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PROPOSED STANDARD

Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)                 M. Boucadair, Ed.
Request for Comments: 8512                                        Orange
Category: Standards Track                                   S. Sivakumar
ISSN: 2070-1721                                            Cisco Systems
                                                            C. Jacquenet
                                                                  Orange
                                                           S. Vinapamula
                                                        Juniper Networks
                                                                   Q. Wu
                                                                  Huawei
                                                            January 2019


                           A YANG Module for
 Network Address Translation (NAT) and Network Prefix Translation (NPT)

Abstract

   This document defines a YANG module for the Network Address
   Translation (NAT) function.

   Network Address Translation from IPv4 to IPv4 (NAT44), Network
   Address and Protocol Translation from IPv6 Clients to IPv4 Servers
   (NAT64), customer-side translator (CLAT), Stateless IP/ICMP
   Translation (SIIT), Explicit Address Mappings (EAM) for SIIT,
   IPv6-to-IPv6 Network Prefix Translation (NPTv6), and Destination NAT
   are covered in this document.

Status of This Memo

   This is an Internet Standards Track document.

   This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
   (IETF).  It represents the consensus of the IETF community.  It has
   received public review and has been approved for publication by the
   Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG).  Further information on
   Internet Standards is available in Section 2 of RFC 7841.

   Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
   and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
   https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8512.










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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2019 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.





































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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     1.1.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   2.  Overview of the NAT YANG Data Model . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     2.1.  Overview  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     2.2.  Various Translation Flavors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     2.3.  TCP/UDP/ICMP NAT Behavioral Requirements  . . . . . . . .   8
     2.4.  Other Transport Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     2.5.  IP Addresses Used for Translation . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     2.6.  Port-Set Assignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     2.7.  Port-Restricted IP Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     2.8.  NAT Mapping Entries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     2.9.  Resource Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     2.10. Binding the NAT Function to an External Interface . . . .  16
     2.11. Relationship to NATV2-MIB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
     2.12. Tree Structure  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
   3.  NAT YANG Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
   4.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  68
   5.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  70
   6.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  70
     6.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  70
     6.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  73
   Appendix A.  Some Examples  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  75
     A.1.  Traditional NAT44 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  75
     A.2.  Carrier Grade NAT (CGN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  76
     A.3.  CGN Pass-Through  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  80
     A.4.  NAT64 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  80
     A.5.  Stateless IP/ICMP Translation (SIIT)  . . . . . . . . . .  81
     A.6.  Explicit Address Mappings (EAM) for Stateless IP/ICMP
           Translation (SIIT)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  82
     A.7.  Static Mappings with Port Ranges  . . . . . . . . . . . .  85
     A.8.  Static Mappings with IP Prefixes  . . . . . . . . . . . .  86
     A.9.  Destination NAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  86
     A.10. Customer-Side Translator (CLAT) . . . . . . . . . . . . .  89
     A.11. IPv6 Network Prefix Translation (NPTv6) . . . . . . . . .  90
   Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  93
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  94













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1.  Introduction

   This document defines a data model for Network Address Translation
   (NAT) and Network Prefix Translation (NPT) capabilities using the
   YANG data modeling language [RFC7950].

   Traditional NAT is defined in [RFC2663], while Carrier Grade NAT
   (CGN) is defined in [RFC6888].  Unlike traditional NAT, the CGN is
   used to optimize the usage of global IP address space at the scale of
   a domain: a CGN is not managed by end users but by service providers
   instead.  This document covers both traditional NATs and CGNs.

   This document also covers NAT64 [RFC6146], customer-side translator
   (CLAT) [RFC6877], Stateless IP/ICMP Translation (SIIT) [RFC7915],
   Explicit Address Mappings (EAM) for SIIT [RFC7757], IPv6 Network
   Prefix Translation (NPTv6) [RFC6296], and Destination NAT.  The full
   set of translation schemes that are in scope is included in
   Section 2.2.

   Some examples are provided in Appendix A.  These examples are not
   intended to be exhaustive.

1.1.  Terminology

   This document makes use of the following terms:

   o  Basic Network Address Translation from IPv4 to IPv4 (NAT44):
      translation is limited to IP addresses alone (Section 2.1 of
      [RFC3022]).

   o  Network Address Port Translator (NAPT): translation in NAPT is
      extended to include IP addresses and transport identifiers (such
      as a TCP/UDP port or ICMP query ID); refer to Section 2.2 of
      [RFC3022].  A NAPT may use an extra identifier, in addition to the
      five transport tuples, to disambiguate bindings [RFC6619].

   o  Destination NAT: is a translation that acts on the destination IP
      address and/or destination port number.  This flavor is usually
      deployed in load balancers or at devices in front of public
      servers.

   o  Port-restricted IPv4 address: an IPv4 address with a restricted
      port set.  Multiple hosts may share the same IPv4 address;
      however, their port sets must not overlap [RFC7596].







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   o  Restricted port set: a non-overlapping range of allowed external
      ports to use for NAT operation.  Source ports of IPv4 packets
      translated by a NAT must belong to the assigned port set.  The
      port set is used for all port-aware IP protocols [RFC7596].

   o  Internal host: a host that may need to use a translation
      capability to send to and receive traffic from the Internet.

   o  Internal address/prefix: the IP address/prefix of an internal
      host.

   o  External address: the IP address/prefix assigned by a translator
      to an internal host; this is the address that will be seen by a
      remote host on the Internet.

   o  Mapping: denotes a state at the translator that is necessary for
      network address and/or port translation.

   o  Dynamic implicit mapping: is created implicitly as a side effect
      of processing a packet (e.g., an initial TCP SYN packet) that
      requires a new mapping.  A validity lifetime is associated with
      this mapping.

   o  Dynamic explicit mapping: is created as a result of an explicit
      request, e.g., a Port Control Protocol (PCP) message [RFC6887].  A
      validity lifetime is associated with this mapping.

   o  Static explicit mapping: is created using, e.g., a command-line
      interface (CLI).  This mapping is likely to be maintained by the
      NAT function till an explicit action is executed to remove it.

   The usage of the term NAT in this document refers to any translation
   flavor (NAT44, NAT64, etc.) indifferently.

   This document uses the term "session" as defined in [RFC2663] and
   [RFC6146] for NAT64.

   This document follows the guidelines of [RFC8407], uses the common
   YANG types defined in [RFC6991], and adopts the Network Management
   Datastore Architecture (NMDA).  The meaning of the symbols in tree
   diagrams is defined in [RFC8340].










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2.  Overview of the NAT YANG Data Model

2.1.  Overview

   The NAT YANG module is designed to cover dynamic implicit mappings
   and static explicit mappings.  The required functionality to instruct
   dynamic explicit mappings is defined in separate documents such as
   [YANG-PCP].  Considerations about instructing by explicit dynamic
   means (e.g., [RFC6887], [RFC6736], or [RFC8045]) are out of scope.
   As a reminder, REQ-9 of [RFC6888] requires that a CGN must implement
   a protocol giving subscribers explicit control over NAT mappings;
   that protocol should be the Port Control Protocol [RFC6887].

   A single NAT device can have multiple NAT instances; each of these
   instances can be provided with its own policies (e.g., be responsible
   for serving a group of hosts).  This document does not make any
   assumption about how internal hosts or flows are associated with a
   given NAT instance.

   The NAT YANG module assumes that each NAT instance can be enabled/
   disabled, be provisioned with a specific set of configuration data,
   and maintain its own mapping tables.

   The NAT YANG module allows for a NAT instance to be provided with
   multiple NAT policies (/nat/instances/instance/policy).  The document
   does not make any assumption about how flows are associated with a
   given NAT policy of a given NAT instance.  Classification filters are
   out of scope.

   Defining multiple NAT instances or configuring multiple NAT policies
   within one single NAT instance is implementation and deployment
   specific.

   This YANG module does not provide any method to instruct a NAT
   function to enable the logging feature or to specify the information
   to be logged for administrative or regulatory reasons (Section 2.3 of
   [RFC6908] and REQ-12 of [RFC6888]).  Those considerations are out of
   the scope of this document.













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2.2.  Various Translation Flavors

   The following translation modes are supported:

   o  Basic NAT44
   o  NAPT
   o  Destination NAT
   o  Port-restricted NAT
   o  Stateful NAT64 (including with destination-based Pref64::/n
      [RFC7050])
   o  SIIT
   o  CLAT
   o  EAM
   o  NPTv6
   o  Combination of Basic NAT/NAPT and Destination NAT
   o  Combination of port-restricted and Destination NAT
   o  Combination of NAT64 and EAM
   o  Stateful and Stateless NAT64

   [RFC8513] specifies an extension to the NAT YANG module to support
   Dual-Stack Lite (DS-Lite).

