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INFORMATIONAL

Independent Submission                                         D. Worley
Request for Comments: 8433                                       Ariadne
Category: Informational                                      August 2018
ISSN: 2070-1721


             A Simpler Method for Resolving Alert-Info URNs

Abstract

   The "alert" namespace of Uniform Resource Names (URNs) can be used in
   the Alert-Info header field of Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)
   requests and responses to inform a voice over IP (VoIP) telephone
   (user agent) of the characteristics of the call that the user agent
   has originated or terminated.  The user agent must resolve the URNs
   into a signal; that is, it must select the best available signal to
   present to its user to indicate the characteristics of the call.

   RFC 7462 describes a non-normative algorithm for signal selection.
   This document describes a more efficient alternative algorithm: a
   user agent's designer can, based on the user agent's signals and
   their meanings, construct a finite state machine (FSM) to process the
   URNs to select a signal in a way that obeys the restrictions given in
   the definition of the "alert" URN namespace.

Status of This Memo

   This document is not an Internet Standards Track specification; it is
   published for informational purposes.

   This is a contribution to the RFC Series, independently of any other
   RFC stream.  The RFC Editor has chosen to publish this document at
   its discretion and makes no statement about its value for
   implementation or deployment.  Documents approved for publication by
   the RFC Editor are not candidates for any level of Internet Standard;
   see Section 2 of RFC 7841.

   Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
   and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
   https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8433.











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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2018 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.

Table of Contents

   1. Introduction ....................................................3
      1.1. Requirements Governing Resolution Algorithms ...............4
      1.2. Summary of the New Resolution Algorithm ....................5
      1.3. Conventions Used in This Document ..........................7
   2. Selecting the Signals and Their Corresponding "alert" URNs ......7
   3. General Considerations for Processing Alert-Info ................9
   4. Constructing the Finite State Machine for a Very Simple
      Example ........................................................10
      4.1. Listing the Expressed URNs ................................11
      4.2. Constructing the Alphabet of Symbols ......................11
      4.3. Constructing the States and Transitions ...................13
      4.4. Summary ...................................................17
      4.5. Examples of Processing Alert-Info URNs ....................19
   5. Further Examples ...............................................20
      5.1. Example with "source" and "priority" URNs .................20
      5.2. Example 1 of RFC 7462 .....................................24
      5.3. Examples 2, 3, and 4 of RFC 7462 ..........................30
      5.4. An Example That Subsets Internal Sources ..................33
      5.5. An Example of "alert:service" URNs ........................34
      5.6. An Example Using Country Codes ............................34
   6. Prioritizing Signals ...........................................40
   7. Dynamic Sets of Signals ........................................41
   8. Security Considerations ........................................43
   9. IANA Considerations ............................................43
   10. References ....................................................44
      10.1. Normative References .....................................44
      10.2. Informative References ...................................44
   Acknowledgments ...................................................45
   Author's Address ..................................................45








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1.  Introduction

   When a SIP user agent (UA) server receives an incoming INVITE
   request, it chooses an alerting signal (the ring tone) to present to
   its user (the called user) by processing the Alert-Info header
   field(s) in the incoming INVITE request [RFC3261].  Similarly, a SIP
   UA client determines an alerting signal (the ringback tone) to
   present to its user (the calling user) by processing the Alert-Info
   header field(s) in the incoming provisional response(s) to its
   outgoing INVITE request.

   [RFC3261] envisioned that the Alert-Info header field value would be
   a URL that the UA could use to retrieve the encoded media of the
   signal.  This usage has security problems and is inconvenient to
   implement in practice.

   [RFC7462] introduced an alternative practice: the Alert-Info values
   can be URNs in the "alert" URN namespace that specify features of the
   call or of the signal that should be signaled to the user.  [RFC7462]
   defined a large set of "alert" URNs and procedures for extending
   the set.

   A UA is unlikely to provide more than a small set of alerting
   signals, and there are an infinite number of possible combinations of
   "alert" URNs.  Thus, a UA is often required to select an alerting
   signal that renders only a subset of the information in the
   Alert-Info header field(s) -- which is the resolution process for
   "alert" URNs.  The requirements for resolving "alert" URNs are given
   in Section 11.1 of [RFC7462].

   Section 12 of [RFC7462] gives a (non-normative) resolution algorithm
   for selecting a signal that satisfies the requirements of
   Section 11.1 of that document.  That algorithm can be used regardless
   of the set of alerting signals that the UA provides and their
   specified meanings.  The existence of the algorithm defined in
   [RFC7462] demonstrates that the resolution requirements can always be
   satisfied.  However, the algorithm is complex and slow.

   The purpose of this document is to describe an improved
   implementation -- a more efficient resolution algorithm for selecting
   signals that conforms to the requirements of Section 11.1 of
   [RFC7462].  (Of course, like any such algorithm, it is non-normative,
   and the implementation is free to use any algorithm that conforms to
   the requirements of Section 11.1 of [RFC7462].)

   In the algorithm defined in this document, once the UA designer has
   chosen the set of signals that the UA produces and the "alert" URNs
   that they express, a finite state machine (FSM) is constructed that



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   selects alerting signals based on the URNs in the Alert-Info header
   field(s) in a SIP message.  The incoming "alert" URNs are
   preprocessed in a straightforward manner into a sequence of "symbols"
   drawn from a fixed finite set; these symbols are then used as input
   to the FSM.  After processing the input, the state of the FSM selects
   the correct alerting signal to present to the user.

   Both the preprocessor and the FSM are determined only by the selected
   set of signals and the set of "alert" URNs expressed by the signals,
   so the processing machinery can be fixed at the time of designing
   the UA.

1.1.  Requirements Governing Resolution Algorithms

   The requirements for the resolution of "alert" URNs are given in
   Section 11.1 of [RFC7462] and can be described as follows:

   o  The "alert" URNs are processed from left to right.  Each "alert"
      URN has precedence over all URNs that follow it, and its
      interpretation is subordinate to all URNs that precede it.

   o  As each URN is processed, one of the UA's signals is chosen that
      expresses that URN as far as can be done without reducing the
      degree to which any of the preceding URNs were expressed by the
      signal chosen for the preceding URN.  Thus, as processing
      proceeds, the chosen signals become increasingly specific and
      contain more information, but all of the information about a
      particular URN that is expressed by the signal chosen for that URN
      is also expressed by the signals chosen for all following URNs.

   o  If the entirety of the current URN cannot be expressed by any
      allowed signal, then each of the trailing alert-ind-parts (the
      sections separated by colons) is in turn removed until the reduced
      URN can be expressed by some signal that also expresses at least
      the same reduced versions of the preceding URNs that were
      expressed by the signal chosen for the preceding URN.  This can be
      described as "a signal that expresses as much of the current URN
      as possible while still expressing as much of the previous URNs as
      the preceding signal did."

   So, for instance, consider processing

       Alert-Info: urn:alert:category-a:part-a1:part-a2,
                   urn:alert:category-b:part-b1:part-b2

   If the UA has no signal for urn:alert:category-a:part-a1:part-a2, it
   removes part-a2 from the URN and checks whether it has a signal for
   the less-specific URN urn:alert:category-a:part-a1.  If it has no



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   signal for that URN, it gives up on the URN entirely (since
   urn:alert:category-a doesn't exist and can be considered to express
   nothing about the call), and the chosen signal is the default signal
   of the UA, i.e., the signal that is used when there is no Alert-Info.

   But let us suppose the UA has a signal for
   urn:alert:category-a:part-a1 and chooses that signal when processing
   the first URN.  All processing after this point will be restricted to
   signals that express urn:alert:category-a:part-a1 or a more specific
   URN of the category "category-a".

   The UA then goes on to examine the next URN,
   urn:alert:category-b:part-b1:part-b2.  If there is a signal that
   expresses both urn:alert:category-a:part-a1 and
   urn:alert:category-b:part-b1:part-b2, then the UA chooses that
   signal.  If there is no such signal, the second URN is reduced to
   urn:alert:category-b:part-b1, and the UA checks for a signal that
   expresses that URN along with urn:alert:category-a:part-a1.  If there
   is no such signal that matches that relaxed requirement, the second
   URN is reduced to urn:alert:category-b, which is discarded, and the
   chosen signal for the first URN is chosen for the second URN.  In any
   case, all processing after this point will be restricted to signals
   that express urn:alert:category-a:part-a1 or a more specific URN of
   the category "category-a" and that also express the chosen part of
   urn:alert:category-b:part-b1:part-b2.

