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Versions: 00 01 02 03 04 05 RFC 8157

Independent Submission                                        N. Leymann
Internet Draft                                              C. Heidemann
Intended Category: Informational                     Deutsche Telekom AG
                                                                M. Zhang
                                                             B. Sarikaya
                                                                  Huawei
                                                               M. Cullen
                                                       Painless Security
Expires: June 24, 2017                                 December 21, 2016

                  Huawei's GRE Tunnel Bonding Protocol
                 draft-zhang-gre-tunnel-bonding-05.txt

Abstract

   There is an emerging demand for solutions that provide redundancy and
   load-sharing across wired and cellular links from a single service
   provider, so that a single subscriber is provided with bonded access
   to heterogeneous connections at the same time.

   In this document, GRE (Generic Routing Encapsulation) Tunnel Bonding
   is specified as an enabling approach for bonded access to a wired and
   a wireless network in customer premises, e.g. homes. In GRE Tunnel
   Bonding, two GRE tunnels, one per network connection, are set up and
   bonded together to form a single GRE tunnel for a subscriber.
   Compared with each composing connection, the bonded connections
   promise increased access capacity and improved reliability. The
   solution described in this document is currently implemented by
   Huawei and deployed by Deutsche Telekom AG. Publication of this
   document is to enable other developers to build interoperable
   implementations.

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted to IETF in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups.  Note that
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   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at



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   http://www.ietf.org/1id-abstracts.html

   The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html


Copyright and License Notice

   Copyright (c) 2016 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors. All rights reserved.

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   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
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   described in the Simplified BSD License.


Table of Contents

   1. Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2. Acronyms and Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   3. Use Case  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   4. Overview  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     4.1. Control Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     4.2. Data Plane  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     4.3. Traffic Classification and Distribution . . . . . . . . . .  7
     4.4. Traffic Recombination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     4.5. Bypass  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     4.6. Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     4.7. Policy Control Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   5. Control Protocol Specification (Control Plane)  . . . . . . . .  9
     5.1. GRE Tunnel Setup Request  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
       5.1.1. Client Identification Name  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
       5.1.2. Session ID  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
       5.1.3. DSL Synchronization Rate  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     5.2. GRE Tunnel Setup Accept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
       5.2.1. H IPv4 Address  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
       5.2.2. H IPv6 Address  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
       5.2.3. Session ID  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
       5.2.4. RTT Difference Threshold  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
       5.2.5. Bypass Bandwidth Check Interval . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
       5.2.6. Active Hello Interval . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
       5.2.7. Hello Retry Times . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17



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       5.2.8. Idle Timeout  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
       5.2.9. Bonding Key Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
       5.2.10. Configured DSL Upstream Bandwidth  . . . . . . . . . . 19
       5.2.11. Configured DSL Downstream Bandwidth  . . . . . . . . . 19
       5.2.12. RTT Difference Threshold Violation . . . . . . . . . . 20
       5.2.13. RTT Difference Threshold Compliance  . . . . . . . . . 20
       5.2.14. Idle Hello Interval  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
       5.2.15. No Traffic Monitored Interval  . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
     5.3. GRE Tunnel Setup Deny . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
       5.3.1. Error Code  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
     5.4. GRE Tunnel Hello  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
       5.4.1. Timestamp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
       5.4.2. IPv6 Prefix Assigned by HAAP  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
     5.5. GRE Tunnel Tear Down  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
     5.6. GRE Tunnel Notify . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
       5.6.1. Bypass Traffic Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
       5.6.2. Filter List Package . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
       5.6.3. Switching to DSL Tunnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
       5.6.4. Overflowing to LTE Tunnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
       5.6.5. DSL Link Failure  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
       5.6.6. LTE Link Failure  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
       5.6.7. IPv6 Prefix Assigned to Host  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
       5.6.8. Diagnostic Start: Bonding Tunnel  . . . . . . . . . . . 31
       5.6.9. Diagnostic Start: DSL Tunnel  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
       5.6.10. Diagnostic Start: LTE Tunnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
       5.6.11. Diagnostic End . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
       5.6.12. Filter List Package ACK  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
       5.6.13. Switching to Active Hello State  . . . . . . . . . . . 33
       5.6.14. Switching to Idle Hello State  . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
       5.6.15. Tunnel Verification  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
   6. Tunnel Protocol Operation (Data Plane)  . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
     6.1. The GRE Header  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
     6.2. Automatic Setup of GRE Tunnels  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
   7. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
   8. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
   9. Contributors  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
   10. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
     10.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
     10.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
   Author's Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

1. Introduction

   Service providers used to provide subscribers with separate access to
   their fixed networks and mobile networks. It has become desirable to
   bond these heterogeneous networks together to offer access service to
   subscribers that offer increased access capacity and improved
   reliability.



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   This document focuses on the use case that DSL (Digital Subscriber
   Line) connection and LTE (Long Term Evolution) connection are bonded
   together. When the traffic volume exceeds the bandwidth of the DSL
   connection, the excess amount can be offloaded to the LTE connection.
   Home Gateway (HG) is a Customer Premises Equipment (CPE) initiating
   the DSL and LTE connections. Hybrid Access Aggregation Point (HAAP)
   is the network function that resides in the provider's networks to
   terminate these bonded connections. Note that if there were more than
   two connections that need to be bonded, the GRE Tunnel Bonding
   mechanism could support that scenario as well. However, support for
   more than two connections is out the scope of this document. Also,
   the protocol specified in this document is limited to the single-
   operator scenario only, i.e., the two peering boxes, HG and HAAP, are
   operated by a single provider. The adaptation of the GRE Tunnel
   Bonding protocol to the multi-provider scenario is left as future
   work.

   This document bases the solution on GRE (Generic Routing
   Encapsulation [RFC2874] [RFC2890]) since GRE is widely supported in
   both fixed and mobile networks. Approaches specified in this document
   might as well be used by other tunneling technologies to achieve
   tunnel bonding. However, such kind of variants are out the scope of
   this document.

   For each heterogeneous connection (DSL and LTE) between the HG and
   HAAP, one GRE tunnel is set up. HG and HAAP respectively serve as the
   common termination point of the two tunnels at both end. Those GRE
   tunnels are further bonded together to form a logical GRE tunnel for
   the subscriber. HG conceals the composing GRE tunnels from the end
   nodes, and end nodes simply treat the logical GRE tunnel as a single
   IP link. This provides an overlay: the users' IP packets (inner IP)
   are encapsulated in GRE which is in turn carried over IP (outer IP).

   The GRE Tunnel Bonding Protocol is developed by Huawei and has been
   deployed in networks operated by Deutsche Telekom AG. Publication of
   this document is to make it open to the public and enable other
   developers to build interoperable implementations.

2. Acronyms and Terminology

   GRE: Generic Routing Encapsulation [RFC2874] [RFC2890]

   DSL: Digital Subscriber Line is a family of technologies that are
   used to transmit digital data over telephone lines

   LTE: Long Term Evolution.  A standard for wireless communication of
   high-speed data for mobile phones and data terminals. Commonly
   marketed as 4G LTE.



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   HG: Home Gateway. A CPE device that is enhanced to support the
   simultaneous use of both fixed broadband and 3GPP access connections.

   HAAP: Hybrid Access Aggregation Point. A logical function in
   Operator's network, terminating bonded connections while offering
   high speed Internet.

   CIR: Committed Information Rate [RFC2698]

   RTT: Round Trip Time

   AAA: Authentication, Authorization and Accounting [RFC6733]

   SOAP: Simple Object Access Protocol. It is a protocol specification
   for exchanging structured information in the implementation of web
   services in computer networks.

   FQDN: A Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) is a domain name that
   includes all higher level domains relevant to the entity named.
   [RFC1594]

   DSCP: The six-bit codepoint (DSCP) of the Differentiated Services
   Field (DS Field) in the IPv4 and IPv6 Headers [RFC2724].

   BRAS: Broadband Remote Access Server. It routes traffic to and from
   broadband remote access devices such as Digital Subscriber Line
   Access Multiplexers (DSLAM) on an Internet service provider's (ISP)
   network.

   PGW: Packet Data Network Gateway. In the Long Term Evolution (LTE)
   architecture for the Evolved Packet Core (EPC), the PGW acts as an
   anchor for user plane mobility.

   PDP: Packet Data Protocol. A packet transfer protocol used in
   wireless GPRS (General Packet Radio Service)/HSDPA (High Speed
   Downlink Packet Access) networks.