   The YANG "feature" statement is used to indicate which of the
   different translation modes is relevant for a specific data node.
   Table 1 lists defined features:

            +---------------------------------+--------------+
            |                Translation Mode | YANG Feature |
            +---------------------------------+--------------+
            |                     Basic NAT44 | basic-nat44  |
            |                            NAPT | napt44       |
            |                 Destination NAT | dst-nat      |
            |                  Stateful NAT64 | nat64        |
            | Stateless IPv4/IPv6 Translation | siit         |
            |                            CLAT | clat         |
            |                             EAM | eam          |
            |                           NPTv6 | nptv6        |
            +---------------------------------+--------------+

                        Table 1: NAT YANG Features

   The following translation modes do not require that dedicated
   features be defined:

   o  Port-restricted NAT: This mode corresponds to supplying port-
      restriction policies to a NAPT or NAT64 (port-set-restrict).
   o  Combination of Basic NAT/NAPT and Destination NAT: This mode
      corresponds to setting 'dst-nat-enable' for Basic NAT44 or NAPT.



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   o  Combination of port-restricted and Destination NAT: This mode can
      be achieved by configuring a NAPT with port restriction policies
      (port-set-restrict) together with a destination IP address pool
      (dst-ip-address-pool).
   o  Combination of NAT64 and EAM: This mode corresponds to configuring
      static mappings for NAT64.
   o  Stateful and stateless NAT64: A NAT64 implementation can be
      instructed to behave in the stateless mode for a given prefix by
      setting the parameter (nat64-prefixes/stateless-enable).  A NAT64
      implementation may behave in both stateful and stateless modes if,
      in addition to appropriately setting the parameter
      (nat64-prefixes/stateless-enable), an external IPv4 address pool
      is configured.

   The NAT YANG module provides a method to retrieve the capabilities of
   a NAT instance (including a list of supported translation modes, a
   list of supported protocols, the supported NAT mapping types, the
   supported NAT filtering types, the behavior for handling fragments
   (all, out-of-order, in-order), and the support statuses for the
   following: port restriction, port range allocation, port parity
   preservation, and port preservation).

2.3.  TCP/UDP/ICMP NAT Behavioral Requirements

   This document assumes NAT behavioral recommendations for UDP
   [RFC4787], TCP [RFC5382], and ICMP [RFC5508] are enabled by default.

   Furthermore, the NAT YANG module relies upon the recommendations
   detailed in [RFC6888] and [RFC7857].

2.4.  Other Transport Protocols

   The module is structured to support protocols other than UDP, TCP,
   and ICMP.  Concretely, the module allows the operator to enable
   translation for other transport protocols when required
   (/nat/instances/instance/policy/transport-protocols).  Moreover, the
   mapping table is designed so that it can indicate any transport
   protocol.  For example, this module may be used to manage a NAT
   capable of the Datagram Congestion Control Protocol (DCCP) that
   adheres to [RFC5597].

   Future extensions may be needed to cover NAT-related considerations
   that are specific to other transport protocols such as the Stream
   Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) [NAT-SUPP].  Typically, the
   mapping entry can be extended to record two optional SCTP-specific
   parameters: the Internal Verification Tag (Int-VTag) and External
   Verification Tag (Ext-VTag).




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   This document only specifies transport-protocol-specific timers for
   UDP, TCP, and ICMP.  While some timers could potentially be
   generalized for other connection-oriented protocols, this document
   does not follow such an approach because there is no standard
   document specifying such generic behavior.  Future documents may be
   edited to clarify how to reuse TCP-specific timers when needed.

2.5.  IP Addresses Used for Translation

   The NAT YANG module assumes that blocks of IP external addresses
   (external-ip-address-pool) can be provisioned to the NAT function.
   These blocks may be contiguous or not.

   This behavior is aligned with [RFC6888], which specifies that a NAT
   function should not have any limitations on the size or the
   contiguity of the external address pool.  In particular, the NAT
   function must be configurable with contiguous or non-contiguous
   external IPv4 address ranges.  To accommodate traditional NAT, the
   module allows for a single IP address to be configured for external-
   ip-address-pool.

   Likewise, one or multiple IP address pools may be configured for
   Destination NAT (dst-ip-address-pool).

2.6.  Port-Set Assignment

   Port numbers can be assigned by a NAT individually (that is, a single
   port is assigned on a per-session basis), but this port allocation
   scheme may not be optimal for logging purposes (Section 12 of
   [RFC6269]).  A NAT function should be able to assign port sets (e.g.,
   [RFC7753]) to optimize the volume of the logging data (REQ-14 of
   [RFC6888]).  Both allocation schemes are supported in the NAT YANG
   module.

   When port-set assignment is activated (i.e., port-allocation-
   type==port-range-allocation), the NAT can be provided with the size
   of the port set to be assigned (port-set-size).

2.7.  Port-Restricted IP Addresses

   Some NATs restrict the source port numbers (e.g., Lightweight 4over6
   [RFC7596] and Mapping of Address and Port with Encapsulation (MAP-E)
   [RFC7597]).  Two schemes of port-set assignments (port-set-restrict)
   are supported in this document:

   o  Simple port range: is defined by two port values, the start and
      the end of the port range [RFC8045].




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   o  Algorithmic: an algorithm is defined in [RFC7597] to characterize
      the set of ports that can be used.

2.8.  NAT Mapping Entries

   A TCP/UDP mapping entry maintains an association between the
   following information:

      (internal-src-address, internal-src-port) (internal-dst-address,
      internal-dst-port) <=> (external-src-address, external-src-port)
      (external-dst-address, external-dst-port)

   An ICMP mapping entry maintains an association between the following
   information:

      (internal-src-address, internal-dst-address, internal ICMP/ICMPv6
      identifier) <=> (external-src-address, external-dst-address,
      external ICMP/ICMPv6 identifier)

   As a reminder, all the ICMP Query messages contain an 'Identifier'
   field, which is referred to in this document as the 'ICMP
   Identifier'.

   To cover TCP, UDP, and ICMP, the NAT YANG module assumes the
   following structure of a mapping entry:

   type:   Indicates how the mapping was instantiated.  For example, it
      may indicate whether a mapping is dynamically instantiated by a
      packet or statically configured.

   transport-protocol:  Indicates the transport protocol (e.g., UDP,
      TCP, and ICMP) of a given mapping.

   internal-src-address:  Indicates the source IP address/prefix as used
      by an internal host.

   internal-src-port:  Indicates the source port number (or ICMP
      identifier) as used by an internal host.

   external-src-address:   Indicates the source IP address/prefix as
      assigned by the NAT.

   external-src-port:   Indicates the source port number (or ICMP
      identifier) as assigned by the NAT.

   internal-dst-address:  Indicates the destination IP address/prefix as
      used by an internal host when sending a packet to a remote host.




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   internal-dst-port:   Indicates the destination port number as used by
      an internal host when sending a packet to a remote host.

   external-dst-address:  Indicates the destination IP address/prefix
      used by a NAT when processing a packet issued by an internal host
      towards a remote host.

   external-dst-port:   Indicates the destination port number used by a
      NAT when processing a packet issued by an internal host towards a
      remote host.

   In order to cover both NAT64 and NAT44 flavors, the NAT mapping
   structure allows for the inclusion of an IPv4 or an IPv6 address as
   an internal IP address.  Remaining fields are common to both NAT
   schemes.

   For example, the mapping that will be created by a NAT64 upon receipt
   of a TCP SYN from source address 2001:db8:aaaa::1 and source port
   number 25636 to destination IP address 2001:db8:1234::198.51.100.1
   and destination port number 8080 is shown in Table 2.  This example
   assumes Endpoint-Dependent Mapping (EDM).

   +-----------------------+-------------------------------------------+
   |         Mapping Entry | Value                                     |
   |             Attribute |                                           |
   +-----------------------+-------------------------------------------+
   |                  type | dynamic implicit mapping                  |
   |    transport-protocol | 6 (TCP)                                   |
   |  internal-src-address | 2001:db8:aaaa::1                          |
   |     internal-src-port | 25636                                     |
   |  external-src-address | T (an IPv4 address configured on the      |
   |                       | NAT64)                                    |
   |     external-src-port | t (a port number that is chosen by the    |
   |                       | NAT64)                                    |
   |  internal-dst-address | 2001:db8:1234::198.51.100.1               |
   |     internal-dst-port | 8080                                      |
   |  external-dst-address | 198.51.100.1                              |
   |     external-dst-port | 8080                                      |
   +-----------------------+-------------------------------------------+

                 Table 2: Example of an EDM NAT64 Mapping










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   The mappings that will be created by a NAT44 upon receipt of an ICMP
   request from source address 198.51.100.1 and ICMP identifier (ID1) to
   destination IP address 198.51.100.11 is depicted in Table 3.  This
   example assumes Endpoint-Independent Mapping (EIM).

