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Network Working Group                                              X. Li
Internet-Draft                                                    C. Bao
Intended status: Informational                                    G. Han
Expires: January 4, 2016                          CERNET Center/Tsinghua
                                                              University
                                                                  W. Dec
                                                           Cisco Systems
                                                            July 3, 2015


                  MAP Interoperability Testing Results
                   draft-xli-softwire-map-testing-06

Abstract

   This document presents the testing results of a unified code
   accommodating encapsulation and translation modes of Mapping of
   Address and Port (MAP).  Experiments show that the unified MAP CE is
   not only supporting MAP-E and MAP-T modes, but also backward
   compatible with AFTR of dual-stack lite and stateless/stateful NAT64.

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on January 4, 2016.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2015 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect



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   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.


Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
     1.1.  Testing Topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  MAP specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
     2.1.  Mapping Rules and the Address Formats  . . . . . . . . . .  3
     2.2.  Port Mapping Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     2.3.  Forwarding Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     2.4.  Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   3.  MAP Testing  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     3.1.  MAP-T  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     3.2.  MAP-E  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     3.3.  1:1 mode MAP-T/MAP-E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     3.4.  Mixed MAP-T/MAP-E  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
   4.  Backward Compatibility Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     4.1.  AFTR of dual-stack lite  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     4.2.  NAT64 with double translation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   5.  Conclusions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   6.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   7.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   8.  Acknowledgments  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   9.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11






















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1.  Introduction

   Generic mechanism for mapping between an IPv4 prefix, address or
   parts of thereof, and transport layer ports and an IPv6 prefix or
   address with translation mode and encapsulation mode are specified in
   [I-D.ietf-softwire-map-t] [I-D.ietf-softwire-map].  This document
   presents testing results of a unified code containing translation and
   encapsulation modes of Mapping of Address and Port (MAP).  The
   backward compatibility of MAP CE with AFTR of dual-stack lite and
   NAT64 of stateful translation are also presented.

1.1.  Testing Topology

   The testing topology is shown in the following figure.

                                                  -----     ------
                                               .-| CE.0|---|Host.0|
                                              /   -----     ------
           ------                  -----     |
         /  The   \    -----     /  An   \   |    -----     ------
        |   IPv4   |--| BR  |---|   IPv6  |------| CE.1|---|Host.1|
         \Internet/   |     | ^  \Network/   |    -----     ------
           ------      -----  |    -----     |
                              |               \   -----     ------
                           tcpdump              -| CE.K|---|Host.K|
                                                  -----     ------

                    Figure 1: Generic testing topology

   Where, BR is the MAP Border Relay, CE is the MAP Customer Edge.  Both
   BR and CE can be configured in translation mode (MAP-T) or
   encapsulation mode (MAP-E), independently.  A tcpdump process is
   running between BR and CE to get the packet header information.


2.  MAP specifications

   The code tested in this document follows the MAP specification
   defined in [I-D.ietf-softwire-map-t] [I-D.ietf-softwire-map], which
   contain the Mapping Rules, the Port Mapping Algorithm and the
   Forwarding Mode.  The explicit address format and configuration
   parameters used for the code are presented in the following sections.

2.1.  Mapping Rules and the Address Formats

   The address format of Basic Mapping Rule (BMR) and Forwarding Mapping
   Rule (FMR) are defined in the following figure.  Also note that
   translation mode (MAP-T) and encapsulation mode (MAP-E) have the same



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   address format of BMR/FMR.


   <-- n bits -->|<o bits>|<-m bits>|< 8>|<---- L>=32 ------>|<--56-L-->
   |0                             63|                               127|
   +-------------+--------+---------+----+--------------+----+---------+
   | IPv6 prefix |EA bits |Subnet-id| u  | IPv4 address |PSID|    0    |
   +-------------+--------+---------+----+--------------+----+---------+
   <End-user IPv6 prefix >|


         Figure 2: BMR/FMR in translation and encapsulation modes

   The address format of Default Mapping Rule is different for
   translation (MAP-T) and encapsulation (MAP-E), as shown in the
   following figures.


   |0                             63|                               127|
   +--------------------------------+----+--------------+--------------+
   |          BR prefix             | u  | IPv4 address |         0    |
   +--------------------------------+----+--------------+--------------+

                     Figure 3: DMR in translation mode



   |0                                                               127|
   +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
   |          BR IPv6 address                                          |
   +-------------------------------------------------------------------+


                    Figure 4: DMR in encapsulation mode

   The testing presented in this document is for the Hubs and Spokes
   scenario, and therefore, only BMR and DMR are required in each CE.

