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Network Working Group                                           D. Zhang
Internet-Draft                                                    Huawei
Intended status: Experimental                                      Y. Wu
Expires: April 1, 2017                                    Aliababa Group
                                                                  L. Xia
                                                                  Huawei
                                                                R. Kumar
                                                               A. Lohiya
                                                        Juniper Networks
                                                      September 28, 2016


 An Information Model for the Monitoring of Network Security Functions
                                 (NSF)
               draft-zhang-i2nsf-info-model-monitoring-02

Abstract

   The Network Security Functions (NSF) Capability interface exists
   between the Service Provider's management system (or Security
   Controller) and the NSFs to enforce the rule provisioning and
   monitoring on the NSFs in the functional implementation level.This
   document focuses on the monitoring part of it and proposes the
   information model for it.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on April 1, 2017.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2016 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.





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   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     2.1.  Key Words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     2.2.  Definition of Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   3.  Use cases for NSF monitoring data . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   4.  Classification of NSF monitoring data . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   5.  Structure of NSF monitoring data  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   6.  Exporting NSF monitoring data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   7.  Basic Information model for all monitoring data . . . . . . .   7
   8.  Extended Information model for structured monitoring data . .   8
     8.1.  System Alarm  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
       8.1.1.  Memory Alarm  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
       8.1.2.  CPU Alarm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
       8.1.3.  Disk Alarm  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       8.1.4.  Hardware Alarm  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       8.1.5.  Interface Alarm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     8.2.  System Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
       8.2.1.  Access Violation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
       8.2.2.  Configuration Change  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     8.3.  System Log  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
       8.3.1.  Access Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
       8.3.2.  Resource Utilization Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
       8.3.3.  User Activity Logs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     8.4.  System Counters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
       8.4.1.  Interface counters  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     8.5.  NSF Events  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
       8.5.1.  DDoS Event  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
       8.5.2.  Session Table Event . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
       8.5.3.  Virus Event . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
       8.5.4.  Intrusion Event . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
       8.5.5.  Botnet Event  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
       8.5.6.  Web Attack Event  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
     8.6.  NSF Logs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
       8.6.1.  DDoS Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
       8.6.2.  Virus Logs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
       8.6.3.  Intrusion Logs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18



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       8.6.4.  Botnet Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
       8.6.5.  DPI Logs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
       8.6.6.  Vulnerabillity Scanning Logs  . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
       8.6.7.  Web Attack Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
     8.7.  NSF Counters  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
       8.7.1.  Firewall counters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
       8.7.2.  Policy Hit Counters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
   9.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
   10. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
   11. Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
   12. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
     12.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
     12.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24

1.  Introduction

   According to [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-framework], the interface provided by a
   NSF (e.g., FW, IPS, Anti-DDOS, or Anti-Virus) to administrative
   entities (e.g., NMS, security controller) for configuring security
   function in the NSF and monitoring the NSF is referred to as a
   'capability interface'.  The monitoring part of the capability
   interface is meant to monitor the NSF e.g. events, logs, alarms,
   operational state of the NSF.  The monitoring of the NSF plays a very
   important role in the overall security framework if done in a timely
   and comprehensive way.  The event generated by a NSF could very well
   be an early indication of malicious activity or anomalous behavior.
   The operational state of an NSF could also be a potential sign of
   denial of service attacks or window into signature of an attack.
   This draft proposes a comprehensive NSF monitoring informational
   model that provide visibility into NSFs.  This document will not go
   into the design details of capability interface.  Instead, this draft
   is focused on specifying the information that a NSF needs to provide
   in the monitoring part of the capability interface, as well as its
   information model.  Besides, [I-D.draft-xia-i2nsf-capability-
   interface-im] specifies the information model for the rule
   provisioning part of the capability interface.

2.  Terminology

2.1.  Key Words

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].






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2.2.  Definition of Terms

   This document uses the terms defined in [I-D.draft-ietf-i2nsf-
   terminology].

