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ICNRG                                                      Hongke Zhang
Internet Draft                                                 Fei Song
Intended status: Informational                                 Wei Quan
Expires: October 12, 2019                                          BJTU
                                                          Jianfeng Guan
                                                           Changqiao Xu
                                                          April 7, 2019

            Uniform information with a hybrid naming (hn) scheme

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   This Internet-Draft will expire on October 12, 2019.

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   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
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   respect to this document.


   This document defines a hybrid naming scheme for unifying all kinds
   of information including resources, services and data. With many
   proposals of novel network architectures emerging, such as DONA, ICN
   NDN, the location-based routing starts to transfer to the content
   based ones. Currently, it is incompatible that many different
   information naming schemes are adopted in different network
   proposals, respectively, i.e. flat names in DONA, hierarchical names
   in NDN. The proposed naming scheme using a hybrid naming structure,
   including hierarchical components, and the properties of the
   component assembly plane. The hybrid naming (hn) scheme enables to
   identify different routing information uniformly, and provides many
   great advantages, such as high aggregation, limited length, suffix
   holes remission, fuzzy matching support, high security and good
   compatibility with IPv4/IPv6, DONA, CCN/NDN and so on.

Table of Contents

   1. Introduction ................................................ 3
      1.1. Hierarchical naming..................................... 3
      1.2. Flat naming ............................................ 4
      1.3. Attribute naming........................................ 4
   2. Conventions used in this document............................ 4
   3. Novel hybrid naming (hn) format.............................. 5
      3.1. Hierarchical component generating .......................6
      3.2. Flat component generating............................... 6
      3.3. Attribute component generating ..........................7
   4. Advantages .................................................. 7
      4.1. High aggregation........................................ 7
      4.2. Limited length ......................................... 8
      4.3. Suffix holes remission.................................. 8

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      4.4. Fuzzy matching support.................................. 9
      4.5. Good compatibility..................................... 10
      4.6. High security ......................................... 10
   5. Transition form IPv4 and IPv6............................... 10
      5.1. Case one .............................................. 10
      5.2. Case two .............................................. 11
   6. Compatibility .............................................. 11
      6.1. Compatibility with DONA................................ 11
      6.2. Compatibility with CCN/NDN............................. 12
   7. Formal Syntax .............................................. 13
   8. Security Considerations..................................... 13
   9. IANA Considerations ........................................ 13
   10. Conclusions ............................................... 13
   11. References ................................................ 13
      11.1. Normative References.................................. 13
      11.2. Informative References................................ 14
   12. Acknowledgments ........................................... 15
   Authors' Addresses ............................................ 15

1. Introduction

1.1. Hierarchical naming

   A readable naming mechanism based on the hierarchical structure by
   some emerging network architectures (i.e. Content-Centric Network
   (CCN) [1]/Named Data Networking (NDN) [2]) has been proposed. This
   kind of hierarchical name is very similar as identifying a web
   with a URL for example "/www.bupt.edu.cn/content/a.avi". In this
   example, "/" is the separator between adjacent components of the

   As we know, many advantages are in this naming scheme.First,
   it is well compatible with current URL-based applications or
   systems, which can make it less difficult to deploy novel
   network. Second, it does a good job of aggregating and can reduce the
   amount of routing information, thus, to improve the efficiency
   of routing information search. Besides, the lookup mechanism of this
   mechanism has a good compatibility with the existing classless inter
   -domain routing (CIDR) [3].

   However, there are also some fatal flaws in hierarchical
   names. Because it consists of a series of unlimited
   components. The number of components is variable and the length
   of each component is not limited. All these features cause the
   length of names variable and relatively long [4]. In this way, the
   routing table and forwarding table can be very huge, which results in
   inefficient search.

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   On the side, when users search for a resource, they might not
   remember the long name of the resource. For example, users need the
   resource a.avi, but they might not know the official name
   "/www.bupt.edu.cn/content/a.avi" or "/www.bupt.edu.cn/movie/a.avi".
   Thus, hierarchical naming structure is difficult to support a fuzzy
   matching based on the attributes of names.

1.2. Flat naming

   The flat naming mechanism has been used in other novel network
   architectures, such as DONA [5] and NetInf [6], of which the name
   can be produced by cryptographic hashing of the content or its

   Since the plane name has no structural restrictions, it can be
   obtained and used more flexibly. Any string of fixed length,
   whether readable or not, can be used as a flat name.

   However, flat names are difficult to aggregate, which increases
   the number of routing entries and reduces the scalability of the
   routing table. In addition, it increases the probability for users
   to forget the official names of the desired information, because
   most of flat names is not readable. When a user wants to get
   content, it needs an additional mapping system to connect the
   user with a readable name and an unreadable name.

