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Versions: 00 01 02 03 draft-ietf-oauth-use-cases

OAUTH WG                                                     G. Fletcher
Internet-Draft                                                       AOL
Intended status: Informational                            T. Lodderstedt
Expires: October 15, 2012                            Deutsche Telekom AG
                                                              Z. Zeltsan
                                                          Alcatel-Lucent
                                                          April 13, 2012


                            OAuth Use Cases
                    draft-zeltsan-oauth-use-cases-03

Abstract

   This document lists the OAuth use cases.  The provided list is based
   on the Internet-Drafts of the OAUTH working group and discussions on
   the group's mailing list.

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on October 15, 2012.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2012 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as



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   described in the Simplified BSD License.


Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  Notational Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   3.  OAuth use cases  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
     3.1.  Web server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
     3.2.  User-agent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     3.3.  In-App-Payment (based on Native Application) . . . . . . .  6
     3.4.  Native Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     3.5.  Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     3.6.  Client password (shared secret) credentials  . . . . . . . 11
     3.7.  Assertion  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     3.8.  Content manager  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     3.9.  Access token exchange  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     3.10. Multiple access tokens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
     3.11. Gateway for browser-based VoIP applets . . . . . . . . . . 17
     3.12. Signed Messages  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
     3.13. Signature with asymmetric secret . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
   4.  Authors of the use cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
   5.  Security considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
   6.  IANA considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
   7.  Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
   8.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
























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1.  Introduction

   The need for documenting the OAuth use cases was discussed at the
   oauth WG virtual meetings, on the group's mailing list, and at the
   IETF 77 and IETF 78.  This Internet-Draft describes such use cases.
   The objective of the draft is to document the discussed OAuth use
   cases and identify the use cases supported by the OAuth
   specifications.  The following section provides the abbreviated
   descriptions of the use cases.

   Note: The use of the string ".example.com" in the URLs of the example
   entities does not mean that the entities belong to the same
   organization.


2.  Notational Conventions

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].


3.  OAuth use cases

   This section lists the use cases that have been discussed by the
   oauth WG.

3.1.  Web server

   Description:

   Alice accesses an application running on a web server at
   www.printphotos.example.com and instructs it to print her photographs
   that are stored on a server www.storephotos.example.com.  The
   application at www.printphotos.example.com receives Alice's
   authorization for accessing her photographs without learning her
   authentication credentials with www.storephotos.example.com.

   Pre-conditions:

   o  Alice has registered with www.storephotos.example.com to enable
      authentication

   o  The application at www.printphotos.example.com has established
      authentication credentials with the application at
      www.storephotos.example.com

   Post-conditions:



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   A successful procedure results in the application
   www.printphotos.example.com receiving an authorization code from
   www.storephotos.example.com.  The code is bound to the application at
   www.printphotos.example.com and to the callback URL supplied by the
   application.  The application at www.printphotos.example.com uses the
   authorization code for obtaining an access token from
   www.storephotos.example.com.  The application at
   www.storephotos.example.com issues an access token after
   authenticating the application at www.printphotos.example.com and
   validating the authorization code that it has submitted.  The
   application at www.printphotos.example.com uses the access token for
   getting access to Alice's photographs at www.storephotos.example.com.

   Note: When an access token expires, the service at
   www.printphotos.example.com needs to repeat the OAuth procedure for
   getting Alice's authorization to access her photographs at
   www.storephotos.example.com.  Alternatively, if Alice wants to grant
   the application a long lasting access to her resources at
   www.storephotos.example.com, the authorization server associated with
   www.storephotos.example.com may issue the long-living tokens.  Those
   tokens can be exchanged for short-living access tokens required to
   access www.storephotos.example.com.