   +----------------------+--------------------------------------------+
   |        Mapping-Entry | Value                                      |
   |            Attribute |                                            |
   +----------------------+--------------------------------------------+
   |                 type | dynamic implicit mapping                   |
   |   transport-protocol | 1 (ICMP)                                   |
   | internal-src-address | 198.51.100.1                               |
   |    internal-src-port | ID1                                        |
   | external-src-address | T (an IPv4 address configured on the       |
   |                      | NAT44)                                     |
   |    external-src-port | ID2 (an ICMP identifier that is chosen by  |
   |                      | the NAT44)                                 |
   +----------------------+--------------------------------------------+

              Table 3: Example of an EIM NAT44 Mapping Entry

   The mapping that will be created by a NAT64 (EIM mode) upon receipt
   of an ICMP request from source address 2001:db8:aaaa::1 and ICMP
   identifier (ID1) to destination IP address
   2001:db8:1234::198.51.100.1 is shown in Table 4.

   +----------------------+--------------------------------------------+
   |        Mapping-Entry | Value                                      |
   |            Attribute |                                            |
   +----------------------+--------------------------------------------+
   |                 type | dynamic implicit mapping                   |
   |   transport-protocol | 58 (ICMPv6)                                |
   | internal-src-address | 2001:db8:aaaa::1                           |
   |    internal-src-port | ID1                                        |
   | external-src-address | T (an IPv4 address configured on the       |
   |                      | NAT64)                                     |
   |    external-src-port | ID2 (an ICMP identifier that is chosen by  |
   |                      | the NAT64)                                 |
   +----------------------+--------------------------------------------+

              Table 4: Example of an EIM NAT64 Mapping Entry










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   Note that a mapping table is maintained only for stateful NAT
   functions.  Particularly:

   o  No mapping table is maintained for NPTv6 given that it is
      stateless and transport-agnostic.

   o  The double translations are stateless in CLAT if a dedicated IPv6
      prefix is provided for CLAT.  If not, a stateful NAT44 will be
      required.

   o  No per-flow mapping is maintained for EAM [RFC7757].

   o  No mapping table is maintained for Stateless IPv4/IPv6
      translation.  As a reminder, in such deployments, internal IPv6
      nodes are addressed using IPv4-translatable IPv6 addresses, which
      enable them to be accessed by IPv4 nodes [RFC6052].

2.9.  Resource Limits

   In order to comply with CGN deployments in particular, the NAT YANG
   module allows limiting the number of external ports per subscriber
   (port-quota) and the amount of state memory allocated per mapping and
   per subscriber (mapping-limits and connection-limits).  According to
   [RFC6888], the module is designed to allow for the following:

   o  Per-subscriber limits are configurable by the NAT administrator.

   o  Per-subscriber limits are configurable independently per the
      transport protocol.

   o  Administrator-adjustable thresholds to prevent a single subscriber
      from consuming excessive CPU resources from the NAT (e.g., rate-
      limit the subscriber's creation of new mappings) can be
      configured.

















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   Table 5 lists the various limits that can be set using the NAT YANG
   module.  Once a limit is reached, packets that would normally trigger
   new port mappings or be translated because they match existing
   mappings, are dropped by the translator.

   +-------------------+-----------------------------------------------+
   | Limit             | Description                                   |
   +-------------------+-----------------------------------------------+
   | port-quota        | Specifies a port quota to be assigned per     |
   |                   | subscriber.  It corresponds to the maximum    |
   |                   | number of ports to be used by a subscriber.   |
   |                   | The port quota can be configured to apply to  |
   |                   | all protocols or to a specific protocol.      |
   |                   | Distinct port quota may be configured per     |
   |                   | protocol.                                     |
   +-------------------+-----------------------------------------------+
   | fragments-limit   | In order to prevent denial-of-service (DoS)   |
   |                   | attacks that can be caused by fragments, this |
   |                   | parameter is used to limit the number of out- |
   |                   | of-order fragments that can be handled by a   |
   |                   | translator.                                   |
   +-------------------+-----------------------------------------------+
   | mapping-limits    | This parameter can be used to control the     |
   |                   | maximum number of subscribers that can be     |
   |                   | serviced by a NAT instance (limit-subscriber) |
   |                   | and the maximum number of address and/or port |
   |                   | mappings that can be maintained by a NAT      |
   |                   | instance (limit-address-mappings and limit-   |
   |                   | port-mappings).  Also, limits specific to     |
   |                   | protocols (e.g., TCP, UDP, ICMP) can also be  |
   |                   | specified (limit-per-protocol).               |
   +-------------------+-----------------------------------------------+
   | connection-limits | In order to prevent exhausting the resources  |
   |                   | of a NAT implementation and to ensure         |
   |                   | fairness usage among subscribers, various     |
   |                   | rate limits can be specified.  Rate-limiting  |
   |                   | can be enforced per subscriber (limit-        |
   |                   | subscriber), per NAT instance (limit-per-     |
   |                   | instance), and/or be specified for each       |
   |                   | supported protocol (limit-per-protocol).      |
   +-------------------+-----------------------------------------------+

                            Table 5: NAT Limits








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   Table 6 describes limits that, once exceeded, will trigger
   notifications to be generated:

   +--------------------------+----------------------------------------+
   | Notification Threshold   | Description                            |
   +--------------------------+----------------------------------------+
   | high-threshold           | Used to notify high address            |
   |                          | utilization of a given pool.  When     |
   |                          | exceeded, a nat-pool-event             |
   |                          | notification will be generated.        |
   +--------------------------+----------------------------------------+
   | low-threshold            | Used to notify low address utilization |
   |                          | of a given pool.  An administrator is  |
   |                          | supposed to configure low-threshold so |
   |                          | that it can reflect an abnormal usage  |
   |                          | of NAT resources.  When exceeded, a    |
   |                          | nat-pool-event notification will be    |
   |                          | generated.                             |
   +--------------------------+----------------------------------------+
   | notify-addresses-usage   | Used to notify high address            |
   |                          | utilization of all pools configured to |
   |                          | a NAT instance.  When exceeded, a nat- |
   |                          | instance-event will be generated.      |
   +--------------------------+----------------------------------------+
   | notify-ports-usage       | Used to notify high port allocation    |
   |                          | taking into account all pools          |
   |                          | configured to a NAT instance.  When    |
   |                          | exceeded, a nat-instance-event         |
   |                          | notification will be generated.        |
   +--------------------------+----------------------------------------+
   | notify-subscribers-limit | Used to notify a high number of active |
   |                          | subscribers that are serviced by a NAT |
   |                          | instance.  When exceeded, a nat-       |
   |                          | instance-event notification will be    |
   |                          | generated.                             |
   +--------------------------+----------------------------------------+

                     Table 6: Notification Thresholds













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   In order to prevent a NAT implementation from generating frequent
   notifications, the NAT YANG module supports the following limits
   (Table 7) used to control how frequent notifications can be
   generated.  That is, notifications are subject to rate-limiting
   imposed by these intervals.

   +-------------------------------------+-----------------------------+
   | Interval                            | Description                 |
   +-------------------------------------+-----------------------------+
   | notify-pool-usage/notify-interval   | Indicates the minimum       |
   |                                     | number of seconds between   |
   |                                     | successive notifications    |
   |                                     | for a given address pool.   |
   +-------------------------------------+-----------------------------+
   | notification-limits/notify-interval | Indicates the minimum       |
   |                                     | number of seconds between   |
   |                                     | successive notifications    |
   |                                     | for a NAT instance.         |
   +-------------------------------------+-----------------------------+

                      Table 7: Notification Intervals

2.10.  Binding the NAT Function to an External Interface

   The module is designed to specify an external realm on which the NAT
   function must be applied (external-realm).  The module supports
   indicating an interface as an external realm [RFC8343], but the
   module is extensible so that other choices can be indicated in the
   future (e.g., Virtual Routing and Forwarding (VRF) instance).

   Distinct external realms can be provided as a function of the NAT
   policy (see, for example, Section 4 of [RFC7289]).

   If no external realm is provided, this assumes that the system is
   able to determine the external interface (VRF instance, etc.) on
   which the NAT will be applied.  Typically, the WAN and LAN interfaces
   of Customer Premises Equipment (CPE) are determined by the CPE.

2.11.  Relationship to NATV2-MIB

   Section of 5.1 of [RFC7659] indicates that the NATV2-MIB assumes that
   the following information is configured on the NAT by some means,
   which is not specified in [RFC7659]:

   o  The set of address realms to which the device connects.