1.3. Attribute naming

   The naming mechanism based on attributes of content is used in the
   CBCB [7]. It enumerates the attribute information of a resource,
   such as the category, format, date, feature, level and so on. The
   name is non-unique and is different from the first two mechanisms.
   Related content can be searched and located through key
   attributes of the resource.

   The advantage of this naming scheme is that, it supports search
   keywords and provides benefits for the fuzzy matching of searching
   resources. However, for a specific set of resources,  there may be
   many similar attributes. Many attributes are difficult to ensure the
   uniqueness of naming. Therefore, to ensure uniqueness,  the
   attributes stored in the routing system will be very large.

2. Conventions used in this document

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

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   In this document, these words will appear with that interpretation
   only when in ALL CAPS. Lower case uses of these words are not to be
   interpreted as carrying significance described in RFC 2119.

   In this document, the characters ">>" preceding an indented line(s)
   indicates a statement using the key words listed above. This
   convention aids reviewers in quickly identifying or finding the
   portions of this RFC covered by these keywords.

3. Novel hybrid naming (hn) format

   By analyzing the above three naming mechanisms in the field of
   advantages and disadvantages, a hybrid naming method is proposed,
   emphasizing their advantages and weakening their shortcomings.

   Most important of all, three different mainstream naming schemes
   are adopted in different novel network architectures, which makes
   the networks be hardly compatible and implemented complexly.

   A simple and comprehensive solution is to integrate them and use
   them as part of a hybrid naming solution. In other words, each of
   them requires some novel naming scheme.

   We proposed a hybrid naming mechanism (named by "hn"), which
   combines the three naming mechanisms in a sequence, and creates a
   more powerful and universal naming format.

   The hybrid naming format should include three components:

   o Hierarchical component

   o Flat component

   o Attribute component

   Each part carries different information of name in diverse formats,
   and is combined to an entire name. The hybrid name is started by a
   symbol "hn://". The order of three parts should be as follows:

   1. The first part of a name is very essential for the aggregation of
      routing entries, which adopts a hierarchical structure. The
      symbol "/" is used to split the hierarchical levels in this part.

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   2. The second part of a name is very important to identify the
      content uniquely. The second part uses a flat structure and a
      string with a fix length through hash computing.

   3. The third part of a name is used to represent the extensive
      information of resources. The attribute-based structure is
      selected to use in the third part, which is composed of a series
      of attribute words. An example of the hybrid name for a movie is
      shown in Figure 1.

                   Figure 1 An example of hn for a movie

   An example of the hybrid name for a picture is shown in Figure 2.

   |hn://www.bjtu.edu.cn/m/pic|fh84rnfiur324ru| jpg:300*500:prairie   |
                   Figure 2 An example of hn for a picture

3.1. Hierarchical component generating

   Hierarchical component is the first part of the hn naming format.
   This part is suppoesed to be generated by a followed reference

   Strings such as top-level and second-level settings are defined
   by this standard, which is very useful for greatly facilitating
   their aggregation. An available but incomplete hierarchical
   naming component reference standard is the DNS naming scheme.

3.2. Flat component generating

   Flat component is the second part of hn naming scheme. This part is
   suggested to identify the information using a string with a limited
   length, and it must be combined with the first part to identify the
   information uniquely.

   Flat component can be generated by cryptographic hash algorithm by
   the information itself or some characters of the information. Even
   though this part has a low probability of aggregation, it
   emphasizes and ensures the uniqueness of name.

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3.3. Attribute component generating

   Attribute component is set as the third part of hn naming scheme.
   This part will take it over for the fuzzy matching and some
   advanced search, i.e. QoS guarantee. This part will also contribute
   to conduct some potential advanced application based on the useful
   attributes. It can be generated by extracting the features of the
   information, such as the format, issue time, file size, catalog,
   location, popularity, privacy level and so on.

4. Advantages

4.1. High aggregation

   The aggregation of naming is very important for the name lookup and
   storage. According to Google's report, the number of URLs it indexed
   was 26 million in 1998, which reached to one billion in 2000, and is
   currently 1 trillion [8]. In July 2011, these URLs could be
   aggregated to about 280 million domain names, among which 86 million
   are active.