   PPPoE: Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet is a network protocol
   for encapsulating PPP frames inside Ethernet frames.

   DNS: Domain Name System is a hierarchical distributed naming system
   for computers, services, or any resource connected to the Internet or
   a private network.

   DHCP: Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. A standardized network
   protocol used on Internet Protocol (IP) networks for dynamically
   distributing network configuration parameters, such as IP addresses
   for interfaces and services.



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   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

3. Use Case

                          Bonding Connection
                 +-+ ****************************
                 | | *+-+                    +-+*
                 | | *|E+-- LTE Connection --+ |*
      subscriber |C| *+-+                    |H|*  Internet
                 | | *+-+                    | |*
                 | | *|D+-- DSL Connection --+ |*
                 | | *+-+                    +-+*
                 +-+ ****************************
                 \______/                    \__/
                   HCPE                      HAAP


      C: The service endpoint of the bonding service at the HG.
      E: The endpoint of the LTE connection resides in HG.
      D: The endpoint of the DSL connection resides in HG
      H: The endpoint for each heterogeneous connection at HAAP.

   Figure 3.1: Offloading from DSL to LTE, increased access capacity

   If a Service Provider runs heterogeneous networks, such as fixed and
   mobile, subscribers eager to use those networks simultaneously for
   increased access capacity rather than just using a single network. As
   shown by the reference model in Figure 3.1, the subscriber expects a
   significantly higher access bandwidth from the bonding connection
   than from the DSL connection. In other words, when the traffic volume
   exceeds the bandwidth of the DSL connection, the excess amount may be
   offloaded to the LTE connection.

   Compared to per-flow load balancing mechanisms which are widely used
   nowadays, the use case described in this document requires a per-
   packet offloading approach. For per-flow load-balancing, the maximum
   bandwidth that may be used by a traffic flow is the bandwidth of an
   individual connection. While for per-packet offloading, a single flow
   may use the added-up bandwidth of the two connections.

4. Overview

   In this document, the widely supported GRE is chosen as the tunneling
   technique. With the newly defined control protocol, GRE tunnels are
   setup on top of the DSL and LTE connections which are ended at D and
   H or E and H, as shown in Figure 3.1. These tunnels are bonded



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   together to form a single logical bonding connection between HG and
   HAAP. Subscribers use this logical connection without knowing the
   composing GRE tunnels.

4.1. Control Plane

   A clean-slate control protocol is designed to manage the GRE tunnels
   that are setup per heterogeneous connection between HG and HAAP. The
   goal is to design a compact control plane for bonding access instead
   of reusing existing control planes.

   In order to measure the performance of connections, control packets
   need to co-route the same path with data packets. Therefore, a GRE
   Channel is opened for the purpose of data plane forwarding of control
   plane packets. As shown in Figure 5.1, the GRE header ([RFC2784])
   with the Key extension specified by [RFC2890] is being used. The GRE
   Protocol Type (0xB7EA) is used to identify this GRE Channel. A family
   of control messages are encapsulated with GRE header and carried over
   this channel. Attributes, formatted in Type-Length-Value style, are
   further defined and included in each control message.

   With the newly defined control plane, the GRE tunnels between HG and
   HAAP can be established, managed and released without the involvement
   of operators.

4.2. Data Plane

   Using the control plane defined in Section 4.1, GRE tunnels can be
   automatically setup per heterogeneous connection between the HG and
   the HAAP. For the use case described in Section 3, one GRE tunnel is
   ended at the DSL WAN interfaces, e.g., DSL GRE tunnel, and another
   GRE tunnel is ended at the LTE WAN interfaces, e.g., LTE GRE tunnel.
   Each tunnel may carry user's IP packets as payload, which forms a
   typical IP-over-IP overlay. These tunnels are bonded together to
   offer a single access point to subscribers.

   As shown in Figure 6.1, the GRE header ([RFC2784]) with the Key and
   Sequence Number extensions specified by [RFC2890] is used to
   encapsulate data packets. The Protocol Type is either 0x0800
   [RFC2784] or 0x86DD [RFC7676], which indicates the inner packet is
   either an IPv4 packet or an IPv6 packet. The GRE Key field is set to
   a unique value for the entire bonding connection. The GRE Sequence
   Number field is used to maintain the sequence of packets transported
   in all GRE tunnels as a single flow between the HG and the HAAP.

4.3. Traffic Classification and Distribution

   For the offloading use case, the coloring mechanism specified in



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   [RFC2697] is being used to classify subscriber's IP packets, both
   upstream and downstream, into the DSL GRE tunnel or the LTE GRE
   tunnel. Packets colored as green or yellow will be distributed into
   the DSL GRE tunnel and packets colored as red will be distributed
   into the LTE GRE tunnel. For the scenario that requires more than two
   GRE tunnels, multiple levels of token buckets might be realized.
   However, that is out of the scope for this document.

   The Committed Information Rate (CIR) of the coloring mechanism is set
   to the total DSL WAN bandwidth minus the bypass DSL bandwidth (See
   Section 4.4.). The total DSL WAN bandwidth MAY be configured, MAY be
   obtained from the management system (AAA server, SOAP server, etc.),
   or MAY be detected in real-time using ANCP [RFC6320].

4.4. Traffic Recombination

   For the offloading use case, the recombination function at the
   receiver provides in-order delivery of subscribers' traffic. The
   receiver maintains a small reordering buffer and orders the data
   packets in this buffer by the Sequence Number field [RFC2890] of the
   GRE header. All packets carried on GRE tunnels which belong to the
   same bonding connection go into a single reordering buffer.

   Operators may configure the maximum allowed size (See
   MAX_PERFLOW_BUFFER in [RFC2890]) of the buffer for reordering. They
   may also configure the maximum time (See OUTOFORDER_TIMER in
   [RFC2890]) that a packet can stay in the buffer for reordering. The
   OUTOFORDER_TIMER must be configured carefully. Values larger than the
   difference of the normal Round-Trip Time (e.g., 100 ms) of the two
   connections are not recommended. Implementation and deployment
   experiences exhibits there is usually a large margin for the value of
   MAX_PERFLOW_BUFFER. Values larger than the multiply of the sum of the
   line rate of the two connections and the value of OUTOFORDER_TIMER
   should be used.

4.5. Bypass

   Service Providers provide some services that should not be delivered
   over the bonding connection. For example, Service Providers may not
   expect real-time IPTV to be carried by the LTE GRE tunnel. It is
   required that IPTV traffic bypasses the GRE Tunnel Bonding and uses
   the raw DSL bandwidth. Bypass traffic is not subject to the traffic
   classification and distribution specified above. The raw connection
   used for bypass traffic is not controlled by the HAAP. It may or may
   not go through device that HAAP resides in.

   The HAAP may announce the service types that need to bypass the
   bonded GRE tunnels using the Filter List Package attribute as



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   specified in Section 5.6.2. The HG and the HAAP need to set aside the
   DSL bandwidth for bypassing. The available DSL bandwidth for GRE
   Tunnel Bonding is equal to the total DSL bandwidth minus the bypass
   bandwidth.

4.6. Measurement

   Since control packets are routed using the same paths as the data
   packets, the real performance of the data paths (e.g., the GRE
   tunnels) can be measured. The GRE Tunnel Hello messages specified in
   Section 5.3 are used to carry the timestamp information and the Round
   Trip Time (RTT) value can therefore be calculated based on the
   timestamp.

   Besides the end-to-end delay of the GRE tunnels, the HG and the HAAP
   need to measure the capacity of the tunnels as well. For example, the
   HG is REQUIRED to measure the downstream bypassing bandwidth and
   report it to the HAAP in real time (See Section 5.6.1.).

4.7. Policy Control Considerations

   Operators and users may input policies into the GRE Tunnel Bonding.
   These policies will be interpreted into parameters or actions that
   impact the traffic classification, distribution, combination,
   measurement and bypass.

   Operators and users may offer the service types that need to bypass
   the bonded GRE tunnels. Service types defined by operators will be
   delivered from the HAAP to the HG through the control plane (See
   Section 5.6.12.), and the HG will use the raw connection to transmit
   traffic for these service types. Users may as well define bypass
   service types on the HG. Bypass service types defined by users need
   not to be delivered to the HAAP.

   Operators may specify the interval for sending Hello messages and the
   retry times for the HG or the HAAP to send out Hello messages before
   the failure of a connection.