   This process is continued until the last "alert" URN is processed;
   the signal chosen for the last URN is the signal that the UA uses.

1.2.  Summary of the New Resolution Algorithm

   The purpose of this document is to describe a resolution algorithm
   that conforms to Section 11.1 of [RFC7462] but is simpler than the
   algorithm described in Section 12 of [RFC7462]: once the UA designer
   has chosen a set of signals and the URNs that they express, an FSM is
   constructed that selects alerting signals based on the URNs in the
   Alert-Info header field(s) in a SIP message.

   o  The designer selects the set of signals that the UA produces,
      matching each signal to a set of "alert" URNs that together
      specify the meaning that is carried by the signal.  (If the signal
      is a "default" signal that has no specific meaning, the set is
      empty.  If the signal carries the meaning of one "alert" URN, the
      set contains that URN.  If the signal carries a meaning that is
      the logical AND of two or more "alert" URNs, the set contains
      those URNs.)





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   o  Based on the UA's signals and their meanings, the designer
      constructs an "alphabet" containing a finite number of symbols;
      each possible "alert" URN is mapped into one particular symbol.

   o  The designer constructs an FSM whose input is the alphabet of
      symbols and whose states describe the information extracted from
      the Alert-Info URNs.

   o  Each state of the FSM has an associated signal.  Processing the
      Alert-Info URNs will leave the FSM in some particular state; the
      UA renders the signal that is attached to that final state.

   To select a ring tone or ringback tone based on a SIP message, the UA
   processes the "alert" URNs in the Alert-Info header field from left
   to right.  Initially, the FSM is in a designated initial state.  The
   UA maps each successive URN into the corresponding symbol and then
   executes the state transition of the FSM specified by the symbol.
   The state of the FSM after processing the URNs determines which
   signal the UA will render to the user.

   Note that the UA generally has two FSMs, because a UA usually wants
   to signal different information in ring tones than it signals in
   ringback tones.  One FSM is used to select the ring tone to render
   for an incoming INVITE request.  The other FSM is used to select the
   ringback tone to render based on an incoming provisional response to
   an outgoing INVITE request.  Both FSMs are constructed in the same
   way, but the constructions are based on different lists of signals
   and corresponding URNs.

   All of the steps of the method after the designer has selected the
   signals and their URNs are algorithmic, and the algorithm of those
   steps ensures that the operation of the FSM will satisfy the
   constraints of Section 11.1 of [RFC7462].  A Python implementation of
   the algorithmic steps is provided in [code].

   In simple situations, a suitable FSM or equivalent ad hoc code can be
   constructed by hand using ad hoc analysis.  Generally, this is only
   practical in situations where a small number of alert-categories and
   alert-indications are signaled and the categories interact in a
   simple, uniform way.  For example, the examples in Sections 5.1 and
   5.2 could be constructed by ad hoc analysis.  But automatic
   processing is valuable if the situation is too complicated to
   construct a correct FSM by ad hoc analysis, or if the set of signals
   will change too frequently for human production to be economical.







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1.3.  Conventions Used in This Document

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
   BCP 14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
   capitals, as shown here.

2.  Selecting the Signals and Their Corresponding "alert" URNs

   The designer must select signals that the UA will generate and define
   the meanings that the signals will have to the user.  Based on this,
   the designer determines for each signal the "alert" URN or
   combination of "alert" URNs that (1) indicate that signal's meaning
   in SIP messages and (2) consequently should elicit that signal from
   the UA.

   For example, suppose the UA has a particular ring tone for calls from
   an external source.  A call from an external source is marked with
   the URN urn:alert:source:external (specified in Section 9 of
   [RFC7462]).  Thus, the table of signals includes:

       Signal                          URN(s)
       ----------------------------    -------------------------------
       external source                 urn:alert:source:external

   Similarly, if the UA has a particular ring tone for calls from an
   internal source, the table includes:

       Signal                          URN(s)
       ----------------------------    -------------------------------
       internal source                 urn:alert:source:internal

   If the UA has ring tones for calls that are marked as having higher
   or lower priority, then the table includes:

       Signal                          URN(s)
       ----------------------------    -------------------------------
       high priority                   urn:alert:priority:high
       low priority                    urn:alert:priority:low

   Note that the UA must be able to signal for a message that has no
   "alert" URNs in the Alert-Info header field, which means that there
   must always be a default signal that has zero corresponding URNs:

       Signal                          URN(s)
       ----------------------------    -------------------------------
       default                         (none)



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   A signal can be defined to indicate a combination of conditions.  For
   instance, a signal that is used only for high-priority, internal-
   source calls expresses two URNs and will only be used when both URNs
   are present in Alert-Info:

       Signal                          URN(s)
       ------------------------------  -------------------------------
       high priority, internal source  urn:alert:priority:high,
                                           urn:alert:source:internal

   A signal can be defined to cover a number of related conditions by
   specifying a URN that is the common prefix of the URNs for the
   various conditions.  For instance, the URNs for "recall due to
   callback", "recall due to call hold", and "recall due to transfer"
   all start with urn:alert:service:recall, and so one signal can be
   provided for all of them by:

       Signal                          URN(s)
       ----------------------------    -------------------------------
       recall                          urn:alert:service:recall

   But if a specific signal is also provided for "recall due to
   callback" by this entry:

       Signal                          URN(s)
       ----------------------------    ---------------------------------
       recall generally                urn:alert:service:recall
       recall due to callback          urn:alert:service:recall:callback

   then if the message contains urn:alert:service:recall:callback, the
   "recall due to callback" signal will be chosen instead of "recall
   generally" because the UA chooses the signal that most completely
   expresses the information in the Alert-Info header field.

   The designer may wish to define extension URNs that provide more
   specific information about a call than the standard "alert" URNs do.
   One method is to add additional components to standard URNs.  For
   instance, an extra-high priority could be indicated by the URN
   urn:alert:priority:high:extra@example.  The final "extra@example" is
   an "alert-ind-part" that is a private extension.  (See Sections 7 and
   10.2 of [RFC7462] for a discussion of private extensions.)  In any
   case, adding an alert-ind-part to a URN makes its meaning more
   specific, in that any call to which the longer URN can be applied can
   also have the shorter URN applied.  In this case, "extra-high-
   priority calls" are considered a subset of "high-priority calls".






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       Signal                URN(s)
       --------------------- -----------------------------------------
       high priority         urn:alert:priority:high
       extra-high priority   urn:alert:priority:high:extra@example.com

   Of course, for this extension to be useful, the senders of SIP
   messages (e.g., other UAs) must generate the extension URN in
   suitable circumstances.

   In some circumstances, the designer may want to create an entirely
   new category of "alert" URNs to indicate a type of information that
   is not indicated by any standard category of URNs.  In that case, the
   designer uses a private extension as the alert-category (the third
   component of the URN), combined with whatever alert-ind-part (fourth
   component) values are desired.  For example, a simplified version of
   the U.S. military security designations could be:

       Signal                    URN(s)
       -----------------------   ---------------------------------------
       unclassified              urn:alert:security@example:unclassified
       confidential              urn:alert:security@example:confidential
       secret                    urn:alert:security@example:secret
       top secret                urn:alert:security@example:top-secret

   The designer should ensure that the new alert-category is orthogonal
   to all defined standard alert-categories, in that any combination of
   one of the new URNs with one of the standard URNs is meaningful in
   that there could be a message carrying both URNs.

   In addition, the set of alert-ind-parts for the new alert-category
   should be comprehensive and disjoint, in that every message can be
   described by exactly one of them.

3.  General Considerations for Processing Alert-Info

   In this section, we will discuss various considerations that arise
   when processing Alert-Info.  These have to be taken care of properly
   in order to conform to the standards, as well as to ensure a good
   user experience.  But since they are largely independent of the
   generated FSM and its processing, they are gathered here in a
   separate section.

   The UA may have a number of different FSMs for processing URNs.
   Generally, there will be different FSMs for processing Alert-Info in
   incoming INVITE requests and for incoming provisional responses to
   outgoing INVITE requests.  But any situation that changes the set of
   signals that the UA is willing to generate specifies a different set
   of signals and corresponding URNs and thus generates a different FSM.



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   For example, if a call is active on the UA, all audible signals may
   become unavailable, or audible signals may be available only if
   urn:alert:priority:high is specified.

   Similarly, if the set of signals is customized by user action or
   local policy, the generated FSM must be updated.  This can be done by
   (1) regenerating it according to the method described here or
   (2) generating a "generic" FSM and instantiating it based on the
   available signals.  (See Section 7 for a discussion of this.)