   It is a fact that there is a great aggregation for the first few
   levels of the hierarchical tree. Therefore, the hierarchical
   structure is placed in the first part of the hn. By this way, the
   routing entries can be reduced markedly and the aggregation of
   route can be improved. For example, there are two routing
   rt1 3" and
   "/www.bjtu.edu.cn/m/picture/fh84rnf213gjrru:jpg:300*500:prairie 3"
   which have the same forwarding port "3" and prefix
   "/www.bjtu.edu.cn/m". Therefore, the forwarding port and
   "/www.bjtu.edu.cn/m" can only be stored in routing table. Above all,
   it not only reduces the entries of routing table, but also reduces
   the length of each routing entries. An example of aggregation
   process is shown in Figure 3.

   |hn://www.bjtu.edu.cn/m/movie|fhk562nfgjru056|kongfu 1024p part1|3 |

   |hn://www.bjtu.edu.cn/m/picture| fh84rnf213gjrru |300*500 prairie|3|

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                        |hn://www.bjtu.edu.cn/m| 3 |
                    Figure 3 An example of aggregation

4.2. Limited length

   The length of name based on hierarchical structure is variable and
   relatively long, because it is formed by several parts and the
   number of component is changeable. Kelvin [9] has selected 6627999
   URL in 78764 different domain names, and the statistics shows that
   the average length of URL is 76.97 bytes. In ICN, the name must be
   extracted to query in forwarding table or routing table. And the
   long name entry will lead to the lower query speed, hence,
   affecting the performance of routing.

   The hn naming scheme uses flat naming as part of component in the
   name to ease this problem. A fix length flat part is embedded behind
   the hierarchical part. This design not only can prevent the length
   of names from being not too long, but also will reduce the effect of
   the aggregation. For example, if the average length of hierarchical
   part is controlled within 30 bytes, adopting a flat part with a fix
   length of 20 bytes, then, the whole average length will be
   restricted within 50 bytes. Compared to 76.97 bytes, the length is
   shortened by nearly 35%, which will improve the query speed of name
   greatly using the length dependent algorithms.

4.3. Suffix holes remission

   The suffix hole is a well-known problem for the route of prefix
   matching. For example, a routing entry "/www.bjtu.edu.cn/movie/3" is
   stored in the route table for prefix matching. In fact, it is
   aggregated by "/www.bjtu.edu.cn/movie/a.avi/part1 3"and
   "/www.bjtu.edu.cn/movie/b.avi/part1 3". In this way, the forwarding
   packets will be forward from port 3, only if the prefix of name is
   "/www.bjtu.edu.cn/movie/". However, if packets with a name of
   "/www.bjtu.edu.cn/movie/c.avi" arrives in the router, it will also
   be forwarded from port 3. In fact, the network that port 3 connects
   only has a.avi and b.avi. This causes the so-called suffix holes

   In the proposed hn scheme, the problem of suffix holes can be solved
   by the flat part efficiently. For example, there are two resource
   3" and
   12-3-4 3". After route aggregation, the routing entry will become

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   "/www.bjtu.edu.cn/movie/ 3". The routing entry will be matched when
   a packet whose name is "/www.bjtu.edu.cn/movie/a932jfdjf2032942-jdd:
   control: avi: 1024p: part1: part2" arrives at this router.

   However, it could not be forwarded from the port 3 based on hn
   scheme because of the incomplete prefix matching. There is a suffix
   list in each aggregating prefix, and the packet will be forwarded
   only when the requesting suffix exists in the suffix list. In hn
   scheme, it must assort a suffix list for each routing entries like
   "/www.bjtu.edu.cn/movie/ 3" to store the flat part of names.
   Even though the name of the new packet has been matched to the
   routing entries, its flat part "a932jfdjf2032942-jdd" does not exist
   in the suffix list "/www.bjtu.edu.cn/movie/ 3". The plat part will be
   used to decide whether it forwards the request packet when the prefix
   is matched. By this way, the problem of suffix holes can be resolved
   effectively. The lookup process of hn names is shown in Figure 4.

   |hn://www.bjtu.edu.cn/main/m/| eld624knhgvfded |kongfu 1024p part1|
                 | Prefix match
   +-----------------------+---+              +----------------------+
   |/www.bjtu.edu.cn/main/m| 3 |--------------| s83hho90oxn2783nde4r;|
   |                       |   |              | 8uh732k9ng556sgaesgs;|
   +-----------------------+---+              +----------------------+
                                                      | seek  |
                                                       |     |
                                                succeed|     |failed
                                                       v     v
                                                +-------+    +-------+
                                                |forward|    |discard|
                                                +-------+    +-------+
                         Figure 4 The hn lookup process

4.4. Fuzzy matching support

   In the practical, it's an essential situation that the users may not
   know the full official resource name when they search for a resource.
   The hn naming scheme supports the fuzzy matching according to the
   function of the attribute component. For example, if the users need

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   the resource a.avi, they don't need to know the official name
   ". In this case, users only publish the information of video
   "kongfu" and the resolution ratio "1024p". Then the related
   resources can be found intelligently by fuzzy matching through the
   attribute component matching, which is the benefit of embedding
   attribute of resource in the end of name.