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   o  For the CGN case, per-subscriber information including the
      subscriber index, address realm, assigned prefix or address, and
      (possibly) policies regarding address pool selection in the
      various possible address realms to which the subscriber may
      connect.

   o  The set of NAT instances running on the device, identified by NAT
      instance index and name.

   o  The port mapping, filtering, pooling, and fragment behaviors for
      each NAT instance.

   o  The set of protocols supported by each NAT instance.

   o  Address pools for each NAT instance, including for each pool the
      pool index, address realm, and minimum and maximum port numbers.

   o  Static address and port mapping entries.

   All the above parameters can be configured by means of the NAT YANG
   module.

   Unlike the NATV2-MIB, the NAT YANG module allows the configuration of
   multiple policies per NAT instance.

2.12.  Tree Structure

   The tree structure of the NAT YANG module is provided below:

  module: ietf-nat
    +--rw nat
       +--rw instances
          +--rw instance* [id]
             +--rw id                       uint32
             +--rw name?                    string
             +--rw enable?                  boolean
             +--ro capabilities
             |  +--ro nat-flavor*
             |  |       identityref
             |  +--ro per-interface-binding*
             |  |       enumeration
             |  +--ro transport-protocols* [protocol-id]
             |  |  +--ro protocol-id      uint8
             |  |  +--ro protocol-name?   string
             |  +--ro restricted-port-support?
             |  |       boolean
             |  +--ro static-mapping-support?
             |  |       boolean



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             |  +--ro port-randomization-support?
             |  |       boolean
             |  +--ro port-range-allocation-support?
             |  |       boolean
             |  +--ro port-preservation-suport?
             |  |       boolean
             |  +--ro port-parity-preservation-support?
             |  |       boolean
             |  +--ro address-roundrobin-support?
             |  |       boolean
             |  +--ro paired-address-pooling-support?
             |  |       boolean
             |  +--ro endpoint-independent-mapping-support?
             |  |       boolean
             |  +--ro address-dependent-mapping-support?
             |  |       boolean
             |  +--ro address-and-port-dependent-mapping-support?
             |  |       boolean
             |  +--ro endpoint-independent-filtering-support?
             |  |       boolean
             |  +--ro address-dependent-filtering?
             |  |       boolean
             |  +--ro address-and-port-dependent-filtering?
             |  |       boolean
             |  +--ro fragment-behavior?
             |          enumeration
             +--rw type?                    identityref
             +--rw per-interface-binding?   enumeration
             +--rw nat-pass-through* [id]
             |       {basic-nat44 or napt44 or dst-nat}?
             |  +--rw id        uint32
             |  +--rw prefix    inet:ip-prefix
             |  +--rw port?     inet:port-number
             +--rw policy* [id]
             |  +--rw id                          uint32
             |  +--rw clat-parameters {clat}?
             |  |  +--rw clat-ipv6-prefixes* [ipv6-prefix]
             |  |  |  +--rw ipv6-prefix    inet:ipv6-prefix
             |  |  +--rw ipv4-prefixes* [ipv4-prefix]
             |  |     +--rw ipv4-prefix    inet:ipv4-prefix
             |  +--rw nptv6-prefixes* [internal-ipv6-prefix] {nptv6}?
             |  |  +--rw internal-ipv6-prefix    inet:ipv6-prefix
             |  |  +--rw external-ipv6-prefix    inet:ipv6-prefix
             |  +--rw eam* [ipv4-prefix] {eam}?
             |  |  +--rw ipv4-prefix    inet:ipv4-prefix
             |  |  +--rw ipv6-prefix    inet:ipv6-prefix





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             |  +--rw nat64-prefixes* [nat64-prefix]
             |  |       {siit or nat64 or clat}?
             |  |  +--rw nat64-prefix               inet:ipv6-prefix
             |  |  +--rw destination-ipv4-prefix* [ipv4-prefix]
             |  |  |  +--rw ipv4-prefix    inet:ipv4-prefix
             |  |  +--rw stateless-enable?          boolean
             |  +--rw external-ip-address-pool* [pool-id]
             |  |       {basic-nat44 or napt44 or nat64}?
             |  |  +--rw pool-id             uint32
             |  |  +--rw external-ip-pool    inet:ipv4-prefix
             |  +--rw port-set-restrict {napt44 or nat64}?
             |  |  +--rw (port-type)?
             |  |     +--:(port-range)
             |  |     |  +--rw start-port-number?   inet:port-number
             |  |     |  +--rw end-port-number?     inet:port-number
             |  |     +--:(port-set-algo)
             |  |        +--rw psid-offset?         uint8
             |  |        +--rw psid-len             uint8
             |  |        +--rw psid                 uint16
             |  +--rw dst-nat-enable?             boolean
             |  |       {basic-nat44 or napt44}?
             |  +--rw dst-ip-address-pool* [pool-id] {dst-nat}?
             |  |  +--rw pool-id            uint32
             |  |  +--rw dst-in-ip-pool?    inet:ip-prefix
             |  |  +--rw dst-out-ip-pool    inet:ip-prefix
             |  +--rw transport-protocols* [protocol-id]
             |  |       {napt44 or nat64 or dst-nat}?
             |  |  +--rw protocol-id      uint8
             |  |  +--rw protocol-name?   string
             |  +--rw subscriber-mask-v6?         uint8
             |  +--rw subscriber-match* [match-id]
             |  |       {basic-nat44 or napt44 or dst-nat}?
             |  |  +--rw match-id    uint32
             |  |  +--rw subnet      inet:ip-prefix
             |  +--rw address-allocation-type?    enumeration
             |  +--rw port-allocation-type?       enumeration
             |  |       {napt44 or nat64}?
             |  +--rw mapping-type?               enumeration
             |  |       {napt44 or nat64}?
             |  +--rw filtering-type?             enumeration
             |  |       {napt44 or nat64}?
             |  +--rw fragment-behavior?          enumeration
             |  |       {napt44 or nat64}?
             |  +--rw port-quota* [quota-type] {napt44 or nat64}?
             |  |  +--rw port-limit?   uint16
             |  |  +--rw quota-type    uint8





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             |  +--rw port-set {napt44 or nat64}?
             |  |  +--rw port-set-size       uint16
             |  |  +--rw port-set-timeout?   uint32
             |  +--rw timers {napt44 or nat64}?
             |  |  +--rw udp-timeout?               uint32
             |  |  +--rw tcp-idle-timeout?          uint32
             |  |  +--rw tcp-trans-open-timeout?    uint32
             |  |  +--rw tcp-trans-close-timeout?   uint32
             |  |  +--rw tcp-in-syn-timeout?        uint32
             |  |  +--rw fragment-min-timeout?      uint32
             |  |  +--rw icmp-timeout?              uint32
             |  |  +--rw per-port-timeout* [port-number]
             |  |  |  +--rw port-number    inet:port-number
             |  |  |  +--rw protocol?      uint32
             |  |  |  +--rw timeout        uint32
             |  |  +--rw hold-down-timeout?         uint32
             |  |  +--rw hold-down-max?             uint32
             |  +--rw fragments-limit?            uint32
             |  +--rw algs* [name]
             |  |  +--rw name                  string
             |  |  +--rw transport-protocol?   uint32
             |  |  +--rw dst-transport-port
             |  |  |  +--rw start-port-number?   inet:port-number
             |  |  |  +--rw end-port-number?     inet:port-number
             |  |  +--rw src-transport-port
             |  |  |  +--rw start-port-number?   inet:port-number
             |  |  |  +--rw end-port-number?     inet:port-number
             |  |  +--rw status?               boolean
             |  +--rw all-algs-enable?            boolean
             |  +--rw notify-pool-usage
             |  |       {basic-nat44 or napt44 or nat64}?
             |  |  +--rw pool-id?           uint32
             |  |  +--rw low-threshold?    percent
             |  |  +--rw high-threshold?     percent
             |  |  +--rw notify-interval?   uint32
             |  +--rw external-realm
             |     +--rw (realm-type)?
             |        +--:(interface)
             |           +--rw external-interface?   if:interface-ref
             +--rw mapping-limits {napt44 or nat64}?
             |  +--rw limit-subscribers?        uint32
             |  +--rw limit-address-mappings?   uint32
             |  +--rw limit-port-mappings?      uint32
             |  +--rw limit-per-protocol* [protocol-id]
             |          {napt44 or nat64 or dst-nat}?
             |     +--rw protocol-id    uint8
             |     +--rw limit?         uint32