   Since the GRE tunnels are setup on top of heterogeneous DSL and LTE
   connections, if the difference of the transmission delays of these
   connections exceeds a given threshold for a certain period, the HG
   and the HAAP should be able to stop the offloading behavior and
   fallback to a traditional transmission mode, where the LTE GRE tunnel
   is disused while all traffic is transmitted over the DSL GRE tunnel.
   Operators are allowed to define this threshold and period.

5. Control Protocol Specification (Control Plane)




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   Control messages are used to establish, maintain, measure and tear
   down GRE tunnels between the HG and the HAAP. Also, the control plane
   undertakes the responsibility convey traffic policies over the GRE
   tunnels.

   For the purpose of measurement, control messages need to be delivered
   as GRE encapsulated packets and co-routed with data plane packets.
   The new GRE Protocol Type (0xB7EA) is allocated for this purpose and
   the standard GRE header as per [RFC2874] with the Key extension
   specified by [RFC2890] is used. The Checksum Present bit is set to
   zero. Key Present bit is set to 1. The Sequence Number Present bit is
   set to 0. So the format of the GRE header for control messages of the
   GRE Tunnel Bonding protocol is as follows:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |0| |1|0| Reserved0       | Ver |   Protocol Type 0xB7EA        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                              Key                              |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Key
      The Key field is used to carry a random number for the purpose of
      security. The random number is generated by the HAAP and informed
      to the HG. (See Section 5.2.9.)

   The general format of the entire control message is as follows:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |0| |1|0|   Reserved0     | Ver |   Protocol Type 0xB7EA        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                              Key                              |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |MsgType|T-Type |                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+           Attributes                          +
   ~                                                               ~
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

    Figure 5.1: The format of control messages of GRE Tunnel Bonding

   MsgType (4 bits)
      Message Type. The control message family contains the following 6
      types of control messages:





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                   Control Message Family         Type
                  ==========================    =========
                   GRE Tunnel Setup Request       1
                   GRE Tunnel Setup Accept        2
                   GRE Tunnel Setup Deny          3
                   GRE Tunnel Hello               4
                   GRE Tunnel Tear Down           5
                   GRE Tunnel Notify              6
                   Reserved                       0,7-15

   T-Type (4 bits)
      Tunnel Type. Set to 0001 if the control message is sent via the
      primary GRE tunnel (normally the DSL GRE tunnel). Set to 0010 if
      the control message is sent via the secondary GRE tunnel (normally
      the LTE GRE tunnel). Values 0000 and values from 0011 through 1111
      are reserved for future use and MUST be ignored on receipt.

   Attributes
      The Attributes field includes the attributes that need to be
      carried in the control message. Each Attribute has the following
      format.

   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |Attribute Type |                  (1 byte)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Attribute Length             |  (2 bytes)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Attribute Value              ~  (variable)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      Attribute Type (1 octet)
         The Attribute Type specifies the type of the attribute.

      Attribute Length (2 octets)
         Attribute Length indicates the length of the Attribute Value in
         octets.

      Attribute Value (variable)
         The Attribute Value includes the value of the attribute.

   All control messages are sent in network byte order (high order
   octets first). Protocol Type carried in the GRE header for the
   control message is 0xB7EA. Based on this number, the receiver will
   determine to consume the GRE packet locally rather than further
   forwarding.

5.1. GRE Tunnel Setup Request




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   HG uses the GRE Tunnel Setup Request message to request that the HAAP
   establish the GRE tunnels. It is sent out from HG's LTE and DSL WAN
   interfaces separately. Attributes that need to be included in this
   message are defined in the following subsections.

5.1.1. Client Identification Name

   Operator uses the Client Identification Name (CIN) to identify the
   HG. The HG sends the CIN to the HAAP for authentication and
   authorization as specified in [TS23.401]. It is REQUIRED that the GRE
   Tunnel Setup Request message sent out from the LTE WAN interface
   contains the CIN attribute while the GRE Tunnel Setup Request message
   sent out from the DSL WAN interface does not contain this attribute.

   The CIN attribute has the following format:

   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |Attribute Type |                   (1 byte)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Attribute Length             |   (2 bytes)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-...-+
   |  Client Identification Name       (40 bytes)  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+...+-+

   Attribute Type
      CIN, set to 3.

   Attribute Length
      Set to 40.

   Client Identification Name
      This is a 40-byte string value encoded in UTF-8 and set by the
      operator. It is used as the identification of the HG in the
      operator's network.

5.1.2. Session ID

   This Session ID is generated by the HAAP when the LTE GRE Tunnel
   Setup Request message is received. The HAAP announces the Session ID
   to the HG in the LTE GRE Tunnel Setup Accept message. For those WAN
   interfaces that need to be bonded together, the HG MUST use the same
   Session ID. The HG MUST carry the Session ID attribute in each DSL
   GRE Tunnel Setup Request message. For the first time that the LTE GRE
   Tunnel Setup Request message is sent to the HAAP, the Session ID
   attribute need not be included. However, if the LTE GRE Tunnel fails
   and HG tries to revive it, the LTE GRE Tunnel Setup Request message
   MUST include the Session ID attribute.




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   The Session ID attribute has the following format:

   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |Attribute Type |                   (1 byte)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Attribute Length             |   (2 bytes)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-...-+
   |  Session ID                       (4 bytes)   |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+...+-+

   Attribute Type
      Session ID, set to 4.

   Attribute Length
      Set to 4.

   Session ID
      An unsigned integer generated by the HAAP. It is used as the
      identification of bonded GRE Tunnels.

5.1.3. DSL Synchronization Rate

   The HG uses the DSL Synchronization Rate to notify the HAAP about the
   downstream bandwidth of the DSL link. The DSL GRE Tunnel Setup
   Request message MUST include the DSL Synchronization Rate attribute.
   The LTE GRE Tunnel Setup Request message SHOULD NOT include this
   attribute.

   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |Attribute Type |                   (1 byte)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Attribute Length             |   (2 bytes)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-...-+
   |  DSL Synchronization Rate         (4 bytes)   |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+...+-+

   Attribute Type
      DSL Synchronization Rate, set to 7.

   Attribute Length
      Set to 4.

   DSL Synchronization Rate
      An unsigned integer measured in kbps.

5.2. GRE Tunnel Setup Accept

   The HAAP uses the GRE Tunnel Setup Accept message as the response to



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   the GRE Tunnel Setup Request message. This message indicates
   acceptance of the tunnel establishment and carries parameters of the
   GRE tunnels. Attributes that need be to included in this message are
   defined below.

5.2.1. H IPv4 Address

   The HAAP uses the H IPv4 Address attribute to inform the HG of the H
   IPv4 address. The HG uses the H IPv4 address as the destination
   endpoint IPv4 address of the GRE tunnels (the source endpoint IPv4
   addresses of the GRE tunnels are respectively DSL/LTE WAN interface
   IP address (D/E)). The LTE GRE Tunnel Setup Accept message MUST
   include the H IPv4 Address attribute.

   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |Attribute Type |                   (1 byte)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Attribute Length             |   (2 bytes)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-...-+
   |  H IPv4 Address                   (4 bytes)   |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+...+-+

   Attribute Type
      H IPv4 Address, set to 1.

   Attribute Length
      Set to 4.

   H IPv4 Address
      Set to the pre-configured IPv4 address (e.g. an IP address of a
      Line Card in the HAAP) which is used as the endpoint IP address of
      GRE tunnels by the HAAP.

5.2.2. H IPv6 Address

   HAAP uses the H IPv6 Address attribute to inform the HG of the H IPv6
   address. The HG uses the H IPv6 address as the destination endpoint
   IPv6 address of the GRE tunnels (the source endpoint IPv4 addresses
   of the GRE tunnels are respectively DSL/LTE WAN interface IP address
   (D/E)). The LTE GRE Tunnel Setup Accept message MUST include the H
   IPv6 Address attribute.










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   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |Attribute Type |                   (1 byte)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Attribute Length             |   (2 bytes)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-...-+
   |  H IPv6 Address                   (16 bytes)  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+...+-+

   Attribute Type
      H IPv6 Address, set to 1.

   Attribute Length
      Set to 16.

   H IPv6 Address
      Set to the pre-configured IPv6 address (e.g. an IP address of a
      Line Card in the HAAP) which is used as the endpoint IP address of
      GRE tunnels by HAAP.

5.2.3. Session ID

   The LTE GRE Tunnel Setup Accept message MUST include Session ID
   attribute as defined in Section 5.1.2.

