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Network Working Group                                           M. Zarny
Internet Draft                                             Goldman Sachs
Intended Status: Informational                                  S. Magee
                                                                      F5
                                                              N. Leymann
                                                        Deutsche Telecom
                                                               L. Dunbar
                                                                  Huawei

Expires: April 28, 2015                                 October 25, 2014


                      I2NSF Data Center Use Cases
               draft-zarny-i2nsf-data-center-use-cases-00


Abstract


   This document describes data center use cases and their requirements
   that a common Interface to Network Security Functions (I2NSF) needs
   to take into account.

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted to IETF in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that other
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Copyright and License Notice

   Copyright (c) 2014 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors. All rights reserved.



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   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document. Please review these documents
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   to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must
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   described in the Simplified BSD License.



Table of Contents

   1. Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2. Conventions used in this document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   3. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   4. On-demand, elastic deployment of firewalls  . . . . . . . . . .  4
     4.1 On demand virtual firewall deployment in cloud data
         centers  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   5. Firewall policy deployment automation . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     5.1 Client-specific security policy in cloud VPNs  . . . . . . .  6
   6. Key requirements for the use cases  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   7. Conclusion  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
   8. Security considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   9. IANA considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   10. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     10.1 Normative references  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     10.2 Informative references  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   11. Acknowledgments  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   12. Authors' addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8




















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1. Introduction

   Enterprises today increasingly consume cloud-based network security
   functions. The reasons are the same as those for the move toward
   cloud computing: greater economies of scale; faster service delivery;
   greater flexibility to respond to changing requirements; faster
   deployment of more sophisticated solutions; among others.

   The cloud security services can in theory be offered in a number of
   ways. They can be operated by service providers or enterprises
   themselves; they can be run on shared or dedicated infrastructure;
   they can be deployed off- or on-premises; or any combination thereof.
   In practice, however, since most firms today possess neither the
   expertise nor resources to build and manage clouds, most firms that
   consume cloud-based security services do so on off-premise provider-
   managed clouds.

   In response, providers and security vendors offer cloud-based models
   to deliver security solutions. Providers in particular are striving
   to standardize the offering methodologies through efforts like
   Network Functions Virtualization (NFV).

   I2NSF is an IETF effort to standardize the interface for network
   security functions offered on any kind of cloud regardless of its
   location or operator. Since the term "network security service" can
   mean many things, we will limit the term to include only the
   following services in this draft.

      * Firewall

      * DDOS/Anti-DOS (Distributed Denial-of-Service/Anti-Denial-of-
      Service)

      * AAA (Authentication, Authorization, Accounting)

      * Remote identity management

      * Secure key management

      * IDS/IPS (Intrusion Detection System/Intrusion Prevention System)


2. Conventions used in this document

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].




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3. Terminology

   Cloud-scale network resources:  Networked resources which provide
      various functions (related to infrastructure, platform, software,
      etc.) in a scalable, automated and secure fashion. Resources in
      the cloud may be fully owned, operated, and used by a single
      organization; dedicated to a single client and managed by a
      provider; shared amongst several clients; hosted on-premises or
      off-premises of an organization; or a combination thereof. In the
      context of this draft, a cloud offers network security services.

   DC:  Data Center

   Domain relationships:  The term "Domain" in this draft has different
      connotations in different scenarios:

      Client <-> Provider relationship, i.e. a client requesting network
      service functions from its provider;

      Domain A <-> Domain B relationship, i.e. one operator domain
      requesting network service functions from another operator domain;
      or

      Applications <-> Network relationship, an application (e.g.,
      cluster of servers) requesting some functions from network.

   Network function:  In the context of I2NSF, the term "network
      function" describes services that provide network functions
      including L4-L7 functions. The network service functions may not
      necessarily be owned or hosted by consumers of those functions.
      Furthermore, the network functions may be hosted on physical
      appliances, inside containers, or inside VMs instantiated on
      common compute servers (e.g., the ETSI NFV defined Virtualized
      Network Functions).

   Virtual Security Function: A security function that can be requested
      by one domain but may be owned or managed by another domain.

   Cloud-based security functions: Used interchangeably with the
      "Virtual Security Functions" in this draft.


4. On-demand, elastic deployment of firewalls

   Network security devices such as firewalls may need to be added or
   removed dynamically for a number of reasons. It may have been
   explicitly requested by the user, or triggered by a pre-agreed-upon
   service level agreement (SLA) between the user and the provider of



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   the service. For example, the service provider may be required to add
   more firewall capacity within a set timeframe whenever the bandwidth
   utilization hits a certain threshold for a specified period. This
   capacity expansion could result in adding new instances of firewalls.
   Likewise, a service provider may need to provision a new firewall
   instance in a completely new environment due to a new requirement.

   The on-demand, dynamic nature of deployment essentially requires that
   the network security "devices" be in software or virtual form
   factors, rather than in a physical appliance form. (This is a
   provider-side concern. Users of the firewall service are agnostic, as
   they should, as to whether or not the firewall service is run on a VM
   or any other form factor. Indeed, they may not even be aware that
   their traffic traverses firewalls.)

   Furthermore, new firewall instances need to be placed in the "right
   zone" (domain). The issue applies not only to multi-tenant
   environments where getting the tenant right is of paramount
   importance but also to environments owned and operated by a single
   organization with its own service segregation policies. For example,
   an enterprise may mandate that firewalls serving Internet traffic and
   business-to-business (B2B) traffic be separate; or that IPS/IDS
   services for investment banking and non-banking traffic be separate
   for regulatory reasons.