3.  Use cases for NSF monitoring data

   As mentioned earlier, monitoring plays a very critical role in the
   overall security framework.  The monitoring of the NSF provides very
   valuable information to the security controller in maintaining the
   provisioned security posture.  Besides this, there are various other
   reasons to monitor the NSFs as listed below:

   o  The security administrator could configure a policy that is
      triggered on a specific event.  The security controller would
      monitor for the specified event and once it happens, it configures
      additional security functions as per the policy.

   o  The events triggered by NSFs as a result of security policy
      violation could be used by SIEM to detect any suspicious activity.

   o  The events and activity logs from NSFs could be used to build
      advanced analytics such as behavior and predictive to improve the
      security posture.

   o  The security controller could use events from the NSF for
      achieving high availability.  It could take corrective actions
      such as restarting a failed NSF, horizontally scaling the NSF
      etcetra.

   o  The events and activity logs from the NSF could aid in debugging
      and root cause analysis of an operational issue.

   o  The activity logs from the NSF could be used to build historical
      data for operational and business reasons.

4.  Classification of NSF monitoring data

   In order to maintain a strong security posture, it is not only
   necessary to configure security policies on NSF but also requires
   constantly monitoring NSFs for events and comprehensive logs.  This
   gives ability to security admins regarding what is happening in the
   network in realtime.  It is not possible to block all the internal
   and external threats based on static security posture but requires a
   very dynamic posture with constant visibility.  This draft proposes a
   set of monitoring data needed for this purpose as listed below:





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   o  System Alarms: This represents a set related to operational state
      of the NSF.  For example, the NSF could generate an alarm if NSF
      experience an operational issue such as link failure and system
      component failure or performance degradation.  The operator could
      configure the NSF with certain threshold and when those thresholds
      are crossed, NSF would generate an alarm.  The alarms usually
      require immediate attention from the operator otherwise network
      may go into unknown state and potentially exposing security
      vulnerabilities.  The set should only be used for sending critical
      information to avoid operator constantly combing through large
      amount of information.

   o  System Events: This represents a set of operational and
      informational data from the NSF.  For example, the NSF could
      generate an event when a policy violation occurs in the NSF or
      configuration change results into some issue.  This kind of
      information may not require an immediate attention from the
      security admin but may be useful for visibility and security
      analytics.  Some vendors combine events and alarm into one
      category.

   o  System Logs: This represents information generated by NSF systems
      such as access and authorization activity logs, configuration
      change logs and any other logs generated by NSFs.  These logs are
      important for debugging, auditing and security analytics.

   o  System counters: This represents set of counters generated by NSF
      such as network interface counters (packets, bytes), drop, error
      counters etc.  These counters are useful in debugging and
      visibility into operational behavior of the NSF.

   o  NSF Events: This represents events generated by a NSF for a
      specific functionality such as generating event when IPS detects
      attack signatures.

   o  NSF Logs: This represents logs generated by a NSF for a specific
      functionality e.g.  NAC device generating logs when it
      authenticate a user session and the associated authorization
      assigned to that user.  Another example would be when a stateful
      firewall generates log for each state created in the NSF and any
      operation assigned such as traffic shaping or marking.  These logs
      provide window into the control and data path activities of a NSF.

   o  NSF Counters: This represents counters kept by NSF for a specific
      functionality e.g. policy hits etc.






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5.  Structure of NSF monitoring data

   As explained in the above section, there is a wealth of data
   available from the NSF that can be monitored.  Some of this data
   generated by NSF is structured such as alarm and other may be
   unstructured or structure may be very specific to that NSF.  This
   draft proposes common information model that is valid for the
   monitoring data and extended information model for structured data.
   The following guidelines can be used to classify monitoring data as
   structured or unstructured:

   o  System Alarms: This is structured data.  The draft proposes an
      extended information model for this.

   o  System Events: This is structured data.  The draft proposes an
      extended information model for this.

   o  System Logs: This is unstructured data.  The draft proposes a
      basic information model for this.

   o  System Counters: This is structured data.  The draft proposes an
      extended information model for this.

   o  NSF Events: This is structured and structured data.  The draft
      proposes an extended information model for this.

   o  NSF Logs: This may have structured and unstructured data.  The
      draft proposes an basic information model for this.

   o  NSF Counters: This is structured data.  The draft proposes an
      extended information model for this.

