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Versions: 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 RFC 7109

Network Working Group                                          H. Yokota
Internet-Draft                                                    D. Kim
Intended status: Standards Track                                KDDI Lab
Expires: January 15, 2013                                    B. Sarikaya
                                                                  F. Xia
                                                              Huawei USA
                                                           July 14, 2012


           Home Agent Initiated Flow Binding for Mobile IPv6
               draft-yokota-mext-ha-init-flow-binding-02

Abstract

   There are scenarios in which the home agent needs to trigger flow
   binding operations towards the mobile node such as moving a flow from
   one access network to another based on the network resource
   availability.  In order for the home agent to be able to initiate
   interactions for flow bindings with the mobile node, this document
   defines new signaling messages and sub-options for Mobile IPv6.  Home
   agent initiated flow bindings are supported for both IPv4 and IPv6
   enabled mobile nodes.

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on January 15, 2013.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2012 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of



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   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.


Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   3.  Use Cases  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
     3.1.  Over-the-air Flow Binding Provisioning . . . . . . . . . .  3
     3.2.  Traffic Offload  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     3.3.  Flow Binding Revocation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     3.4.  Exceeding traffic quota  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   4.  Protocol Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     4.1.  Adding flow bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     4.2.  Deleting flow bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     4.3.  Modifying flow bindings  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     4.4.  Refreshing flow bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     4.5.  Moving flow bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     4.6.  Revoking flow bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   5.  Handling of the Flow Bindings List . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   6.  Flow Binding Messages and Options  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     6.1.  Mobility Header  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
       6.1.1.  Flow Binding Indication  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
       6.1.2.  Flow Binding Acknowledgement . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
       6.1.3.  Flow Binding Revocation Extensions . . . . . . . . . . 10
     6.2.  New Options  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
       6.2.1.  Flow binding action sub-option . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
       6.2.2.  Target Care-of-Address sub-option  . . . . . . . . . . 11
   7.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   8.  Protocol constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   9.  IANA considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   10. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     10.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     10.2. Informative references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14











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1.  Introduction

   [RFC6089] allows a mobile node to bind a particular flow to a care-of
   address without affecting other flows using the same home address.
   Binding Update (BU)/Binding Acknowledgement(BA) messages are extended
   for the mobile node to add, modify, remove and refresh flow binding
   in a home agent.  The operations are always initiated by the mobile
   node.

   In some cases, the home agent would like to initiate flow binding
   operations. e.g, the home agent revokes a flow binding for reasons
   such as accounting insufficiency of the mobile node; for the mobile
   node equipped with multiple interfaces, the home agent moves a flow
   binding from one interface to another based on network resource
   availability; the home agent provisions default flow binding rules to
   the mobile node based on the mobile node's default profile.

   This document defines one new Mobility Header and two new messages
   for the home agent to control flow bindings in the mobile node.  Flow
   mobility for the mobile nodes with IPv4 home address and IPv4 address
   of the home agent as described in [RFC5555] is also supported.


2.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

   The terminology in this document is based on the definitions in
   [RFC3775] and [RFC6089].


3.  Use Cases

3.1.  Over-the-air Flow Binding Provisioning

   When a new subscriber purchases a dual mode phone equipped with both
   3GPP and WiFi interfaces, depending on the services that the
   subscriber can use, the operator provisions the mobile phone over the
   air with the following information:

   o  3GPP access takes priority over WiFi access when providing Voice-
      over-IP (VoIP) service.  That is, when making a call, the 3GPP
      network is always used as far as the network is accessible.
   o  WiFi access is primarily selected to serve IPTV service.





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   o  Peer-to-peer (p2p) download is only allowed through WiFi access.

   The above profile can be downloaded through the home agent to the
   mobile node when registering.

3.2.  Traffic Offload

   The 3G operator may want to move traffic flows from the 3G access to
   another due to ever-increasing traffic load in the 3G access network.
   Fine-grained traffic offload is desirable.  For example, IMS-based
   VoIP flows must stay in the mobile core network while video streaming
   flows provided by servers on the Internet could bypass the mobile
   core network via WiFi access.  Since the network knows more about its
   conditions and has access to the policy server, more timely and well-
   controlled traffic offloading is possible.  To this end, already
   established sessions are moved by the home agent by sending down an
   updated flow descriptor to the mobile node.