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             +--rw connection-limits
             |       {basic-nat44 or napt44 or nat64}?
             |  +--rw limit-per-subscriber?   uint32
             |  +--rw limit-per-instance?     uint32
             |  +--rw limit-per-protocol* [protocol-id]
             |          {napt44 or nat64}?
             |     +--rw protocol-id    uint8
             |     +--rw limit?         uint32
             +--rw notification-limits
             |  +--rw notify-interval?            uint32
             |  |       {basic-nat44 or napt44 or nat64}?
             |  +--rw notify-addresses-usage?     percent
             |  |       {basic-nat44 or napt44 or nat64}?
             |  +--rw notify-ports-usage?         percent
             |  |       {napt44 or nat64}?
             |  +--rw notify-subscribers-limit?   uint32
             |          {basic-nat44 or napt44 or nat64}?
             +--rw mapping-table
             |  |{basic-nat44 or napt44 or nat64 or clat or dst-nat}?
             |  +--rw mapping-entry* [index]
             |     +--rw index                   uint32
             |     +--rw type?                   enumeration
             |     +--rw transport-protocol?     uint8
             |     +--rw internal-src-address?   inet:ip-prefix
             |     +--rw internal-src-port
             |     |  +--rw start-port-number?   inet:port-number
             |     |  +--rw end-port-number?     inet:port-number
             |     +--rw external-src-address?   inet:ip-prefix
             |     +--rw external-src-port
             |     |  +--rw start-port-number?   inet:port-number
             |     |  +--rw end-port-number?     inet:port-number
             |     +--rw internal-dst-address?   inet:ip-prefix
             |     +--rw internal-dst-port
             |     |  +--rw start-port-number?   inet:port-number
             |     |  +--rw end-port-number?     inet:port-number
             |     +--rw external-dst-address?   inet:ip-prefix
             |     +--rw external-dst-port
             |     |  +--rw start-port-number?   inet:port-number
             |     |  +--rw end-port-number?     inet:port-number
             |     +--rw lifetime?               uint32
             +--ro statistics
                +--ro discontinuity-time     yang:date-and-time
                +--ro traffic-statistics
                |  +--ro sent-packets?
                |  |       yang:zero-based-counter64
                |  +--ro sent-bytes?
                |  |       yang:zero-based-counter64




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                |  +--ro rcvd-packets?
                |  |       yang:zero-based-counter64
                |  +--ro rcvd-bytes?
                |  |       yang:zero-based-counter64
                |  +--ro dropped-packets?
                |  |       yang:zero-based-counter64
                |  +--ro dropped-bytes?
                |  |       yang:zero-based-counter64
                |  +--ro dropped-fragments?
                |  |       yang:zero-based-counter64
                |  |       {napt44 or nat64}?
                |  +--ro dropped-address-limit-packets?
                |  |       yang:zero-based-counter64
                |  |       {basic-nat44 or napt44 or nat64}?
                |  +--ro dropped-address-limit-bytes?
                |  |       yang:zero-based-counter64
                |  |       {basic-nat44 or napt44 or nat64}?
                |  +--ro dropped-address-packets?
                |  |       yang:zero-based-counter64
                |  |       {basic-nat44 or napt44 or nat64}?
                |  +--ro dropped-address-bytes?
                |  |       yang:zero-based-counter64
                |  |       {basic-nat44 or napt44 or nat64}?
                |  +--ro dropped-port-limit-packets?
                |  |       yang:zero-based-counter64
                |  |       {napt44 or nat64}?
                |  +--ro dropped-port-limit-bytes?
                |  |       yang:zero-based-counter64
                |  |       {napt44 or nat64}?
                |  +--ro dropped-port-packets?
                |  |       yang:zero-based-counter64
                |  |       {napt44 or nat64}?
                |  +--ro dropped-port-bytes?
                |  |       yang:zero-based-counter64
                |  |       {napt44 or nat64}?
                |  +--ro dropped-subscriber-limit-packets?
                |  |       yang:zero-based-counter64
                |  |       {basic-nat44 or napt44 or nat64}?
                |  +--ro dropped-subscriber-limit-bytes?
                |          yang:zero-based-counter64
                |          {basic-nat44 or napt44 or nat64}?
                +--ro mappings-statistics
                |  +--ro total-active-subscribers?   yang:gauge32
                |  |       {basic-nat44 or napt44 or nat64}?
                |  +--ro total-address-mappings?     yang:gauge32
                |  |{basic-nat44 or napt44 or nat64 or clat or dst-nat}?
                |  +--ro total-port-mappings?        yang:gauge32
                |  |       {napt44 or nat64}?



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                |  +--ro total-per-protocol* [protocol-id]
                |          {napt44 or nat64}?
                |     +--ro protocol-id    uint8
                |     +--ro total?         yang:gauge32
                +--ro pools-stats {basic-nat44 or napt44 or nat64}?
                   +--ro addresses-allocated?   yang:gauge32
                   +--ro addresses-free?        yang:gauge32
                   +--ro ports-stats {napt44 or nat64}?
                   |  +--ro ports-allocated?   yang:gauge32
                   |  +--ro ports-free?        yang:gauge32
                   +--ro per-pool-stats* [pool-id]
                      |    {basic-nat44 or napt44 or nat64}?
                      +--ro pool-id               uint32
                      +--ro discontinuity-time    yang:date-and-time
                      +--ro pool-stats
                      |  +--ro addresses-allocated?   yang:gauge32
                      |  +--ro addresses-free?        yang:gauge32
                      +--ro port-stats {napt44 or nat64}?
                         +--ro ports-allocated?   yang:gauge32
                         +--ro ports-free?        yang:gauge32

    notifications:
      +---n nat-pool-event {basic-nat44 or napt44 or nat64}?
      |  +--ro id        -> /nat/instances/instance/id
      |  +--ro policy-id?
      |  |       -> /nat/instances/instance/policy/id
      |  +--ro pool-id
      |  |       -> /nat/instances/instance/policy/
      |  |            external-ip-address-pool/pool-id
      |  +--ro notify-pool-threshold    percent
      +---n nat-instance-event {basic-nat44 or napt44 or nat64}?
         +--ro id
         |       -> /nat/instances/instance/id
         +--ro notify-subscribers-threshold?   uint32
         +--ro notify-addresses-threshold?     percent
         +--ro notify-ports-threshold?         percent















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3.  NAT YANG Module

 <CODE BEGINS> file "ietf-nat@2019-01-10.yang"

 module ietf-nat {
  yang-version 1.1;
  namespace "urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-nat";
  prefix nat;

  import ietf-inet-types {
    prefix inet;
    reference
      "Section 4 of RFC 6991";
  }
  import ietf-yang-types {
    prefix yang;
    reference
      "Section 3 of RFC 6991";
  }
  import ietf-interfaces {
    prefix if;
    reference
      "RFC 8343: A YANG Data Model for Interface Management";
  }

  organization
    "IETF OPSAWG (Operations and Management Area Working Group)";
  contact
    "WG Web:   <https://datatracker.ietf.org/wg/opsawg/>
     WG List:  <mailto:opsawg@ietf.org>

     Editor:  Mohamed Boucadair
              <mailto:mohamed.boucadair@orange.com>

     Author:  Senthil Sivakumar
              <mailto:ssenthil@cisco.com>

     Author:  Christian Jacquenet
              <mailto:christian.jacquenet@orange.com>

     Author:  Suresh Vinapamula
              <mailto:sureshk@juniper.net>

     Author:  Qin Wu
              <mailto:bill.wu@huawei.com>";

  description
    "This module is a YANG module for NAT implementations.



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     NAT44, Network Address and Protocol Translation from IPv6
     Clients to IPv4 Servers (NAT64), customer-side translator
     (CLAT), Stateless IP/ICMP Translation (SIIT), Explicit
     Address Mappings (EAM) for SIIT, IPv6 Network Prefix
     Translation (NPTv6), and Destination NAT are covered.

     Copyright (c) 2018 IETF Trust and the persons identified as
     authors of the code.  All rights reserved.

     Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or
     without modification, is permitted pursuant to, and subject
     to the license terms contained in, the Simplified BSD License
     set forth in Section 4.c of the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions
     Relating to IETF Documents
     (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info).

     This version of this YANG module is part of RFC 8512; see
     the RFC itself for full legal notices.";

  revision 2019-01-10 {
    description
      "Initial revision.";
    reference
      "RFC 8512: A YANG Module for Network Address Translation
                 (NAT) and Network Prefix Translation (NPT)";
  }

  /*
   * Definitions
   */

  typedef percent {
    type uint8 {
      range "0 .. 100";
    }
    description
      "Percentage";
  }

  /*
   * Features
   */

  feature basic-nat44 {
    description
      "Basic NAT44 translation is limited to IP addresses alone.";
    reference
      "RFC 3022: Traditional IP Network Address Translator



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                 (Traditional NAT)";
  }

  feature napt44 {
    description
      "Network Address Port Translator (NAPT): translation is
       extended to include IP addresses and transport identifiers
       (such as a TCP/UDP port or ICMP query ID).

