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Internet Engineering Task Force                                 B. Zhuge
Internet-Draft                             Zhejiang Gongshang University
Intended status: Standards Track                                 Y. Wang
Expires: June 21, 2018                           Simon Fraser University
                                                                   Y. Qi
                                                                  Y. Zhu
                                                                 W. Wang
                                           Zhejiang Gongshang University
                                                       December 18, 2017


 An Intelligent SDN Framework based on Meta-Model with Software-Defined
                             Pricing (SDP)
                      draft-zhuge-sdnrg-sdn-sdp-06

Abstract

   This document defines a notion called Software-Defined Pricing (SDP)
   and introduces it into a Software-Defined Networks (SDN) framework.
   The SDN system with SDP inside is expected to promote the efficiency
   on SDN resources usage and ease management for service providers.This
   document also defines a mechanism that can efficiently mannage SDN
   framework orderly and intelligently.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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   This Internet-Draft will expire on June 21, 2018.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents



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   (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Software-Defined Pricing (SDP)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  SDN with SDP  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     3.1.  Adopting SDP in SDN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     3.2.  Framework of SDN with SDP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     3.3.  Framework of SDN Bases on Meta-Model  . . . . . . . . . .  10
     3.4.  The Relationship between the Layers in the SDN Framework
           with SDP Bases on Meta-Model  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   4.  The Trading between the Layers  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   5.  Intelligent Mechanism bases on Meta-Model . . . . . . . . . .  16
     5.1.  Intelligent Component . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
     5.2.  Mechanism Principles  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
     5.3.  MSFC  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
   6.  Security  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
   7.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
   8.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21

1.  Introduction

   Software-Defined Networks(SDN) is in the research process.  With the
   idea of SDN, networking resources like switches, routers and types of
   Network Elements (NEs)are managed as kinds of virtual resources,
   forming virtual networks so as to provide rather flexible services to
   network users.  In this research process, we noticed that how to
   price the services and the use of virtual network resources in an SDN
   is as critical as how the SDN is defined.  We consider that it seems
   a precious idea to treat a service pricing mechanism as part of the
   SDN framework and to manage it in a software-defined way.

   Network service prices are traditionally determined by service
   providers in a rather rigid way, which lacks of flexibility and
   sometimes even fairness to resources users.  By means of the idea of
   SDP, it is able to treat service pricing as a part of SDN, forming a
   service pricing model flexible to time, traffic and other network
   factors and status.  In this way, it is expected to promote the
   efficiency of SDN resources usage and ease the management for service
   providers.



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   Due to the ever increasing network complexity, the operators of
   intelligent network are driven toward a virtualization of network
   functionality that calls for a paradigm shift from a hardware-based
   approach to a software-based approach.  We will correspondingly
   develop an intelligent management framework based on the concept of
   SDN, which is featured by the decoupling of control plane from data
   plane.The intelligent SDN framework aims to provide a viable way to
   solve the existing challenges in a unified manner.

2.  Software-Defined Pricing (SDP)

   Software-Defined Pricing (SDP) is an idea specific to network
   management, whose core is that the service prices of network
   resources are determined by means of software-defined algorithms and/
   or mechanisms, which figure the prices according to various factors
   and status of the network resources.  In contrast to SDP, service
   prices may be pre-determined rigidly by service providers.

   An SDP Protocol is an instance of SDP implementation shown in a way
   of protocol, which specifically defines algorithms and/or mechanisms
   to price specific services and use of network resources.  An SDP
   protocol may be a private protocol if it is defined by a service
   provider personally, or a public protocol if defined publicly by
   standardization organizations.

   By use of the software-defined mechanism, SDP essentially supports
   automatic negotiations of prices in a pricing process.  Automatic
   resource and price negotiation features a Guaranteed Service (GS).
   As a result, SDN with SDP essentially supports GS services.

   Network users must accept and abide by the network SDP protocol when
   they use the network resources and the services.

   An SDP protocol usually includes trading partners, trading content,
   obligations and other transaction costs.  Service providers can make
   provisions for users in terms of workload and resource use.

   As an example, we present a typical process for an SDP protocol.
   When users expect to use resources from a virtual network by a
   service provider, users first query prices of various resources and
   services by means of the SDP protocol.  The service provider returns
   the resource prices to users.  Then, users will start up a price
   negotiation process with the service provider by use of the SDP
   protocol.  Both the user and the service provider will proceed the
   price negotiation process based on their specific price negotiation
   algorithms.  The negotiation process will be ended only from the user
   with the SDP protocol.  It will end with an agreement is either met
   or not.  The SDP protocol process is shown in Figure 1.  Usually, in



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   a negotiation algorithm, the user or the service provider are able to
   take into consideration of current network status and other network
   factors, which make the price negotiation process much more efficient
   and flexible than traditional pricing methods.