   Note that the values in an Alert-Info header field are allowed to be
   URIs of any scheme and, within the "urn" scheme, are allowed to have
   any namespace [RFC3261].  The processing of URIs that are not "alert"
   URNs is not considered by this document, nor is that processing
   specified by [RFC7462].  But the algorithm designer must consider
   what to do with such URIs if they are encountered.  The simplest
   choice is to ignore them.  Alternatively, the algorithm may examine
   the URI to determine if it names an alerting signal or describes how
   to retrieve an alerting signal, and, if so, choose to render that
   signal rather than process the "alert" URNs to select a signal.  In
   any case, the remainder of this document assumes that (1) the signal
   is to be chosen based on the "alert" URNs in Alert-Info and (2) all
   Alert-Info URIs that are not "alert" URNs have been removed.

   The UA may also receive "alert" URNs that are semantically invalid in
   various ways.  For example, the URN may have only three components,
   despite the fact that all valid "alert" URNs have at least one
   alert-ind-part and thus four components.  The only useful strategy is
   to ignore such URNs (and possibly log them for analysis).

   The method described here is robust in its handling of categories and
   alert-ind-parts that are unknown to the UA; as a consequence, it is
   also robust if they are not valid standardized URNs.  Thus, these
   error conditions need not be handled specially.

4.  Constructing the Finite State Machine for a Very Simple Example

   Constructing the FSM involves:

   1.  Listing the URNs that are expressed by the various signals of
       the UA.

   2.  From the expressed URNs, constructing the finite alphabet of
       symbols into which input URNs are mapped and that drive the state
       transitions of the FSM.






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   3.  Constructing the states of the FSM and the transitions between
       them.

   4.  Selecting a signal to be associated with each FSM state.

   We will explain the process using a very simple example in which
   there are two signals -- one expressing "internal source" and one
   expressing "external source" -- along with a default signal (for when
   there is no source information to signal).  The "internal source"
   signal expresses urn:alert:source:internal, and the "external source"
   signal expresses urn:alert:source:external.

4.1.  Listing the Expressed URNs

   The first step is to establish for each of the UA's signals what call
   characteristics it represents, which is to say, the set of "alert"
   URNs that are its information content.

       Signal                          URN(s)
       ----------------------------    -------------------------------
       default                         (none)
       internal source                 urn:alert:source:internal
       external source                 urn:alert:source:external

   From the totality of these expressed URNs, the designer can then
   determine which sets of URNs must be distinguished from each other.
   In our simple example, the expressed URNs are:

       urn:alert:source:external
       urn:alert:source:internal

4.2.  Constructing the Alphabet of Symbols

   In order to reduce the infinite set of possible "alert" URNs to a
   finite alphabet of input symbols that cause the FSM's transitions,
   the designer must partition the "alert" URNs into a finite set of
   categories.

   Once we've listed all the expressed URNs, we can list all of the
   alert-categories that are relevant to the UA's signaling; "alert"
   URNs in any other alert-category cannot affect the signaling and can
   be ignored.  (The easiest way to ignore the non-relevant URNs is to
   skip over them during Alert-Info processing.  A more formal method is
   to map all of them into one "Other" symbol and then, for each state
   of the FSM, have the "Other" symbol transition to that same state.)






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   Within each relevant alert-category, we now define a distinct
   symbol for every expressed URN and for all of their "ancestor" URNs
   (those that can be created by removing one or more trailing
   alert-ind-parts).  In order to name the symbols in a way that
   distinguishes them from the corresponding URNs, we remove the initial
   "urn:alert:" and capitalize each alert-ind-part.  Thus, in our
   example, we get these symbols:

       Source
       Source:External
       Source:Internal

   Note that there is a "Source" symbol even though there is no
   corresponding URN.  (urn:alert:source is not a valid URN -- see
   Section 7 of [RFC7462] -- although the processing algorithm must be
   prepared to screen out such a purported URN if it appears in the
   Alert-Info header field.)  However, its existence as a symbol will be
   useful later when we construct the FSM.

   For each of these symbols, we add a symbol that classifies URNs that
   extend the symbol's corresponding URN with alert-ind-parts that
   cannot be expressed by signals:

       Source:Other
       Source:External:Other
       Source:Internal:Other

   The latter two classify URNs, such as
   urn:alert:source:external:foo@example, that extend URNs that we
   already have symbols for.  The first is for classifying URNs, such as
   urn:alert:source:bar@example, that have first alert-ind-parts that
   contradict all the "source" URNs that the UA can signal.

   These steps give us this set of symbols:

       Source
       Source:External
       Source:External:Other
       Source:Internal
       Source:Internal:Other
       Source:Other

   We can then simplify the set of symbols by removing the ones like
   Source:External:Other and Source:Internal:Other that consist of
   adding "Other" to a symbol that corresponds to an expressed URN that
   is not ancestral to any other expressed URNs.  This works because
   adding further alert-ind-parts to a URN that is a leaf in regard to




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   the set of signals has no additional effect.  In this example,
   urn:alert:source:external:foo@example has the same effect as
   urn:alert:source:external for both (1) causing a signal to be chosen
   and (2) suppressing the effect of later URNs.

   This leaves the following symbols for the "source" category:

       Source
       Source:External
       Source:Internal
       Source:Other

   These can be visually summarized by showing the infinite tree of
   possible source "alert" URNs and how it is partitioned into subtrees
   that map to each of these symbols.  We also mark with "*" the
   expressed URNs.

                                urn:alert
                                    |
                                {   |    }
                                { source } --> 1
                                {   |    }
                                    |
               +--------------------+------------------+
               |                    |                  |
          {    |      }        {    |      }        {  |  }
          { external* } --> 2  { internal* } --> 3  { ... } --> 4
          {    |      }        {    |      }        {     }
          {   ...     }        {   ...     }
          {           }        {           }

       1 = Source
       2 = Source:External
       3 = Source:Internal
       4 = Source:Other

4.3.  Constructing the States and Transitions

   The UA processes the Alert-Info URNs from left to right using an FSM,
   with each successive URN causing the FSM to transition to a new
   state.  Each state of the FSM records the information that has so far
   been extracted from the URNs.  The state of the FSM after processing
   all the URNs determines which signal the UA will render to the user.

   We label each state with a set of symbols, one from each relevant
   category, that describe the information that's been extracted from
   all of the URNs that have so far been processed.  The initial state
   is labeled with the "null" symbols that are just the category names,



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   because no information has yet been recorded.  In our simple example,
   the initial state is labeled "Source", since that's the only relevant
   category.

       State: Source (initial state)

   Each state has a corresponding alerting signal, which is the signal
   that the UA will produce when URN processing leaves the FSM in that
   state.  The signal is the one that best expresses the information
   that has been extracted from the URNs.  Usually, the choice of signal
   is obvious to the designer, but there are certain constraints that
   the choice must satisfy.  The main constraint is that the signal's
   expressed URNs must be semantic supersets of (i.e., identical to or a
   prefix of) the URNs corresponding to the symbols in the state's
   label.  In particular, if the expressed URN of the signal in a
   certain category is shorter than the state's label, we show that in
   the state's name by putting parentheses around the trailing part of
   the symbol that is not expressed by the signal.  For instance, if the
   symbol in the label is "Source:External" but the signal only
   expresses "Source" (i.e., no "source" URN at all), then the symbol in
   the label is modified to be "Source:(External)".

   The reason for this nonintuitive construction is that in some states,
   the FSM has recorded information that the chosen signal cannot
   express.

   Note that the parentheses are part of the state name, so in some
   circumstances there may be two or more distinct states labeled with
   the same symbols but with different placement of parentheses within
   the symbols.  These similar state names are relevant when the FSM can
   record information from multiple "alert" URNs but cannot express all
   of them -- depending on the order in which the URNs appear, the UA
   may have to render different signals, so it needs states that record
   the same information but render different subsets of that
   information.

   The initial state's label is the string of null symbols for the
   relevant categories, so the only allowed signal is the default
   signal, which expresses no URNs:

       State: Source (initial state)
       Signal: default









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   From each state, we must construct the transition for each possible
   input symbol.  For a particular current state and symbol, we
   construct the label of the next state by combining the input symbol
   with the symbol in the current state's label for the same category.
   If one of the symbols is a prefix of the other, we select the longer
   one; if not, we select the symbol in the current state's label.