3.3.  Flow Binding Revocation

   For administrative reasons, such as the utilization of CPU of a home
   agent reaches a threshold or the home agent needs to reboot some of
   it line cards, sometimes it becomes necessary to inform the mobile
   node that its flow binding has been revoked and the mobile node is no
   longer able to receive IP mobility service for a given flow.  Apart
   from revocation, the home agent may decide to delete a flow binding
   with a delete operation.

3.4.  Exceeding traffic quota

   The 3G operator offers a mobile broadband service with a flat rate
   subscription limited to 5G Byte per month.  Once the quota is reached
   the service is downgraded to 64 K bit per second.  This limitation
   does not prevent the user from using the 3G access for mobile
   broadband services and there is no reason for the operator to change
   the policy since the service is still available.  However, since the
   operator has more information available than the user, the operator
   can indicate this to the user by sending modified flow descriptors to
   the user as a proposal to change access for an ongoing session.


4.  Protocol Operation

   [RFC6089] makes use of Binding Update (BU) /Binding
   Acknowledgement(BA) signalling to forward, i.e. register or discard a
   flow binding in a home agent.  That is, flow binding operations are
   always initiated from the mobile node.  The mechanism specified in
   this document is complimentary to the method described in [RFC6089].



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   It is assumed that the home agent has already created Binding Cache
   entries for the mobile node before launching flow binding operations.

   In this document, one new Mobility Header and two new messages are
   defined, that is, Flow Binding Indication (FBI) Section 6.1.1 and
   Flow Binding Acknowledgement (FBA)Section 6.1.2.  FBI is used by the
   home agent to initiate flow binding operations, while FBA is used for
   acknowledging FBI.

   Due to access network change on the mobile node side, some interface
   that used to be active may not be valid at the time of flow binding
   operation by the home agent, in which case, even if the HA sends the
   FBI to the MN, the FBA will not return.  After retransmitting the
   FBIs for MAX_FBI_RETRIES times and not receiving the FBA, the HA
   determines that the target interface is not available.

4.1.  Adding flow bindings

   Adding the flow binding implies associating a flow with a particular
   care-of address for the mobile node.  The care-of address concerned
   with the flow binding is present in the destination address of the
   packet or the alternate care-of address option.  Alternatively, the
   care-of address may be indicated by the Target Care-of Address sub-
   option defined in Section 6.2.2.  Binding Identification number (BID)
   described in [RFC5648] is not used in the flows initiated by the home
   agent.

   When adding a new flow binding, the home agent sends a FBI with a
   Flow Identification Mobility option to the mobile node.  The Flow
   Identification Mobility option defined in [RFC6089] includes a unique
   Flow Identifier (FID).  The Flow binding action sub-option MUST
   indicate Add operation defined in Section 6.2.1.  The FID needs only
   be unique for the receiver of the message that adds a flow, i.e. the
   same FID can be used across different receivers of the message.

4.2.  Deleting flow bindings

   When removing a flow binding, the home agent sends a FBI with a Flow
   Identification Mobility option in which the Flow binding action sub-
   option indicates Delete operation.  The Flow Identification Mobility
   option includes a unique FID for the mobile node to locate the flow
   binding and remove it.

4.3.  Modifying flow bindings

   When modifying a flow binding (either the care-of address or other
   attributes of the flow), the home agent sends the mobile node a FBI
   message with Flow Identification Mobility option.  The option



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   includes the FID for the binding being modified.  A Traffic Selector
   sub-option may come with the Flow Identification Mobility Option and
   contain the new attributes needed to classify the flow such as DS
   (Differential Services) values in [RFC6088].  Hence, flow
   modification is essentially a process where an existing flow
   definition is removed and a new flow (included in the option) is
   added with the same FID as the flow that was removed.