6.  Exporting NSF monitoring data

   As per the use cases of NSF monitoring data, the data need to be sent
   to various consumers based on the needs and requirements.  There are
   multiple things to be considered for exporting this data to needed
   parties as listed below:

   o  Pull-Push model: A set of data could be pushed by a NSF to the
      needed party or pulled by the needed party from a NSF.  A specific
      data might need both the models at the same time if there are
      multiple consumers with varying requirements.  It really depends
      upon the need and its usages to the consumer.  In general, any
      alarm is considered to be of great importance and must be sent
      immediately for any meaningful action so it should be sent using
      push model but logs are not as critical so could be pulled by the




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      consumer.  The I2NSF does not mandate a specific scheme for each
      data set, it is up to each implementation.

   o  Export frequency: The monitoring data could be sent immediately
      upon generation by a NSF to interested parties or pushed
      periodically.  The frequency of exporting the data depends upon
      its size and timely usefulness.  It is out of the scope of I2NSF
      and left to each NSF implementation.

   o  Authentication: There may be a need for authentication between
      monitoring data producer (NSF) and consumer to ensure that
      critical information does not fall into wrong hands.  This may be
      necessary if the NSF directly export data to the consumer outside
      its admin boundary.  The I2NSF does not mandate when and how
      specific authentication must be done.

   o  Subscription method: In order for the consumer to pull the data
      from NSF or for NSF to push the data to a consumer, there must be
      a mechanism for consumer to subscribe to the NSF data it is
      interested in.  There are few open source method available and it
      is up to each implementation to decide the right one.

   o  Data transfer mode: The data could be pushed by NSF using a
      connection-less model that does require a persistent connection or
      streamed over a persistent connection.  It depends upon the
      requirement of the consumer and the nature of data.  A particular
      set of data can use either or both the mode based on
      implementation.

   o  Transport method: There are lot of transport mechanism such as IP,
      UDP, TCP.  There are also open source implementations for specific
      set of data such as systems counter.  The I2NSF does not mandate
      any specific method for a given data set, it is up to each
      implementation.

7.  Basic Information model for all monitoring data

   There is must be some general information with each message sent from
   a NSF that helps consumer in identifying meta data with that message.

   o  message_version: Indicate the version of the data format and is a
      two-digit decimal numeral starting from 01

   o  message_type: Alarm, periodical report, etc

   o  time_stamp: Indicate the time when the message is generated

   o  vendor_name: The name of the NSF vendor



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   o  NSF_name: The name (or IP) of the device generatign the message

   o  NSF_type: Indicate the NSF type e.g., firewall, WAF, IPS

   o  NSF_version: The software version of the NSF

8.  Extended Information model for structured monitoring data

   This section covers the additional information associated with the
   system messages.  The extended information model is only for the
   structured data such as alarm.  Any unstructured data is specified
   with basic information model only.

8.1.  System Alarm

8.1.1.  Memory Alarm

   The following information should be included in a Memory Alarm:

   o  event_name: 'MEM_USAGE_ALARM'

   o  module_name: Indicate the NSF module responsible for generating
      this alarm

   o  usage: specifies the amount of memory used

   o  threshold: The threshold triggering the alarm

   o  severity: The severity of the alarm such as critical, high,
      medium, low

   o  message: 'The memory usage exceeded the threshold'

8.1.2.  CPU Alarm

   The following information should be included in a CPU Alarm:

   o  event_name: 'CPU_USAGE_ALARM'

   o  usage: Specifies the amount of CPU used

   o  threshold: The threshold triggering the event

   o  severity: The severity of the alarm such as critical, high,
      medium, low

   o  message: 'The CPU usage exceeded the threshold'