   Requirements:

   o  The server www.printphotos.example.com, which hosts an OAuth
      client, must be capable of issuing the HTTP redirect requests to
      Alice's user agent - a browser

   o  Application at www.storephotos.example.com must be able to
      authenticate Alice.  The authentication method is not in the OAuth
      scope

   o  Application at www.storephotos.example.com must obtain Alice's
      authorization of the access to her photos by
      www.printphotos.example.com

   o  Application at www.storephotos.example.com may identify to Alice
      the scope of access that www.printphotos.example.com has requested
      while asking for Alice's authorization

   o  Application at www.storephotos.example.com must be able to
      authenticate the application at www.printphotos.example.com and
      validate the authorization code before issuing an access token.
      The OAuth 2.0 protocol [I-D.draft-ietf-oauth-v2] specifies one
      authentication method that MAY be used for such authentication -
      Client Password Authentication.




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   o  Application at www.printphotos.example.com must provide a callback
      URL to the application at www.storephotos.example.com (note: the
      URL can be pre-registered with www.storephotos.example.com)

   o  Application at www.storephotos.example.com is required to maintain
      a record that associates the authorization code with the
      application at www.printphotos.example.com and the callback URL
      provided by the application

   o  Access tokens are bearer's tokens (they are not associated with a
      specific application, such as www.printphotos.example.com) and
      should have a short lifespan

   o  Application at www.storephotos.example.com must invalidate the
      authorization code after its first use

   o  Alice's manual involvement in the OAuth authorization procedure
      (e.g., entering an URL or a password) should not be required.
      (Alice's authentication to www.storephotos.example.com is not in
      the OAuth scope.  Her registration with
      www.storephotos.example.com is required as a pre-condition)

3.2.  User-agent

   Description:

   Alice has installed on her computer a gaming application.  She keeps
   her scores in a database of a social site at www.fun.example.com.  In
   order to upload Alice's scores, the application gets access to the
   database with her authorization.

   Pre-conditions:

   o  Alice has installed a gaming application implemented in a
      scripting language (e.g., JavaScript) that runs in her browser and
      uses OAuth for accessing a social site at www.fun.example.com

   o  There is no a web site supporting this application and capable of
      handling the OAuth flow, so the gaming application needs to update
      the database itself

   o  The installed application is registered with the social site at
      www.fun.example.com and has an identifier

   o  Alice has registered with www.fun.example.com for identification
      and authentication





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   o  An auxiliary web server at www.help.example.com is reachable by
      Alice's browser and capable of providing a script that extracts an
      access token from an URL's fragment

   Post-conditions:

   A successful procedure results in Alice's browser receiving an access
   token.  The access token is received from www.fun.example.com as a
   fragment of a redirection URL of an auxiliary web server
   www.help.example.com.  Alice's browser follows the redirection, but
   retains the fragment.  From the auxiliary web server at
   www.help.example.com Alice's browser downloads a script that extracts
   access token from the fragment and makes it available to the gaming
   application.  The application uses the access token to gain access to
   Alice's data at www.fun.example.com.

   Requirements:

   o  Registration of the application running in the Alice's browser
      with the application running on www.fun.example.com is required
      for identification

   o  Alice's authentication with www.fun.example.com is required

   o  Application running at www.fun.example.com must be able to
      describe to Alice the request made by the gaming application
      running on her computer and obtain Alice's authorization for or
      denial of the requested access

   o  After obtaining Alice's authorization the application running at
      www.fun.example.com must respond with an access token and redirect
      Alice's browser to a web server (e.g., www.help.example.com) that
      is capable of retrieving an access token from an URL

3.3.  In-App-Payment (based on Native Application)

   Description:

   Alice has installed on her computer a gaming application (e.g.,
   running as native code or as a widget).  At some point she wants to
   play the next level of the game and needs to purchase an access to
   the advanced version of the game from her service provider at
   www.sp.example.com.  With Alice's authorization the application
   accesses her account at www.sp.example.com and enables her to make
   the payment.