5.2.4. RTT Difference Threshold

   The HAAP uses the RTT Difference Threshold attribute to inform the HG
   of the acceptable threshold of RTT difference between the DSL link
   and the LTE link. If the measured RTT difference exceeds this
   threshold, the HG SHOULD stop offloading traffic to the LTE GRE
   tunnel. The LTE GRE Tunnel Setup Accept message MUST include the RTT
   Difference Threshold attribute.

   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |Attribute Type |                   (1 byte)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Attribute Length             |   (2 bytes)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-...-+
   |  RTT Difference Threshold         (4 bytes)   |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+...+-+

   Attribute Type
      RTT Difference Threshold, set to 9.

   Attribute Length
      Set to 4.

   RTT Difference Threshold



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      An unsigned integer measured in milliseconds. This value can be
      chosen in the range 0 through 1000.

5.2.5. Bypass Bandwidth Check Interval

   The HAAP uses the Bypass Bandwidth Check Interval attribute to inform
   the HG of how frequently the bypass bandwidth should be checked. The
   HG should check the bypass bandwidth of the DSL WAN interface in each
   time period indicated by this interval. The LTE GRE Tunnel Setup
   Accept message MUST include the Bypass Bandwidth Check Interval
   attribute.

   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |Attribute Type |                   (1 byte)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Attribute Length             |   (2 bytes)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-...-+
   |  Bypass Bandwidth Check Interval  (4 bytes)   |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+...+-+

   Attribute Type
      Bypass Bandwidth Check Interval, set to 10.

   Attribute Length
      Set to 4.

   Bypass Bandwidth Check Interval
      An unsigned integer measured in seconds. This value can be chosen
      in the range 10 through 300.

5.2.6. Active Hello Interval

   The HAAP uses the Active Hello Interval attribute to inform the HG of
   the pre-configured interval for sending out GRE Tunnel Hellos. The HG
   should send out GRE Tunnel Hellos via both the DSL and LTE WAN
   interfaces in each time period as indicated by this interval. The LTE
   GRE Tunnel Setup Accept message MUST include the Active Hello
   Interval attribute.

   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |Attribute Type |                   (1 byte)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Attribute Length             |   (2 bytes)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-...-+
   |  Active Hello Interval            (4 bytes)   |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+...+-+

   Attribute Type



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      Active Hello Interval, set to 14.

   Attribute Length
      Set to 4.

   Active Hello Interval
      An unsigned integer measured in seconds. This value can be chosen
      in the range 1 through 100.

5.2.7. Hello Retry Times

   The HAAP uses the Hello Retry Times attribute to inform the HG of the
   retry times for sending GRE Tunnel Hellos. If the HG does not receive
   any acknowledgement from the HAAP for the number of GRE Tunnel Hello
   attempts specified in this attribute, the HG will declare a failure
   of the GRE Tunnel. The LTE GRE Tunnel Setup Accept message MUST
   include the Hello Retry Times attribute.

   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |Attribute Type |                   (1 byte)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Attribute Length             |   (2 bytes)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-...-+
   |  Hello Retry Times                (4 bytes)   |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+...+-+

   Attribute Type
      Hello Retry Times, set to 15.

   Attribute Length
      Set to 4.

   Hello Retry Times
      An unsigned integer, which takes values in the range 3 through 10.

5.2.8. Idle Timeout

   The HAAP uses the Idle Timeout attribute to inform the HG of the pre-
   configured timeout value to terminate the DSL GRE tunnel. When an LTE
   GRE Tunnel failure is detected, all traffic will be sent over the DSL
   GRE tunnel. If the failure of the LTE GRE tunnel lasts longer than
   the Idle Timeout, subsequent traffic will be sent over raw DSL rather
   than over a tunnel, and the DSL GRE tunnel SHOULD be terminated. The
   LTE Tunnel Setup Accept message MUST include the Idle Timeout
   attribute.






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   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |Attribute Type |                   (1 byte)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Attribute Length             |   (2 bytes)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-...-+
   |  Idle Timeout                     (4 bytes)   |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+...+-+

   Attribute Type
      Idle Timeout, set to 16.

   Attribute Length
      Set to 4.

   Idle Timeout
      An unsigned integer measured in seconds. It takes values in the
      range 0 through 172,800 with the granularity of 60. The default
      value is 1,440 (24 hours). The value 0 indicates the idle timer
      never expires.

5.2.9. Bonding Key Value

   The HAAP uses the Bonding Key Value attribute to inform the HG of the
   number which is to carried as the Key of the GRE header for
   subsequent control messages. The Bonding Key Value is generated by
   the HAAP and used for the purpose of security.

   The method used to generate this number is up to implementations. The
   Pseudo Random Number Generator defined in ANSI X9.31 Appendix A.2.4
   is RECOMMENDED. Note that Random Number Generation collision is
   allowed in the GRE Tunnel Bonding protocol.

   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |Attribute Type |                   (1 byte)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Attribute Length             |   (2 bytes)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-...-+
   |  Bonding Key Value                (4 bytes)   |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+...+-+

   Attribute Type
      Bonding Key Value, set to 20.

   Attribute Length
      Set to 4.

   Bonding Key Value
      A 32-bit random number generated by the HAAP.



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5.2.10. Configured DSL Upstream Bandwidth

   The HAAP obtains the upstream bandwidth of the DSL link from the
   management system and uses the Configured DSL Upstream Bandwidth
   attribute to inform the HG. The HG uses the received upstream
   bandwidth as the Committed Information Rate for the DSL link
   [RFC2697]. The DSL GRE Tunnel Setup Accept message MUST include the
   Configured DSL Upstream Bandwidth attribute.

   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |Attribute Type |                   (1 byte)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Attribute Length             |   (2 bytes)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-...-+
   | Configured DSL Upstream Bandwidth (4 bytes)   |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+...+-+

   Attribute Type
      Configured DSL Upstream Bandwidth, set to 22.

   Attribute Length
      Set to 4.

   Configured DSL Upstream Bandwidth
      An unsigned integer measured in kbps.

5.2.11. Configured DSL Downstream Bandwidth

   The HAAP obtains the downstream bandwidth of the DSL link from the
   management system and uses the Configured DSL Downstream Bandwidth
   attribute to inform the HG. The HG uses the received downstream
   bandwidth as the base in calculating the bypassing bandwidth. The DSL
   GRE Tunnel Setup Accept message MUST include the Configured DSL
   Downstream Bandwidth attribute.

   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |Attribute Type |                   (1 byte)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Attribute Length             |   (2 bytes)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-...-+
   |Configured DSL Downstream Bandwidth(4 bytes)   |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+...+-+

   Attribute Type
      Configured DSL Downstream Bandwidth, set to 23.

   Attribute Length
      Set to 4.



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   Configured DSL Downstream Bandwidth
      An unsigned integer measured in kbps.

5.2.12. RTT Difference Threshold Violation

   The HAAP uses the RTT Difference Threshold Violation attribute to
   inform the HG of the number of times in a row that the RTT Difference
   Threshold (See Section 5.2.4.) may be violated before the HG MUST
   stop using the LTE GRE Tunnel. If the RTT Difference Threshold is
   continuously violated for more than the indicated number of
   measurements, the HG MUST stop using the LTE GRE tunnel. The LTE GRE
   Tunnel Setup Accept message MUST include the RTT Difference Threshold
   Violation attribute.

   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |Attribute Type |                   (1 byte)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Attribute Length             |   (2 bytes)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-...-+
   |  RTT Diff Threshold Violation     (4 bytes)   |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+...+-+

   Attribute Type
      RTT Difference Threshold Violation, set to 24.

   Attribute Length
      Set to 4.

   RTT Difference Threshold Violation
      An unsigned integer which takes values in the range 1 through 25.
      A typical value is 3.

5.2.13. RTT Difference Threshold Compliance

   The HAAP uses the RTT Difference Threshold Compliance attribute to
   inform the HG of the number of times in a row the RTT Difference
   Threshold (See Section 5.2.4.) must be compliant before use of the
   LTE GRE tunnel can be resumed. If the RTT Difference Threshold is
   continuously detected to be compliant across more than this number of
   measurments, the HG MAY resume using the LTE GRE tunnel. The LTE GRE
   Tunnel Setup Accept message MUST include the RTT Difference Threshold
   Compliance attribute.









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   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |Attribute Type |                   (1 byte)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Attribute Length             |   (2 bytes)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-...-+
   |  RTT Diff Threshold Compliance    (4 bytes)   |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+...+-+

   Attribute Type
      RTT Diff Threshold Compliance, set to 25.