+------+ +                             +                    +-----------+
|      | | --------SDP protocol------->| -----------------+ |           |
|      | |                             | search price     | |           |
|      | | <-------SDP protocol--------|<-----------------+ |           |
|      | | --------SDP protocol------->|------------------+ |  service  |
| user | |                             | price negotiation| | sprovider |
|      | | <-------SDP protocol--------|<-----------------+ |           |
|      | | --------SDP protocol------->|------------------+ |           |
|      | |                             | negotiation ends | |           |
|      | | <-------SDP protocol--------|<-----------------+ |           |
+------+ +                             +                    +-----------+

                   Figure 1: Process of an SDP Protocol

   To fulfill above process, an SDP protocol header may usually include
   fields like shown in Figure 2, where:

   o  ID: the unique identifier of the protocol header.

   o  Level: service priorities identified.

   o  Expression: including one or more ITP(ID-Type-Properties) formats,
      where ID is the unique identifier of a resource, Type is the type
      of resource, Properties is the attributes of the resource.

   o  TimeSpec: a structure of service time, mainly refers to the
      selection of the service period.

   o  Price: the price of the transaction.

   o  ContractTime: trading hours.

   o  State: trading status with success or failure.













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+----------------------------------------------------------------------+
| ID | Level | Expression | TimeSpec | Price | ContractTime |  State   |
+------------|------------|----------|---------------------------------+
             |            |
             |            +----------------------+
             V                                   |
+------------------------+                       |
| ID | Type | Properties |                       |
+-----------|------------+                       V
            |         +-------------------------------------+
            |         | Y/M/D | Mon-Fri/Weekend | 8:00-0:00 |
            V         +-------------------------------------+
+-----------------------------------------+
|  rate  |  delay  |  shake   |  etc.     |
+-----------------------------------------+

                     Figure 2: An SDP Protocol Header

   (TBD)

3.  SDN with SDP

3.1.  Adopting SDP in SDN

   SDP can be applied to SDN architecture well because of its natural
   software-defined feature.

   In SDN architecture, control plane and data plane are separated to
   achieve the segregation of the control and forwarding.  A typical SDN
   architecture usually includes: application layer, control layer, and
   infrastructure (forwarding) layer.  To adopt SDP in SDN, an SDP
   module is applied.  An SDP module implements the SDP protocol and
   corresponding negotiation algorithms/mechanisms.  An SDP module can
   be applied to any layer in the SDN, where resources need to be
   priced.  In this way, theoretically, all kinds of network resources
   and services can be programmed in terms of use prices as well as
   resources functions.  This makes SDN more complete regarding its
   software-defining characters.

   In SDN application market, resource providers and resource consumers
   actually hardly know each other fully for the value of resources and
   services.  Hence, the trade between them is an information asymmetry
   game.  To take this into consideration, an SDP module with its
   protocol and associated negotiation mechanisms applied to an SDN
   system is usually of the following features:

   o  1) An SDP module can be distributed across parts of SDN system, to
      get the optimal level of service quality under budget constraints



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      of service consumers.  As a result, the SDP module usually further
      contains a pricing module and a trading module, used for pricing
      and trading of resources respectively.  With an SDP module, users
      can submit their requirements according to their budgets at the
      SDN application layer to SDN control layer.  Then, the SDN control
      layer can get results of optimal resource services based on user's
      budget.

   o  2) An SDP module usually includes an auto-negotiation mechanism.
      During the trading process, resource providers first get the price
      based on the price algorithm and/or mechanism, and present them to
      resources consumers.  If consumers are not satisfied with the
      prices, process of negotiation with auto-negotiation algorithm or
      mechanism will be triggered.

   o  3) With SDP, use of resources and their prices are not unique
      anymore.  Different resources providers may provide different
      prices even for the same resources.  SDP module may query
      different resources providers for optimal prices.  This process
      usually takes place at the SDP protocol stage of searching prices.

   o  4) In an SDP transaction, an SDN application usually act as a
      resource provider to end users.  Whereas, at the same time, it can
      also act as resource consumers to SDN control plane as well as SDN
      forwarding plane.  It sells resources to end users.  At the same
      time, it may buy or hire resources from SDN core systems.  All
      these can be done by use of SDP module.

   o  5) With a time attribute, SDP can respectively support SDN
      applications well for temporary term users or long term users
      regarding optimal use prices.