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8.1.3.  Disk Alarm

   The following information should be included in a Disk Alarm:

   o  event_name: 'DISK_USAGE_ALARM'

   o  usage: Specifies the amount of disk space used

   o  threshold: The threshold triggering the event

   o  severity: The severity of the alarm such as critical, high,
      medium, low

   o  message: 'The disk usage exceeded the threshold'

8.1.4.  Hardware Alarm

   The following information should be included in a Hardware Alarm:

   o  event_name: 'HW_FAILURE_ALARM'

   o  component_name: Indicate the HW component responsible for
      generating this alarm

   o  threshold: The threshold triggering the alarm

   o  severity: The severity of the alarm such as critical, high,
      medium, low

   o  message: 'The HW component has failed or degraded'

8.1.5.  Interface Alarm

   The following information should be included in a Interface Alarm:

   o  event_name: 'IFNET_STATE_ALARM'

   o  interface_Name: The name of interface

   o  interface_state: 'UP', 'DOWN', 'CONGESTED'

   o  threshold: The threshold triggering the event

   o  severity: The severity of the alarm such as critical, high,
      medium, low

   o  message: 'Current interface state'




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8.2.  System Events

8.2.1.  Access Violation

   The following information should be included in this event:

   o  event_name: 'ACCESS_DENIED'

   o  user: Name of a user

   o  group: Group to which a user belongs

   o  login_ip_address: Login IP address of a user

   o  authentication_mode: User authentication mode. e.g., Local
      Authentication, Third-Party Server Authentication, Authentication
      Exemption, SSO Authentication

   o  message: 'access denied'

8.2.2.  Configuration Change

   The following information should be included in this event:

   o  event_name: 'CONFIG_CHANGE'

   o  user: Name of a user

   o  group: Group to which a user belongs

   o  login_ip_address: Login IP address of a user

   o  authentication_mode: User authentication mode. e.g., Local
      Authentication, Third-Party Server Authentication, Authentication
      Exemption, SSO Authentication

   o  message: 'Configuration modified'

8.3.  System Log

8.3.1.  Access Logs

   Access logs record administrators' login, logout, and operations on
   the device.  By analyzing them, security vulnerabilities can be
   identified.  The following information should be included in
   operation report:

   o  Administrator: Administrator that operates on the device



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   o  login_ip_address: IP address used by an administrator to log in

   o  login_mode: Specifies the administrator logs in mode e.g.  root,
      user

   o  operation_type: The operation type that the administrator execute,
      e.g., login, logout, configuration, etc

   o  result: Command execution result

   o  content: Operation performed by an administrator after login.

8.3.2.  Resource Utilization Logs

   Running reports record the device system's running status, which is
   useful for device monitoring.  The following information should be
   included in running report:

   o  system_status: The current system's running status

   o  CPU_usage: Specifies the CPU usage

   o  memory_usage: Specifies the memory usage

   o  disk_usage: Specifies the disk usage

   o  disk_left: Specifies the available disk space left

   o  session_number: Specifies total concurrent sessions

   o  process_number: Specifies total number of system processes

   o  in_traffic_rate: The total inbound traffic rate in pps

   o  out_traffic_rate: The total outbound traffic rate in pps

   o  in_traffic_speed: The total inbound traffic speed in bps

   o  out_traffic_speed: The total outbound traffic speed in bps

8.3.3.  User Activity Logs

   User activity logs provide visibility into users' online records
   (such as login time, online/lockout duration, and login IP addresses)
   and the actions users perform.  User activity reports are helpful to
   identify exceptions during user login and network access activities.

   o  user: Name of a user



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   o  group: Group to which a user belongs

   o  login_ip_address: Login IP address of a user

   o  authentication_mode: User authentication mode. e.g., Local
      Authentication, Third-Party Server Authentication, Authentication
      Exemption, SSO Authentication

   o  access_mode: User access mode. e.g., PPP, SVN, LOCAL

   o  online_duration: Online duration

   o  lockout_duration: Lockout duration

   o  type: User activities. e.g., Successful User Login, Failed Login
      attempts, User Logout, Successful User Password Change, Failed
      User Password Change, User Lockout, User Unlocking, Unknown

   o  cause: Cause of a failed user activity

8.4.  System Counters

8.4.1.  Interface counters

   Interface counters provide visibility into traffic into and out of
   NSF, bandwidth usage.