   Thus, in our simple example, the initial state has the following
   transitions:

       State: Source (initial state)
       Signal: default
       Transitions:
           Source:External -> Source:External
           Source:Internal -> Source:Internal
           Source:Other -> Source:Other

   In all of these transitions, the input symbol is compatible with the
   matching label of the current state, "Source", so the next state's
   label is the full input symbol.

   However, there is a further constraint on the next state: its signal
   must express URNs that at least contain the expressed URNs of the
   signal of the current state.  Within that constraint, and being
   compatible with the next state's label, for the category of the input
   URN, the next state's signal must express the longest URN that can be
   expressed by any signal.

   In our example, this means that the next Source:External state has
   the "external source" signal, which expresses
   urn:alert:source:external.  Since that signal expresses all of the
   state's label, it is the chosen state.  Similarly, the next
   Source:Internal state has the "internal source" signal.  But for the
   transition on input Source:Other, the "Source:Other" state must have
   the default signal, as there is no signal that expresses
   urn:alert:source:[some-unknown-alert-ind-part].  So the next state is
   "Source:(Other)", where the parentheses record that the "Other" part
   of the label is not expressed by the state's signal.













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   Thus, the current state and the next states that it can transition
   to are:

       State: Source (initial state)
       Signal: default
       Transitions:
           Source:External -> Source:External
           Source:Internal -> Source:Internal
           Source:Other -> Source:(Other)

       State: Source:External
       Signal: external source (urn:alert:source:external)

       State: Source:Internal
       Signal: internal source (urn:alert:source:internal)

       State: Source:(Other)
       Signal: default

   Looking at the state Source:External, we see that it is incompatible
   with all input symbols other than Source:External, and thus all of
   its transitions are to itself:

       State: Source:External
       Signal: external source (urn:alert:source:external)
       Transitions:
           Source:External -> Source:External
           Source:Internal -> Source:External
           Source:Other -> Source:External

   and similarly:

       State: Source:Internal
       Signal: internal source (urn:alert:source:internal)
       Transitions:
           Source:External -> Source:Internal
           Source:Internal -> Source:Internal
           Source:Other -> Source:Internal

       State: Source:(Other)
       Signal: default
       Transitions:
           Source:External -> Source:(Other)
           Source:Internal -> Source:(Other)
           Source:Other -> Source:(Other)






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4.4.  Summary

   The FSM can be constructed by processing the file "very-simple.txt"
   with the program "alert-info-fsm.py" in [code].  The program's output
   shows the stages of the construction, which are as follows:

   1.  The signals have the meanings:

       Signal                          URN(s)
       ----------------------------    -------------------------------
       default                         (none)
       internal source                 urn:alert:source:internal
       external source                 urn:alert:source:external

   2.  The expressed URNs are:

       urn:alert:source:external
       urn:alert:source:internal

   3.  The relevant categories of "alert" URNs are only:

       source

   4.  Thus, the infinite universe of possible "alert" URNs can be
       reduced to these symbols, which are the categories of URNs that
       are different in ways that are significant to the resolution
       process:

       Source
       Source:External
       Source:Internal
       Source:Other

   5.  The FSM is:

       State: Source (initial state)
       Signal: default
       Transitions:
           Source:External -> Source:External
           Source:Internal -> Source:Internal
           Source:Other -> Source:(Other)

       State: Source:External
       Signal: external source (urn:alert:source:external)
       Transitions:
           Source:External -> Source:External
           Source:Internal -> Source:External
           Source:Other -> Source:External



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       State: Source:Internal
       Signal: internal source (urn:alert:source:internal)
       Transitions:
           Source:External -> Source:Internal
           Source:Internal -> Source:Internal
           Source:Other -> Source:Internal

       State: Source:(Other)
       Signal: default
       Transitions:
           Source:External -> Source:(Other)
           Source:Internal -> Source:(Other)
           Source:Other -> Source:(Other)

       *  Each state is labeled by a set of symbols that describe the
          information that has been extracted from the URNs so far.

       *  Each state has a signal that is a semantic superset of the
          state's label, i.e., the signal's expressed URNs match the
          initial portion of the label symbols.  If Alert-Info
          processing finishes with the FSM in a state, the UA will
          render the state's signal to the user.

       *  The state's label is marked to show what subset of the symbols
          are expressed by the state's signal.  Two states can have the
          same label but different signals.

       *  If a transition's input symbol is compatible with (is a
          semantic subset of) the current state's label for that
          category, the next state's label is updated with the input
          symbol.  If not, the next state is the current state.  This is
          how the state's label records what information has been
          accumulated while processing the Alert-Info URNs.

       *  A transition's next state has a signal that semantically
          subsets the current state's signal as much as possible in the
          category of the input symbol.  (In most cases, the choice of
          signal is unique.  In rare cases, there may be more than one
          signal that meets this criterion, so the designer may have
          some flexibility.)











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4.5.  Examples of Processing Alert-Info URNs

   In the trivial case where the UA receives no Alert-Info URNs,
   processing begins and ends with the FSM in the initial state, and the
   default signal is selected.

   If the UA receives

       Alert-Info: <urn:alert:source:internal>

   then processing progresses:

       State: Source
           Process: Source:Internal (urn:alert:source:internal)
       State: Source:Internal
       Signal: internal source

   If the UA receives

       Alert-Info: <urn:alert:source:external>,
           <urn:alert:source:internal>

   then processing progresses:

       State: Source
           Process: Source:External (urn:alert:source:external)
       State: Source:External
           Process: Source:Internal (urn:alert:source:internal)
       State: Source:External
       Signal: external source

   If the UA receives

       Alert-Info: <urn:alert:source:unclassified>,
           <urn:alert:source:internal>

   then processing progresses:

       State: Source
           Process: Source:Other (urn:alert:source:unclassified)
       State: Source:(Other)
           Process: Source:Internal (urn:alert:source:internal)
       State: Source:(Other)
       Signal: default







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   If the UA receives

       Alert-Info: <urn:alert:priority:high>,
           <urn:alert:source:internal>

   then processing progresses:

       State: Source
           Ignore: urn:alert:priority:high
       State: Source
           Process: Source:Internal (urn:alert:source:internal)
       State: Source:Internal
       Signal: internal source

5.  Further Examples

5.1.  Example with "source" and "priority" URNs

   Now consider an example where the UA can signal "external source",
   "internal source", "low priority", and "high priority" individually
   or in any combination of source and priority, along with a default
   signal.  This example is essentially the Cartesian product of two
   copies of the example in Section 4: one dealing with the call's
   source and one dealing with the call's priority.  So there are a
   total of 9 signals:

       Signal                          URN(s)
       ----------------------------    -------------------------------
       default                         (none)
       external source                 urn:alert:source:external
       internal source                 urn:alert:source:internal
       low priority                    urn:alert:priority:low
       low priority/external source    urn:alert:priority:low,
                                           urn:alert:source:external
       low priority/internal source    urn:alert:priority:low,
                                           urn:alert:source:internal
       high priority                   urn:alert:priority:high
       high priority/external source   urn:alert:priority:high,
                                           urn:alert:source:external
       high priority/internal source   urn:alert:priority:high,
                                           urn:alert:source:internal

   The expressed URNs are:

       urn:alert:source:external
       urn:alert:source:internal
       urn:alert:priority:low
       urn:alert:priority:high



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   The relevant categories of "alert" URNs are only:

       source
       priority

   The alphabet of symbols is:

       Source
       Source:External
       Source:Internal
       Source:Other
       Priority
       Priority:Low
       Priority:High
       Priority:Other

   The 16 states are as follows, where 9 states are "sink" states from
   which no further information can be recorded, as all transitions from
   the state lead to itself.