3.2.  Framework of SDN with SDP

   As mentioned, a typical SDN framework usually includes Application
   Layer, Control Layer, and Infrastructure (forwarding) Layer.  In SDN
   Application Layer, things like virtual servers and other SDN
   personalized services will be presented as individual SDN
   Applications.  Based on the idea above on adopting SDP to SDN, a
   typical framework of an SDN system which adopts SDP module is as
   shown in Figure 3.In this framework, the SDP-App includes an SDP
   module inside and makes the module support software-defined pricing
   function.

   SDP-App may exist in each layer of the SDN framework.  Note that, SDN
   Application communicates with SDN controllers via the AD-SAL and
   Service Interface.Either should require that the AD-SAL and Service
   Interface must support SDP protocol to support the SDN with SDP.



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   Also note that, SDN Control Layer includes the network service, SDP-
   App, and control abstraction Layer(CAL), it is defined to communicate
   with SDN forwarding layer by means of the resource abstraction
   layer(RAL) and the uniformly defined SDN southern interface protocols
   like ForCES ,OpenFlow, etc.  To support SDN with SDP, SDP protocol
   must be designed supportable by these protocols for messaging
   purpose.  This may become a key question for the design of an SDP
   protocol.  The SDN Forwarding Layer includes the network element, and
   SDP-App. It is exposed via the Resource Abstraction Layer (RAL),
   which may be expressed by one or more abstraction models.

   (TBD)







































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                   o--------------------------------o
                   |                                |
                   | +-------------+   +----------+ |
                   | | Application |   |  SDP-App | |
                   | +-------------+   +----------+ |
                   |       Application Layer        |
                   o---------------Y----------------o
                                   |
     *-----------------------------Y---------------------------------*
     |     Application-Driven Services Abstraction Layer (AD-SAL)    |
     *-----------------------------Y---------------------------------*
                                   |
                                   |Service
                                   |Interface
                                   |
     o-----------------------------Y--------------------------------o
     |                   Control   |   Layer                        |
     |                  +----------Y--------+  +---------+          |
     |                  |  Network Service  |  | SDP-App |          |
     |                  +----------Y--------+  +----Y----+          |
     |                             |                |               |
     |                *------------Y----------------Y------*        |
     |                |  Control Abstraction Layer (CAL)   |        |
     |                *------------Y-----------------------*        |
     |                             |                                |
     o-----------------------------|--------------------------------o
                                   |
                                   | Southbound
                                   | Interface
                                   |
     *-----------------------------Y---------------------------------*
     |              Resource Abstraction Layer (RAL)                 |
     *-----------------------------Y---------------------------------*
     |                             |                                 |
     |                    o--------Y-----------o   +----------+      |
     |                    |   Network Element  |   | SDP-App  |      |
     |                    o--------------------o   +----------+      |
     |                           Forwarding Layer                    |
     +---------------------------------------------------------------+

                    Figure 3: An SDN Framework with SDP

   As another example, we try to present an SDN application which uses
   SDP to access network resources so as to get optimal resources use
   price.  We call the SDN application a 'Chat' App, which is to
   construct a social App platform to connect, communicate and share
   among people and things by means of Guaranteed-Service (GS) rather
   than Best-Efforts (BE) services to users.  Hence, the App needs to



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   hire network resources from cloud network service providers to
   provide virtual server and Guaranteed Service (GS) resources.

   Fig 4 shown the process for 'Chat' to access the GS Resources by use
   of SDP.  'Chat' client and 'Chat' Server makes service agreement via
   SDP module.  'Chat' server may be implemented as a virtual server,
   whose pricing is also implemented by SDP module.  Further more,
   resources to support the virtual server and the 'chat' message
   forwarding are used based on SDP negotiations.  As shown inFigure 4 ,
   in this case, SDN controller inside the virtual server of 'chat' may
   send requests to multiple cloud platforms by SDP module(such as Sina
   cloud, Baidu cloud and Ali cloud in the figure).  All the cloud
   service providers return with resource prices, and SDN controller
   inside the 'chat' server select or negotiate with the cloud service
   providers.  SDN controller finally may select or get a successful or
   failed negotiation results and returns to the 'chat' client via SDP
   protocols.  As a result, a transaction for a GS service pricing ends.


































