technologies, the number of encapsulation and
   tunneling options is very high.  Still, end-to-end service OAM
   mechanisms and information exchanges between functions should be
   provided to operate and maintain the network as a whole.  This
   requires a generic tool-set that can provide all standard tools in
   context of multi-technology, multi-layer, physical and virtual
   environments.

   An interesting angle to aspect of this problem is how the OAM
   information at different layer is made available to management
   application for use and learnt via the unified management interface.
   For example, in the case of an multi-layer network, OAM information
   needs to be imposed to the packet and injected into the network and
   at last abstracted from various layer and provide them to the
   management application.

4.1.  Use of Existing Protocol Mechanisms

   OAM information relies on network technology at each layer and may
   currently be exchanged at each network layer in a domain by using
   various encapsulation technologies at the Layer 2 & Layer 3 levels.
   OAM information may be gathered and exported from a domain (for
   example, northbound) using SNMP,I2RS or NetConf/Yang.

   It is desirable that a solution to the problem described in this
   document does not require the implementation of a new, network-wide
   protocol or introduce a shim layer to carry OAM information.
   Instead, it would be advantageous to make use of an existing protocol
   or functionality that is commonly implemented on routers and is
   currently deployed.  This has many benefits in network stability,
   time to deployment, and operator training.

   It is recognized, however, that existing protocols or functionalities
   are unlikely to be immediately suitable to this problem space without
   some protocol extensions.  Extending protocols must be done with care
   and with consideration for the stability of existing deployments.  In
   extreme cases, there is a lack of functionality, although similar
   mechanisms exist in other technologies, a new protocol can be
   preferable to a messy hack of an existing protocol.

4.2.  Strong Technology dependency

   OAM protocols are relying heavily on the specific technology they are
   associated with.  Addressing scheme is a good example for an issue
   that has a high price for being non-generic.  Ping of IPv4 and IPv6



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   looks different in the addressing scheme as well in the ICMP
   indication field, but they have the same OAM functionalities.

4.3.  Weakness of cross-layer OAM

   Troubleshooting is cumbersome due to protocol variety and lack of
   multi-layer OAM.  Usually OAM messages should not cross layer
   boundaries.  Each of the service, network and transport layers
   possesses its well- discernable and native OAM stream.  In addition,
   OAM messages should not be leaked outside of a management domain
   within a layer, where a management domain is governed by a single
   business organization.  When having networks with more than one
   technology, maintenance and troubleshooting are done per technology
   and layer.

   This could in some cases ease the understanding in which technology
   the operation is done or fault is located.  In some cases, when one
   layer OAM fails, it would be more desirable to drop down to the
   another layer OAM and issue the corresponding OAM command, using the
   same API if OAM in multiple layers can be supported.  However, in
   most cases switching tools and layers in the same operation process
   is cumbersome and not serving the main idea - to find the root cause
   location.  It would be very helpful to have a generic mechanisms that
   is end to end basis and can ping IPv4 host by an IPv6 source or
   having one tool to troubleshoot combined IP, MPLS, Ethernet, GRE and
   VXLAN network.

4.4.  Lack of OAM above Layer 3

   The Layer 2/3 protocols are quite rich in their functionality, well
   defined, standardized and heavily used.  In the last years a lot of
   work was done to consider maintenance domains and levels in order to
   better handle the issues of cross technology, vendor and operator
   domains to provide smooth interoperability and domain separation.

   The above mechanisms are not defined for the technologies above Layer
   3.  Therefore, in the SFC environment no standard exists as a
   reference for OAM since when the service packets is steered through a
   set of service nodes distributed in the network, each service node
   work at different layers above layer 3.

4.5.  Issues of Abstraction

   In multi-layer network,OAM function is enabled at different layer and
   various OAM information needs to be gathered from various layer.
   Without multi-layer OAM in place, it is hard for management
   application to understand what these information at different layer
   stands for.  One possible solution to the issues is to abstract the



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   OAM information shared across layers, i.e., using the same tool or
   API to activate the OAM functions at different layers and retrieve
   the results.

   The trick to this multi-layer problem, is to abstract in a way that
   retains as much useful information as possible while removing the
   data that is not needed.  An important part of this trick is a clear
   understanding of what information is actually needed.

4.6.  Issue of OAM information gathering from Service Function

   When the service packets is steered through a set of service nodes
   distributed in the network, each service node work at different
   layers above layer 3 and may have several SFs collocated with itself.
   When OAM mechanism is applied, it is necessary to allow OAM packet
   exchanged between these service nodes or service function at
   different layers. when Service function involved in the SFC doesn't
   support OAM capability(e.g., SF is SFC-unaware service function),
   Service node should be responsible for monitor and diagnose the
   Service function and check service availability to these service
   function.  It is more desirable to allow service function register to
   service node.  Either service function report status to service node
   or service node perform live check to these service function.

   In addtion, service functions usually don't have Layer 2-3 switching/
   routing capability and therefore are not aware of any OAM function at
   layer 2-3.  Also when there is no OAM functions at service layers at
   top of layer 3, it is hard to identify layer that can be used to
   gather OAM information when it comes to a fault situation or
   degradation of performance.  For example, when a data packet is
   transmitted from one service function to another service function and
   the data packet may be lost between two service functions or
   discarded by either of service function, assume two service functions
   are embedded in two different service nodes, how to detect the fault
   between them and how to isolate problem to that layer?