2.2.  Port Mapping Algorithm

   The port mapping algorithm is called Generalized Modulus Algorithm
   (GMA), which contains the sharing ratio (R=2^k), the maximum number
   of contiguous ports (M=2^m) and the Port-Set Identifiers (PSID).

2.3.  Forwarding Modes

   The MAP has two forwarding modes, the translation (MAP-T) and
   encapsulation (MAP-E).  The header processing algorithms of the



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   translation and the encapsulation modes are defined in [RFC6145] and
   [RFC2473], respectively.

2.4.  Implementation

   The MAP specification is implemented in Linux environment under GPL
   [map-code].

   The CE related configuration parameters are:

   -i specify the name of the Ethernet device connected to IPv4 world

   -I specify the name of the Ethernet device connected to IPv6 world

   -H specify in CE mode

   -a specify the IPv4 address and mask of the host behind the CE

   -P specify the IPv6 rule prefix and prefix length of the host behind
      the CE

   -R specify the associated IPv4 address sharing ratio R of the host
      behind the CE

   -M specify the associated M parameter of the host behind the CE
      device

   -o specify the PSID of the host behind the CE

   -N specify in NAT44 mode.  The '-A' option is required.

   -A specify the public IPv4 address and mask which the host behind the
      CE device is mapped into.  In this case, the '-a' option will
      specify the private IPv4 network and prefix length

   -X specify the IPv6 prefix is not containing EA-bits


3.  MAP Testing

   The configuration examples and the testing results of the MAP's
   translation mode (MAP-T), the encapsulation mode (MAP-E), MAP-T/MAP-E
   1:1 modes and the mixed MAP-T/MAP-E modes are shown in this section.

   The basic testing method is from an IPv4 host connected to CE to ping
   an IPv4 server (202.112.35.254) connected to BR.  The tcpdump records
   the packet headers of the echo request and echo reply messages.




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3.1.  MAP-T

   The MAP CE in MAP-T mode is configured as:

      utils/ivictl -r -d -P 2001:da8:b4b6:ffff::/64 -T

      utils/ivictl -s -i eth1 -I eth0 -H -N -a 192.168.1.0/24 -A
      202.38.117.1/24 -P 2001:da8:b4b6::/48 -R 16 -M 2 -o 0 -c 1440 -T

   The tcpdump data samples are:

      09:42:16.526809 IP6 2001:da8:b4b6:100:ca:2675:100:0 > 2001:da8:
      b4b6:ffff:ca:7023:fe00:0: ICMP6, echo request, seq 18177, length
      40

      09:42:16.527448 IP6 2001:da8:b4b6:ffff:ca:7023:fe00:0 > 2001:da8:
      b4b6:100:ca:2675:100:0: ICMP6, echo reply, seq 18177, length 40

3.2.  MAP-E

   The MAP CE in MAP-E mode is configured as:

      utils/ivictl -r -d -P 2001:da8:b4b6:ffff:1234::5678/128 -E

      utils/ivictl -s -i eth1 -I eth0 -H -N -a 192.168.1.0/24 -A
      202.38.117.1/24 -P 2001:da8:b4b6::/48 -R 16 -M 2 -o 8 -c 1400 -E

   The tcpdump data samples are:

      09:38:43.326429 IP6 2001:da8:b4b6:180:ca:2675:180:0 > 2001:da8:
      b4b6:ffff:1234::5678: IP 202.38.117.1 > 202.112.35.254: ICMP echo
      request, id 1040, seq 32512, length 40

      09:38:43.327786 IP6 2001:da8:b4b6:ffff:1234::5678 > 2001:da8:b4b6:
      180:ca:2675:180:0: IP 202.112.35.254 > 202.38.117.1: ICMP echo
      reply, id 1040, seq 32512, length 40

3.3.  1:1 mode MAP-T/MAP-E

   The 1:1 mode MAP-T/MAP-E means that each CE has its own mapping rule
   with or without the IPv4 address sharing.

