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Network Working Group                                           Y. Zha
Internet Draft                                     Huawei Technologies
Intended status: Informational
Expires: January 2016

                                                          July 1, 2015

          Deterministic Networking Use Case in Mobile Network


   This document describes some high level use cases and scenarios
   with requirements on delay sensitive and deterministic networking.
   Not only the telecom industry but also vertical industries have
   been investigated. In addition to the 5G networking, industrial
   automation, automotive industry, media and gaming industry are
   typical related industries believed to be representative for the
   technical requirements on ultra-fast and ultra-reliability

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
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   This Internet-Draft will expire on January 1, 2016.

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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2014 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors. All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
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   warranty as described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1. Introduction .................................................2
   2. Conventions used in this document ............................3
   3. Critical Delay Requirements ..................................4
   4. Coordinated multipoint processing (CoMP) .....................5
      4.1. CoMP Architecture .......................................5
      4.2. Delay Sensitivity in CoMP ...............................6
   5. Industrial Automation ........................................6
   6. Vehicle to Vehicle ...........................................7
   7. Gaming, Media and Virtual Reality ............................7
   8. Security Considerations ......................................8
   9. IANA Considerations ..........................................8
   10. Acknowledgments .............................................8
   11. References ..................................................8
      11.1. Normative References ...................................8
      11.2. Informative References .................................8

1. Introduction

   The rapid growth of the today's communication system and its
   access into almost all aspects of daily life has led to great
   dependency on services it provides. The communication network, as
   it is today, has applications such as multimedia and peer-to-peer
   file sharing distribution that require Quality of Service (QoS)
   guarantees in terms of delay and jitter to maintain a certain
   level of performance. Meanwhile, mobile wireless communications
   has become an important part to support modern sociality with
   increasing importance over the last years. A communication network

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   of hard real-time and high reliability is essential for the next
   concurrent and next generation mobile wireless networks as well as
   its bearer network for E-2-E performance requirements.

   Conventional transport network is IP-based because of the
   bandwidth and cost requirements. However the delay and jitter
   guarantee becomes a challenge in case of contention since the
   service here is not deterministic but best effort. With more and
   more rigid demand in latency control in the future network [METIS],
   deterministic networking [I-D.finn-detnet-architecture] is a
   promising solution to meet the ultra low delay applications and
   use cases. There are already typical issues for delay sensitive
   networking requirements in midhaul and backhaul network to support
   LTE and future 5G network [5G]. And not only in the telecom
   industry but also other vertical industry has increasing demand on
   delay sensitive communications as the automation becomes critical

   More specifically, CoMP techniques, D-2-D, industrial automation
   and gaming/media service all have great dependency on the low
   delay communications as well as high reliability to guarantee the
   service performance. Note that the deterministic networking is not
   equal to low latency as it is more focused on the worst case delay
   bound of the duration of certain application or service. It can be
   argued that without high certainty and absolute delay guarantee,
   low delay provisioning is just relative [RFC3393], which is not
   sufficient to some delay critical service since delay violation in
   an instance cannot be tolerated. Overall, the requirements from
   vertical industries seem to be well aligned with the expected low
   latency and high determinist performance of future networks

   This document describes several use cases and scenarios with
   requirements on deterministic delay guarantee within the scope of
   the deterministic network [I-D.finn-detnet-problem-statement].

2. Conventions used in this document

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   this document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119]. In
   this document, these words will appear with that interpretation
   only when in ALL CAPS. Lower case uses of these words are not to
   be interpreted as carrying [RFC2119] significance.

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3. Critical Delay Requirements

   Delay and jitter requirement has been take into account as a major
   component in QoS provisioning since the birth of Internet. The
   delay sensitive networking with increasing importance become the
   root of mobile wireless communications as well as the applicable
   areas which are all greatly relied on low delay communications.
   Due to the best effort feature of the IP networking, mitigate
   contention and buffering is the main solution to serve the delay
   sensitive service. More bandwidth is assigned to keep the link low
   loaded or in another word, reduce the probability of congestion.
   However, not only lack of determinist but also has limitation to
   serve the applications in the future communication system, keeping
   low loaded cannot provide deterministic delay guarantee.