5.  Existing Work

   The following subsections discuss related IETF work and are provided
   for reference.  This section is not exhaustive, rather it provides an
   overview of few initiatives tackling the pain-points of OAM.

   1.  An important work done in [I-D.tissa-netmod-oam] create a YANG
       unified data model for OAM that is based on IEEE CFM model.  This
       model can be used also for IP OAM functionality.  The above work
       is focused on the management plane of OAM and should be
       complemented by an accompanying data-plane and/or control-plan




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       work.  It may require also some extensions to address wider
       variety of functions and technologies.

   2.  Several works done in the last years tried to address new
       technologies using existing mechanisms.  [I-D.jain-nvo3-overlay-
       oam] and MPLS-TP OAM documents are only examples for such
       efforts.

6.  Architectural Consideration

6.1.  Basic Components

6.1.1.  Interconnect OAM at different layers

6.1.2.  Interconnect OAM at the same shim layer above layer 3

6.2.  OAM Functions in Data Plane

6.2.1.  Continuity Check

   This type of mechanisms check that the monitored layer and/or entity
   are alive and providing connectivity from specific point(s) to other
   point(s).  Some examples are BFD and ETH CC.

6.2.2.  Connectivity Verification

   Verifying that the actual connection is consistent with the required
   connection and no misconnection occurred.  Some examples are IP Ping,
   VCCV and ETH loopback.

6.2.3.  Path Discovery

   Used to discover the path that specific service traverses in the
   network.  Some examples are LSP Trace, IP Trace-route and Ethernet
   Trace.

6.2.4.  Performance measurement

   A function that monitors the performance parameters of a network
   entity.  Such parameters could be Delay, Delay-variation, loss,
   availability of services and class of services.  Examples are TWAMP/
   OWAMP and Y.1731.

6.2.5.  Protection Switching

   A function that is used to signal protection switching states and
   commands.  Examples are ETH APS messages.




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6.2.6.  Alarm/defect indication

   A function that is used to indicate that a failure occured downstream
   or upstream within a connection/service.  Used also to trigger fast
   protection or to suppress alarms.  Examples are ETH AIS and ETH RDI.

6.2.7.  Maintenance commands

   A function that is used to signal a maintenance state or command
   within a connection/service.  Examples can be ETH Lockout.

6.3.  OAM in Management plane

   Management systems play an important role in configuring or
   provisioning OAM functionality consistently across all devices in the
   network, and for automating the monitoring and troubleshooting of
   network faults.  However OAM is not provision,In general,
   Provisioning is used to configure the network to provide new
   services, whereas OAM is used to keep the network in a state that it
   can support already existing services.

   There are two phases to OAM provision.  The first phase is the
   network provisioning phase, which sets up Maintenance Domains (MD)
   and Maintenance Intermediate Points (MIP) and enables basic OAM
   functionality(e.g.,Connectivity Fault Management (CFM)) on the
   devices.

   The second provision phase is the service activation phase,which
   enable the origin of ping and trace packets, as well as configure
   continuity-check and cross-check functionalities.

   The different OAM tools may be used in one of two basic types of
   activation:

   o  Proactive activation - indicates that the tool is activated on a
      continual basis, where messages are sent periodically, and errors
      are detected when a certain number of expected messages are not
      received.

   o  On-demand activation - indicates that the tool is activated
      "manually" to detect a specific anomaly.

7.  Building on Existing Protocols








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8.  Scoping Future Work

9.  Manageability Considerations

10.  Security Considerations

   Security considerations are not addressed in this problem statement
   only document.  Given the scope of OAM, and the implications on data
   and control planes, security considerations are clearly important and
   will be addressed in the specific protocol and deployment documents.

11.  Summary

   This document highlights problems associated with OAM in packet
   technologies today.  We detail the problem scope, identified the main
   OAM functions that should be addressed based on the current
   aggregated functions.

12.  Acknowledgements

   The authors would like to thank Romascanu, Dan, Tissa Senevirathne
   for their valuable reviews and suggestions on this document.

13.  References

13.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", March 1997.

13.2.  Informative References

   [I-D.ietf-nsc-problem-statement]
              Quinn, P., Guichard, J., and S. Surendra, "Network Service
              Chaining Problem Statement", ID draft-quinn-nsc-problem-
              statement, August 2013.

   [I-D.jain-nvo3-overlay-oam]
              Jain, P., "Generic Overlay OAM and Datapath Failure
              Detection", ID draft-jain-nvo3-overlay-oam-01, February
              2014.

   [I-D.tissa-netmod-oam]
              Senevirathne , T., Finn, N., Kumar , D., and S. Salam ,
              "YANG Data Model for Operations Administration and
              Maintenance (OAM)", ID draft-tissa-netmod-oam-00, March
              2014.




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Authors' Addresses

   Qin Wu
   Huawei
   101 Software Avenue, Yuhua District
   Nanjing, Jiangsu  210012
   China

   Email: bill.wu@huawei.com


   Mishael Wexler
   Huawei

   Email: mishael.wexler@huawei.com


   Pradeep Jain
   Nuage Networks
   755 Ravendale Drive
   Mountain View, CA  94043
   USA

   Email: pradeep@nuagenetworks.net



























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