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                           +---------------------+
                           |   'Chat' client     |
                           |     ( With SDP )    |
                           +---------------------+
                                      A
                                      |
                                      V
                           +---------------------+
                           |    'Chat' server    |
                           |     ( With SDP )    |
                           +---------------------+
                                      A
                                      |
                                      V
                           +---------------------+
                           |    virtual server   |
                           |     ( With SDP )    |
                           +---------------------+
                                      A
                                      |
                                      V
                           +---------------------+
                           |    SDN controller   |
                           |     ( With SDP )    |
                           +---------------------+
                                      A
                                      |
              +----------------------------------------------+
              |                       |                      |
              V                       V                      V
      +----------------+      +---------------+       +-------------+
      |   Sina cloud   |      |  Baidu cloud  |       |  Ali cloud  |
      |   (With SDP)   |      |  (With SDP )  |       |  (With SDP  |
      +----------------+      +---------------+       +-------------+

    Figure 4: The Process for 'Chat' Accessing Resources by Use of SDP

3.3.  Framework of SDN Bases on Meta-Model

   A Meta-Model is a model architecture in which each defined layer will
   supply services and functions that built in a meta-model, to be
   exactly, APP-likely way.  Then all of APPs could be refactoried and
   combined to satisfied sorts of diversified needs from users in upper
   layer.  To be more precisely to defined the meta-model, the following
   elements will be invoked:

   o  Meta-APP:The minimum logical elements in application layer that be
      used to combine and register applications with more complexity.



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      Meta-APPs includes all of function feature and needs of
      application, and they could abstract the fundamental functions of
      network service needed by business according to feature and
      requirements of application.

   o  Con-App:Business Abstraction Layer:It is a mechanism that be used
      to logically mapping the meta-app onto the corresponding meta-
      service in the application layer.  Business Abstraction Layer will
      recognize and adapte all of meta-service supplied by controller,
      and then select suitable meta-service to service a meta-app bases
      on the requirement of relevant business.

   o  SDP-App:The modules proposed here which could support software-
      defined pricing function in the aspects of resource and service
      from each layer.

   o  Meta-Ability: The fine-grained elements of switch function in
      switch layer, which is the atomic elements in divide assignment.
      It is the fundamental host components.  All of the meta-ability
      can supply diversified host ability for meta-service within the
      scope of world-wide network.

   o  Resource Abstraction layer: Mapping the physical resources to
      virtual resource.  Resource Abstraction Layer uses virtualization
      technology to abstract physical resources at the bottom in order
      to shidding the difference between facilities.  In addition,
      Resource Abstraction Layer can schedule resources to achieve its
      reasonable alloction, which can avoid the quality reduction of
      upper layer application due to the resource shortcut and waste in
      result of its long-term idleness, raising the resource
      untilization ratio.

   Based on the idea above on Meta-Model to SDN, a typical framework of
   an SDN with SDP bases on Meta-Model system is as shown in Figure 5.In
   this framework, the application layer includes a meta-app part inside
   and makes the module support dividing and refactoring the meta-
   service .

   (TBD)

     o---------------------------------------------------------------o
     |                                                               |
     | +-------------+   +----------+  +----------+   +----------+   |
     | |   Meta-App  |   |  SDP-App |  | Meta-APP |   | Meta-App |   |
     | +-------------+   +----------+  +----------+   +----------+   |
     |                      Application Layer                        |
     o---------------------------------------------------------------o
                                   |



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     *-----------------------------Y---------------------------------*
     |                  Business Abstraction Layer                   |
     *-----------------------------Y---------------------------------*
                                   |
                                   |Service
                                   |Interface
                                   |
     o-----------------------------Y--------------------------------o
     |                   Control   |   Layer                        |
     |                  +----------Y--------+  +---------+          |
     |                  |    Meta-Service   |  | SDP-App |          |
     |                  +----------Y--------+  +----Y----+          |
     |                             |                |               |
     |                             |    +-----------+               |
     |                             |    |                           |
     |                      *------Y----Y-*                         |
     |                      |   Con-App   |                         |
     |                      *------Y------*                         |
     |                             |                                |
     o-----------------------------Y--------------------------------o
                                   |
                                   | Southbound
                                   | Interface
                                   |
     *-----------------------------Y---------------------------------*
     |                  Service  Abstraction Layer                   |
     *----Y-------------Y----------Y-----------Y-------Y---------Y---*
          |             |          |           |       |         |
     *----Y-----*  *----Y--*  *----Y----*  *---Y--* *--Y--*  *---Y----*
     | OpenFlow |  | OVSDB |  | NETCONF |  | LISP | | BGP |  | ForCES |
     *----Y-----*  *----Y--*  *----Y----*  *---Y--* *--Y--*  *---Y----*
          |             |          |           |       |         |
     *----Y-------------Y----------Y-----------Y-------Y---------Y---*
     |              Resource Abstraction Layer (RAL)                 |
     *---------------------------------------------------------------*
     |                                                               |
     |  o--------------o    o----------------o   +----------+        |
     |  | Meta-Ability |    |  Meta-Ability  |   | SDP-App  |        |
     |  o--------------o    o----------------o   +----------+        |
     |                         Forwarding Layer                      |
     +---------------------------------------------------------------+