   Pre-conditions:




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   o  Alice has registered and has an account with her service provider
      at www.sp.example.com

   o  The application is registered with the service provider at
      www.sp.example.com.  This enables the server provider to provide
      Alice with all necessary information about the gaming application
      (including the information about the purchasing price)

   o  Alice has a Web user-agent (e.g., a browser or a widget runtime)
      installed on her computer

   Post-conditions:

   A successful procedure results in the gaming application invoking the
   user browser and directing it to the authorization server of the
   service provider.  The HTTP message includes information about the
   gaming application's request to access Alice's account.  The
   authorization server presents to Alice the authentication and
   authorization interfaces.  The authorization interface shows Alice
   the information about the application's request including the
   requested charge to her account.  After Alice successfully
   authenticates and authorizes the request, the authorization server
   enables Alice to save the transaction details including the
   authorization code issued for the gaming application.  Then the
   authorization server redirects Alice's browser to a custom scheme URI
   (registered with the operating system).  This redirection request
   contains a one-time authorization code and invokes a special
   application that is able to extract the authorization code and
   present it to the gaming application.  The gaming application
   presents the authorization code to the authorization server and
   exchanges it for a one-time access token.  The gaming application
   then uses the access token to get access to Alice's account and post
   the charges at www.sp.example.com.

   Requirements:

   o  An authorization server associated with the server at
      www.sp.example.com must be able to authenticate Alice over a
      secure transport

   o  An authorization server associated with the server at
      www.sp.example.com must be able to provide Alice with information
      about the access request that the gaming application has made
      (including the amount that is to be charged to her account with
      the service provider, and the purpose for the charge) over a
      secure transport





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   o  An authorization server associated with the server at
      www.sp.example.com must be able to obtain Alice's authorization
      decision on the request over a secure transport

   o  An authorization server associated with the server at
      www.sp.example.com must be able to generate on demand a one-time
      authorization code and a one-time access token according to the
      scope authorized by Alice

   o  An authorization server associated with the server at
      www.sp.example.com must be able to call back to the gaming
      application with the authorization result over a secure transport

   o  An authorization server associated with the server at
      www.sp.example.com must enable the gaming application to exchange
      an authorization code for an access token over a secure transport

   o  * An authorization server associated with the server at
      www.sp.example.com must verify the authorization code and
      invalidate it after its first use

   o  * An authorization server associated with the server at
      www.sp.example.com must enable Alice to save the details of the
      requested transaction, including the authorization code

   o  * An authorization server associated with the server at
      www.sp.example.com must keep a record linking the requested
      transaction with the authorization code and the respective access
      token

   o  * An authorization server associated with the server at
      www.sp.example.com must enable the resource server
      www.sp.example.com to obtain the transaction information that is
      linked to the issued access token

   o  * Resource server at www.sp.example.com must verify access token
      and invalidate it after its first use

   o  * A resource server at www.sp.example.com must enable the gaming
      application to post charges to Alice's account according to the
      access token presented over a secure transport

   o  The gaming application must provide a custom scheme URI to the
      authorization server associated with www.sp.example.com (note: it
      can be preregistered with the authorization server)

   o  Alice's manual involvement in the OAuth authorization procedure
      (e.g., entering an URL or a password) should not be required.



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      (Alice's authentication to www.sp.example.com is not in the OAuth
      scope)

   * The requirements denoted by '*' are not common for the Native
   Application use cases, but are specific to the In-App-Payment use
   case

3.4.  Native Application

   Description:

   Alice wants to upload (or download) her photographs to (or from)
   storephotos.example.com using her smartphone.  She downloads and
   installs a photo app on her smartphone.  In order to enable the app
   to access her photographs, Alice needs to authorize the app to access
   the web site on her behalf.  The authorization shall be valid for a
   prolonged duration (e.g. several months), so that Alice does not need
   to authenticate and authorize access on every execution of the app.
   It shall be possible to withdraw the app's authorization both on the
   smartphone as well as on the site storephotos.example.com.

   Pre-conditions:

   o  Alice has installed a (native) photo app application on her
      smartphone

   o  The installed application is registered with the social site at
      storephotos.example.com and has an identifier

   o  Alice holds an account with storephotos.example.com

   o  Authentication and authorization shall be performed in an
      interactive, browser-based process.  The smartphone's browser is
      used for authenticating Alice and for enabling her to authorize
      the request by the Mobile App

   Post-conditions:

   A successful procedure results in Alice's app receiving an access and
   a refresh token.  The app may obtain the tokens by utilizing either
   the web server or the user agent flow.  The application uses the
   access token to gain access to Alice's data at
   storephotos.example.com.  The refresh token is persistently stored on
   the device for use in sub-sequent app executions.  If a refresh token
   exists on app startup, the app directly uses the refresh token to
   obtain a new access token.