4.5. Good compatibility

   This naming scheme provides a good compatibility for all three
   mainstream naming schemes, which are the subset of the hn naming

4.6. High security

   It is very similar as identifying a web with a URL in the
   conventional hierarchical naming mechanism, for example
   "/www.bjtu.edu.cn/movie/a.avi". However, the name of components is
   variable. Although it is convenient to get information of every
   component of the resources, it results in bad security.

   In the proposed hn scheme, this security problem can be solved. For
   example, one hn resource name called "/www.bjtu.edu.cn/
   s83hho90oxn2783nde4r: kongfu: avi: 1024p: part1 3", and another
   conventional name "/www.bjtu.edu.cn/movie/a.avi 3". The attacker can
   know every component when he/she sees the conventional name. On the
   contrary, the hn name does not have this problem. In the hn naming
   scheme, people can just know the few components of the resources,
   thus, the attacker could not attack the components easily.
   Therefore, this kind of naming scheme has a better security than
   hierarchical naming mechanism. Also, MD5 algorithm can be applied to
   the hn naming in order to encrypt the resources displayed in the
   flat component.

5. Transition form IPv4 and IPv6

5.1. Case one

   In a TCP/IP network, IPv4 and IPv6 addresses are used to represent
   resource locations. IPv4 and IPv6 addresses can also be used to
   uniquely obtain the required information through the association
   of port information and content directories. We believe that the
   hybrid naming scheme shifts from IPv4 and IPv6 networks.

   The IPv4 or IPv6 address is the hierarchical as the first part of
   the hybrid name. The port number is placed as the second part of the

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   hybrid name. The third part of hybrid name is the content directory
   set. An illustration of transition from IPv4 and IPv6 is shown in
   Figure 5.

   |hn://|8080|m:picture:library:west:computer:book |3 |
   |hn://2001.da8.215.a815.c492.d445.3489.ec8c|8080|m:picture:book |3 |
                      Figure 5 Illustration of case one

5.2. Case two

   Another case of transition from URL is shown in Figure 6. For
   example, the url is
   &spt=3&ie=utf8", in which the symbol "?" is followed by a sequence
   of attributes information. The hn format is shown as following.

   |hn://www.baidu.com|80/s?|wd:icbc rsvbp:0 tn:baidu spt:3 ie:utf8|3 |
                       Figure 6 Illustration of case two

6. Compatibility

6.1. Compatibility with DONA

   Data-Oriented Network Architecture (DONA) translates location-based
   routing into content-based routing. The hybrid naming scheme
   is well compatible with DONA, and the specific conversion process
   is as follows.

   (1)The hierarchical component is transferred into a flat id with a
      shorter length, which is distinct with the original flat

   (2)This new flat id can be generated by someone similar to a
      domain name provider. In addition, this flat id can represent
      a large number of hierarchical names by continuously
      increasing its length. However, it is usually much shorter
      than the previous name.

   (3)According to the variable length of hierarchical components, an
      integer identifier is designed to identify the length of
      transferred component. This mechanism is similar to the partition
      method of subset.

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   (4)The symbol "/" is used for splitting this identifier with flat

   For example, there is a routing entry
   "/www.bjtu.edu.cn/m/movie/fhk562nfgjru056:kongfu:avi:1024p:part1 3".
   The first component "www.bjtu.edu.cn/m/movie" is transferred to a
   unique flat name "dllta", which is settled before the flat
   component. Meanwhile, we get an identifier "5" to illustrate that
   the first 5 characters represent the length of transferred
   hierarchical name. It is significant that the name can be restored
   easily by their one-to-one mapping. This transformation process
   is shown in Figure 7.

   |hn://www.bjtu.edu.cn/m/movie|fhk562nfgjru056|kongfu 1024p part1|3 |
   |dona://dlltafhk562nfgjru056/5|kongfu 1024p part1| 3 |
     Figure 7 An example of the transformation for hierarchical name

6.2. Compatibility with CCN/NDN

   A readable naming mechanism based on the hierarchical structure has
   been proposed in CCN/NDN. The hybrid naming scheme is also well
   compatible with CCN/NDN. The specific transformation process is
   shown as below.

   (1)The hierarchical component of hn structure will not be changed as
   the first unit.

   (2)The flat component is transferred to one unit followed by the
   first unit, and uses "/" as separation label.