          Figure 5: An SDN Framework with SDP Bases on Meta-Model








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3.4.  The Relationship between the Layers in the SDN Framework with SDP
      Bases on Meta-Model

   As the mentioned definiton of SDN framework with SDP bases on Meta-
   Model above, the minimum units of application are meta-app, which of
   control layer are meta-service, and the minimum units in forwarding
   layer are meta-ability.  Meanwhile, Refering to the idea of
   reconfigurable network architecture, The features of business and the
   load capacity of network could be abstract as a chained model like
   "Application -> Meta-App -> Meta-Service -> Meta-Ability" which be
   showed in Figure 6.  A complicated network application can be divided
   to amounts of meta-app abstractly, and each meta-app contains
   features and functions of network applications.  In this case, The
   meta-app is also combined by a series of fine-grained meta-service
   sets that called network fundamental function components.  In
   addition, A set of meta-abilities can combine a series of fundamental
   load components of network, which can associate meta-service.

   Conceptually, the meta-ability is a tiny unit defined by fundamental
   network, which having the abilities to certain capacity and function
   information.  By using meta-abilities, The core of internet can be
   abstracted to lots of distinct LFBs (Logical Functional Block) which
   combined by the set of meta-abilities.  Meanwhile, This also allows
   the core of internet to add new meta-ability extensions for promoting
   network extensibility.

   Meta-Abilities are described as senary struction including type,
   mark, attribute set, operation, vendor and price.  This "type"
   element specified the type of meta-abilities for classifying the
   meta-abilities with similar network function into separate type
   class.  This "mark" element should be defined as natural number.  Via
   type and mark element, the unique identity of meta-abilities can be
   defined within the scope of world-wide network.  This "attribute set"
   element includes parameters about targets and relevant capacity of
   those targets.  This targets in attribute set can specify the targets
   that meta-abilities should deal with.  And this relevant capacity in
   attribute set can indicates the parameterized capacity goal of meta-
   abilities.  This "operation" element indicates the operation that
   meta-ability can implemente to targets.  This "vendor" element on
   behalf of the vendors of this meta-ability (e.g., telecom operators).
   This "price" element state the cost in the process of using this
   meta-ability.

   (TBD)







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                 Service                 Service             Application
                 Abstract                Map                 Abstract
o---------------o       o---------------o       o-----------o
|               |       |               |       |           |
| +-----------+ |       | +-----------+ |       | +-------+ |
| | M-ability |->------->-| M-service |->-+----->-| M-App |->---+
| +-----------+ | +----->-+-----------+ | |     | +-------+ |   |
|               | |     |             | | |     |           |   |
| +-----------+ | |     | +-----------+ | +----->-+-------+ |   |
| | M-ability |->-+----->-| M-service |->---+--->-| M-App |->-+ |
| +-----------+ | | +--->-+-----------+ |   | +->-+-------+ | | |
|               | | |   |               |   | | |           | | +->o-----o
| +-----------+ | | |   | +-----------+ |   +-|->-+-------+ | +--->| App |
| | M-ability |->-|-+--->-| M-service |->-+---|->-| M-App | |  +-->o-----o
| +-----------+ | |  +-->-+-----------+ | |   | | +-------+ |  |
|        .      | |  |  |         .     | | +-+ |           |  |
|        .      | |  |  |         .     | | |   |           |  |
|        .      | |  |  |         .     | | |   |           |  |
|        .      | |  |  |         .     | | |   |           |  |
| +-----------+ | +--|-->-+-----------+ | +-|--->-+-------+ |  |
| | M-ability |->----+  | | M-service |->---+--->-| M-App |->--+
| +-----------+ |       | +-----------+ |       | +-------+ |
|               |       |               |       |           |
o---------------o       o---------------o       o-----------o

where:

      M-ability = Meta-ability
      M-service = Meta-service
      M-App = Meta-App

           Figure 6: The Relationship between Meta-Model Layers

4.  The Trading between the Layers

   As shown inFigure 7A complete SDN environment is made up of
   application layer, control layer, data forwarding plane, if regard
   SDN environment as an economy market ,Then corresponding to the three
   layers structure of SDN environment, the economy market can be
   divided into: user layer, trading platform and provider layer.  But
   each layer is embedded with the pricing model and consumption pattern
   which is apply to this layer , the communication between each other
   is accomplished by special protocol, each of them is independent but
   closely linked.In application layer, there are many users, the users
   were independent of each other, and they belonged to different
   platforms.In control layer there are multiple platforms, on the two
   ends of platform respectively connected to different users and
   providers, the existence of multiple platforms can solve the monopoly



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   of a single platform and the problem that users and providers'choice
   unicity.In fowarding layer,there are many providers, they can offer
   different types of resources for each platform.