   o  interface_name: Network interface name configured in NSF

   o  in_total_traffic_pkts: Total inbound packets

   o  out_total_traffic_pkts: Total outbound packets

   o  in_total_traffic_bytes: Total inbound bytes

   o  out_total_traffic_bytes: Total outbound bytes

   o  in_drop_traffic_pkts: Total inbound drop packets

   o  out_drop_traffic_pkts: Total outbound drop packets

   o  in_drop_traffic_bytes: Total inbound drop bytes

   o  out_drop_traffic_bytes: Total outbound drop bytes

   o  in_traffic_ave_rate: Inbound traffic average rate in pps

   o  in_traffic_peak_rate: Inbound traffic peak rate in pps



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   o  in_traffic_ave_speed: Inbound traffic average speed in bps

   o  in_traffic_peak_speed: Inbound traffic peak speed in bps

   o  out_traffic_ave_rate: Outbound traffic average rate in pps

   o  out_traffic_peak_rate: Outbound traffic peak rate in pps

   o  out_traffic_ave_speed: Outbound traffic average speed in bps

   o  out_traffic_peak_speed: Outbound traffic peak speed in bps.

8.5.  NSF Events

8.5.1.  DDoS Event

   The following information should be included in a DDoS Event:

   o  event_name: 'SEC_EVENT_DDoS'

   o  sub_attack_type: Any one of Syn flood, ACK flood, SYN-ACK flood,
      FIN/RST flood, TCP Connection flood, UDP flood, Icmp flood, HTTPS
      flood, HTTP flood, DNS query flood, DNS reply flood, SIP flood,
      and etc.

   o  dst_ip: The IP address of a victum under attack

   o  dst_port: The port numbers that the attrack traffic aims at.

   o  start_time: The time stamp indicating when the attack started

   o  end_time: The time stamp indicating when the attack ended.  If the
      attack is still undergoing when sending out the alarm, this field
      can be empty.

   o  attack_rate: The PPS of attack traffic

   o  attack_speed: the bps of attack traffic

   o  rule_id: The ID of the rule being triggered

   o  rule_name: The name of the rule being triggered

   o  profile: Security profile that traffic matches.







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8.5.2.  Session Table Event

   The following information should be included in a Session
   Table Event:

   o  event_name: 'SESSION_USAGE_HIGH'

   o  current: The number of concurrent sessions

   o  max: The maximum number of sessions that the session table can
      support

   o  threshold: The threshold triggering the event

   o  message: 'The number of session table exceeded the threshold'

8.5.3.  Virus Event

   The following information should be included in a Virus Event:

   o  event_Name: 'SEC_EVENT_VIRUS'

   o  virus_type: Type of the virus, e.g., trojan, worm, macro Virus
      type

   o  virus_name

   o  dst_ip: The destination IP address of the packet where the virus
      is found

   o  src_ip: The source IP address of the packet where the virus is
      found

   o  src_port: The source port of the packet where the virus is found

   o  dst_port: The destination port of the packet where the virus is
      found

   o  src_zone: The source security zone of the packet where the virus
      is found

   o  dst_zone: The destination security zone of the packet where the
      virus is found

   o  file_type: The type of the file where the virus is hided within

   o  file_name: The name of the file where the virus is hided within




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   o  virus_info: The brief introduction of virus

   o  raw_info: The information describing the packet triggering the
      event.

   o  rule_id: The ID of the rule being triggered

   o  rule_name: The name of the rule being triggered

   o  profile: Security profile that traffic matches.