   Take the [METIS] that documents the fundamental challenges as well
   as overall technical goal of the 5G mobile and wireless system as
   the starting point. It should supports:

     -1000 times higher mobile data volume per area,

     -10 times to 100 times higher typical user data rate,

     -10 times to 100 times higher number of connected devices,

     -10 times longer battery life for low power devices, and

     -5 times reduced End-to-End (E2E) latency,

   at similar cost and energy consumption levels as today's system.
   Taking part of these requirements related to latency, current LTE
   networking system has E2E latency less than 20ms [LTE-Latency]
   which leads to around 5ms E2E latency for 5G networks. It has been
   argued that fulfill such rigid latency demand with similar cost
   will be most challenging as the system also requires 100 times
   bandwidth as well as 100 times of connected devices. As a result
   to that, simply adding redundant bandwidth provisioning can be no
   longer an efficient solution due to the high bandwidth
   requirements more than ever before. In addition to the bandwidth
   provisioning, the critical flow within its reserved resource
   should not be affected by other flows no matter the pressure of
   the network. Robust defense of critical flow is also not depended
   on redundant bandwidth allocation.

   Deterministic networking techniques in both layer-2 and layer-3
   using IETF protocol solutions can be promising to serve these

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4. Coordinated multipoint processing (CoMP)

   In the wireless communication system, Coordinated multipoint
   processing (CoMP) is considered as an effective technique to solve
   the inter-cell interference problem to improve the cell-edge user
   throughput [CoMP].

4.1. CoMP Architecture

             |           CoMP           |
                |                    |
          +----------+             +------------+
          |  Uplink  |             |  Downlink  |
          +-----+----+             +--------+---+
                |                           |
     -------------------              -----------------------
     |         |       |              |           |         |
+---------+ +----+  +-----+       +------------+ +-----+  +-----+
|  Joint  | | CS |  | DPS |       |    Joint   | | CS/ |  | DPS |
|Reception| |    |  |     |       |Transmission| | CB  |  |     |
+---------+ +----+  +-----+       +------------+ +-----+  +-----+
     |                                     |
     |-----------                          |-------------
     |          |                          |            |
+------------+  +---------+       +----------+   +------------+
|    Joint   |  |   Soft  |       | Coherent |   |     Non-   |
|Equalization|  |Combining|       |    JT    |   | Coherent JT|
+------------+  +---------+       +----------+   +------------+

            Figure 1: Framework of CoMP Technology

   As shown in figure 1, CoMP reception and transmission is a
   framework that multiple geographically distributed antenna nodes
   cooperate to improve the performance of the users served in the
   common cooperation area. The design principal of CoMP is to extend
   the current single-cell to multi-UEs transmission to a multi-cell-
   to-multi-UEs transmission by base station cooperation. In contrast

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   to single-cell scenario, CoMP has critical issues such as:
   Backhaul latency, CSI (Channel State Information) reporting and
   accuracy and Network complexity. Clearly the first two
   requirements are very much delay sensitive and will be discussed
   in next section.

4.2. Delay Sensitivity in CoMP

   As the essential feature of CoMP, signaling is exchanged between
   eNBs, the backhaul latency is the dominating limitation of the
   CoMP performance. Generally, JT and JP may benefit from
   coordinating the scheduling (distributed or centralized) of
   different cells in case that the signaling exchanging between eNBs
   is limited to 4-10ms. For C-RAN the backhaul latency requirement
   is 250us while for D-RAN it is 4-15ms. And this delay requirement
   is not only rigid but also absolute since any uncertainty in delay
   will down the performance significantly. Note that, some
   operator's transport network is not build to support Layer-3
   transfer in aggregation layer. In such case, the signaling is
   exchanged through EPC which means delay is supposed to be larger.

   CoMP has high requirement on delay and reliability which is lack
   by current mobile network systems and may impact the architecture
   of the mobile network.

5. Industrial Automation

   Traditional "industrial automation" terminology usually refers to
   automation of manufacturing, quality control and material
   processing. "Industrial internet" and "industrial 4.0" [EA12] is
   becoming a hot topic based on the Internet of Things. This high
   flexible and dynamic engineering and manufacturing will result in
   a lot of so-called smart approaches such as Smart Factory, Smart
   Products, Smart Mobility, and Smart Home/Buildings. No doubt that
   ultra high reliability and robustness is a must in data
   transmission, especially in the closed loop automation control
   application where delay requirement is below 1ms and packet loss
   less than 10E-9. All these critical requirements on both latency
   and loss cannot be fulfilled by current 4G communication networks.
   Moreover, the collaboration of the industrial automation from
   remote campus with cellular and fixed network has to be built on
   an integrated, cloud-based platform. In this way, the
   deterministic flows should be guaranteed regardless of the amount
   of other flows in the network. The lack of this mechanism becomes
   the main obstacle in deployment on of industrial automation.