*------------------------------------------------------------------------*
|Application +--------------+  +---------------+      +---------------+  |
|  Layer     | Application 1|  | Application 2 |  ... | Application n |  |
|            +--------------+  +---------------+      +---------------+  |
*--------------Y-Y-Y---------------Y-Y--Y--------------------Y--Y--Y-----*
               | | | +-------------+ |  |    +---------------+  |  |
               | | | |   +-----------|--|----|------------------+  |
               | | +-|---|-----------|--|----|----------------+    |
               | +---|---|-------+   |  +----|-----------+    |    |
               |     |   |       |   |       |           |    |    |
*--------------V-----V---V-------V---V-------V-----------V----V----V-----*
|  Control   +--------------+  +---------------+      +---------------+  |
|  Layer     |Control Plane1|  |Control Plane2 |  ... |Control Plane n|  |
|            +--------------+  +---------------+      +---------------+  |
*--------------Y-Y-Y---------------Y-Y--Y--------------------Y--Y--Y-----*
               | | | +-------------+ |  |    +---------------+  |  |
               | | | |   +-----------|--|----|------------------+  |
               | | +-|---|-----------|--|----|----------------+    |
               | +---|---|-------+   |  +----|-----------+    |    |
               |     |   |       |   |       |           |    |    |
*--------------V-----V---V-------V---V-------V-----------V----V----V---------*
|Forwarding +-----------------+ +-----------------+     +------------------+ |
|  Layer    |Forwarding Plane1| |Forwarding Plane2| ... |Forwarding Plane n| |
|           +-----------------+ +-----------------+     +------------------+ |
*----------------------------------------------------------------------------*

       Figure 7: Multi-Ownership Combinatorial Double Auction Model

   We summarize the differences of three kinds of trading pattern and
   the position of SDN architecture which applied them , as shown in
   Figure 8:
















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-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
   Trading |   Product  | Trading| Trading Risk  |  Trading price  | Location
   Pattern |   Pattern  | market |               |                 |  of SDN
-----------|------------|--------|---------------|-----------------|---------------
   spot    |   Retail   |    No  |Greater risk   | Negotiation     | Application
 trading   |   Commodity|        |               |non-standard     | layer
-----------|------------|--------|---------------|-----------------|---------------
  Futures  |  A kind of | Future | Has margin,   |Settlement based |
  trading  | products as|        | less risk     |on the price     |Data forwarding
           | a unit     |        |               |of the exchange  |layer
-----------|------------|--------|---------------|-----------------|---------------
  Planned  |Goods in any| Overall|PlannedSpending| Control price,  | Entire
  trading  | combination| market |almost no risk |according to     |architecture
           |            |        |               |supply and demand|
-----------|------------|--------|---------------|-----------------|---------------

          Figure 8: the Differences among Three Trading Patterns

   The commodities mode, trading market and other factors of planned
   trading decides it apply to the entire SDN market; the commodities
   mode of spot trading determines which is suitable for small number of
   resources trading, and it has some risks, therefore it works in the
   application layer of SDN architecture; the commodities mode of
   futures trading trade in a kind of resource as a unit, and the risk
   is small, possess the futures market, so it works in data forwarding
   layer of SDN architecture.

5.  Intelligent Mechanism bases on Meta-Model

5.1.  Intelligent Component

   As shown inFigure 9We defines a advenced mechanism of SDN framework,
   the primary module sustains the speciality of intelligence and smart,
   which composed by three main components, including network sense
   function, SDP module, and policy control.

   The network sence function, within this intelligence mechanism, in
   change of preceiving each details , monitoring network state on a
   domain scale, to be special, bandwidth, quality of service, line
   loading, besides, node capacities of calculation, storage and speed.
   While network sence function learns those information from SDN south
   interface, they could analyze and encapsulate them with an overlay,
   following, send encapsulated message to SDP module though inner port.

   The SDP module porvides pre-customized algorithm based upon SDP
   protocol, which would operated in encapsulated message processing,
   consists the interaction and the relation between meta-abilities and
   requirements of applicatoin, and manages preliminary SFC policies,



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   overviewed of RFC 7665 [RFC7665], to construct meta-abilities with
   knowledge reasoning.

   Policy, in contrast, interacts with the system in other
   places.Policies and SDP module may monitor meta-abilities to decide
   if additional (or fewer) instances of services are needed.  When
   applicable, those decisions may in turn result in interactions that
   direct the control logic to change the placement of meta-abilities
   service function chain,in short, MSFC.