   Requirements:



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   o  Alice's authentication with storephotos.example.com is required

   o  Registration of the application running on Alice's smartphone is
      required for identification and registration and may be carried
      out on a per installation base

   o  The application at storephotos.example.com provides a capability
      to view and delete the apps' authorizations.  This implies that
      the different installations of the same app on the different
      devices can be distinguished (e.g., by a device name or a
      telephone number)

   o  The app must provide Alice an option to logout.  The logout must
      result in the revocation of the refresh token on the authorization
      server

3.5.  Device

   Description:

   Alice has a device, such as a game console, that does not support an
   easy data-entry method.  She also has an access to a computer with a
   browser.  The application running on the Alice's device gets
   authorized access to a protected resource (e.g., photographs) stored
   on a server at www.storephotos.example.com

   Pre-conditions:

   o  Alice uses an Oauth-enabled game console, which does not have an
      easy data-entry method, for accessing her photographs at
      www.storephotos.example.com.  The device starts the OAuth
      procedure by requesting a token

   o  Alice is able to connect to www.storephotos.example.com using a
      computer that provides an easy data-entry method, which is
      equipped with a browser.  This computer is used to authorize
      access by the application running on the game console to Alice's
      photographs

   o  Application running on Alice's game console has registered with
      www.storephotos.example.com (has been issued an identifier)

   o  Alice has registered with the application running at
      www.storephotos.example.com for identification and authentication

   Post-conditions: Description:

   A successful procedure results in the application running on Alice's



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   game console receiving an access token that enables access to the
   photographs on www.storephotos.example.com.

   Requirements:

   o  Registration of the application running on the game console with
      the application running on www.storephotos.example.com is required
      for identification

   o  Application running on the game console must be able to poll
      periodically the application running at
      www.storephotos.example.com while waiting for Alice's
      authorization of the requested access to her photographs.  The
      repeating requests include the application's identifier and the
      verification code that has been issued by
      www.storephotos.example.com

   o  Alice is required to use her browser for interacting with the web
      application running on www.storephotos.example.com.  To that end
      she has to manually direct her browser to the verification URL
      that is displayed on her game console

   o  Alice's authentication with www.storephotos.example.com is
      required

   o  After authentication with www.storephotos.example.com Alice, if
      she wishes to approve the request, which is described in her
      browser's window, must enter the user code.  (The user code is
      also displayed on her game console along with the verification
      URL)

3.6.  Client password (shared secret) credentials

   Description:

   The company GoodPay prepares the employee payrolls for the company
   GoodWork.  In order to do that the application at
   www.GoodPay.example.com gets authenticated access to the employees'
   attendance data stored at www.GoodWork.example.com.

   Pre-conditions:

   o  The application at www.GoodPay.example.com has established through
      a registration an identifier and a shared secret with the
      application running at www.GoodWork.example.com

   o  The scope of the access by the application at
      www.GoodPay.example.com to the data stored at



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      www.GoodWork.example.com has been defined

   Post-conditions:

   A successful procedure results in the application at
   www.GoodPay.example.com receiving an access token after
   authenticating to the application running at
   www.GoodWork.example.com.

   Requirements:

   o  Authentication of the application at www.GoodPay.example.com to
      the application at www.GoodWork.example.com is required

   o  The authentication method must be based on the identifier and
      shared secret, which the application running at
      www.GoodPay.example.com submits to the application at
      www.GoodWork.example.com in the initial HTTP request

   o  Because in this use case GoodPay gets access to GoodWork's
      sensitive data, GoodWork shall have a pre-established trust with
      GoodPay on the security policy and the authorization method's
      implementation

3.7.  Assertion

   Description:

   Company GoodPay prepares the employee payrolls for the company
   GoodWork.  In order to do that the application at
   www.GoodPay.example.com gets authenticated access to the employees'
   attendance data stored at www.GoodWork.example.com.
   This use case describes an alternative solution to the one described
   by the use case Client password credentials.