4.1 On demand virtual firewall deployment in cloud data centers

   A service provider operated cloud data center could serve tens of
   thousands of clients. Clients' compute servers are typically hosted
   on virtual machines (VMs), which could be deployed across different
   server racks located in different parts of the data center. It is
   often not technically and/or financially feasible to deploy dedicated
   physical firewalls to suit each client's myriad security policy
   requirements. What is needed is the ability to dynamically deploy
   virtual firewalls for each client's set of servers based on
   established security policies and underlying network topologies.

   ---+-----------------------------+-----
      |                             |
    +---+                         +-+-+
    |vFW|                         |vFW|
    +---+                         +-+-+
      |    Client #1                |  Client #2
   ---+-------+---               ---+-------+---
    +-+-+   +-+-+                 +-+-+   +-+-+
    |vM |   |vM |                 |vM |   |vM |
    +---+   +---+                 +---+   +---+




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5. Firewall policy deployment automation

   Firewall configuration today is a highly complex process that
   involves consulting established security policies, translating those
   policies into firewall rules, further translating those rules into
   vendor-specific configuration sets, identifying all the firewalls,
   and pushing configurations to those firewalls.

   This is often a time consuming, complex and error-prone process even
   within a single organization/enterprise framework. It becomes far
   more complex in provider-owned cloud networks that serve myriad
   customers.

   Automation can help address many of these issues. Automation works
   best when it can leverage a common set of standards that will work
   across multiple entities.


5.1 Client-specific security policy in cloud VPNs

   Clients of service provider operated cloud data centers need not only
   secure virtual private networks (VPNs) but also virtual security
   functions that enforce the clients' security policies. The security
   policies may govern communications within the clients' own virtual
   networks and those with external networks. For example, VPN service
   providers may need to provide firewall and other security services to
   their VPN clients. Today, it is generally not possible for clients to
   dynamically view, much less change, what, where and how security
   policies are implemented on their provider-operated clouds. Indeed,
   no standards-based framework that allows clients to retrieve/manage
   security policies in a consistent manner across different providers
   exists.


6. Key requirements for the use cases

   The I2NSF framework should provide a set of standard interfaces that
   facilitate:

      * Dynamic creation, enablement, disablement, and removal of
      network security applications;

      * Policy-driven placement of new service instances in the right
      administrative domain;

      * Attachment of appropriate security and traffic policies to the
      service instances




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      * Management of deployed instances in terms of fault monitoring,
      utilization monitoring, event logging, inventory, etc.


   Moreover, an I2NSF must support different deployment scenarios:

      * Single and multi-tenant environments: The term multi-tenant does
      not mean just different companies subscribing to a provider's
      cloud offering. It can for instance cover administrative
      domains/departments within a single firm that require different
      security and traffic policies.

      * Premise-agnostic: Said network security services may be deployed
      on premises or off premises of an organization.

   The I2NSF framework should provide a standard set of interfaces that
   enable:

      * Translation of security policies into functional tasks. Security
      policies may be carried out by one or more security service
      functions. For example, a security policy may be translated into
      an IDS/IPS policy and a firewall policy for a given application
      type.

      * Translation of functional tasks into vendor-specific
      configuration sets. For example, a firewall policy needs to be
      converted to vendor-specific configurations.

      * Retrieval of information such as configuration, utilization,
      status, etc. Such information may be used for monitoring,
      auditing, troubleshooting purposes. The above functions should be
      available in single- or multi-tenant environments as well as on-
      premise or off-premise clouds.


7. Conclusion

   The need for common interfaces to network service functions goes
   beyond network security functions described here. Efforts like NFV
   will drive efforts to address this broad need. This draft covers
   common network security functions deployed in data centers as a way
   to scope the problem set. The use cases here are relevant to service
   provider and large enterprise networks, and they can all benefit
   significantly from an I2NSF.

   We recommend the IETF to start a program to establish a common
   framework for network security functions that will address the issues
   raised here.



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8. Security considerations

   TBD.

9. IANA considerations

   This document requires no IANA actions. RFC Editor: Please remove
   this section before publication.

10. References

10.1 Normative references

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
   Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC7297]  Boucadair, M., "IP Connectivity Provisioning Profile",
   RFC7297, April 2014.

10.2 Informative references

   [PS]  Dunbar, et al, "Dynamic Network Security as a Service Problem
   Statement", <draft-dunbar-nsaas-problem-statement-00>, July 2014.

   [GS-NFV]  ETSI NFV Group Specification, Network Functions
   Virtualizsation (NFV) Use Cases. ETSI GS NFV 001v1.1.1, 2013.

   [Boucadair-framework]  Boucadair, M., et al, "Differentiated Service
   Function Chaining Framework", <draft-boucadair-service-chaining-
   framework-00>; Aug 2013

   [SC-MobileNetwork]  Haeffner, W. and N. Leymann, "Network Based
   Services in Mobile Network", IETF87 Berlin, July 29, 2013

   [Application-SDN]  Giacomonni, J., "Application Layer SDN", Layer 123
   ONF Presentation, Singapore, June 2013

11. Acknowledgments

   We would like to acknowledge Andrew Malis for his review and
   contribution.


12. Authors' addresses

   Myo Zarny
   Goldman Sachs
   Email: myo.zarny@gs.com



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   Sumandra Majee
   F5 Netowrks
   Email: lal2ghar@gmail.com


   Nic Leymann
   Deutsche Telekom
   Email: n.leymann@telekom.de


   Linda Dunbar
   Huawei
   Email: linda.dunbar@huawei.com






































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