       State: Priority/Source
       Signal: default
       Transitions:
           Priority:Other -> Priority:(Other)/Source
           Priority:High -> Priority:High/Source
           Priority:Low -> Priority:Low/Source
           Source:Other -> Priority/Source:(Other)
           Source:External -> Priority/Source:External
           Source:Internal -> Priority/Source:Internal

       State: Priority:(Other)/Source
       Signal: default
       Transitions:
           Priority:Other -> Priority:(Other)/Source
           Priority:High -> Priority:(Other)/Source
           Priority:Low -> Priority:(Other)/Source
           Source:Other -> Priority:(Other)/Source:(Other)
           Source:External -> Priority:(Other)/Source:External
           Source:Internal -> Priority:(Other)/Source:Internal

       State: Priority:(Other)/Source:(Other)
       Signal: default
       Transitions:
           any -> Priority:(Other)/Source:(Other)







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       State: Priority:(Other)/Source:External
       Signal: external source
       Transitions:
           any -> Priority:(Other)/Source:External

       State: Priority:(Other)/Source:Internal
       Signal: internal source
       Transitions:
           any -> Priority:(Other)/Source:Internal

       State: Priority:High/Source
       Signal: high priority
       Transitions:
           Priority:Other -> Priority:High/Source
           Priority:High -> Priority:High/Source
           Priority:Low -> Priority:High/Source
           Source:Other -> Priority:High/Source:(Other)
           Source:External -> Priority:High/Source:External
           Source:Internal -> Priority:High/Source:Internal

       State: Priority:High/Source:(Other)
       Signal: high priority
       Transitions:
           any -> Priority:High/Source:(Other)

       State: Priority:High/Source:External
       Signal: high priority/external source
       Transitions:
           any -> Priority:High/Source:External

       State: Priority:High/Source:Internal
       Signal: high priority/internal source
       Transitions:
           any -> Priority:High/Source:Internal

       State: Priority:Low/Source
       Signal: low priority
       Transitions:
           Priority:Other -> Priority:Low/Source
           Priority:High -> Priority:Low/Source
           Priority:Low -> Priority:Low/Source
           Source:Other -> Priority:Low/Source:(Other)
           Source:External -> Priority:Low/Source:External
           Source:Internal -> Priority:Low/Source:Internal







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       State: Priority:Low/Source:(Other)
       Signal: low priority
       Transitions:
           any -> Priority:Low/Source:(Other)

       State: Priority:Low/Source:External
       Signal: low priority/external source
       Transitions:
           any -> Priority:Low/Source:External

       State: Priority:Low/Source:Internal
       Signal: low priority/internal source
       Transitions:
           any -> Priority:Low/Source:Internal

       State: Priority/Source:(Other)
       Signal: default
       Transitions:
           Priority:Other -> Priority:(Other)/Source:(Other)
           Priority:High -> Priority:High/Source:(Other)
           Priority:Low -> Priority:Low/Source:(Other)
           Source:Other -> Priority/Source:(Other)
           Source:External -> Priority/Source:(Other)
           Source:Internal -> Priority/Source:(Other)

       State: Priority/Source:External
       Signal: external source
       Transitions:
           Priority:Other -> Priority:(Other)/Source:External
           Priority:High -> Priority:High/Source:External
           Priority:Low -> Priority:Low/Source:External
           Source:Other -> Priority/Source:External
           Source:External -> Priority/Source:External
           Source:Internal -> Priority/Source:External

       State: Priority/Source:Internal
       Signal: internal source
       Transitions:
           Priority:Other -> Priority:(Other)/Source:Internal
           Priority:High -> Priority:High/Source:Internal
           Priority:Low -> Priority:Low/Source:Internal
           Source:Other -> Priority/Source:Internal
           Source:External -> Priority/Source:Internal
           Source:Internal -> Priority/Source:Internal







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   An example of processing that involves multiple "source" URNs and one
   "priority" URN:

       Alert-Info: <urn:alert:source:internal>,
           <urn:alert:source:unclassified>,
           <urn:alert:priority:high>

   in which case processing progresses:

       State: Source/Priority
           Process: Source:Internal (urn:alert:source:internal)
       State: Source:Internal/Priority
           Process: Source:(Other) (urn:alert:source:unclassified)
       State: Source:Internal/Priority
           Process: Priority:High (urn:alert:priority:high)
       State: Source:Internal/Priority:High
       Signal: internal source/high priority

5.2.  Example 1 of RFC 7462

   A more complicated example is provided in Section 12.2.1 of
   [RFC7462].  It is like the example in Section 5.1 of this document,
   except that the UA can only signal "external source", "internal
   source", "low priority", and "high priority" individually but not in
   combination, as well as a default signal:

       Signal                          URN(s)
       ----------------------------    -------------------------------
       default                         (none)
       internal source                 urn:alert:source:external
       external source                 urn:alert:source:internal
       low priority                    urn:alert:priority:low
       high priority                   urn:alert:priority:high

   The signals can express the following URNs:

       urn:alert:source:external
       urn:alert:source:internal
       urn:alert:priority:low
       urn:alert:priority:high

   The relevant categories of "alert" URNs are:

       source
       priority






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   The alphabet of symbols is:

       Source
       Source:External
       Source:Internal
       Source:Other
       Priority
       Priority:Low
       Priority:High
       Priority:Other

   In this example, the FSM has 20 states because both "source" and
   "priority" URNs are recorded, but the order in which the two appear
   affects the signal:

       State: Priority/Source
       Signal: default
       Transitions:
           Priority:Other -> Priority:(Other)/Source
           Priority:High -> Priority:High/Source
           Priority:Low -> Priority:Low/Source
           Source:Other -> Priority/Source:(Other)
           Source:External -> Priority/Source:External
           Source:Internal -> Priority/Source:Internal

   State Priority:(Other)/Source can transition to states that can
   signal the source, because the recorded priority can't be signaled
   and thus does not block the signaling of the source:

       State: Priority:(Other)/Source
       Signal: default
       Transitions:
           Priority:Other -> Priority:(Other)/Source
           Priority:High -> Priority:(Other)/Source
           Priority:Low -> Priority:(Other)/Source
           Source:Other -> Priority:(Other)/Source:(Other)
           Source:External -> Priority:(Other)/Source:External
           Source:Internal -> Priority:(Other)/Source:Internal

       State: Priority:(Other)/Source:(Other)
       Signal: default
       Transitions:
           any -> Priority:(Other)/Source:(Other)

       State: Priority:(Other)/Source:External
       Signal: external source
       Transitions:
           any -> Priority:(Other)/Source:External



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       State: Priority:(Other)/Source:Internal
       Signal: internal source
       Transitions:
           any -> Priority:(Other)/Source:Internal

   Because there are no signals for combinations of "source" and
   "priority" URNs, processing a "source" URN from the state
   Priority:High/Source leads to a state that records the priority
   information but does not signal it:

       State: Priority:High/Source
       Signal: high priority
       Transitions:
           Priority:Other -> Priority:High/Source
           Priority:High -> Priority:High/Source
           Priority:Low -> Priority:High/Source
           Source:Other -> Priority:High/Source:(Other)
           Source:External -> Priority:High/Source:(External)
           Source:Internal -> Priority:High/Source:(Internal)

       State: Priority:High/Source:(Other)
       Signal: high priority
       Transitions:
           any -> Priority:High/Source:(Other)

   From the state Priority:High/Source, "source" URNs transition to
   states that record both source and priority but signal only priority,
   one of which is Priority:High/Source:(External).  But from
   Priority/Source:External, the symbol Priority:High transitions to the
   state Priority:(High)/Source:External, which records the same
   information but signals the source, not the priority.  One state is
   reached by processing a "priority" URN and then a "source" URN,
   whereas the other is reached by processing a "source" URN and then a
   "priority" URN.

       State: Priority:High/Source:(External)
       Signal: high priority
       Transitions:
           any -> Priority:High/Source:(External)

       State: Priority:High/Source:(Internal)
       Signal: high priority
       Transitions:
           any -> Priority:High/Source:(Internal)







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   and similarly for Priority:Low/Source:

       State: Priority:Low/Source
       Signal: low priority
       Transitions:
           Priority:Other -> Priority:Low/Source
           Priority:High -> Priority:Low/Source
           Priority:Low -> Priority:Low/Source
           Source:Other -> Priority:Low/Source:(Other)
           Source:External -> Priority:Low/Source:(External)
           Source:Internal -> Priority:Low/Source:(Internal)

       State: Priority:Low/Source:(Other)
       Signal: low priority
       Transitions:
           any -> Priority:Low/Source:(Other)

       State: Priority:Low/Source:(External)
       Signal: low priority
       Transitions:
           any -> Priority:Low/Source:(External)

       State: Priority:Low/Source:(Internal)
       Signal: low priority
       Transitions:
           any -> Priority:Low/Source:(Internal)

       State: Priority/Source:(Other)
       Signal: default
       Transitions:
           Priority:Other -> Priority:(Other)/Source:(Other)
           Priority:High -> Priority:High/Source:(Other)
           Priority:Low -> Priority:Low/Source:(Other)
           Source:Other -> Priority/Source:(Other)
           Source:External -> Priority/Source:(Other)
           Source:Internal -> Priority/Source:(Other)