   Pre-conditions:

   o  The application at www.GoodPay.example.com has obtained an
      authentication assertion from a party that is trusted by the
      application at www.GoodWork.example.com

   o  The scope of the access by the application at
      www.GoodPay.example.com to the data stored at
      www.GoodWork.example.com has been defined

   o  The application at www.GoodPay.example.com has established trust
      relationship with the asserting party and is capable of validating
      its assertions



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   Post-conditions:

   A successful procedure results in the application at
   www.GoodPay.example.com receiving an access token after
   authenticating to the application running at www.GoodWork.example.com
   by presenting an assertion (e.g., SAML assertion).

   Requirements:

   o  Authentication of the application at www.GoodPay.example.com to
      the application at www.GoodWork.example.com is required

   o  The application running at www.GoodWork.example.com must be
      capable of validating assertion presented by the application
      running at www.GoodPay.example.com

   o  Because in this use case GoodPay gets access to GoodWork's
      sensitive data, GoodWork shall establish trust with GoodPay on the
      security policy and the authorization method's implementation

3.8.  Content manager

   Description:

   Alice and Bob are having a chat conversation using a content manager
   application running on a web server at
   www.contentmanager.example.com.  Alice notifies Bob that she wants to
   share some photographs at www.storephotos.example.com and instructs
   the application at www.contentmanager.example.com to enable Bob's
   access to the photographs.  The application at
   www.contentmanager.example.com, after Alice's authorization, obtains
   an access token for Bob, who uses it to access Alice's photographs at
   www.storephotos.example.com.

   Pre-conditions:

   Alice, Bob the content manager application at
   www.contentmanager.example.com, and the application at
   www.storephotos.example.com have registered with the same
   authorization server for authentication

   Post-conditions:

   A successful procedure results in the application at
   www.contentmanager.example.com receiving an access token that allows
   access to Alice's photographs at www.storephotos.example.com.  The
   access token is issued by the authorization server after Alice has
   authorized the content manager at www.contentmanager.example.com to



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   get an access token on Bob's behalf.  The access token is passed to
   Bob by the content manager.  Bob uses the access token to view
   Alice's photographs at www.storephotos.example.com.

   Requirements:

   o  The server at www.contentmanager.example.com, must be capable of
      issuing the HTTP redirect requests to Alice's and Bob's user
      agents - the browsers

   o  The authorization server must be able to authenticate Alice, Bob,
      and the application at www.contentmanager.example.com

   o  The authorization server is required to obtain Alice's
      authorization for issuing an access token to
      www.contentmanager.example.com on Bob's behalf

   o  Authorization server must be able to identify to Alice the scope
      of access that www.contentmanager.example.com has requested on
      Bob's behalf while asking for Alice's authorization

3.9.  Access token exchange

   Description:

   Alice uses an application running on www.printphotos.example.com for
   printing her photographs that are stored on a server at
   www.storephotos.example.com.  The application running on
   www.storephotos.example.com, while serving the request of the
   application at www.printphotos.example.com, discovers that some of
   the requested photographs have been moved to
   www.storephotos1.example.com.  The application at
   www.storephotos.example.com retrieves the missing photographs from
   www.storephotos1.example.com and provides access to all requested
   photographs to the application at www.printphotos.example.com.  The
   application at www.printphotos.example.com carries out Alice's
   request.

   Pre-conditions:

   o  The application running on www.printphotos.example.com is capable
      of interacting with Alice's browser

   o  Alice has registered with and can be authenticated by
      authorization server

   o  The applications at www.storephotos.example.com has registered
      with authorization server



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   o  The applications at www.storephotos1.example.com has registered
      with authorization server

   o  The application at www.printphotos.example.com has registered with
      authorization server

   Post-conditions:

   A successful procedure results in the application at
   www.printphotos.example.com receiving an access token that allows
   access to Alice's photographs.  This access token is used for the
   following purposes:

   o  By the application running at www.printphotos.example.com to get
      access to the photographs at www.storephotos.example.com

   o  By the application running at www.storephotos.example.com to
      obtain from authorization server another access token that allows
      it to retrieve the additional photographs stored at
      www.storephotos1.example.com

   As the result, there are two access token issued for two different
   applications.  The tokens may have different properties (e.g., scope,
   permissions, and expiration dates).