   Attribute Length
      Set to 4.

   RTT Diff Threshold Compliance
      An unsigned integer which takes values in the range 1 through 25.
      A typical value is 3.

5.2.14. Idle Hello Interval

   The HAAP uses the Idle Hello Interval attribute to inform the HG of
   the pre-configured interval for sending out GRE Tunnel Hellos when
   the subscriber is detected to be idle. The HG SHOULD begin to send
   out GRE Tunnel Hellos via both the DSL and LTE WAN interfaces in each
   time period as indicated by this interval, if the bonded tunnels have
   seen no traffic longer than the "No Traffic Monitored Interval" (See
   Section 5.2.15.). The LTE GRE Tunnel Setup Accept message MUST
   include the Idle Hello Interval attribute.

   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |Attribute Type |                    (1 byte)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Attribute Length             |    (2 bytes)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-...-+
   |  Idle Hello Interval               (4 bytes)  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+...+-+

   Attribute Type
      Idle Hello Interval, set to 31.

   Attribute Length
      Set to 4.

   Idle Hello Interval
      An unsigned integer measured in seconds. This value can be chosen
      from the range 100 through 86,400 (24 hours) with the granularity
      of 100. The default value is 1800 (30 minutes).




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5.2.15. No Traffic Monitored Interval

   The HAAP uses the No Traffic Monitored Interval attribute to inform
   the HG of the pre-configured interval for switching the GRE Tunnel
   Hello mode. If traffic is detected on the bonded GRE tunnels before
   this informed interval expires, the HG SHOULD switch to the Active
   Hello Interval. The LTE GRE Tunnel Setup Accept message MUST include
   the No Traffic Monitored Interval attribute.

   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |Attribute Type |                    (1 byte)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Attribute Length             |    (2 bytes)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-...-+
   |  No Traffic Monitored Interval      (4 bytes)  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+...+-+

   Attribute Type
      No Traffic Monitored Interval, set to 32.

   Attribute Length
      Set to 4.

   No Traffic Monitored Interval
      An unsigned integer measured in seconds. This value is in the
      range 30 through 86,400 (24 hours). The default value is 60.

5.3. GRE Tunnel Setup Deny

   HAAP MUST sends the GRE Tunnel Setup Deny message to HG if the GRE
   tunnel setup request from this HG is denied. The HG MUST terminate
   the GRE tunnel setup process as soon as it receives the GRE Tunnel
   Setup Deny message.

5.3.1. Error Code

   The HAAP uses the Error Code attribute to inform the HG of the error
   code. The error code depicts the reason why the GRE tunnel setup
   request is denied. Both the LTE GRE Tunnel Setup Deny message and the
   DSL GRE Tunnel Setup Deny message MUST include the Error Code
   attribute.










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   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |Attribute Type |                    (1 byte)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Attribute Length             |    (2 bytes)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-...-+
   |  Error Code                        (4 bytes)  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+...+-+

   Attribute Type
      Error Code, set to 17.

   Attribute Length
      Set to 4.

   Error Code
      An unsigned integer. The list of the codes are listed as follows.

      1: The HAAP was not reachable over LTE during the GRE tunnel setup
         request.
      2: The HAAP was not reachable via DSL during the GRE tunnel setup
         request.
      3: The LTE GRE tunnel to the HAAP failed.
      4: The DSL GRE tunnel to the HAAP failed.
      5: The given DSL User ID is not allowed to use the GRE Tunnel
         Bonding service.
      6: The given User Alias (TOID)/User ID (GUID) is not allowed to
         use the GRE Tunnel Bonding service.
      7: The LTE and DSL User IDs do not match.
      8: The HAAP denied the GRE tunnel setup request because a bonding
         session with the same User ID already exists.
      9: The HAAP denied the GRE tunnel setup request because the user's
         CIN is not permitted.
      10: The HAAP terminated a GRE Tunnel Bonding session for
         maintenance reasons.
      11: There was a communication error between the HAAP and the
         management system during the LTE tunnel setup request.
      12: There was a communication error between the HAAP and
         management system during the DSL tunnel setup request.

5.4. GRE Tunnel Hello

   After the DSL/LTE GRE tunnel is established, the HG begins to
   periodically send out GRE Tunnel Hello messages via the tunnel, which
   the HAAP acknowledges by returning GRE Tunnel Hello messages back to
   the HG.  This continues until the tunnel is terminated.

5.4.1. Timestamp




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   The HAAP uses the Timestamp attribute to inform the HG of the
   timestamp value that is used for RTT calculation. Both the LTE GRE
   Tunnel Hello message and DSL GRE Tunnel Hello message MUST include
   the Timestamp attribute.

   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |Attribute Type |                    (1 byte)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Attribute Length             |    (2 bytes)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-...-+
   |  Timestamp                         (8 bytes)  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+...+-+

   Attribute Type
      Timestamp, set to 5.

   Attribute Length
      Set to 8.

   Timestamp
      The time since the system restarts. The high-order 4 octets
      indicate an unsigned integer in units of one second; the low-order
      4 octets indicate an unsigned integer in unit of one millisecond.

5.4.2. IPv6 Prefix Assigned by HAAP

   The HAAP uses the IPv6 Prefix Assigned by the HAAP attribute to
   inform the HG of the assigned IPv6 prefix. This IPv6 prefix is to be
   captured by the Lawful Interception. Both the LTE GRE Tunnel Hello
   message and the DSL GRE Tunnel Hello message MUST include the IPv6
   Prefix Assigned by HAAP attribute.

   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |Attribute Type |                    (1 byte)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Attribute Length             |    (2 bytes)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-...-+
   |  IPv6 Prefix Assigned by HAAP      (16 bytes) |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+...+-+

   Attribute Type
      IPv6 Prefix Assigned by HAAP, set to 13.

   Attribute Length
      Set to 17.

   IPv6 Prefix Assigned by HAAP
      The highest-order 16 octets encode an IPv6 address. The lowest-



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      order one octet encodes the prefix length. These two values are
      put together to represent an IPv6 prefix.

5.5. GRE Tunnel Tear Down

   The HAAP can terminate a DSL/LTE GRE tunnel by sending the GRE Tunnel
   Tear Down message to the HG via the tunnel. The Error Code attribute
   as defined in Section 5.3.1 MUST be included in this message. After
   receiving the GRE Tunnel Tear Down message, the HG removes the IP
   address of H which is the destination IP addresses of the DSL and LTE
   GRE tunnels.

5.6. GRE Tunnel Notify

   The HG and the HAAP use the GRE Tunnel Notify message which is
   transmitted either through the DSL GRE tunnel or LTE GRE tunnel to
   notify each other about their status regarding the DSL/LTE GRE
   tunnels, the information for the bonded tunnels, the actions that
   need to be taken, etc.

   Usually, the receiver just sends the received attributes back as the
   acknowledgement for each GRE Tunnel Notify message. There is an
   exception for the Filter List Package. Since the size of the Filter
   List Package attribute can be very large, a special attribute is
   specified in Section 5.6.12 as the acknowledgement.

   Attributes that need be to included in the GRE Tunnel Notify message
   are defined below.

5.6.1. Bypass Traffic Rate

   There are a few types of traffic that need to transmitted over the
   raw DSL WAN interface rather than the bonded GRE tunnels. The HG has
   to set aside bypass bandwidth on the DSL WAN interface for these
   traffic types. Therefore, the available bandwidth of the DSL GRE
   tunnel is the entire DSL WAN interface bandwidth minus the occupied
   bypass bandwidth.

   The HG uses the Bypass Traffic Rate attribute to inform the HAAP of
   the downstream bypass bandwidth for the DSL WAN interface. The Bypass
   Traffic Rate attribute will be included in the DSL GRE Tunnel Notify
   message. The HAAP calculates the available downstream bandwidth for
   the DSL GRE tunnel as the Configured DSL Downstream Bandwidth minus
   this informed bypass bandwidth. The available DSL bandwidth will be
   used as the Committed Information Rate (CIR) of the coloring system
   [RFC2697].





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   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |Attribute Type |                    (1 byte)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Attribute Length             |    (2 bytes)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-...-+
   |  Bypass Traffic Rate               (4 bytes)  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+...+-+

   Attribute Type
      Bypass Traffic Rate, set to 6.

   Attribute Length
      Set to 4.

   Bypass Traffic Rate
      An unsigned integer measured in kbps.