       State: Priority/Source:External
       Signal: external source
       Transitions:
           Priority:Other -> Priority:(Other)/Source:External
           Priority:High -> Priority:(High)/Source:External
           Priority:Low -> Priority:(Low)/Source:External
           Source:Other -> Priority/Source:External
           Source:External -> Priority/Source:External
           Source:Internal -> Priority/Source:External





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       State: Priority:(High)/Source:External
       Signal: external source
       Transitions:
           any -> Priority:(High)/Source:External

       State: Priority:(Low)/Source:External
       Signal: external source
       Transitions:
           any -> Priority:(Low)/Source:External

       State: Priority/Source:Internal
       Signal: internal source
       Transitions:
           Priority:Other -> Priority:(Other)/Source:Internal
           Priority:High -> Priority:(High)/Source:Internal
           Priority:Low -> Priority:(Low)/Source:Internal
           Source:Other -> Priority/Source:Internal
           Source:External -> Priority/Source:Internal
           Source:Internal -> Priority/Source:Internal

       State: Priority:(High)/Source:Internal
       Signal: internal source
       Transitions:
           any -> Priority:(High)/Source:Internal

       State: Priority:(Low)/Source:Internal
       Signal: internal source
       Transitions:
           any -> Priority:(Low)/Source:Internal

   As an example of processing, if the UA receives

       Alert-Info: <urn:alert:source:internal>

   then processing progresses:

       State: Priority/Source
           Process: Source:Internal (urn:alert:source:internal)
       State: Priority/Source:Internal
       Signal: internal source











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   A more complicated example involves multiple "source" URNs that do
   not select a non-default signal and one "priority" URN that can be
   signaled:

       Alert-Info: <urn:alert:source:unclassified>,
           <urn:alert:source:internal>,
           <urn:alert:priority:high>

   in which case processing progresses:

       State: Priority/Source
           Process: Source:Other (urn:alert:source:unclassified)
       State: Priority/Source:(Other)
           Process: Source:Internal (urn:alert:source:internal)
       State: Priority/Source:(Other)
           Process: Priority:High (urn:alert:priority:high)
       State: Priority:High/Source:(Other)
       Signal: high priority

   The only output of the FSM is the state's signal.  Based on this,
   several groups of states in this FSM can be merged using standard FSM
   optimization algorithms:

       states with signal "high priority":
           Priority:High/Source
           Priority:High/Source:(Other)
           Priority:High/Source:(External)
           Priority:High/Source:(Internal)

       states with signal "low priority":
           Priority:Low/Source
           Priority:Low/Source:(Other)
           Priority:Low/Source:(External)
           Priority:Low/Source:(Internal)

       states with signal "external source":
           Priority/Source:External
           Priority:(High)/Source:External
           Priority:(Low)/Source:External
           Priority:(Other)/Source:External

       states with signal "internal source":
           Priority/Source:Internal
           Priority:(High)/Source:Internal
           Priority:(Low)/Source:Internal
           Priority:(Other)/Source:Internal





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   This reduces the FSM to eight states:

       Priority/Source
       Priority:(Other)/Source
       Priority:(Other)/Source:(Other)
       Priority:High/Source  [aggregated]
       Priority:Low/Source  [aggregated]
       Priority/Source:(Other)
       Priority/Source:External  [aggregated]
       Priority/Source:Internal  [aggregated]

5.3.  Examples 2, 3, and 4 of RFC 7462

   Examples 2, 3, and 4 of [RFC7462] are similar to the example in
   Section 5.1 of this document, but they do not include a signal for
   the combination "internal source, low priority" to make resolution
   examples work asymmetrically.

   The FSM for this example has the same alphabet as the FSM of
   Section 5.1.  Most of the states of this FSM are the same as the
   states of the FSM of Section 5.1, but the state
   Source:Internal/Priority:Low is missing because there is no signal
   for that combination.  It is replaced by two states:

   1.  One state is Source:Internal/Priority:(Low); it records that
       Source:Internal was specified first (and is to be signaled) and
       that Priority:Low was specified later (and cannot be signaled --
       but it still prevents any further "priority" URNs from having an
       effect).

   2.  The other state is Source:(Internal)/Priority:Low; it records the
       reverse sequence of events.

   The changes in the FSM are:

       State: Priority:Low/Source
       Signal: low priority
       Transitions:
           Source:Internal -> Priority:Low/Source:(Internal)
           (other transitions unchanged)

       State: Priority:Low/Source:(Internal)
       Signal: low priority
       Transitions:
           any -> Priority:Low/Source:(Internal)






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       State: Priority/Source:Internal
       Signal: internal source
       Transitions:
           Priority:Low -> Priority:(Low)/Source:Internal
           (other transitions unchanged)

       State: Priority:(Low)/Source:Internal
       Signal: internal source
       Transitions:
           any -> Priority:(Low)/Source:Internal

   An example of processing that involves multiple "source" URNs and one
   "priority" URN:

       Alert-Info: <urn:alert:source:internal>,
           <urn:alert:source:unclassified>,
           <urn:alert:priority:high>

   then processing progresses:

       State: Priority/Source
           Process: Source:Internal (urn:alert:source:internal)
       State: Priority/Source:Internal
           Process: Source:Other (urn:alert:source:unclassified)
       State: Priority/Source:Internal
           Process: Priority:High (urn:alert:priority:high)
       State: Priority:High/Source:Internal
       Signal: internal source/high priority

   If the UA receives

       Alert-Info: <urn:alert:source:internal>

   then processing progresses:

       State: Priority/Source
           Process: Source:Internal (urn:alert:source:internal)
       State: Priority/Source:Internal
       Signal: internal source












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   If the UA receives

       Alert-Info: <urn:alert:source:external>,
           <urn:alert:priority:low>

   then processing progresses:

       State: Priority/Source
           Process: Source:External (urn:alert:source:external)
       State: Priority/Source:External
           Process: Priority:Low (urn:alert:priority:low)
       State: Priority:Low/Source:External
       Signal: external source/low priority

   Suppose the same UA receives

       Alert-Info: <urn:alert:source:internal>,
           <urn:alert:priority:low>

   Note that there is no signal that corresponds to this combination.
   In that case, the processing is:

       State: Priority/Source
           Process: Source:Internal (urn:alert:source:internal)
       State: Priority/Source:Internal
           Process: Priority:Low (urn:alert:priority:low)
       State: Priority:(Low)/Source:Internal
       Signal: internal source

   If the order of the URNs is reversed, what is signaled is the meaning
   of the now-different first URN:

       Alert-Info: <urn:alert:priority:low>,
           <urn:alert:source:internal>

       State: Priority/Source
           Process: Priority:Low (urn:alert:priority:low)
       State: Priority:Low/Source
           Process: Source:Internal (urn:alert:source:internal)
       State: Priority:Low/Source:(Internal)
       Signal: low priority










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   Notice that the existence of the new states prevents later URNs of a
   category from overriding earlier URNs of that category, even if the
   earlier one was not itself signalable and the later one would be
   signalable in the absence of the earlier one:

       Alert-Info: <urn:alert:priority:low>,
           <urn:alert:source:internal>,
           <urn:alert:source:external>

       State: Priority/Source
           Process: Priority:Low (urn:alert:priority:low)
       State: Priority:Low/Source
           Process: Source:Internal (urn:alert:source:internal)
       State: Priority:Low/Source:(Internal)
           Process: Source:External (urn:alert:source:external)
       State: Priority:Low/Source:(Internal)
       Signal: low priority

   This situation shows the necessity of states whose labels contain
   parentheses.  If the second transition had been to the state
   Priority:Low/Source (on the basis that there is no proper state
   Priority:Low/Source:Internal), then the third transition would have
   been to the state Priority:Low/Source:External, and the signal would
   have been "external source/low priority".

5.4.  An Example That Subsets Internal Sources

   In the example of Section 4, there are signals for "external source"
   and "internal source".  Let us add to that example a signal for
   "source internal from a VIP (Very Important Person)".  That last
   signal expresses the private extension URN
   urn:alert:source:internal:vip@example, which is a subset of
   urn:alert:source:internal, which is expressed by the "source
   internal" signal.  There are a total of three expressed URNs, one of
   which is a subset of another:

       urn:alert:source:internal
       urn:alert:source:internal:vip@example
       urn:alert:source:external

   This generates the following alphabet of symbols, which includes two
   "Other" symbols for the "source" category:

       Source
       Source:Internal
       Source:Internal:Vip@example
       Source:Internal:Other
       Source:Other



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5.5.  An Example of "alert:service" URNs

   In this example, there are signals for "service forward" (the call
   has been forwarded) and "source recall callback" (a recall due to a
   callback).  This gives two expressed URNs:

       urn:alert:service:forward
       urn:alert:service:recall:callback

   This generates the following alphabet of symbols.  Note that there
   are two "Other" symbols, because the "alert:service" URNs have an
   additional level of qualification.