   The policy control module is part of the overall intelligent
   mechanism, and is responsible for constructing MSFCs, translating
   MSFCs to forwarding paths, and propagating path information to
   participating meta-ability nodes to achieve requisite forwarding
   behavior to construct the service overlay and qualify the
   requirements of application.  For instance, the physical placement of
   meta-ability nodes may be static; selecting exactly which MSFCs and
   which meta-abilities from those MSFCs are to be used, or it may be
   dynamic, allowing the network to perform some or all of the choices
   of MSFC or meta-abilities to use to deliver the selected service
   chain within the constraints represented by the service path.  While,
   within this mechanism, physical resource and logicl meta models state
   are permitted to be registered on the policy control module.

   Architecturally, within the same policy control module domain, some
   MSFCs may be fully specified, selecting exactly which MSFC and which
   meta-abilities are to be visited by packets using that MSFC, while
   other MSFCs may be quite vague, deferring to the traffic the
   decisions about the exact sequence of steps to be used to realize the
   MSFC.





















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       o  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
       .                   +------------+
       .                 + | SDP Module |+  + -----------------------
South  .   +---------+  /  +------------+ \ | Policy   +----+   +----+
Intf   .   | Network | /                   +| Control  |SFC1|...|SFCn|
+--------->| Sence   |+  +--------------+   | Module   +----+   +----+
Network.   | Function|   |Kernel Control|   +------------V--------V---
State  .   +---------+   |  Module      |               /        /
       .                 +--------------+<-------------+--------+
       o  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  Y  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
                                  +-------------+
                                  |             |
                                  V             V
                             Meta-Ability1...Meta-Abilityn


   Figure 9: Composite Intelligent and Software-Defined-Price Mechanism
                                   Model

5.2.  Mechanism Principles

   Intelligent mechanism bases on meta-model is predicated on several
   key architectural principles:

   1.  Universality:IPv6 networks should be supported.  And diversified
       user requirements and endpoint also can transport in this
       mechanism.

   2.  Sensation:Intelligent mechanism should have the capacity to sence
       diversified behavior characteristic of network services and
       users.  While, this mechanism should support the intellgent
       recognition and analysis based on users, context and application,
       and on this situation to achieve a flexible policy scheduling and
       routing.

   3.  Efficient: Requires the network to provide on-demand support for
       users and application requirements, intelligent traffic control
       capabilities, and the ability to alleviate the unreasonable
       consumption of uncontrollable traffic to network resources.  At
       the same time,this mechanism can improve network adaptability
       reasonably, and achieve content distribution efficiently by
       enhancing the dynamic regulation of resources on demand quality
       assurance capabilities.

   4.  Openness:The application of security and network awareness,
       traffic scheduling and other capabilities should be combined in
       the netwok of intellgent open-architecture.  This mechanism could
       lower the threshold to further innovation of the upper



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       application, and meet the needs of personalized, diverse user,
       meanwhile, optimize the existing carrier network management
       model, improve the operational efficiency of the network.

   5.  Evolution: Network development must support future users and
       applications through overlaying new-built or existing system
       upgrades based on active network-level architectures.  Seldom
       change to the running underlay network forwarding facility --
       implicit, or explicit -- are needed to deploy and invoke
       intelligent mechanism.  And this mechanism should provides
       standardized communication protocols and interfaces for
       collaboration processes between different levels, between
       external systems, between meta-models, with little influence on
       existing networks and can be gradually upgraded amongst existing
       networks architecture.

   6.  Autonomy:With the development of network, it is necessary to
       introduce artificial intelligence technology to achieve self-
       adjustment, self-optimization, self-recovery of the network
       through collection of huge data of network state and machine
       learning.  The areas of machine learning which are easier to be
       used in the network field may include: troubleshooting of network
       problems, network traffic prediction, traffic optimization
       adjustment, security defense, security auditing, etc., to
       implement network perception and cognition.

5.3.  MSFC

   1.  Meta-model-based service function linking method in this draft
       encapsulates the logic function blocks in the metamodel network
       into multiple MetaService Functions (MSFs) in combination with
       SFC[37].  MSF is a virtual element or is embedded into an
       industry-standard universal physical network element.  It is
       mainly responsible for receiving various types of traffic and
       forwarding the data to a designated MSF or network logical
       service block.  We define a Meta Service Function Chain (MSFC)
       based on a metamodel network architecture to describe an ordered
       application of services or data to upper layers for processing
       data packets, network frames and service flows A collection of
       abstract MSFs that classify and forward the processing results.