5.6.2. Filter List Package

   The HAAP uses the Filter List Package attribute to inform the HG of
   the service types that need to bypass the bonded GRE tunnels. The
   full list of all filter items may be given by a series of Filter List
   Package attributes with each specifying a partial list. At the HG, a
   full list of filter items is maintained. Also, the HG needs to
   maintain an exception list of filter items. For example, the packets
   carrying the control messages defined in this document should be
   excluded from the filter list.

   Incoming packets that match a filter item in the filter list while
   not matching any item in the exception list MUST be transmitted over
   the raw DSL rather than the bonded GRE tunnels. Both the LTE GRE
   Tunnel Notify message and GRE Tunnel Notify message MAY include the
   Filter List Package attribute. The DSL GRE Tunnel Notify message is
   preferred.

   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |Attribute Type |                    (1 byte)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Attribute Length             |    (2 bytes)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-...-+
   |  Filter List TLV                   (variable) ~
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+...+-+

   Attribute Type
      Filter List Package, set to 8.

   Attribute Length
      The total length of the Filter List TLV. The maximum allowed



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      length is 969 bytes.

   Filter List TLV
      The Filter List TLV occurs one time in a Filter List Package
      attribute. It has the following format.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                  Commit_Count                                 |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |      Packet_Sum               |         Packet_ID             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                         Filter Item (1)                       |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                         ......                                |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                         Filter Item (n)                       |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   where each filter item is of the following format

   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |         Type                  |          Length               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |         Enable                |     Description Length        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   ~                 Description Value                             ~
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   ~                        Value                                  ~
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      Commit_Count
         An unsigned integer which identifies the version of the filter
         item list. The version is shared by all Filter List Packages
         and monotonic increasing by one for each new filter item list.
         HG MUST refresh its filter item list when a new Commit_Count is
         received.

      Packet_Sum
         If a single Filter List Package attribute might make the
         control message larger than the MTU, fragmentation is used. The
         Packet_Sum indicates the total number of fragments.

      Packet_ID
         The fragmentation index for this Filter List Package attribute.
         Each fragment is numbered starting at 1 and increasing by one
         up to Packet_Sum.



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      Type
         The Type of the Filter Item. Currently, the following types are
         supported.

                     Filter Items               Type
                 =========================   ============
                 FQDN [RFC1594]                  1
                 DSCP [RFC2724]                  2
                 Destination Port                3
                 Destination IP                  4
                 Destination IP&Port             5
                 Source Port                     6
                 Source IP                       7
                 Source IP&Port                  8
                 Source Mac                      9
                 Protocol                        10
                 Source IP Range                 11
                 Destination IP Range            12
                 Source IP Range&Port            13
                 Destination IP Range&Port       14

         Other values are reserved for future use and MUST be ignored on
         receipt.

      Length
         The length of the Filter Item in octets. Type and Length are
         excluded.

      Enable
         Whether the filter item is enabled. One means enabled and zero
         means disabled. Other possible values are reserved and MUST be
         ignored on receipt.

      Description Length
         The length of the Description Value in octets.

      Description Value
         A variable string value encoded in UTF-8 that describes the
         Filter List TLV (e.g., "FQDN").

      Value
         A variable string encoded in UTF-8 that specifies the value of
         the Filter Item (e.g. "www.yahoo.com"). As an example, Type = 1
         and Value = "www.yahoo.com" means that packets whose FQDN field
         equals "www.yahoo.com" match the filter item. Values for "Mac"
         are specified using hexadecimal numbers. Port number are
         decimals as assigned by IANA in [Port-NO]. For the "Protocol"
         type, the value could either be a decimal or a keyword



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         specified by IANA in [Pro-NO]. The formats for "IP" and "IP
         Range" are defined in [RFC4632] and [RFC4291] for IPv4 and IPv6
         respectively. When the filter item is a combination of two
         parameters (Type 5, 8 and 13), values for the two parameters
         are separated by a colon (":").

5.6.3. Switching to DSL Tunnel

   If the RTT difference is continuously detected to violate the RTT
   Difference Threshold (See Section 5.2.4.) more than the times
   specified in the RTT Difference Threshold Violation (See Section
   5.2.12.), the HG uses the Switching to DSL Tunnel attribute to inform
   the HAAP to use the DSL GRE tunnel only. When the HAAP receives this
   attribute, it MUST begin to transmit downstream traffic to this HG
   solely over the DSL GRE tunnel. The DSL GRE Tunnel Notify message MAY
   include the Switching to DSL Tunnel attribute.

   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |Attribute Type |                    (1 byte)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Attribute Length             |    (2 bytes)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Attribute Type
      Switching to DSL Tunnel, set to 11.

   Attribute Length
      Set to 0.

5.6.4. Overflowing to LTE Tunnel

   If the RTT difference is continuously detected to not violated the
   RTT Difference Threshold attribute (See Section 5.2.4.) more than the
   number of times specified in the RTT Difference Compliance attribute
   (See Section 5.2.13), the HG uses the Overflowing to LTE Tunnel
   attribute to inform HAAP that LTE GRE tunnel can be used again. The
   DSL GRE Tunnel Notify message MAY include the Overflowing to LTE
   Tunnel attribute.

   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |Attribute Type |                    (1 byte)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Attribute Length             |    (2 bytes)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Attribute Type
      Overflowing to LTE Tunnel, set to 12.




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   Attribute Length
      Set to 0.

5.6.5. DSL Link Failure

   When the HG detects the DSL WAN interface status is down, it MUST
   tear down the DSL GRE tunnel. It informs HAAP about the failure using
   the DSL Link Failure attribute. The HAAP MUST tear down the DSL GRE
   tunnel upon the DSL Link Failure attribute is received. The DSL Link
   Failure attribute SHOULD be carried in the LTE GRE Tunnel Notify
   message.

   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |Attribute Type |                    (1 byte)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Attribute Length             |    (2 bytes)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-

   Attribute Type
      DSL Link Failure, set to 18.

   Attribute Length
      Set to 0.

5.6.6. LTE Link Failure

   When the HG detects the LTE WAN interface status is down, it MUST
   tear down the LTE GRE tunnel. It informs the HAAP about the failure
   using the LTE Link Failure attribute. HAAP MUST tear down the LTE GRE
   tunnel upon the LTE Link Failure attribute is received. The LTE Link
   Failure attribute SHOULD be carried in the DSL GRE Tunnel Notify
   message.

   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |Attribute Type |                    (1 byte)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Attribute Length             |    (2 bytes)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Attribute Type
      LTE Link Failure, set to 19.

   Attribute Length
      Set to 0.

5.6.7. IPv6 Prefix Assigned to Host

   If the HG changes the IPv6 prefix assigned to the host, it uses the



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   IPv6 Prefix Assigned to Host attribute to inform the HAAP. Both the
   LTE GRE Tunnel Notify message and the DSL GRE Tunnel Notify message
   MAY include the IPv6 Prefix Assigned to Host attribute.

   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |Attribute Type |                    (1 byte)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Attribute Length             |    (2 bytes)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-...-+
   |  IPv6 Prefix Assigned to Host      (16 bytes) |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+...+-+

   Attribute Type
      IPv6 Prefix Assigned to Host, set to 21.

   Attribute Length
      Set to 17.

   IPv6 Prefix Assigned to Host
      The highest-order 16 octets encode an IPv6 address. The lowest-
      order one octet encodes the prefix length. These two values are
      put together to represent an IPv6 prefix.

5.6.8. Diagnostic Start: Bonding Tunnel

   The HG uses the Diagnostic Start: Bonding Tunnel attribute to inform
   the HAAP to switch to diagnostic mode to test the performance of the
   entire bonding tunnel. The Diagnostic Start: Bonding Tunnel attribute
   SHOULD be carried in the DSL GRE Tunnel Notify message.

   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |Attribute Type |                    (1 byte)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Attribute Length             |    (2 bytes)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Attribute Type
      Diagnostic Start: Bonding Tunnel, set to 26.

   Attribute Length
      Set to 0.

5.6.9. Diagnostic Start: DSL Tunnel

   The HG uses the Diagnostic Start: DSL Tunnel attribute to inform the
   HAAP to switch to diagnostic mode to test the performance of the DSL
   GRE tunnel. The Diagnostic Start: DSL Tunnel attribute SHOULD be
   carried in the DSL GRE Tunnel Notify message.



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   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |Attribute Type |                    (1 byte)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Attribute Length             |    (2 bytes)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Attribute Type
      Diagnostic Start: DSL Tunnel, set to 27.