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6. Vehicle to Vehicle

   V2V communication has gained more and more attention in the last
   few years and will be increasingly growth in the future. Not only
   equipped with direct communication system which is short ranged,
   V2V communication also requires wireless cellular networks to
   cover wide range and more sophisticated services. V2V application
   in the area autonomous driving has very stringent requirements of
   latency and reliability. It is critical that the timely arrival of
   information for safety issues. In addition, due to the limitation
   of processing of individual vehicle, passing information to the
   cloud can provide more functions such as video processing, audio
   recognition or navigation systems. All of those requirements lead
   to a highly reliable connectivity to the cloud. On the other hand,
   it is natural that the provisioning of low latency communication
   is one of the main challenges to be overcome as a result of the
   high mobility, the high penetration losses caused by the vehicle
   itself. As result of that, the data transmission with latency
   below 5ms and a high reliability of PER below 10E-6 are demanded.
   It can benefit from the deployment of deterministic networking
   with high reliability.

7. Gaming, Media and Virtual Reality

   Online gaming and cloud gaming is dominating the gaming market
   since it allow multiple players to play together with more
   challenging and competing. Connected via current internet, the
   latency can be a big issue to degrade the end users' experience.
   There different types of games and FPS (First Person Shooting)
   gaming has been considered to be the most latency sensitive online
   gaming due to the high requirements of timing precision and
   computing of moving target. Virtual reality is also receiving more
   interests than ever before as a novel gaming experience. The delay
   here can be very critical to the interacting in the virtual world.
   Disagreement between what is seeing and what is feeling can cause
   motion sickness and affect what happens in the game. Supporting
   fast, real-time and reliable communications in both PHY/MAC layer,
   network layer and application layer is main bottleneck for such
   use case.

   The media content delivery has been and will become even more
   important use of Internet. Not only high bandwidth demand but also
   critical delay and jitter requirements have to be taken into

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   account to meet the user demand. To make the smoothness of the
   video and audio, delay and jitter has to be guaranteed to avoid
   possible interruption which is the killer of all online media on
   demand service. Now with 4K and 8K video in the near future, the
   delay guarantee become one of the most challenging issue than ever
   before. 4K/8K UHD video service requires 6Gbps-100Gbps for
   uncompressed video and compressed video starting from 60Mbps. The
   delay requirement is 100ms while some specific interactive
   applications may require 10ms delay [UHD-video].

8. Security Considerations


9. IANA Considerations

   This document has no actions for IANA.

10. Acknowledgments

   This document has benefited from reviews, suggestions, comments
   and proposed text provided by the following members, listed in
   alphabetical order: Jing Huang, Junru Lin, Lehong Niu and Oilver

11. References

11.1. Normative References

   [RFC2119] S. Bradner, "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
             Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC3393] C. Demichelis, "IP Packet Delay Variation Metric for IP
             Performance Metrics (IPPM) ", RFC 3393, Novermber 2002.

11.2. Informative References


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   Finn, N. and P. Thubert, "Deterministic Networking Problem
   Statement", draft-finn-detnet-problem-statement-01 (work in
   progress), October 2014.


   Finn, N., Thubert, P., and M. Teener, "Deterministic Networking
   Architecture", draft-finn-detnet-architecture-01 (work in
   progress), March 2015.

   [METIS] METIS Document Number: ICT-317669-METIS/D1.1, Scenarios,
   requirements and KPIs for 5G mobile and wireless system, April 29,
   2013. Available on line at: <https://www.metis2020.com/wp-

   [5G] Ericsson white paper, "5G Radio Access, Challenges for 2020
   and Beyond." June 2013. Available at:


   [LTE-Latency]Samuel Johnston, "LTE Latency: How does it compare to
   other technologies?" report of OpenSignal March 10, 2014.

   [EA12] P. C. Evans, M. Annunziata, "Industrial Internet: Pushing the
   Boundaries of Minds and Machines", General Electric White paper,
   November 2012.

   [UHD-video] Petr Holub, "Ultra-High Definition Videos and Their
   Applications over the Network", The 7th International Symposium on
   VICTORIES Project, OCTOBER 8, 2014. <http://www.aist-

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Authors' Addresses

   Yiyong Zha
   Huawei Technologies
   Email: zhayiyong@huawei.com

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