       If the internal IP address is not sufficient to uniquely
       disambiguate NAPT44 mappings, an additional attribute is
       required.  For example, that additional attribute may
       be an IPv6 address (a.k.a., DS-Lite) or
       a Layer 2 identifier (a.k.a., Per-Interface NAT)";
    reference
      "RFC 3022: Traditional IP Network Address Translator
                 (Traditional NAT)";
  }

  feature dst-nat {
    description
      "Destination NAT is a translation that acts on the destination
       IP address and/or destination port number.  This flavor is
       usually deployed in load balancers or at devices
       in front of public servers.";
  }

  feature nat64 {
    description
      "NAT64 translation allows IPv6-only clients to contact IPv4
       servers using, e.g., UDP, TCP, or ICMP.  One or more
       public IPv4 addresses assigned to a NAT64 translator are
       shared among several IPv6-only clients.";
    reference
      "RFC 6146: Stateful NAT64: Network Address and Protocol
                 Translation from IPv6 Clients to IPv4 Servers";
  }

  feature siit {
    description
      "The Stateless IP/ICMP Translation Algorithm (SIIT), which
       translates between IPv4 and IPv6 packet headers (including
       ICMP headers).

       In the stateless mode, an IP/ICMP translator converts IPv4
       addresses to IPv6, and vice versa, solely based on the
       configuration of the stateless IP/ICMP translator and
       information contained within the packet being translated.



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       The translator must support the stateless address mapping
       algorithm defined in RFC 6052, which is the default behavior.";
    reference
      "RFC 7915: IP/ICMP Translation Algorithm";
  }

  feature clat {
    description
      "CLAT is customer-side translator that algorithmically
       translates 1:1 private IPv4 addresses to global IPv6
       addresses, and vice versa.

       When a dedicated /64 prefix is not available for translation
       from DHCPv6-PD, the CLAT may perform NAT44 for all IPv4 LAN
       packets so that all the LAN-originated IPv4 packets appear
       from a single IPv4 address and are then statelessly translated
       to one interface IPv6 address that is claimed by the CLAT via
       the Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP) and defended with
       Duplicate Address Detection.";
    reference
      "RFC 6877: 464XLAT: Combination of Stateful and
                 Stateless Translation";
  }

  feature eam {
    description
      "Explicit Address Mapping (EAM) is a bidirectional coupling
       between an IPv4 prefix and an IPv6 prefix.";
    reference
      "RFC 7757: Explicit Address Mappings for Stateless IP/ICMP
                 Translation";
  }

  feature nptv6 {
    description
      "NPTv6 is a stateless transport-agnostic IPv6-to-IPv6
       prefix translation.";
    reference
      "RFC 6296: IPv6-to-IPv6 Network Prefix Translation";
  }

  /*
   * Identities
   */

  identity nat-type {
    description
      "Base identity for nat type.";



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  }

  identity basic-nat44 {
    base nat:nat-type;
    description
      "Identity for Basic NAT support.";
    reference
      "RFC 3022: Traditional IP Network Address Translator
                 (Traditional NAT)";
  }

  identity napt44 {
    base nat:nat-type;
    description
      "Identity for NAPT support.";
    reference
      "RFC 3022: Traditional IP Network Address Translator
                 (Traditional NAT)";
  }

  identity dst-nat {
    base nat:nat-type;
    description
      "Identity for Destination NAT support.";
  }

  identity nat64 {
    base nat:nat-type;
    description
      "Identity for NAT64 support.";
    reference
      "RFC 6146: Stateful NAT64: Network Address and Protocol
                 Translation from IPv6 Clients to IPv4 Servers";
  }

  identity siit {
    base nat:nat-type;
    description
      "Identity for SIIT support.";
    reference
      "RFC 7915: IP/ICMP Translation Algorithm";
  }

  identity clat {
    base nat:nat-type;
    description
      "Identity for CLAT support.";
    reference



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      "RFC 6877: 464XLAT: Combination of Stateful and Stateless
                 Translation";
  }

  identity eam {
    base nat:nat-type;
    description
      "Identity for EAM support.";
    reference
      "RFC 7757: Explicit Address Mappings for Stateless IP/ICMP
                 Translation";
  }

  identity nptv6 {
    base nat:nat-type;
    description
      "Identity for NPTv6 support.";
    reference
      "RFC 6296: IPv6-to-IPv6 Network Prefix Translation";
  }

  /*
   * Grouping
   */

  grouping port-number {
    description
      "An individual port number or a range of ports.
       When only start-port-number is present,
       it represents a single port number.";
    leaf start-port-number {
      type inet:port-number;
      description
        "Beginning of the port range.";
      reference
        "Section 3.2.9 of RFC 8045";
    }
    leaf end-port-number {
      type inet:port-number;
      must '. >= ../start-port-number' {
        error-message
          "The end-port-number must be greater than or
           equal to start-port-number.";
      }
      description
        "End of the port range.";
      reference
        "Section 3.2.10 of RFC 8045";



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    }
  }

  grouping port-set {
    description
      "Indicates a set of port numbers.

       It may be a simple port range, or use the Port Set
       Identifier (PSID) algorithm to represent a range of
       transport-layer port numbers that will be used by a
       NAPT.";
    choice port-type {
      default "port-range";
      description
        "Port type: port-range or port-set-algo.";
      case port-range {
        uses port-number;
      }
      case port-set-algo {
        leaf psid-offset {
          type uint8 {
            range "0..15";
          }
          description
            "The number of offset bits (a.k.a., 'a' bits).
             Specifies the numeric value for the excluded port
             range/offset bits.

             Allowed values are between 0 and 15.";
          reference
            "Section 5.1 of RFC 7597";
        }
        leaf psid-len {
          type uint8 {
            range "0..15";
          }
          mandatory true;
          description
            "The length of PSID, representing the sharing
             ratio for an IPv4 address.

             (also known as 'k').

             The address-sharing ratio would be 2^k.";
          reference
            "Section 5.1 of RFC 7597";
        }
        leaf psid {



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          type uint16;
          mandatory true;
          description
            "PSID value, which identifies a set
             of ports algorithmically.";
          reference
            "Section 5.1 of RFC 7597";
        }
      }
      reference
        "RFC 7597: Mapping of Address and Port with
                   Encapsulation (MAP-E)";
    }
  }

  grouping mapping-entry {
    description
      "NAT mapping entry.

       If an attribute is not stored in the mapping/session table,
       it means the corresponding field of a packet that
       matches this entry is not rewritten by the NAT or this
       information is not required for NAT filtering purposes.";
    leaf index {
      type uint32;
      description
        "A unique identifier of a mapping entry.  This identifier
         can be automatically assigned by the NAT instance or be
         explicitly configured.";
    }
    leaf type {
      type enumeration {
        enum static {
          description
            "The mapping entry is explicitly configured
             (e.g., via a command-line interface).";
        }
        enum dynamic-implicit {
          description
            "This mapping is created implicitly as a side effect
             of processing a packet that requires a new mapping.";
        }
        enum dynamic-explicit {
          description
            "This mapping is created as a result of an explicit
             request, e.g., a PCP message.";
        }
      }



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      description
        "Indicates the type of a mapping entry.  For example,
         a mapping can be: static, implicit dynamic,
         or explicit dynamic.";
    }
    leaf transport-protocol {
      type uint8;
      description
        "The upper-layer protocol associated with this mapping.
         Values are taken from the IANA Protocol Numbers registry:
         <https://www.iana.org/assignments/protocol-numbers/>.

         For example, this field contains 6 for TCP,
         17 for UDP, 33 for DCCP, or 132 for SCTP.

         If this leaf is not instantiated, then the mapping
         applies to any protocol.";
    }
    leaf internal-src-address {
      type inet:ip-prefix;
      description
        "Corresponds to the source IPv4/IPv6 address/prefix
         of the packet received on an internal interface.";
    }
    container internal-src-port {
      description
        "Corresponds to the source port of the packet received
         on an internal interface.

         It is also used to indicate the internal source ICMP
         identifier.

         As a reminder, all the ICMP Query messages contain
         an 'Identifier' field, which is referred to in this
         document as the 'ICMP Identifier'.";
      uses port-number;
    }
    leaf external-src-address {
      type inet:ip-prefix;
      description
        "Source IP address/prefix of the packet sent on an
         external interface of the NAT.";
    }
    container external-src-port {
      description
        "Source port of the packet sent on an external
         interface of the NAT.




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         It is also used to indicate the external source ICMP
         identifier.";
      uses port-number;
    }
    leaf internal-dst-address {
      type inet:ip-prefix;
      description
        "Corresponds to the destination IP address/prefix
         of the packet received on an internal interface
         of the NAT.

         For example, some NAT implementations support
         the translation of both source and destination
         addresses and port numbers, sometimes referred to
         as 'Twice NAT'.";
    }
    container internal-dst-port {
      description
        "Corresponds to the destination port of the
         IP packet received on the internal interface.