4.4.  Refreshing flow bindings

   A flow binding is refreshed by simply including the Flow
   Identification Mobility option with Refresh Action field in the FBI
   message.  The message should be sent before the expiration of the
   flow binding.  The message updates existing bindings with new
   information.  Hence, all information previously sent in the last
   refreshing message need to be resent, otherwise such information will
   be lost.

4.5.  Moving flow bindings

   The home agent can move a flow associated to one interface of the
   multi-interfaced mobile node to another by sending a FBI message to
   the mobile node.  A Flow Identification Mobility option whose Action
   field is set to Move is included.  The address of the target
   interface is also included in the Flow Identification Mobility option
   in Target Care-of Address sub-option.

4.6.  Revoking flow bindings

   When the home agent or the network attached to it is overloaded, the
   home agent can revoke a flow binding registered by the mobile node.
   The home agent sends the mobile node a FBI message with a Flow
   Identification Mobility option in which the Flow binding action sub-
   option indicates Revoke operation.  When the MN receives the FBI
   message with Revoke operation, it returns the FBA and decides whether
   the flow should be removed (de-registration) or moved to another
   interface.  The mobile node SHOULD take an action by sending a new BU
   to, for example, deregister the flow.


5.  Handling of the Flow Bindings List

   Flow bindings list defined in [RFC6089] needs to be modified after
   each protocol operation defined above as follows:

   If FBI contains a flow binding add operation and if the corresponding
   FBA has a status code equal to zero, home agent MUST add a new entry
   to the flow bindings list.  FID, Flow Descriptor, FID-PRI and Action



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   fields are taken from the Flow Identification Mobility Option.  BID
   is copied from the Binding Reference sub-option.  Active/Inactive
   Flag is set to Active.  Note that if BID is not available it may be
   replaced by Care-of-Address.

   If FBI contains a flow binding delete operation and if the
   corresponding FBA has a status code equal to zero, home agent MUST
   locate the list entry corresponding to this flow and then delete the
   entry.

   If the home agent sends a Binding Revocation Indication message with
   Flow Mobility Option where the action field is set to Revoke and if
   the corresponding Binding Revocation Acknowledgement message
   indicates acceptance, home agent MUST locate the list entry
   corresponding to this flow and then delete the entry.

   If FBI contains a flow binding modify operation and if the
   corresponding FBA has a status code equal to zero, home agent MUST
   delete the list entry corresponding to this flow and then add a new
   entry setting the values as defined in the Flow Identification
   Mobility Option.

   If FBI contains a flow binding refresh operation and if the
   corresponding FBA has a status code equal to zero, home agent MUST
   locate the list entry corresponding to this flow and then set Active/
   Inactive Flag to Active.

   If FBI contains a flow binding move operation and if the
   corresponding FBA has a status code equal to zero, home agent MUST
   locate the list entry corresponding to this flow and then change the
   BID value to the Care-of-Address in the Flow Identification Mobility
   Option.

   If FBI contains a flow binding switch operation and if the
   corresponding FBA has a status code equal to zero, home agent MUST
   locate the list entry corresponding to this flow and then delete the
   entry.

   Flow binding operations apply equally to IPv6 packets as well as IPv4
   packets as in Dual-Stack Mobile IPv6 [RFC5555].


6.  Flow Binding Messages and Options

6.1.  Mobility Header

   The messages described below follow the Mobility Header format
   specified in Section 6.1 of [RFC3775].



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6.1.1.  Flow Binding Indication

   The Flow Binding Indication messages are used by the home agent to
   initiate flow binding operations to the mobile node.  The Flow
   Binding Indication messages use the MH Type value (IANA-TBD1) for
   Flow Binding message and a Flow Binding Type value of 1, and the
   format of the Message Data field in the Mobility Header is as
   follows:
      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
                                     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                                     |      Flow Binding Type = 1    |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |          Sequence #           |   Trigger     |A|  Reserved   |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                                                               |
     .                                                               .
     .                        Mobility options                       .
     |                                                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

              Figure 1: Flow Binding Indication Message Type

   Sequence #
      A 16-bit unsigned integer used by the home agent to match a
      returned Flow Binding Acknowledgement with this Flow Binding
      Indication.  It could be a random number.