8.5.4.  Intrusion Event

   The following information should be included in a Intrustion Event:

   o  event_name: The name of event: 'SEC_EVENT_Intrusion'

   o  sub_attack_type: Attack type, e.g., brutal force, buffer overflow

   o  src_ip: The source IP address of the packet

   o  dst_ip: The destination IP address of the packet

   o  src_port:The source port number of the packet

   o  dst_port: The destination port number of the packet

   o  src_zone: The source security zone of the packet

   o  dst_zone: The destination security zone of the packet

   o  protocol: The employed transport layer protocol, e.g.,TCP, UDP

   o  app: The employed application layer protocol, e.g.,HTTP, FTP

   o  rule_id: The ID of the rule being triggered

   o  rule_name: The name of the rule being triggered

   o  profile: Security profile that traffic matches

   o  intrusion_info: Simple description of intrusion

   o  raw_info: The information describing the packet triggering the
      event.






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8.5.5.  Botnet Event

   The following information should be included in a Botnet Event:

   o  event_name: the name of event: 'SEC_EVENT_Botnet'

   o  botnet_name: The name of the detected botnet

   o  src_ip: The source IP address of the packet

   o  dst_ip: The destination IP address of the packet

   o  src_port: The source port number of the packet

   o  dst_port: The destination port number of the packet

   o  src_zone: The source security zone of the packet

   o  dst_zone: The destination security zone of the packet

   o  protocol: The employed transport layer protocol, e.g.,TCP, UDP

   o  app: The employed application layer protocol, e.g.,HTTP, FTP

   o  role: The role of the communicating parties within the botnet:

      1.  the packet from zombie host to the attacker

      2.  The packet from the attacker to the zombie host

      3.  The packet from the IRC/WEB server to the zombie host

      4.  The packet from the zombie host to the IRC/WEB server

      5.  The packet from the attacker to the IRC/WEB server

      6.  The packet from the IRC/WEB server to the attacker

      7.  The packet from the zombie host to the victim

   o  botnet_info: Simple description of Botnet

   o  rule_id: The ID of the rule being triggered

   o  rule_name: The name of the rule being triggered

   o  profile: Security profile that traffic matches




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   o  raw_info: The information describing the packet triggering the
      event.

8.5.6.  Web Attack Event

   The following information should be included in a Web Attack Alarm:

   o  event_name: the name of event: 'SEC_EVENT_WebAttack'

   o  sub_attack_type: Concret web attack type, e.g., sql injection,
      command injection, XSS, CSRF

   o  src_ip: The source IP address of the packet

   o  dst_ip: The destination IP address of the packet

   o  src_port: The source port number of the packet

   o  dst_port: The destination port number of the packet

   o  src_zone: The source security zone of the packet

   o  dst_zone: The destination security zone of the packet

   o  req_method: The method of requirement.  For instance, 'PUT' or
      'GET' in HTTP

   o  req_url: Requested URL

   o  url_category: Matched URL category

   o  filtering_type: URL filtering type, e.g., Blacklist, Whitelist,
      User-Defined, Predefined, Malicious Category, Unknown

   o  rule_id: The ID of the rule being triggered

   o  rule_name: The name of the rule being triggered

   o  profile: Security profile that traffic matches.

8.6.  NSF Logs

8.6.1.  DDoS Logs

   Besides the fields in an DDoS Alarm, the following information should
   be included in a DDoS Logs:

   o  attack_type: DDoS



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   o  attack_ave_rate: The average pps of the attack traffic within the
      recorded time

   o  attack_ave_speed: The average bps of the attack traffic within the
      recorded time

   o  attack_pkt_num: The number attack packets within the recorded time

   o  attack_src_ip: The source IP addresses of attack traffics.  If
      there are a large amount of IP addresses, then pick a certain
      number of resources according to different rules.

   o  action: Actions against DDoS attacks, e.g., Allow, Alert, Block,
      Discard, Declare, Block-ip, Block-service.