         It is also used to include the internal
         destination ICMP identifier.";
      uses port-number;
    }
    leaf external-dst-address {
      type inet:ip-prefix;
      description
        "Corresponds to the destination IP address/prefix
         of the packet sent on an external interface
         of the NAT.";
    }
    container external-dst-port {
      description
        "Corresponds to the destination port number of
         the packet sent on the external interface
         of the NAT.

         It is also used to include the external
         destination ICMP identifier.";
      uses port-number;
    }
    leaf lifetime {
      type uint32;
      units "seconds";
      description
        "When specified, it is used to track the connection that is
         fully formed (e.g., once the three-way handshake



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         TCP is completed) or the duration for maintaining
         an explicit mapping alive.  The mapping entry will be
         removed by the NAT instance once this lifetime is expired.

         When reported in a get operation, the lifetime indicates
         the remaining validity lifetime.

         Static mappings may not be associated with a
         lifetime.  If no lifetime is associated with a
         static mapping, an explicit action is required to
         remove that mapping.";
    }
  }

  /*
   * NAT Module
   */

  container nat {
    description
      "NAT module";
    container instances {
      description
        "NAT instances";
      list instance {
        key "id";
        description
          "A NAT instance.  This identifier can be automatically
           assigned or explicitly configured.";
        leaf id {
          type uint32;
          must '. >= 1';
          description
            "NAT instance identifier.

             The identifier must be greater than zero.";
          reference
            "RFC 7659: Definitions of Managed Objects for Network
                       Address Translators (NATs)";
        }
        leaf name {
          type string;
          description
            "A name associated with the NAT instance.";
          reference
            "RFC 7659: Definitions of Managed Objects for Network
                       Address Translators (NATs)";
        }



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        leaf enable {
          type boolean;
          description
            "Status of the NAT instance.";
        }
        container capabilities {
          config false;
          description
            "NAT capabilities.";
          leaf-list nat-flavor {
            type identityref {
              base nat-type;
            }
            description
              "Supported translation type(s).";
          }
          leaf-list per-interface-binding {
            type enumeration {
              enum unsupported {
                description
                  "No capability to associate a NAT binding with
                   an extra identifier.";
              }
              enum layer-2 {
                description
                  "The NAT instance is able to associate a mapping with
                   a Layer 2 identifier.";
              }
              enum dslite {
                description
                  "The NAT instance is able to associate a mapping with
                   an IPv6 address (a.k.a., DS-Lite).";
              }
            }
            description
              "Indicates the capability of a NAT to associate a
               particular NAT session not only with the five
               tuples used for the transport connection on both
               sides of the NAT but also with the internal
               interface on which the user device is
               connected to the NAT.";
            reference
              "Section 4 of RFC 6619";
          }
          list transport-protocols {
            key "protocol-id";
            description
              "List of supported protocols.";



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            leaf protocol-id {
              type uint8;
              mandatory true;
              description
                "The upper-layer protocol associated with a mapping.

                 Values are taken from the IANA Protocol Numbers
                 registry.

                 For example, this field contains 6 for TCP,
                 17 for UDP, 33 for DCCP, or 132 for SCTP.";
            }
            leaf protocol-name {
              type string;
              description
                "The name of the upper-layer protocol associated
                 with this mapping.

                 For example, TCP, UDP, DCCP, and SCTP.";
            }
          }
          leaf restricted-port-support {
            type boolean;
            description
              "Indicates source port NAT restriction support.";
            reference
              "RFC 7596: Lightweight 4over6: An Extension to
                         the Dual-Stack Lite Architecture";
          }
          leaf static-mapping-support {
            type boolean;
            description
              "Indicates whether static mappings are supported.";
          }
          leaf port-randomization-support {
            type boolean;
            description
              "Indicates whether port randomization is supported.";
            reference
              "Section 4.2.1 of RFC 4787";
          }
          leaf port-range-allocation-support {
            type boolean;
            description
              "Indicates whether port range allocation is supported.";
            reference
              "Section 1.1 of RFC 7753";
          }



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          leaf port-preservation-suport {
            type boolean;
            description
              "Indicates whether port preservation is supported.";
            reference
              "Section 4.2.1 of RFC 4787";
          }
          leaf port-parity-preservation-support {
            type boolean;
            description
              "Indicates whether port parity preservation is
               supported.";
            reference
              "Section 8 of RFC 7857";
          }
          leaf address-roundrobin-support {
            type boolean;
            description
              "Indicates whether address allocation round robin is
               supported.";
          }
          leaf paired-address-pooling-support {
            type boolean;
            description
              "Indicates whether paired-address-pooling is
               supported";
            reference
              "REQ-2 of RFC 4787";
          }
          leaf endpoint-independent-mapping-support {
            type boolean;
            description
              "Indicates whether endpoint-independent-
               mapping is supported.";
            reference
              "Section 4 of RFC 4787";
          }
          leaf address-dependent-mapping-support {
            type boolean;
            description
              "Indicates whether address-dependent-mapping is
               supported.";
            reference
              "Section 4 of RFC 4787";
          }
          leaf address-and-port-dependent-mapping-support {
            type boolean;
            description



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              "Indicates whether address-and-port-dependent-mapping is
               supported.";
            reference
              "Section 4 of RFC 4787";
          }
          leaf endpoint-independent-filtering-support {
            type boolean;
            description
              "Indicates whether endpoint-independent-filtering is
               supported.";
            reference
              "Section 5 of RFC 4787";
          }
          leaf address-dependent-filtering {
            type boolean;
            description
              "Indicates whether address-dependent-filtering is
               supported.";
            reference
              "Section 5 of RFC 4787";
          }
          leaf address-and-port-dependent-filtering {
            type boolean;
            description
              "Indicates whether address-and-port-dependent is
               supported.";
            reference
              "Section 5 of RFC 4787";
          }
          leaf fragment-behavior {
            type enumeration {
              enum unsupported {
                description
                  "No capability to translate incoming fragments.
                   All received fragments are dropped.";
              }
              enum in-order {
                description
                  "The NAT instance is able to translate fragments
                   only if they are received in order.  That is, in
                   particular the header is in the first packet.
                   Fragments received out of order are dropped. ";
              }
              enum out-of-order {
                description
                  "The NAT instance is able to translate a fragment even
                   if it is received out of order.




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                   This behavior is recommended.";
                reference
                  "REQ-14 of RFC 4787";
              }
            }
            description
              "The fragment behavior is the NAT instance's capability to
               translate fragments received on the external interface of
               the NAT.";
          }
        }
        leaf type {
          type identityref {
            base nat-type;
          }
          description
            "Specify the translation type.  Particularly useful when
             multiple translation flavors are supported.

             If one type is supported by a NAT, this parameter is by
             default set to that type.";
        }
        leaf per-interface-binding {
          type enumeration {
            enum disabled {
              description
                "Disable the capability to associate an extra identifier
                 with NAT mappings.";
            }
            enum layer-2 {
              description
                "The NAT instance is able to associate a mapping with
                 a Layer 2 identifier.";
            }
            enum dslite {
              description
                "The NAT instance is able to associate a mapping with
                 an IPv6 address (a.k.a., DS-Lite).";
            }
          }
          description
            "A NAT that associates a particular NAT session not
             only with the five tuples used for the transport
             connection on both sides of the NAT but also with
             the internal interface on which the user device is
             connected to the NAT.

             If supported, this mode of operation should be



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             configurable, and it should be disabled by default in
             general-purpose NAT devices.
             If one single per-interface binding behavior is
             supported by a NAT, this parameter is by default set to
             that behavior.";
          reference
            "Section 4 of RFC 6619";
        }
        list nat-pass-through {
          if-feature "basic-nat44 or napt44 or dst-nat";
          key "id";
          description
            "IP prefix NAT pass-through.";
          leaf id {
            type uint32;
            description
              "An identifier of the IP prefix pass-through.";
          }
          leaf prefix {
            type inet:ip-prefix;
            mandatory true;
            description
              "The IP addresses that match should not be translated.

               It must be possible to administratively turn
               off translation for specific destination addresses
               and/or ports.";
            reference
              "REQ-6 of RFC 6888";
          }
          leaf port {
            type inet:port-number;
            description
              "It must be possible to administratively turn off
               translation for specific destination addresses
               and/or ports.