   The MAP CE in MAP-T 1:1 mode is configured as:

      utils/ivictl -r -d -P 2001:da8:b4b6:ffff::/64 -T

      utils/ivictl -s -i eth1 -I eth0 -H -X -N -a 192.168.1.0/24 -A
      202.38.117.1/24 -P 2001:da8:b4b6:2700::/64 -R 16 -M 2 -o 8 -c 1440



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      -T

   The tcpdump data samples are:

      22:53:30.977999 IP6 2001:da8:b4b6:2700:ca:2675:100:0 > 2001:da8:
      b4b6:ffff:ca:7023:fe00:0: ICMP6, echo request, seq 7113, length 40

      22:53:30.978876 IP6 2001:da8:b4b6:ffff:ca:7023:fe00:0 > 2001:da8:
      b4b6:2700:ca:2675:100:0: ICMP6, echo reply, seq 7113, length 40

   The MAP CE in MAP-E 1:1 mode is configured as:

      utils/ivictl -r -d -P 2001:da8:b4b6:ffff:1234::5678/128 -E

      utils/ivictl -s -i eth1 -I eth0 -H -X -N -a 192.168.1.0/24 -A
      202.38.117.1/24 -P 2001:da8:b4b6:2700::/64 -R 16 -M 2 -o 8 -c 1400
      -E

   The tcpdump data samples are:

      22:56:29.661058 IP6 2001:da8:b4b6:2700:ca:2675:180:0 > 2001:da8:
      b4b6:ffff:1234::5678: IP 202.38.117.1 > 202.112.35.254: ICMP echo
      request, id 4113, seq 7276, length 40

      22:56:29.661751 IP6 2001:da8:b4b6:ffff:1234::5678 > 2001:da8:b4b6:
      2700:ca:2675:180:0: IP 202.112.35.254 > 202.38.117.1: ICMP echo
      reply, id 4113, seq 7276, length 40

3.4.  Mixed MAP-T/MAP-E

   The CE and BR can be configured in different modes, for example CE
   can be configured in translation mode and BR can be configured in
   encapsulation mode.  The reason is that the forwarding mode is only
   required in the IPv4 to IPv6 direction, while it can be automatically
   identified by checking the value of the next header in the IPv6
   packets in the IPv6 to IPv4 direction.  This feature provides great
   flexibility to the users and operators to select desired forwarding
   mode without dropping a single packet in different forwarding mode.
   The following are two examples of BR and CE in different forwarding
   modes with the configurations shown in MAP-T and MAP-E sections.

   When BR is in T mode and CE is in E mode, the tcpdump data samples
   are:

      09:39:48.829067 IP6 2001:da8:b4b6:180:ca:2675:180:0 > 2001:da8:
      b4b6:ffff:1234::5678: IP 202.38.117.1 > 202.112.35.254: ICMP echo
      request, id 1040, seq 47104, length 40




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      09:39:48.833054 IP6 2001:da8:b4b6:ffff:ca:7023:fe00:0 > 2001:da8:
      b4b6:180:ca:2675:180:0: ICMP6, echo reply, seq 47104, length 40

   When BR is in E mode and CE is in T mode, the tcpdump data samples
   are:

      09:44:11.692130 IP6 2001:da8:b4b6:100:ca:2675:100:0 > 2001:da8:
      b4b6:ffff:ca:7023:fe00:0: ICMP6, echo request, seq 41473, length
      40

      09:44:11.693044 IP6 2001:da8:b4b6:ffff:1234::5678 > 2001:da8:b4b6:
      100:ca:2675:100:0: IP 202.112.35.254 > 202.38.117.1: ICMP echo
      reply, id 1024, seq 41473, length 40


4.  Backward Compatibility Testing

   The MAP CE is backward compatible to dual-stack lite in the E mode
   and to NAT64 in the T mode.

4.1.  AFTR of dual-stack lite

   Dual-stack lite is a stateful encapsulation technology defined in
   [RFC6333].  For the testing, the MAP BR is replaced by dual-stack
   lite AFTR [dual-stack-lite-code].

   The MAP CE is configured as:

      utils/ivictl -r -d -P 2001::1/128

      utils/ivictl -s -i eth1 -I eth0 -H -N -X -a 192.168.1.0/24 -A
      10.255.255.1/24 -P 2001:da8:b001:1009::/64 -R 16 -M 2 -o 0 -c 1400
      -E

   The tcpdump data samples are:

      22:48:42.536559 IP6 2001:da8:b001:1009:a:ffff:100:0 > 2001::1: IP
      10.255.255.1 > 202.112.35.254: ICMP echo request, id 1024, seq
      41473, length 40

      22:48:42.539352 IP6 2001::1 > 2001:da8:b001:1009:a:ffff:100:0: IP
      202.112.35.254 > 10.255.255.1: ICMP echo reply, id 1024, seq
      41473, length 40








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4.2.  NAT64 with double translation

   NAT64 is a stateful translation technology defined in [RFC6146] and
   [RFC6145].  For the testing, the MAP BR is replaced by NAT64
   [nat64-code].