8.6.2.  Virus Logs

   Besides the fields in an Virus Alarm, the following information
   should be included in a Virus Logs:

   o  attack_type: Virus

   o  protocol: The transport layer protocol

   o  app: The name of the application layer protocol

   o  times: The time of detecting the virus

   o  action: The actions dealing with the virus, e.g., alert, block

   o  os: The OS that the virus will affect, e.g., all, android, ios,
      unix, windows

8.6.3.  Intrusion Logs

   Besides the fields in an Intrusion Alarm, the following information
   should be included in a Intrusion Logs:

   o  attack_type: Intrusion

   o  times: The times of intrusions happened in the recorded time

   o  os: The OS that the intrusion will affect, e.g., all, android,
      ios, unix, windows

   o  action: The actions dealing with the intrusions, e.g., e.g.,
      Allow, Alert, Block, Discard, Declare, Block-ip, Block-service




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   o  attack_rate: NUM the pps of attack traffic

   o  attack_speed: NUM the bps of attack traffic

8.6.4.  Botnet Logs

   Besides the fields in an Botnet Alarm, the following information
   should be included in a Botnet Logs:

   o  attack_type: Botnet

   o  botnet_pkt_num:The number of the packets sent to or from the
      detected botnet

   o  action: The actions dealing with the detected packets, e.g.,
      Allow, Alert, Block, Discard, Declare, Block-ip, Block-service,
      etc

   o  os: The OS that the attack aiming at, e.g., all, android, ios,
      unix, windows, etc.

8.6.5.  DPI Logs

   DPI Logs provide statistics on uploaded and downloaded files and
   data, sent and received emails, and alert and block records on
   websites.  It's helpful to learn risky user behaviors and why access
   to some URLs is blocked or allowed with an alert record.

   o  type: DPI action types. e.g., File Blocking, Data Filtering,
      Application Behavior Control

   o  file_name: The file name

   o  file_type: The file type

   o  src_zone: Source security zone of traffic

   o  dst_zone: Destination security zone of traffic

   o  src_region: Source region of the traffic

   o  dst_region: Destination region of the traffic

   o  src_ip: Source IP address of traffic

   o  src_user: User who generates traffic

   o  dst_ip: Destination IP address of traffic



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   o  src_port: Source port of traffic

   o  dst_port: Destination port of traffic

   o  protocol: Protocol type of traffic

   o  app: Application type of traffic

   o  policy_id: Security policy id that traffic matches

   o  policy_name: Security policy name that traffic matches

   o  action: Action defined in the file blocking rule, data filtering
      rule, or application behavior control rule that traffic matches.

8.6.6.  Vulnerabillity Scanning Logs

   Vulnerability scanning logs record the victim host and its related
   vulnerability information that should to be fixed. the following
   information should be included in the report:

   o  victim_ip: IP address of the victim host which has vulnerabilities

   o  vulnerability_id: The vulnerability id

   o  vulnerability_level: The vulnerability level. e.g., high, middle,
      low

   o  OS: The operating system of the victim host

   o  service: The service which has vulnerabillity in the victim host

   o  protocol: The protocol type. e.g., TCP, UDP

   o  port: The port number

   o  vulnerability_info: The information about the vulnerability

   o  fix_suggestion: The fix suggestion to the vulnerability.

8.6.7.  Web Attack Logs

   Besides the fields in an Web Attack Alarm, the following information
   should be included in a Web Attack Report:

   o  attack_type: Web Attack

   o  rsp_code: Response code



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   o  req_clientapp: The client application

   o  req_cookies: Cookies

   o  req_host: The domain name of the requested host

   o  raw_info: The information describing the packet triggering the
      event.