       Service
       Service:Forward
       Service:Recall
       Service:Recall:Callback
       Service:Recall:Other
       Service:Other

5.6.  An Example Using Country Codes

   In this example, we consider how a UA generates ringback signals when
   the UA wishes to reproduce the traditional behavior where the caller
   hears the ringback signals defined by the telephone service in the
   callee's country rather than the ringback signals defined by the
   service in the caller's country.  In the Alert-Info header field of
   the 180 (Ringing) provisional response, we assume that the called UA
   provides an "alert:country" URN [RFC7462] containing the ISO 3166-1
   [ISO-3166-1] alpha-2 country code of the callee's country.

   The UA has a default signal and a "non-country" signal for
   urn:alert:service:call-waiting.  For the example country with code
   "XA", the UA has a default signal and signals for
   urn:alert:service:call-waiting and urn:alert:service:forward.  For
   the example country with code "XB", the UA has a default signal and a
   signal for urn:alert:service:forward.  These inconsistencies between
   the non-country signals and the country signals are chosen to
   demonstrate the flexibility of the construction method, showing that
   three systems of signals can be combined correctly even when the
   systems were established without coordination between them.










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   The signals are:

       Signal                        URN(s)
       --------------------------    ----------------------------------
       default                       (none)
       call-waiting                  urn:alert:service:call-waiting

       XA default                    urn:alert:country:xa
       XA call-waiting               urn:alert:country:xa,
                                         urn:alert:service:call-waiting
       XA forward                    urn:alert:country:xa,
                                         urn:alert:service:forward

       XB default                    urn:alert:country:xb
       XB forward                    urn:alert:country:xb,
                                        urn:alert:service:forward

   The expressed URNs are:

       urn:alert:country:xa
       urn:alert:country:xb
       urn:alert:service:call-waiting
       urn:alert:service:forward

   The relevant categories of "alert" URNs are only:

       country
       service

   The alphabet of symbols is:

       Country
       Country:[other]
       Country:Xa
       Country:Xb
       Service
       Service:[other]
       Service:Call-waiting
       Service:Forward












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   The 17 states are as follows:

       State: 0 Country/Service
       Signal: default
       Transitions:
           Country:[other] -> 1 Country:([other])/Service
           Country:Xa -> 5 Country:Xa/Service
           Country:Xb -> 9 Country:Xb/Service
           Service:[other] -> 13 Country/Service:([other])
           Service:Call-waiting -> 14 Country/Service:Call-waiting
           Service:Forward -> 16 Country/Service:(Forward)

    State: 1 Country:([other])/Service
    Signal: default
    Transitions:
        Country:[other] -> 1 Country:([other])/Service
        Country:Xa -> 1 Country:([other])/Service
        Country:Xb -> 1 Country:([other])/Service
        Service:[other] -> 2 Country:([other])/Service:([other])
        Service:Call-waiting -> 3 Country:([other])/Service:Call-waiting
        Service:Forward -> 4 Country:([other])/Service:(Forward)

       State: 2 Country:([other])/Service:([other])
       Signal: default
       Transitions:
           any -> 2 Country:([other])/Service:([other])

       State: 3 Country:([other])/Service:Call-waiting
       Signal: call-waiting
       Transitions:
           any -> 3 Country:([other])/Service:Call-waiting

       State: 4 Country:([other])/Service:(Forward)
       Signal: default
       Transitions:
           any -> 4 Country:([other])/Service:(Forward)

       State: 5 Country:Xa/Service
       Signal: XA default
       Transitions:
           Country:[other] -> 5 Country:Xa/Service
           Country:Xa -> 5 Country:Xa/Service
           Country:Xb -> 5 Country:Xa/Service
           Service:[other] -> 6 Country:Xa/Service:([other])
           Service:Call-waiting -> 7 Country:Xa/Service:Call-waiting
           Service:Forward -> 8 Country:Xa/Service:Forward





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       State: 6 Country:Xa/Service:([other])
       Signal: XA default
       Transitions:
           any -> 6 Country:Xa/Service:([other])

       State: 7 Country:Xa/Service:Call-waiting
       Signal: XA call-waiting
       Transitions:
           any -> 7 Country:Xa/Service:Call-waiting

       State: 8 Country:Xa/Service:Forward
       Signal: XA forward
       Transitions:
           any -> 8 Country:Xa/Service:Forward

       State: 9 Country:Xb/Service
       Signal: XB default
       Transitions:
           Country:[other] -> 9 Country:Xb/Service
           Country:Xa -> 9 Country:Xb/Service
           Country:Xb -> 9 Country:Xb/Service
           Service:[other] -> 10 Country:Xb/Service:([other])
           Service:Call-waiting -> 11 Country:Xb/Service:(Call-waiting)
           Service:Forward -> 12 Country:Xb/Service:Forward

       State: 10 Country:Xb/Service:([other])
       Signal: XB default
       Transitions:
           any -> 10 Country:Xb/Service:([other])

       State: 11 Country:Xb/Service:(Call-waiting)
       Signal: XB default
       Transitions:
           any -> 11 Country:Xb/Service:(Call-waiting)

       State: 12 Country:Xb/Service:Forward
       Signal: XB forward
       Transitions:
           any -> 12 Country:Xb/Service:Forward












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       State: 13 Country/Service:([other])
       Signal: default
       Transitions:
           Country:[other] -> 2 Country:([other])/Service:([other])
           Country:Xa -> 6 Country:Xa/Service:([other])
           Country:Xb -> 10 Country:Xb/Service:([other])
           Service:[other] -> 13 Country/Service:([other])
           Service:Call-waiting -> 13 Country/Service:([other])
           Service:Forward -> 13 Country/Service:([other])

       State: 14 Country/Service:Call-waiting
       Signal: call-waiting
       Transitions:
           Country:[other] -> 3 Country:([other])/Service:Call-waiting
           Country:Xa -> 7 Country:Xa/Service:Call-waiting
           Country:Xb -> 15 Country:(Xb)/Service:Call-waiting
           Service:[other] -> 14 Country/Service:Call-waiting
           Service:Call-waiting -> 14 Country/Service:Call-waiting
           Service:Forward -> 14 Country/Service:Call-waiting

       State: 15 Country:(Xb)/Service:Call-waiting
       Signal: call-waiting
       Transitions:
           any -> 15 Country:(Xb)/Service:Call-waiting

       State: 16 Country/Service:(Forward)
       Signal: default
       Transitions:
           Country:[other] -> 4 Country:([other])/Service:(Forward)
           Country:Xa -> 8 Country:Xa/Service:Forward
           Country:Xb -> 12 Country:Xb/Service:Forward
           Service:[other] -> 16 Country/Service:(Forward)
           Service:Call-waiting -> 16 Country/Service:(Forward)
           Service:Forward -> 16 Country/Service:(Forward)

   Call-waiting can be signaled in conjunction with country XA but not
   in conjunction with country XB, as the UA does not have a signal to
   present call-waiting alerts for country XB.  Thus, the ordering of
   urn:alert:service:call-waiting with urn:alert:country:xa does not
   matter, but if urn:alert:country:xb appears before
   urn:alert:service:call-waiting, call-waiting cannot be signaled.










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   On the other hand, if urn:alert:service:call-waiting appears before
   urn:alert:country:xb, then call-waiting is signaled, but using the
   non-country signal.