   Requirements:

   o  The applications at www.printphotos.example.com and
      www.storephotos.example.com require different access tokens

   o  The application at www.printphotos.example.com is required to
      provide its callback URL to the application at
      www.storephotos.example.com

   o  Authentication of the application at www.printphotos.example.com
      to the authorization server is required

   o  Alice's authentication by the authorization server is required

   o  The authorization server must be able to describe to Alice the
      request of the application at www.printphotos.example.com and
      obtain her authorization (or rejection)

   o  If Alice has authorized the request, the authorization server must
      be able to issue an access token that enables the application at
      www.printphotos.example.com to get access to Alice's photographs
      at www.storephotos.example.com




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   o  The authorization server must be able, based on the access token
      presented by the application at www.printphotos.example.com, to
      generate another access token that allows the application at
      www.storephotos.example.com to get access to the photographs at
      www.storephotos1.example.com.  In this context the authorization
      server must validate the authorization of the application at
      www.storephotos.example.com to obtain the token.

   o  The application at www.storephotos.example.com must be able to
      validate an access token presented by the application running at
      www.printphotos.example.com

   o  The application at www.storephotos1.example.com must be able to
      validate the access token presented by the application running at
      www.storephotos.example.com

3.10.  Multiple access tokens

   Description:

   Alice uses a communicator application running on a web server at
   www.communicator.example.com to access her email service at
   www.email.example.com and her voice over IP service at
   www.voip.example.com.  Email addresses and telephone numbers are
   obtained from Alice's address book at www.contacts.example.com.
   Those web sites all rely on the same authorization server, so the
   application at www.communicator.example.com can receive a single
   authorization from Alice for getting access to these three services
   on her behalf at once.

   Note: This use case is especially useful for native applications
   since a web browser needs to be launched only once.

   Pre-conditions:

   o  The same authorization server serves Alice and all involved
      servers

   o  Alice has registered with the authorization server for
      authentication and for authorization of the requests of the
      communicator application running at www.communicator.example.com

   o  The email application at www.email.example.com has registered with
      the authorization server for authentication

   o  The VoIP application at www.voip.example.com has registered with
      the authorization server for authentication




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   o  The address book at www.contacts.example.com has registered with
      the authorization server for authentication

   Post-conditions:

   A successful procedure results in the application at
   www.communicator.example.com receiving three different access tokens:
   one for accessing the email service at www.email.example.com, one for
   accessing the contacts at www.contacts.example.com, and one for
   accessing the VoIP service at www.voip.example.com.

   Requirements:

   o  The application running at www.communicator.example.com must be
      authenticated by the authorization server

   o  Alice must be authenticated by the authorization server

   o  The application running at www.communicator.example.com must be
      able to get a single Alice's authorization for access to the
      multiple services (e.g., email and VoIP)

   o  The application running at www.communicator.example.com must be
      able to recognize that all three applications rely on the same
      authorization server

   o  A callback URL of the application running at
      www.communicator.example.com must be known to the authorization
      server

   o  The authorization server must be able to issue the separate
      service-specific tokens (with different, scope, permissions, and
      expiration dates) for access to the requested services (such as
      email and VoIP)

3.11.  Gateway for browser-based VoIP applets

   Description:

   Alice accesses a social site on a web server at
   www.social.example.com.  Her browser loads a VoIP applet that enables
   her to make a VoIP call using her SIP server at
   www.sipservice.example.com.  The application at
   www.social.example.com gets Alice's authorization to use her account
   with www.sipservice.example.com without learning her authentication
   credentials with www.sipservice.example.com.

   Pre-conditions:



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   o  Alice has registered with www.sipservice.example.com for
      authentication

   o  The application at www.social.example.com has established
      authentication credentials with the application at
      www.sipservice.example.com

   Post-conditions:

   A successful procedure results in the application at
   www.social.example.com receiving access token from
   www.sipservice.example.com with Alice's authorization.