   Attribute Length
      Set to 0.

5.6.10. Diagnostic Start: LTE Tunnel

   The HG uses the Diagnostic Start: LTE Tunnel attribute to inform the
   HAAP to switch to diagnostic mode to test the performance of the
   entire bonding tunnel. The Diagnostic Start: LTE Tunnel attribute
   SHOULD be carried in the DSL GRE Tunnel Notify message.

   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |Attribute Type |                    (1 byte)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Attribute Length             |    (2 bytes)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Attribute Type
      Diagnostic Start: LTE Tunnel, set to 18.

   Attribute Length
      Set to 0.

5.6.11. Diagnostic End

   The HG uses the Diagnostic End attribute to inform th HAAP to stop
   operating in diagnostic mode. The Diagnostic End attribute SHOULD be
   carried in the DSL GRE Tunnel Notify message.

   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |Attribute Type |                    (1 byte)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Attribute Length             |    (2 bytes)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Attribute Type
      Diagnostic End, set to 29.

   Attribute Length
      Set to 0.



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5.6.12. Filter List Package ACK

   The HG uses the Filter List Package ACK attribute to acknowledge the
   Filter List Package sent by the HAAP. Both the LTE GRE Tunnel Notify
   message and the DSL GRE Tunnel Notify message MAY include the Filter
   List Package ACK attribute.

   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |Attribute Type |                    (1 byte)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Attribute Length             |    (2 bytes)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-...-+
   |  Filter List Package ACK           (5 bytes)  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+...+-+

   Attribute Type
      Filter List Package ACK, set to 30.

   Attribute Length
      Set to 5.

   Filter List Package ACK
      The highest-order 4 octets are the Commit_Count as defined in
      Section 5.6.2. The lowest-order 1 octet encodes the following
      error codes:

      0: The Filter List Package is acknowledged.
      1: The Filter List Package is not acknowledged. The HG is a new
         subscriber and has not ever received a Filter List Package. In
         this case, the HAAP SHOULD tear down the bonding tunnels and
         force the HG to re-establish the GRE Tunnels.
      2: The Filter List Package is not acknowledged. The HG has already
         got a valid Filter List Package. The filter list on the HG will
         continue to be used while HAAP need to do nothing.

5.6.13. Switching to Active Hello State

   If traffic is being sent/received over the bonding GRE tunnels before
   the "No Traffic Monitored Interval" expires (See Section 5.2.15.),
   the HG sends to the HAAP a GRE Tunnel Notify message containing the
   Switching to Active Hello State attribute.

   The HAAP will switch to active hello state and send the HG a GRE
   Tunnel Notify message carrying the Switching to Active Hello State
   attribute as the ACK.

   When the HG receives the ACK, it will switch to active hello state,
   start RTT detection and start sending GRE Tunnel Hello messages with



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   the Active Hello Interval (See Section 5.2.6.).

   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |Attribute Type |                    (1 byte)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Attribute Length             |    (2 bytes)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Attribute Type
      Switching to Active Hello State, set to 33.

   Attribute Length
      Set to 0.

5.6.14. Switching to Idle Hello State

   The HG initiates switching to idle hello state when the bonding of
   GRE Tunnels is successfully established and the LTE GRE Tunnel Setup
   Accept message carrying the Idle Hello Interval attribute (See
   Section 5.2.14.) is received. The HG sends the HAAP a GRE Tunnel
   Notify message containing the Switching to Idle Hello State
   attribute.

   The HAAP will switch to idle hello state, clear RTT state and send
   the HG a GRE Tunnel Notify message carrying the Switching to Idle
   Hello State attribute as the ACK.

   When the HG receives the ACK, it will switch to idle hello state,
   stop RTT detection, clear RTT state as well and start sending GRE
   Tunnel Hello messages with the Idle Hello Interval (See Section
   5.2.14).

   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |Attribute Type |                    (1 byte)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Attribute Length             |    (2 bytes)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Attribute Type
      Switching to Idle Hello State, set to 34.

   Attribute Length
      Set to 0.

5.6.15. Tunnel Verification

   The HAAP uses the Tunnel Verification attribute to inform the HG to
   verify whether an existing LTE GRE tunnel is still functioning. The



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   Tunnel Verification attribute SHOULD be carried in the LTE GRE Tunnel
   Notify message. It provides a means to detect the tunnel faster than
   the GRE Tunnel Hello, especially when the LTE GRE tunnel is in the
   Idle Hello state and it takes much longer time to detect this
   tunnel.

   When the HAAP receives an LTE GRE Tunnel Setup Request and finds the
   requested tunnel is conflicting with an existing tunnel, the HAAP
   initiates the Tunnel Verification. The HAAP drops all conflicting LTE
   GRE Tunnel Setup Request messages and sends GRE Tunnel Notify
   messages carrying the Tunnel Verification attribute until the
   verification ends. The HG MUST respond to the HAAP with the same
   Tunnel Verification attribute as the ACK if the tunnel is still
   functioning.

   If the ACK of the Tunnel Verification attribute is received from the
   HG, the HAAP judges that the existing tunnel is still functioning. An
   LTE GRE Tunnel Deny message (with Error Code = 8) will be sent to the
   HG. The HG SHOULD terminate the GRE tunnel setup request process
   immediately.

   If the HAAP does not receive a Tunnel Verification ACK message after
   3 attempts (1 initial attempt and 2 retries), it will regard the
   existing tunnel as failed and the LTE GRE Tunnel Setup Request will
   be accepted.

   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |Attribute Type |                    (1 byte)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Attribute Length             |    (2 bytes)
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Attribute Type
      Tunnel Verification, set to 35.

   Attribute Length
      Set to 0.


6. Tunnel Protocol Operation (Data Plane)

   GRE tunnels are set up over heterogeneous connections, such as LTE
   and DSL, between the HG and the HAAP. Users' IP (inner) packets are
   encapsulated in GRE packets which in turn are carried in IP (outer)
   packets. The general structure of data packets of the GRE Tunnel
   Bonding protocol is shown as below.





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                     +--------------------------------+
                     |          Media Header          |
                     +--------------------------------+
                     |         Outer IP Header        |
                     +--------------------------------+
                     |           GRE Header           |
                     +--------------------------------+
                     |         Inner IP Packet        |
                     +--------------------------------+

6.1. The GRE Header

   The GRE header is first standardized in [RFC2784]. [RFC2890] adds the
   optional Key and Sequence Number fields.

   The Checksum and the Reserved1 fields are not used in the GRE Tunnel
   Bonding, therefore the C bit is set to zero.

   The Key bit is set to one so that the Key field is present. The Key
   field is used as a 32-bit random number. It is generated by the HAAP
   per bonding connection and notified to HG (See Section 5.2.9).

   The S bit is set to one, and the Sequence Number field is present and
   used for in-order delivery as per [RFC2890].

   The Protocol Type field in the GRE header MUST be set to 0x0800 for
   IPv4 or 0x86DD for IPv6. So the GRE header used by data packets of
   the GRE Tunnel Bonding protocol have the following format.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |0| |1|1| Reserved0       | Ver |  Protocol Type 0x0800/86DD    |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                              Key                              |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                        Sequence Number                        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

    Figure 6.1 The GRE header for data packets of GRE Tunnel Bonding

6.2. Automatic Setup of GRE Tunnels

   The HG gets the DSL WAN interface IP address (D) from the Broadband
   Remote Access Server (BRAS) via Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet
   (PPPoE), and gets the LTE WAN interface IP address (E) through Packet
   Data Protocol (PDP) from the Packet Data Network Gateway (PGW). The
   domain name of a HAAP group may be configured or obtained via the



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   DSL/LTE WAN interface based on gateway configuration protocols such
   as [TR-069], where the HAAP group comprises of one or multiple HAAPs.
   The Domain Name System (DNS) resolution of the HAAP group's domain
   name is requested via the DSL/LTE WAN interface. The DNS server will
   reply with an anycast HAAP IP address (G) which MAY be pre-configured
   by the operator.

   After the interface IP addresses have been acquired, the HG starts
   the following GRE Tunnel Bonding procedure. It is REQUIRED that the
   HG first set up the LTE GRE tunnel and then set up the DSL GRE
   tunnel.