      Alert-Info: urn:alert:country:xa,
              urn:alert:service:call-waiting

      State: 0 Country/Service
          Process: Country:Xa (urn:alert:country:xa)
      State: 5 Country:Xa/Service
          Process: Service:Call-waiting (urn:alert:service:call-waiting)
      State: 7 Country:Xa/Service:Call-waiting
      Signal: XA call-waiting

      Alert-Info: urn:alert:service:call-waiting,
              urn:alert:country:xa

      State: 0 Country/Service
          Process: Service:Call-waiting (urn:alert:service:call-waiting)
      State: 14 Country/Service:Call-waiting
          Process: Country:Xa (urn:alert:country:xa)
      State: 7 Country:Xa/Service:Call-waiting
      Signal: XA call-waiting

      Alert-Info: urn:alert:country:xb,
              urn:alert:service:call-waiting

      State: 0 Country/Service
          Process: Country:Xb (urn:alert:country:xb)
      State: 9 Country:Xb/Service
          Process: Service:Call-waiting (urn:alert:service:call-waiting)
      State: 11 Country:Xb/Service:(Call-waiting)
      Signal: XB default

      Alert-Info: urn:alert:service:call-waiting,
              urn:alert:country:xb

      State: 0 Country/Service
          Process: Service:Call-waiting (urn:alert:service:call-waiting)
      State: 14 Country/Service:Call-waiting
          Process: Country:Xb (urn:alert:country:xb)
      State: 15 Country:(Xb)/Service:Call-waiting
      Signal: call-waiting








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6.  Prioritizing Signals

   The specifications provided in [RFC7462] are oriented toward giving
   the sender of Alert-Info control over which of the "alert" URNs are
   most important.  But in some situations, the UA may prefer to
   prioritize expressing one URN category over another regardless of the
   order in which their URNs appear in Alert-Info.  This section
   describes how that can be accommodated within the framework of
   [RFC7462] and presents an example FSM resulting from that approach.

   This example uses the signals of Section 5.2, viz., "external
   source", "internal source", "low priority", and "high priority", but
   this time, we want to signal "high priority" in preference to any
   other signal that might be applicable.

   We accommodate this within the framework of [RFC7462] by assigning
   the signal "high priority" for each of these combinations of URNs:

       urn:alert:priority:high
       urn:alert:priority:high, urn:alert:source:internal
       urn:alert:priority:high, urn:alert:source:external

   The result is that the signal "high priority" is the "best" signal
   for any combination of urn:alert:priority:high with "source" URNs.

   Constructing the symbols produces the same results as before.  The
   signals can express the following URNs:

       urn:alert:source:external
       urn:alert:source:internal
       urn:alert:priority:low
       urn:alert:priority:high

   The relevant categories of "alert" URNs are:

       source
       priority

   The alphabet of symbols is:

       Source
       Source:External
       Source:Internal
       Source:Other
       Priority
       Priority:Low
       Priority:High
       Priority:Other



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   When the FSM is constructed, it is the same as the FSM of
   Section 5.2, except that certain states are effectively renamed and
   merged, because any "source" is defined to be expressed if high
   priority is expressed:

       Priority:(High)/Source:External and
       Priority:High/Source:(External) become:

           State: Priority:High/Source:External
           Signal: high priority

       Priority:(High)/Source:Internal and
       Priority:High/Source:(Internal) become:

           State: Priority:High/Source:Internal
           Signal: high priority

   This reduces the FSM to 18 states.  In addition, these two new
   states, along with a number of other states, can be merged by FSM
   optimization, since all of them have the signal "high priority" and
   from them, there are no transitions to states outside this set.  The
   optimized FSM has 10 states.

7.  Dynamic Sets of Signals

   This section discusses how to construct FSMs for a UA that allows
   variable sets of signals -- for example, if the user can configure
   the use of ring tones.  Several approaches can be used:

   o  Whenever the set of ring tones is changed, re-execute the
      processes of Section 4.

   o  Whenever the set of ring tones is changed, rebuild the list of
      expressed URNs (Section 4.1) and reconstruct the alphabet of
      symbols (Section 4.2).  Then, use an algorithm for dynamically
      constructing the states of the FSM as needed during Alert-Info
      processing.

   o  If the sets of possible URNs expressed by the ring tones are
      sufficiently limited, the steps of Section 4 can be carried out
      "generically", and the generic FSM can be specialized for the
      current ring tone configuration.

   The remainder of this section gives an example of the third approach.







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   For the example, we will use a set of ring tones that express the
   identity of the caller.  To signal this information, a private
   extension "alert" URN category, "caller@example", is used:

       urn:alert:caller@example:alice@example.com
       urn:alert:caller@example:bob@example.com
       etc.

   which we can express by the generic pattern

       urn:alert:caller@example:IDENTITY

   where "IDENTITY" is replaced in succession by the set of caller
   identities that have their own ring tones to generate the set of
   expressed URNs.

   The alphabet is then:

       Caller@example
       Caller@example:IDENTITY
       Caller@example:Other

   where "IDENTITY" is replaced in succession by the set of caller
   identities.  The "Caller@example:Other" symbol includes all URNs of
   the category "caller@example" that are not included in any of the
   "Caller@example:IDENTITY" symbols, i.e, where the second
   alert-ind-part is not one of the known caller identities.

   The states and transitions of the FSM are:

       State: Caller@example (initial state)
       Signal: default
       Transitions:
           Caller@example:IDENTITY -> Caller@example:IDENTITY
           Caller@example:Other -> Caller@example:(Other)

       State: Caller@example:IDENTITY
       Signal: signal for caller IDENTITY
       Transitions:
           any -> Caller@example:IDENTITY

       State: Caller@example:(Other)
       Signal: default
       Transitions:
           any -> Caller@example:(Other)






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   where again, the second state is replicated once for each caller
   identity that has a ring tone, with "IDENTITY" replaced with the
   caller identity.

8.  Security Considerations

   The security considerations discussed in Section 16 of [RFC7462]
   regarding the use and processing of "alert" URNs MUST be followed
   when the algorithm described in this document is used.

   Like any implementation of [RFC7462], implementations of the
   algorithm defined in this document MUST take into account that the
   value of a received Alert-Info header field may contain URIs of any
   scheme, may contain syntactically invalid values, and may be
   syntactically invalid overall.  The handling of syntactically invalid
   values is specified by [RFC3261].  The handling of URIs other than
   "alert" URIs is outside the scope of this document (and outside the
   scope of [RFC7462]) and MAY be subject to local policy.

   Like the algorithm described in Section 12 of [RFC7462], the output
   of the algorithm defined in this document is limited to a choice
   among the signals that it has been configured for, limiting the
   security issues regarding the processing of its output.  This
   algorithm will use at most linear time and constant space to process
   a sequence of "alert" URNs.  This is significantly more efficient
   than the algorithm of [RFC7462] and minimizes the security
   vulnerabilities of this processing step that are due to resource
   consumption.

   However, the process defined in this document for constructing an FSM
   can use more than linear time and constant space -- probably
   exponential time and space in the worst case.  This SHOULD be taken
   into consideration whenever an FSM is constructed using this
   algorithm and MUST be taken into consideration when it is done
   dynamically by a UA.  Whenever an FSM is constructed by a process
   that is not under the direct supervision of a human user, procedures
   MUST be used to ensure that (1) the processing and memory consumption
   are limited to acceptable amounts and (2) if the FSM construction is
   aborted due to excessive consumption, the designated consumers of the
   FSM MUST have appropriate fallback procedures.

9.  IANA Considerations

   This document has no IANA actions.







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10.  References

10.1.  Normative References

   [ISO-3166-1]
              International Organization for Standardization, "Codes for
              the representation of names of countries and their
              subdivisions -- Part 1: Country codes", ISO
              Standard 3166-1:2013, November 2013,
              <https://www.iso.org/iso-3166-country-codes.html>.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC3261]  Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., Camarillo, G., Johnston,
              A., Peterson, J., Sparks, R., Handley, M., and E.
              Schooler, "SIP: Session Initiation Protocol", RFC 3261,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3261, June 2002,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3261>.

   [RFC7462]  Liess, L., Ed., Jesske, R., Johnston, A., Worley, D., and
              P. Kyzivat, "URNs for the Alert-Info Header Field of the
              Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)", RFC 7462,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7462, March 2015,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7462>.

   [RFC8174]  Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in
              RFC 2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8174, May 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>.

10.2.  Informative References

   [code]     Worley, D., "draft-worley-alert-info-fsm.aux",
              February 2017, <http://svn.resiprocate.org/rep/
              ietf-drafts/worley/draft-worley-alert-info-fsm.aux>.













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Acknowledgments

   Thanks to Paul Kyzivat, whose relentless identification of the
   weaknesses of earlier versions made the final document much, much
   better than it would have been, by changing it from the exposition of
   a concept into a practical tool.  Thanks to Rifaat Shekh-Yusef, Eric
   Burger, and Gonzalo Camarillo for their thorough reviews.  Thanks to
   the earlier Independent Submissions Editor, Nevil Brownlee, for his
   work obtaining reviewers, and the later Independent Submissions
   Editor, Adrian Farrel, for prompting me to write the Security
   Considerations section (which I had expected to be trivial but
   was not).

Author's Address

   Dale R. Worley
   Ariadne Internet Services
   738 Main St.
   Waltham, MA  02451
   United States of America

   Email: worley@ariadne.com





























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