   Requirements:

   o  The server at www.social.example.com must be able to redirect
      Alice's browser to www.sipservice.example.com

   o  The application running at www.sipservice.example.com must be
      capable of authenticating Alice and obtaining her authorization of
      a request from www.social.example.com

   o  The server at www.sipservice.example.com must be able to redirect
      Alice's browser back to www.social.example.com

   o  The application at www.social.example.com must be able to
      translate the messages of the Alice's VoIP applet into SIP and RTP
      messages

   o  The application at www.social.example.com must be able to add the
      access token to the SIP requests that it sends to
      www.sipservice.example.com

   o  Application at www.sipservice.example.com must be able to
      authenticate the application at www.social.example.com and
      validate the access token

   o  Alice's manual involvement in the OAuth authorization procedure
      (e.g., entering an URL or a password) should not be required.
      (Alice's authentication to www.sipservice.example.com is not in
      the OAuth scope)

3.12.  Signed Messages

   Description:

   Alice manages all her personal health records in her personal health
   data store at a server at www.myhealth.example.com, which manages



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   authorization of access to Alice's participating health systems.
   Alice's Primary Care Physician (PCP), which has a Web site at
   www.pcp.example.com, recommends her to see a sleep specialist
   (www.sleepwell.example.com).  Alice arrives at the sleep specialist's
   office and authorizes it to access her basic health data at her PCP's
   web site.  The application at www.pcp.example.com verifies that Alice
   has authorized www.sleepwell.example.com to access her health data as
   well as enforces that www.sleepwell.example.com is the only
   application that can retrieve that data with that specific
   authorization.

   Pre-conditions:

   o  Alice has a personal health data store that allows for discovery
      of her participating health systems (e.g. psychiatrist, sleep
      specialist, PCP, orthodontist, ophthalmologist, etc)

   o  The application at www.myhealth.example.com manages authorization
      of access to Alice's participating health systems

   o  The application at www.myhealth.example.com can issue
      authorization tokens understood by Alice's participating health
      systems

   o  The application at www.pcp.example.com stores Alice's basic health
      and prescription records

   o  The application at www.sleepwell.com stores results of Alice's
      sleep tests

   Post-conditions:

   o  A successful procedure results in just the information that Alice
      authorized being transferred from the Primary Care Physician
      (www.pcp.example.com) to the sleep specialist
      (www.sleepwell.example.com)

   o  The transfer of health data only occurs if the application at
      www.pcp.example.com can verify that www.sleepwell.example.com is
      the party requesting access and that the authorization token
      presented by www.sleepwell.example.com is issued by the
      application at www.myhealth.example.com with a restricted audience
      of www.sleepwell.example.com

   Requirements:

   o  The application at www.sleepwell.example.com interacting with
      www.myhealth.example.com must be able to discover the location of



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      the PCP system (e.g., XRD discovery)

   o  The application at www.sleepwell.example.com must be capable of
      requesting Alice's authorization of access to the application at
      www.pcp.example.com for the purpose of retrieving basic health
      data (e.g. date-of-birth, weight, height, etc).  The mechanism
      Alice uses to authorize this access is out of scope for this use
      case

   o  The application at www.myhealth.example.com must be capable of
      issuing a token bound to www.sleepwell.example.com for access to
      the application at www.pcp.example.com.  Note that a signed token
      (JWT) can be used to prove who issued the token

   o  The application at www.sleepwell.example.com must be capable of
      issuing a request (which includes the token issued by
      www.myhealth.example.com) to the application at
      www.pcp.example.com

   o  The application at www.sleepwell.example.com must sign the request
      before sending it to www.pcp.example.com

   o  The application at www.pcp.example.com must be capable of
      receiving the request and verifying the signature

   o  The application at www.pcp.example.com must be capable of parsing
      the message and finding the authorization token

   o  The application at www.pcp.example.com must be capable of
      verifying the signature of the authorization token

   o  The application at www.pcp.example.com must be capable of parsing
      the authorization token and verifying that this token was issued
      to the application at www.sleepwell.com

   o  The application at www.pcp.example.com must be capable of
      retrieving the requested data and returning it to the application
      at www.sleepwell.example.com

3.13.  Signature with asymmetric secret

   Description:

   Alice accesses an application running on a web server at
   www.printphotos.example.com and instructs it to print her photographs
   that are stored on a server www.storephotos.example.com.  The
   application at www.printphotos.example.com, which does not have a
   shared secret with www.storephotos.example.com, receives Alice's



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   authorization for accessing her photographs without learning her
   authentication credentials with www.storephotos.example.com.