8.7.  NSF Counters

8.7.1.  Firewall counters

   Firewall counters provide visibility into traffic signatures,
   bandwidth usage, and how the configured security and bandwidth
   policies have been applied.

   o  src_zone: Source security zone of traffic

   o  dst_zone: Destination security zone of traffic

   o  src_region: Source region of the traffic

   o  dst_region: Destination region of the traffic

   o  src_ip: Source IP address of traffic

   o  src_user: User who generates traffic

   o  dst_ip: Destination IP address of traffic

   o  src_port: Source port of traffic

   o  dst_port: Destination port of traffic

   o  protocol: Protocol type of traffic

   o  app: Application type of traffic

   o  policy_id: Security policy id that traffic matches

   o  policy_name: Security policy name that traffic matches

   o  in_interface: Inbound interface of traffic

   o  out_interface: Outbound interface of traffic

   o  total_traffic: Total traffic volume



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   o  in_traffic_ave_rate: Inbound traffic average rate in pps

   o  in_traffic_peak_rate: Inbound traffic peak rate in pps

   o  in_traffic_ave_speed: Inbound traffic average speed in bps

   o  in_traffic_peak_speed: Inbound traffic peak speed in bps

   o  out_traffic_ave_rate: Outbound traffic average rate in pps

   o  out_traffic_peak_rate: Outbound traffic peak rate in pps

   o  out_traffic_ave_speed: Outbound traffic average speed in bps

   o  out_traffic_peak_speed: Outbound traffic peak speed in bps.

8.7.2.  Policy Hit Counters

   Policy Hit Counters record the security policy that traffic matches
   and its hit count.  It can check if policy configurations are
   correct.

   o  src_zone: Source security zone of traffic

   o  dst_zone: Destination security zone of traffic

   o  src_region: Source region of the traffic

   o  dst_region: Destination region of the traffic

   o  src_ip: Source IP address of traffic

   o  src_user: User who generates traffic

   o  dst_ip: Destination IP address of traffic

   o  src_port: Source port of traffic

   o  dst_port: Destination port of traffic

   o  protocol: Protocol type of traffic

   o  app: Application type of traffic

   o  policy_id: Security policy id that traffic matches

   o  policy_name: Security policy name that traffic matches




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   o  hit_times: The hit times that the security policy matches the
      specified traffic.

9.  IANA Considerations

   This document makes no request of IANA.

   Note to RFC Editor: this section may be removed on publication as an
   RFC.

10.  Security Considerations

   The monitoring information of NSF should be protected by the secure
   communication channel, to ensure its confidentiality and integrity.
   In another side, the NSF and security controller can all be faked,
   which lead to undesireable results, i.e., leakage of NSF's important
   operational information, faked NSF sending false information to
   mislead security controller.  The mutual authentication is essential
   to protected against this kind of attack.  The current mainstream
   security technologies (i.e., TLS, DTLS, IPSEC, X.509 PKI) can be
   employed approriately to provide the above security functions.

   In addition, to defend against the DDoS attack caused by a lot of
   NSFs sending massive monitoring information to the security
   controller, the rate limiting or similar mechanisms should be
   considered in NSF and security controller, whether in advance or just
   in the process of DDoS attack.

11.  Acknowledgements

12.  References

12.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

12.2.  Informative References

   [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-framework]
              Lopez, E., Lopez, D., Dunbar, L., Strassner, J., Zhuang,
              X., Parrott, J., Krishnan, R., Durbha, S., Kumar, R., and
              A. Lohiya, "Framework for Interface to Network Security
              Functions", draft-ietf-i2nsf-framework-03 (work in
              progress), August 2016.




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   [I-D.xia-i2nsf-capability-interface-im]
              Xia, L., Strassner, J., Li, K., Zhang, D., Lopez, E.,
              Bouthors, N., and L. Fang, "Information Model of Interface
              to Network Security Functions Capability Interface",
              draft-xia-i2nsf-capability-interface-im-06 (work in
              progress), July 2016.

Authors' Addresses

   Dacheng Zhang
   Huawei

   Email: dacheng.zhang@huawei.com


   Yi Wu
   Aliababa Group

   Email: anren.wy@alibaba-inc.com


   Liang Xia
   Huawei

   Email: frank.xialiang@huawei.com


   Rakesh Kumar
   Juniper Networks

   Email: rkkumar@juniper.net


   Anil Lohiya
   Juniper Networks

   Email: alohiya@juniper.net














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