   2.  SFC Management orchestration domain refers to the network or
       network area that enables an SFC and serves the upper layer.  An
       SFC can only be constrained in a single management orchestration
       domain and is subject to management, coordination and scheduling
       of the management orchestration domain.  Figure 24 shows an MSFC
       architecture in a metamodel-based SDN network.  This system
       establishes service sublayer and service execution sublayer in



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       each layer of SDN network.  The service organization sub-layer
       includes core control module, SDP module and other functional
       nodes responsible for MSF scheduling.  It receives the upper-
       layer service request through the northbound interface, and the
       SDP module is responsible for generating a specific MSF policy
       and uses the internal control module Interface with the
       underlying MSF to deliver the policy to the service execution
       sub-layer.  The service execution sublayer includes a series of
       MSF collections that have business traffic acceptance,
       processing, and forwarding capabilities.  EP represents a
       terminal node, and the terminal may be a network element device,
       a user terminal or an MSFC in other management domains.

   3.  The next generation of new networks requires that services can
       dynamically adapt to the changing needs of services.  Network
       service providers need to combine basic meta-capabilities based
       on orthogonal decomposition into different composite network
       services to achieve service-oriented service customization and
       agile development.  When a service layer user sends a request the
       SDN control layer, the SDN agent reconfigures from the NE node to
       the service link by issuing a policy and makes a series of
       internal adjustments to adapt to this type of service.

   4.  Meta-capabilities within a single-cell node can be dynamically
       combined into a sequence of metaclassic capabilities that we call
       the meta-capability stack.  The meta-capability stack is a basic
       logical structure for providing data transmission and initial
       processing of information in a network element node.  When a
       meta-capability stack is created, it is temporarily created for
       service.  When the request is completed, it will continue to
       survive for some time until it dies naturally or a similar
       strategy arrives.

6.  Security

   TBD

7.  IANA Considerations

   This document has no actions for IANA.

8.  Informative References

   [China-Communications]
              Zhuge, B., Deng, L., Dai, G., Wan, L., Wang, W., and J.
              Lan, "Resource Scheduling Algorithm and Ecnomic Model in
              ForCES Networks.China Communications", 2014.




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   [ONF-White-Paper]
              Fundation O N., "Software-defined networking: The new norm
              for networks", 2012.

   [RFC5812]  Halpern, J. and J. Hadi Salim, "Forwarding and Control
              Element Separation (ForCES) Forwarding Element Model",
              RFC 5812, DOI 10.17487/RFC5812, March 2010,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5812>.

   [RFC6956]  Wang, W., Haleplidis, E., Ogawa, K., Li, C., and J.
              Halpern, "Forwarding and Control Element Separation
              (ForCES) Logical Function Block (LFB) Library", RFC 6956,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6956, June 2013,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6956>.

   [RFC7426]  Haleplidis, E., Ed., Pentikousis, K., Ed., Denazis, S.,
              Hadi Salim, J., Meyer, D., and O. Koufopavlou, "Software-
              Defined Networking (SDN): Layers and Architecture
              Terminology", RFC 7426, DOI 10.17487/RFC7426, January
              2015, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7426>.

   [RFC7665]  Halpern, J., Ed. and C. Pignataro, Ed., "Service Function
              Chaining (SFC) Architecture", RFC 7665,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7665, October 2015,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7665>.

   [Telecommunications-Science]
              Zhuge, B., Wang, B., and Y. Wang, "Architecture of SDN
              applications based on Software-Defined price", 2015.

   [Telecommunications-Science.2]
              Zhuge, B., Zhu, H., and B. Wang, "Research on the Meta
              Model Construction Mechanism in SDN Architecture", 2016.

Authors' Addresses

   Bin Zhuge
   Zhejiang Gongshang University
   18 Xuezheng Str., Xiasha University Town
   Hangzhou  310018
   P.R.China

   Phone: +86 571 28877723
   Email: zhugebin@zjsu.edu.cn







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   Yining Wang
   Simon Fraser University
   8888 University Drive
   Burnaby
   Canada

   Phone: +1 (778) 885-0009
   Email: ywa165@sfu.ca


   Yihang Qi
   Zhejiang Gongshang University
   18 Xuezheng Str., Xiasha University Town
   Hangzhou  310018
   P.R.China

   Phone: +86 571 28877723
   Email: 1107811460@qq.com


   Yingjie Zhu
   Zhejiang Gongshang University
   18 Xuezheng Str., Xiasha University Town
   Hangzhou  310018
   P.R.China

   Phone: +86 571 28877723
   Email: zhuyj6055@163.com


   Weiming Wang
   Zhejiang Gongshang University
   18 Xuezheng Str., Xiasha University Town
   Hangzhou  310018
   P.R.China

   Phone: +86 571 28877761
   Email: wmwang@zjsu.edu.cn













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