   Pre-conditions:

   o  Alice has registered with www.storephotos.example.com to enable
      authentication

   o  The application at www.printphotos.example.com has a private and a
      matching public keys

   Post-conditions:

   A successful procedure results in the application at
   www.printphotos.example.com receiving an access token from
   www.storephotos.example.com for accessing the Alice's photographs.

   Requirements:

   o  The application at www.printphotos.example.com must be capable of
      issuing the HTTP redirect requests to Alice's user agent - a
      browser

   o  The application at www.storephotos.example.com must be able to
      authenticate Alice

   o  The application running at www.storephotos.example.com must be
      able to obtain the public key of the application at
      www.printphotos.example.com

   o  The application running at www.printphotos.example.com is required
      to sign using its private key the requests to the application at
      www.storephotos.example.com

   o  The application at www.storephotos.example.com must obtain Alice's
      authorization of the access to her photos by
      www.printphotos.example.com

   o  The application at www.storephotos.example.com is required to
      identify to Alice the scope of access that
      www.printphotos.example.com has requested while asking for Alice's
      authorization

   o  The application at www.storephotos.example.com must be able to
      authenticate the application at www.printphotos.example.com by
      validating a signature of its request using the public key of
      www.printphotos.example.com




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   o  The application at www.printphotos.example.com must provide a
      callback URL to the application at www.storephotos.example.com
      (note: the URL can be pre-registered with
      www.storephotos.example.com)

   o  The application at www.storephotos.example.com must be capable of
      issuing the HTTP redirect requests to Alice's browser

   o  Alice's manual involvement in the OAuth authorization procedure
      (e.g., entering an URL or a password) should not be required.
      (Alice's authentication to www.storephotos.example.com is not in
      the OAuth scope)


4.  Authors of the use cases

   The major contributors of the use cases are as follows:

   W. Beck, Deutsche Telekom AG
   G. Brail, Sonoa Systems
   B. de hOra
   B. Eaton, Google
   S. Farrell, NewBay Software
   G. Fletcher, AOL
   Y. Goland, Microsoft
   B. Goldman, Facebook
   E. Hammer-Lahav, Yahoo!
   D. Hardt
   R. Krikorian, Twitter
   T. Lodderstedt, Deutsche Telekom
   E. Maler, PayPal
   D. Recordon, Facebook
   L. Shepard, Facebook
   A. Tom, Yahoo!
   B. Vrancken, Alcatel-Lucent
   Z. Zeltsan, Alcatel-Lucent


5.  Security considerations

   TBD


6.  IANA considerations

   This Internet Draft includes no request to IANA.





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7.  Acknowledgements

   The authors thank Igor Faynberg and Hui-Lan Lu for their invaluable
   help with preparing this document.  Special thanks are to the draft
   reviewers Thomas Hardjono and Melinda Shore, whose suggestions have
   helped to improve the draft.


8.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [I-D.draft-ietf-oauth-v2]
              Hammer-Lahav, E., Recordon, D., and D. Hardt, "The OAuth
              2.0 Authorization Protocol".


Authors' Addresses

   George Fletcher
   AOL

   Email: gffletch@aol.com


   Torsten Lodderstedt
   Deutsche Telekom AG

   Email: torsten@lodderstedt.net


   Zachary Zeltsan
   Alcatel-Lucent
   600 Mountain Avenue
   Murray Hill, New Jersey
   USA

   Phone: +1 908 582 2359
   Email: Zachary.Zeltsan@alcatel-lucent.com











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