   Trigger
      8-bit unsigned integer indicating the event which triggered the
      home agent to send the Flow Binding Indication message.  The
      following Trigger values are currently defined:

      0  Reserved
      1  Unspecified
      2  Administrative Reason
      3  Possible Out-of Sync BCE State
      250-255 Reserved For Testing Purposes only
      All the other values are reserved

   Acknowledge (A)
      The Acknowledge (A) bit is set by the home agent to request a Flow
      Binding Acknowledgement be returned upon receipt of the Flow
      Binding Indication.







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   Reserved
      These fields are unused.  They MUST be initialized to zero by the
      sender and MUST be ignored by the receiver.

   Mobility Options
      Variable-length field of such length that the complete Mobility
      Header is an integer multiple of 8 octets long.  Flow
      Identification Mobility Options are included in this field.


6.1.2.  Flow Binding Acknowledgement

   The Flow Binding Acknowledgement is used to acknowledge receipt of a
   Flow Binding Indication.  The mobile node sends FBA message to
   acknowledge the reception of FBI to Add, Delete, Modify, Refresh,
   Move, or Switch a flow binding.  On receiving messages with Flow
   Identification Mobility Option(s), the mobile node should copy each
   Flow Identification Mobility Option to the Acknowledgement messages.
   The Flow Binding Acknowledgement has the MH Type value (IANA-TBD1)
   for Flow Binding message and a Flow Binding Type value of 2.  When
   this value is indicated in the MH Type field, the format of the
   Message Data field in the Mobility Header is as follows:
      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
                                     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                                     |       Flow Binding Type = 2   |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |          Sequence #           |   Status      |    Reserved   |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                                                               |
     .                                                               .
     .                        Mobility options                       .
     |                                                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

            Figure 2: Flow Binding Acknowledgement Message Type

   Sequence #
      The sequence number in the Flow Binding Acknowledgement is copied
      from the Sequence Number field in the Flow Binding Indication.

   Status
      8-bit unsigned integer indicating the result of processing the
      Flow Binding Indication message by the receiving mobile node.
      Values of the Status field less than 128 indicate that the Flow
      Binding Indication was processed successfully by the receiving
      node.  Values greater than or equal to 128 indicate that the Flow
      Binding Indication was rejected by the receiving node.  The



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      following status values are currently defined:

      0  success
      128  Binding Does NOT Exist
      All the other values are reserved

   Mobility Options
      Variable-length field of such length that the complete Mobility
      Header is an integer multiple of 8 octets long.  This field
      contains zero or more TLV-encoded mobility options.  Flow
      Identification Mobility Options are included in this field.

6.1.3.  Flow Binding Revocation Extensions

   This specification enables Binding Revocation Indication and Binding
   Revocation Acknowledgement messages to carry Flow Identification
   Mobility Options as defined in [RFC6089] with extensions defined in
   this document.

6.2.  New Options

   This specification defines two Flow Indication sub-options that is
   included in Flow Identification Mobility Option specified in
   [RFC6089].

6.2.1.  Flow binding action sub-option

   This section defines a new sub-option for flow binding actions, which
   must be included in the Flow Identification Mobility Option as shown
   in Figure 3.

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |Sub-opt Type   | Sub-opt Len   |  Reserved   |     Action      |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                 Figure 3: Flow binding action Sub-option

   Sub-opt Type
      To be assigned by IANA (IANA-TBD2)

   Sub-opt Len
      Length of the sub-option in 8-octet units







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   Action
      This is a 8-bit field that describes the required processing for
      the option.  It can be assigned one of the following new values:

      11  Add a flow binding
      12  Delete a flow binding
      13  Modify a flow binding
      14  Refresh a flow binding
      15  Move a flow binding
      16  Revoke a flow binding
      All the other values are reserved for future use