   The MAP CE is configured as:

      utils/ivictl -r -d -P 2001:da8:b4b6:1000::/64 -T

      utils/ivictl -s -i eth1 -I eth0 -H -N -X -a 192.168.1.0/24 -A
      2.2.2.2/32 -P 2001:da8:b001:fff9::/64 -R 16 -M 2 -o 0 -c 1440 -T

   The tcpdump data samples are:

      09:24:16.478385 IP6 2001:da8:b001:fff9:2:202:200:0 > 2001:da8:
      b4b6:1000:ca:7023:fe00:0: ICMP6, echo request, seq 25600, length
      40

      09:24:16.479638 IP6 2001:da8:b4b6:1000:ca:7023:fe00:0 > 2001:da8:
      b001:fff9:2:202:200:0: ICMP6, echo reply, seq 25600, length 40

   Note that for this scenario, the CE defined in [RFC6877] can also
   achieve this goal.


5.  Conclusions

   Although only the echo request/echo reply testing results with the
   corresponding MAP CE configuration examples are presented in this
   document, the TCP/UDP applications are also tested in CERNET/CERNET2
   successfully.  The concluding remarks are:

   o  A unified MAP can support MAP-T, MAP-E, 1:1 mode MAP-T/MAP-E and
      even the mixed modes without introducing additional complexity.

   o  A unified MAP CE can be configured to support MAP-T, MAP-E, 1:1
      mode MAP-T/MAP-E, mixed MAP-T/MAP-E, and backward compatible with
      stateless NAT64, stateful NAT64 and dual-stack lite.


6.  Security Considerations

   This document does not introduce any new security considerations.







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7.  IANA Considerations

   None.


8.  Acknowledgments

   The authors would like to acknowledge the following contributors of
   this document: Weicai Wang, Wentao Shang and Rajiv Asati.


9.  Normative References

   [I-D.ietf-softwire-map]
              Troan, O., Dec, W., Li, X., Bao, C., Matsushima, S.,
              Murakami, T., and T. Taylor, "Mapping of Address and Port
              with Encapsulation (MAP)", draft-ietf-softwire-map-13
              (work in progress), March 2015.

   [I-D.ietf-softwire-map-t]
              Li, X., Bao, C., Dec, W., Troan, O., Matsushima, S., and
              T. Murakami, "Mapping of Address and Port using
              Translation (MAP-T)", draft-ietf-softwire-map-t-08 (work
              in progress), December 2014.

   [RFC2473]  Conta, A. and S. Deering, "Generic Packet Tunneling in
              IPv6 Specification", RFC 2473, December 1998.

   [RFC6145]  Li, X., Bao, C., and F. Baker, "IP/ICMP Translation
              Algorithm", RFC 6145, April 2011.

   [RFC6146]  Bagnulo, M., Matthews, P., and I. van Beijnum, "Stateful
              NAT64: Network Address and Protocol Translation from IPv6
              Clients to IPv4 Servers", RFC 6146, April 2011.

   [RFC6333]  Durand, A., Droms, R., Woodyatt, J., and Y. Lee, "Dual-
              Stack Lite Broadband Deployments Following IPv4
              Exhaustion", RFC 6333, August 2011.

   [RFC6877]  Mawatari, M., Kawashima, M., and C. Byrne, "464XLAT:
              Combination of Stateful and Stateless Translation",
              RFC 6877, April 2013.

   [dual-stack-lite-code]
              "Dual-stack Lite Code:
              http://www.isc.org/software/aftr/11".

   [map-code]



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              "MAP Code: http://mapt.ivi2.org:8039/mapt.html".

   [nat64-code]
              "NAT64 Code: http://ecdysis.viagenie.ca/download.html".


Authors' Addresses

   Xing Li
   CERNET Center/Tsinghua University
   Room 225, Main Building, Tsinghua University
   Beijing  100084
   CN

   Phone: +86 10-62785983
   Email: xing@cernet.edu.cn


   Congxiao Bao
   CERNET Center/Tsinghua University
   Room 225, Main Building, Tsinghua University
   Beijing  100084
   CN

   Phone: +86 10-62785983
   Email: congxiao@cernet.edu.cn


   Guoliang Han
   CERNET Center/Tsinghua University
   Room 225, Main Building, Tsinghua University
   Beijing  100084
   CN

   Phone: +86 10-62785983
   Email: bupthgl@gmail.com


   Wojciech Dec
   Cisco Systems
   Haarlerbergpark Haarlerbergweg 13-19
   Amsterdam, NOORD-HOLLAND  1101 CH
   Netherlands

   Phone:
   Email: wdec@cisco.com





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