   The HG sends the GRE Tunnel Setup Request message to the HAAP via the
   LTE WAN interface. The outer source IP address for this message is
   the LTE WAN interface IP address (E) while the outer destination IP
   address is the anycast HAAP IP address (G). The HAAP with the highest
   priority (e.g., the one that the HG has the least cost path to reach)
   in the HAAP group, which receives the GRE Tunnel Setup Request
   message, will initiate the Authentication and Authorization
   procedure, as specified in [TS23.401], to check whether the HG is
   trusted by the PGW.

   If the Authentication and Authorization succeed, the HAAP sets the
   LTE WAN interface IP address (E) which is obtained from the GRE
   Tunnel Setup Request message (i.e., its outer source IP address) as
   the destination endpoint IP address of the GRE tunnel and replies to
   the HG's LTE WAN interface with the GRE Tunnel Setup Accept message
   in which an IP address (H) of the HAAP (e.g. an IP address of a Line
   Card in the HAAP) and a Session ID randomly generated by the HAAP are
   carried as attributes. The outer source IP address for this message
   is the IP address (H) or the anycast HAAP IP address (G) while the
   outer destination IP address is the LTE WAN interface IP address (E).
   Otherwise, the HAAP MUST send to the HG's LTE WAN interface the GRE
   Tunnel Setup Deny message and the HG MUST terminate the tunnel set up
   process once it receives the GRE Tunnel Setup Deny message.

   After the LTE GRE tunnel is successfully set up, the HG will obtain
   the C address over the tunnel from the HAAP through Dynamic Host
   Configuration Protocol (DHCP). After that, the HG starts to set up
   the DSL GRE tunnel. It sends a GRE Tunnel Setup Request message via
   the DSL WAN interface, carrying the aforementioned Session ID
   received from the HAAP. The outer source IP address for this message
   is the DSL WAN interface IP address (D) while the outer destination
   IP address is the IP address (H) of the HAAP. The HAAP, which
   receives the GRE Tunnel Setup Request message, will initiate the
   Authentication and Authorization procedure in order to check whether
   the HG is trusted by the BRAS.




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   If the Authentication and Authorization succeed, the HAAP sets the
   DSL WAN interface IP address (D) which is obtained from the GRE
   Tunnel Setup Request message (i.e., its outer source IP address) as
   the destination endpoint IP address of the GRE tunnel and replies to
   the HG's DSL WAN interface with the GRE Tunnel Setup Accept message.
   The outer source IP address for this message is the IP address (H) of
   the HAAP while the outer destination IP address is the DSL WAN
   interface IP address (D). In this way, the two tunnels with the same
   Session ID can be used to carry traffic from the same user. That is
   to say, the two tunnels are "bonded" together. Otherwise, if the
   Authentication and Authorization fail, the HAAP MUST send to the HG's
   DSL WAN interface the GRE Tunnel Setup Deny message. Meanwhile, it
   MUST send to the HG's LTE WAN interface the GRE Tunnel Tear Down
   message. The HG MUST terminate the tunnel set up process once it
   receives the GRE Tunnel Setup Deny message and MUST tear down the LTE
   GRE tunnel that has been set up once it receives the GRE Tunnel Tear
   Down Message.

7. Security Considerations

   Malicious devices controlled by attackers may intercept the control
   messages sent on the GRE tunnels. Later on, the rogue devices may
   fake control messages to disrupt the GRE tunnels or attract traffic
   of the target HG.

   As a security feature, the Key field of the GRE header of the control
   messages and the data packets is generated as a 32-bit clear-text
   password, except the first GRE Setup Request message per bonding
   connection sent from HG to HAAP, whose Key field is filled with all
   zeros. HAAP and HG validate the Key value and the outer source IP
   address and discard packets with any invalid combination.

   Moreover, GRE over IP Security (IPSec) could be used to enhance the
   security.

8. IANA Considerations

   IANA need not to assign anything for the GRE Tunnel Bonding Protocol.
   The GRE Protocol Type for the GRE Channel is set to 0xB7EA which is
   under the control of IEEE Registration Authority. However, IANA may
   update the "IEEE 802 Numbers" IANA web page [802Type] which is of
   primarily historic interest.

9. Contributors

   Li Xue
   Individual




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   EMail: xueli_jas@163.com

   Zhongwen Jiang
   Huawei Technologies

   EMail: jiangzhongwen@huawei.com

10. References

10.1. Normative References

   [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
             Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, DOI
             10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997, <http://www.rfc-
             editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC2697] Heinanen, J. and R. Guerin, "A Single Rate Three Color
             Marker", RFC 2697, DOI 10.17487/RFC2697, September 1999,
             <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2697>.

   [RFC2784] Farinacci, D., Li, T., Hanks, S., Meyer, D., and P. Traina,
             "Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE)", RFC 2784, DOI
             10.17487/RFC2784, March 2000, <http://www.rfc-
             editor.org/info/rfc2784>.

   [RFC2890] Dommety, G., "Key and Sequence Number Extensions to GRE",
             RFC 2890, DOI 10.17487/RFC2890, September 2000,
             <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2890>.

   [TR-069]  Broadband Forum, "CPE WAN Management Protocol", Issue: 1
             Amendment 5, Nov, 2013, <https://www.broadband-
             forum.org/technical/download/TR-069_Amendment-5.pdf>

   [TS23.401] "3GPP TS23.401, General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)
             enhancements for Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access
             Network (E-UTRAN) access", September 2013.

   [Port-NO] IANA, "Service Name and Transport Protocol Port Number
             Registry", <http://www.iana.org/assignments/service-names-
             port-numbers>

   [Pro-NO] IANA, "Assigned Internet Protocol Numbers",
             <http://www.iana.org/assignments/protocol-numbers>

   [RFC4632] Fuller, V. and T. Li, "Classless Inter-domain Routing
             (CIDR): The Internet Address Assignment and Aggregation
             Plan", BCP 122, RFC 4632, DOI 10.17487/RFC4632, August
             2006, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4632>.



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   [RFC4291] Hinden, R. and S. Deering, "IP Version 6 Addressing
             Architecture", RFC 4291, DOI 10.17487/RFC4291, February
             2006, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4291>.

10.2. Informative References

   [RFC1594] Marine, A., Reynolds, J., and G. Malkin, "FYI on Questions
             and Answers - Answers to Commonly asked "New Internet User"
             Questions", RFC 1594, March 1994.

   [RFC2724] Handelman, S., Stibler, S., Brownlee, N., and G. Ruth,
             "RTFM: New Attributes for Traffic Flow Measurement", RFC
             2724, DOI 10.17487/RFC2724, October 1999, <http://www.rfc-
             editor.org/info/rfc2724>.

   [RFC6320] Wadhwa, S., Moisand, J., Haag, T., Voigt, N., and T.
             Taylor, Ed., "Protocol for Access Node Control Mechanism in
             Broadband Networks", RFC 6320, DOI 10.17487/RFC6320,
             October 2011, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6320>.

   [RFC6733] Fajardo, V., Ed., Arkko, J., Loughney, J., and G. Zorn,
             Ed., "Diameter Base Protocol", RFC 6733, DOI
             10.17487/RFC6733, October 2012, <http://www.rfc-
             editor.org/info/rfc6733>.

   [RFC7676] Pignataro, C., Bonica, R., and S. Krishnan, "IPv6 Support
             for Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE)", RFC 7676, DOI
             10.17487/RFC7676, October 2015, <http://www.rfc-
             editor.org/info/rfc7676>.

   [802Type] IANA, "IEEE 802 Numbers",
             <http://www.iana.org/assignments/ieee-802-numbers>.



















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Author's Addresses


   Nicolai Leymann
   Deutsche Telekom AG
   Winterfeldtstrasse 21-27
   Berlin  10781
   Germany

   Phone: +49-170-2275345
   Email: n.leymann@telekom.de


   Cornelius Heidemann
   Deutsche Telekom AG
   Heinrich-Hertz-Strasse 3-7
   Darmstadt  64295
   Germany

   Phone: +4961515812721
   Email: heidemannc@telekom.de


   Mingui Zhang
   Huawei Technologies
   No.156 Beiqing Rd. Haidian District,
   Beijing 100095 P.R. China

   EMail: zhangmingui@huawei.com


   Behcet Sarikaya
   Huawei USA
   5340 Legacy Dr. Building 3
   Plano, TX  75024

   EMail: sarikaya@ieee.org


   Margaret Cullen
   Painless Security
   14 Summer St. Suite 202
   Malden, MA 02148  USA

   EMail: margaret@painless-security.com






Mingui Zhang, et al      Expires June 24, 2017                 [Page 41]


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