   (3)The attributes component is separated as many units, which are
   separated by the label "/".

   (4)The transformation between the hybrid naming structure and
   CCN/NDN hierarchical naming structure can be easily accomplished.

   For example, there is a routing entry
   hn://www.bjtu.edu.cn/m/picture|fh84rnf213gjrru|300*500 prairie 3".
   The components "fh84rnf213gjrru|300*500 prairie" is transferred to
   several unique units "id=fh84rnf213gjrru/300*500prairie". It is
   essential that the name can be restored easily according to their
   one-to-one mapping. This transformation process is shown in Figure

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   |hn://www.bjtu.edu.cn/m/picture| fh84rnf213gjrru |300*500 prairie |3|
         Figure 8 An example of the transformation for flat name

7. Formal Syntax

   The following syntax specification uses the augmented Backus-Naur
   Form (BNF) as described in RFC 5234 [RFC5234].

8. Security Considerations

   The proposed hn naming scheme has potential benefits for the
   security. The hierarchical prefix has a high aggregation, which can
   avoid the security issues of rapid expansion in routing or
   forwarding table, such as DoS attack. The users' privacy and the
   content secrets can be protected by the flat component from readable
   names. The attributes component can improve the management for the
   secure contents by using some encryption key.

9. IANA Considerations

   This document presents no IANA considerations.

10. Conclusions

   This document defines a novel hybrid naming scheme for unifying all
   kinds of information (including resources, services and data). This
   hybrid naming scheme owns many advantages, which can provide a
   better compatibility for existing naming schemes.

11. References

11.1. Normative References

   [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, DOI
              10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997, <http://www.rfc-

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11.2. Informative References

   [1]  Jacobson, V., Smetters, D., Thornton, J., et al. "Networking
         named content", Proceedings of the 5th international
         conference on Emerging networking experiments and
         technologies. ACM 2009 pp. 1-12.

   [2]  Zhang, L., Estrin, D., Jacobson V., et al., "Named Data
         Networking (NDN) project," Technical Report, NDN-0001, 2010.

   [3]  Yu, J., Varadhan, K., Li, T., et al, "Classless inter-domain
         routing (CIDR): an address assignment and aggregation
         strategy", RFC 4632, September 1993.

   [4]  Ding, S., Chen, Z. and Liu, Z., "Parallelizing FIB Lookup in
         Content Centric Networking", Networking and Distributed
         Computing (ICNDC), 2012 Third International Conference on.
         IEEE, 2012 pp. 6-10.

   [5]  Koponen, T., Chawla, M., Chun, B., et al, "A data-oriented
         (and beyond) network architecture", ACM SIGCOMM Computer
         Communication Review. ACM, 2007 pp. 181-192.

   [6]  Dannewitz, C., "NetInf: An Information-Centric Design for the
         Future Internet," Proc. 3rd GI/ITGKuVS Workshop on The Future
         Internet, Munich, Germany, May 2009.

   [7]  Carzaniga, A., Rutherford, M. and Wolf, A., "A routing scheme
         for content-based networking", INFOCOM 2004. Twenty-third
         Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and
         Communications Societies. IEEE, 2004 pp. 918-928.

   [8]  https://observatorio.iti.upv.es/resources/new/542

   [9]  http://www.supermind.org/blog/740/average-length-of-a-url-

   [10] Perino D. and Varvello M., "A reality check for content
         centric networking", in Proc. ACM SIGCOMM workshop on
         Information centric networking, 2011 pp. 44-49.

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12. Acknowledgments

   Meng Zhang and Liang Zhu contributed to discussion and revision of
   this document whilst working at Beijing University of Posts and
   Telecommunications, Beijing, China.

   This document was prepared using 2-Word-v2.0.template.dot.

Authors' Addresses

   Hongke Zhang
   Beijing Jiaotong University (BJTU)
   Beijing, 100044, P.R.China

   Email: hkzhang@bjtu.edu.cn

   Fei Song
   Beijing Jiaotong University (BJTU)
   Beijing, 100044, P.R.China

   Email: fsong@bjtu.edu.cn

   Wei Quan
   Beijing Jiaotong University (BJTU)
   Beijing, 100044, P.R.China

   Email: weiquan@bjtu.edu.cn

   Jianfeng Guan
   Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications (BUPT)
   Beijing, 100876, P.R.China

   Email: jfguan@bupt.edu.cn

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   Changqiao Xu
   Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications (BUPT)
   Beijing, 100876, P.R.China

   Email: cqxu@bupt.edu.cn

Zhang, et al.         Expires October 12, 2019              [Page 16]

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