6.2.2.  Target Care-of-Address sub-option

   This section introduces the Target Care-of-Address sub-option, which
   may be included in the Flow Identification Mobility Option.  This
   sub-option is used to indicate the mobile node to move a flow binding
   from one interface to another.
      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |Sub-opt Type   | Sub-opt Len   |          Reserved             |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                 Target Care-of-Address                        |
     .                                                               .
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                Figure 4: Target Care-of-Address Sub-option

   Sub-opt Type
      To be assigned by IANA (IANA-TBD3)

   Sub-opt Len
      Length of the sub-option in 8-octet units

   Reserved
      This field is unused.  It MUST be initialized to zero by the
      sender and MUST be ignored by the receiver.

   Target Care-of-Address
      The address of an interface that the flow is moved to.  This
      address could be IPv4 or IPv6 address.  This sub-option MUST be
      included when the action taken is "15 Move a flow binding".








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7.  Security Considerations

   Security issues for this document follow those of [RFC6088],[RFC6089]
   and [RFC5846].  This specification allows the home agent to
   manipulate only the binding of a flow(s) that is currently registered
   with it, which is the same principle described in [RFC5846].  No
   additional security issue specific to this document is identified.


8.  Protocol constants

   Maximum FBI retries (MAX_FBI_RETRIES)
      This variable specifies the maximum number of times the HA MAY
      retransmit a Flow Binding Indication message when FBA is not
      returned within the time period specified by MAX_FBA_TIMEOUT.  The
      default value for this parameter is 3.

   Maximum FBA timeout (MAX_FBA_TIMEOUT)
      This variable specifies the maximum time in seconds the HA MUST
      wait before retransmitting another FBI message.  The default for
      this parameter is 3 seconds.


9.  IANA considerations

   This document defines one new Mobility Header and two new mobility
   options to be used in Flow Binding Initiate and Flow Binding
   Acknowledge messages.  A new Mobility Header Type and two new sub-opt
   type values (IANA-TBD1, IANA-TBD2 and IANA-TBD3) need to be assigned
   by IANA.


10.  References

10.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC5555]  Soliman, H., "Mobile IPv6 Support for Dual Stack Hosts and
              Routers", RFC 5555, June 2009.

   [RFC3775]  Johnson, D., Perkins, C., and J. Arkko, "Mobility Support
              in IPv6", RFC 3775, June 2004.

   [RFC5846]  Muhanna, A., Khalil, M., Gundavelli, S., Chowdhury, K.,
              and P. Yegani, "Binding Revocation for IPv6 Mobility",
              RFC 5846, June 2010.



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   [RFC6088]  Tsirtsis, G., Giarreta, G., Soliman, H., and N. Montavont,
              "Traffic Selectors for Flow Bindings", RFC 6088,
              January 2011.

   [RFC6089]  Tsirtsis, G., Soliman, H., Montavont, N., Giaretta, G.,
              and K. Kuladinithi, "Flow Bindings in Mobile IPv6 and
              Network Mobility (NEMO) Basic Support", RFC 6089,
              January 2011.

10.2.  Informative references

   [RFC5648]  Wakikawa, R., Devarapalli, V., Tsirtsis, G., Ernst, T.,
              and K. Nagami, "Multiple Care-of Addresses Registration",
              RFC 5648, October 2009.





































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Authors' Addresses

   Hidetoshi Yokota
   KDDI Lab
   2-1-15 Ohara
   Fujimino
   Saitama, Japan  356-8502

   Phone:
   Email: yokota@kddilabs.jp


   Dae-Sun Kim
   KDDI Lab
   2-1-15 Ohara
   Fujimino
   Saitama, Japan  356-8502

   Phone:
   Email: da-kim@kddilabs.jp


   Behcet Sarikaya
   Huawei USA
   5340 Legacy Drive Building 3
   Plano, TX  75024

   Phone: +1 469-277-5839
   Email: sarikaya@ieee.org


   Frank Xia
   Huawei USA
   5430 Legacy Dr. Building 3
   Plano, TX  75024

   Phone:
   Email: xiayangsong@huawei.com













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