               If no prefix is defined, the NAT pass-through bound
               to a given port applies for any destination address.";
            reference
              "REQ-6 of RFC 6888";
          }
        }
        list policy {
          key "id";
          description
            "NAT parameters for a given instance";
          leaf id {



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            type uint32;
            description
              "An identifier of the NAT policy.  It must be unique
               within the NAT instance.";
          }
          container clat-parameters {
            if-feature "clat";
            description
              "CLAT parameters.";
            list clat-ipv6-prefixes {
              key "ipv6-prefix";
              description
                "464XLAT double-translation treatment is stateless
                 when a dedicated /64 is available for translation
                 on the CLAT.  Otherwise, the CLAT will have both
                 stateful and stateless translation since it requires
                 NAT44 from the LAN to a single IPv4 address and then
                 stateless translation to a single IPv6 address.";
              reference
                "RFC 6877: 464XLAT: Combination of Stateful and
                           Stateless Translation";
              leaf ipv6-prefix {
                type inet:ipv6-prefix;
                description
                  "An IPv6 prefix used for CLAT.";
              }
            }
            list ipv4-prefixes {
              key "ipv4-prefix";
              description
                "Pool of IPv4 addresses used for CLAT.
                 192.0.0.0/29 is the IPv4 service continuity prefix.";
              reference
                "RFC 7335: IPv4 Service Continuity Prefix";
              leaf ipv4-prefix {
                type inet:ipv4-prefix;
                description
                  "464XLAT double-translation treatment is
                   stateless when a dedicated /64 is available
                   for translation on the CLAT.  Otherwise, the
                   CLAT will have both stateful and stateless
                   translation since it requires NAT44 from the
                   LAN to a single IPv4 address and then stateless
                   translation to a single IPv6 address.
                   The CLAT performs NAT44 for all IPv4 LAN
                   packets so that all the LAN-originated IPv4
                   packets appear from a single IPv4 address
                   and are then statelessly translated to one



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                   interface IPv6 address that is claimed by
                   the CLAT.

                   An IPv4 address from this pool is also
                   provided to an application that makes
                   use of literals.";
                reference
                  "RFC 6877: 464XLAT: Combination of Stateful and
                             Stateless Translation";
              }
            }
          }
          list nptv6-prefixes {
            if-feature "nptv6";
            key "internal-ipv6-prefix";
            description
              "Provides one or a list of (internal IPv6 prefix,
               external IPv6 prefix) required for NPTv6.

               In its simplest form, NPTv6 interconnects two
               network links: one is an 'internal' network
               link attached to a leaf network within a single
               administrative domain, and the other is an
               'external' network with connectivity to the
               global Internet.";
            reference
              "RFC 6296: IPv6-to-IPv6 Network Prefix Translation";
            leaf internal-ipv6-prefix {
              type inet:ipv6-prefix;
              mandatory true;
              description
                "An IPv6 prefix used by an internal interface of
                 NPTv6.";
              reference
                "RFC 6296: IPv6-to-IPv6 Network Prefix Translation";
            }
            leaf external-ipv6-prefix {
              type inet:ipv6-prefix;
              mandatory true;
              description
                "An IPv6 prefix used by the external interface of
                 NPTv6.";
              reference
                "RFC 6296: IPv6-to-IPv6 Network Prefix Translation";
            }
          }
          list eam {
            if-feature "eam";



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            key "ipv4-prefix";
            description
              "The Explicit Address Mapping Table is a conceptual
               table in which each row represents an EAM.

               Each EAM describes a mapping between IPv4 and IPv6
               prefixes/addresses.";
            reference
              "Section 3.1 of RFC 7757";
            leaf ipv4-prefix {
              type inet:ipv4-prefix;
              mandatory true;
              description
                "The IPv4 prefix of an EAM.";
              reference
                "Section 3.2 of RFC 7757";
            }
            leaf ipv6-prefix {
              type inet:ipv6-prefix;
              mandatory true;
              description
                "The IPv6 prefix of an EAM.";
              reference
                "Section 3.2 of RFC 7757";
            }
          }
          list nat64-prefixes {
            if-feature "siit or nat64 or clat";
            key "nat64-prefix";
            description
              "Provides one or a list of NAT64 prefixes
               with or without a list of destination IPv4 prefixes.
               It allows mapping IPv4 address ranges to IPv6 prefixes.
               For example:
               192.0.2.0/24 is mapped to 2001:db8:122:300::/56.
               198.51.100.0/24 is mapped to 2001:db8:122::/48.";
            reference
              "Section 5.1 of RFC 7050";
            leaf nat64-prefix {
              type inet:ipv6-prefix;
              mandatory true;
              description
                "A NAT64 prefix.  Can be a Network-Specific Prefix (NSP)
                 or a Well-Known Prefix (WKP).

                 Organizations deploying stateless IPv4/IPv6 translation
                 should assign an NSP to their IPv4/IPv6 translation
                 service.



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                 For stateless NAT64, IPv4-translatable IPv6 addresses
                 must use the selected NSP.

                 Both IPv4-translatable IPv6 addresses and
                 IPv4-converted IPv6 addresses should use
                 the same prefix.";
              reference
                "Sections 3.3 and 3.4 of RFC 6052";
            }
            list destination-ipv4-prefix {
              key "ipv4-prefix";
              description
                "An IPv4 prefix/address.";
              leaf ipv4-prefix {
                type inet:ipv4-prefix;
                description
                  "An IPv4 address/prefix.";
              }
            }
            leaf stateless-enable {
              type boolean;
              default "false";
              description
                "Enable explicitly stateless NAT64.";
            }
          }
          list external-ip-address-pool {
            if-feature "basic-nat44 or napt44 or nat64";
            key "pool-id";
            description
              "Pool of external IP addresses used to service internal
               hosts.

               A pool is a set of IP prefixes.";
            leaf pool-id {
              type uint32;
              must '. >= 1';
              description
                "An identifier that uniquely identifies the address pool
                 within a NAT instance.

                 The identifier must be greater than zero.";
              reference
                "RFC 7659: Definitions of Managed Objects for
                           Network Address Translators (NATs)";
            }
            leaf external-ip-pool {
              type inet:ipv4-prefix;



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              mandatory true;
              description
                "An IPv4 prefix used for NAT purposes.";
            }
          }
          container port-set-restrict {
            if-feature "napt44 or nat64";
            description
              "Configures contiguous and non-contiguous port ranges.

               The port set is used to restrict the external source
               port numbers used by the translator.";
            uses port-set;
          }
          leaf dst-nat-enable {
            if-feature "basic-nat44 or napt44";
            type boolean;
            default "false";
            description
              "Enable/disable Destination NAT.

               A NAT44 may be configured to enable Destination
               NAT, too.";
          }
          list dst-ip-address-pool {
            if-feature "dst-nat";
            key "pool-id";
            description
              "Pool of IP addresses used for Destination NAT.";
            leaf pool-id {
              type uint32;
              description
                "An identifier of the address pool.";
            }
            leaf dst-in-ip-pool {
              type inet:ip-prefix;
              description
                "Is used to identify an internal destination
                 IP prefix/address to be translated.";
            }
            leaf dst-out-ip-pool {
              type inet:ip-prefix;
              mandatory true;
              description
                "IP address/prefix used for Destination NAT.";
            }
          }
          list transport-protocols {



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            if-feature "napt44 or nat64 or dst-nat";
            key "protocol-id";
            description
              "Configure the transport protocols to be handled by
               the translator.

               TCP and UDP are supported by default.";
            leaf protocol-id {
              type uint8;
              mandatory true;
              description
                "The upper-layer protocol associated with this
                 mapping.

                 Values are taken from the IANA Protocol Numbers
                 registry.

                 For example, this field contains 6 for TCP,
                 17 for UDP, 33 for DCCP, or 132 for SCTP.";
            }
            leaf protocol-name {
              type string;
              description
                "The name of the upper-layer protocol associated
                 with this mapping.

                 For example, TCP, UDP, DCCP, and SCTP.";
            }
          }
          leaf subscriber-mask-v6 {
            type uint8 {
              range "0 .. 128";
            }
            description
              "The subscriber mask is an integer that indicates
               the length of significant bits to be applied on
               the source IPv6 address (internal side) to
               unambiguously identify a user device (e.g., CPE).

               Subscriber mask is a system-wide configuration
               parameter that is used to enforce generic
               per-subscriber policies (e.g., port-quota).

               The enforcement of these generic policies does not
               require the configuration of every subscriber's
               prefix.

               Example: suppose the 2001:db8:100:100::/56 prefix



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               is assigned to a NAT64-serviced CPE.  Suppose also
               that 2001:db8:100:100::1 is the IPv6 address used
               by the client that resides in that CPE.  When the
               NAT64 receives a packet from this client,
               it applies the subscriber-mask-v6 (e.g., 56) on
               the source IPv6 address to compute the associated
               prefix for this client (2001:db8:100:100::/56).
               Then, the NAT64 enforces policies based on that
               prefix (2001:db8:100:100::/56), not on the exact
               source IPv6 address.";
          }
          list subscriber-match {
            if-feature "basic-nat44 or napt44 or dst-nat";
            key "match-id";
            description
              "IP prefix match.
               A subscriber is identified by a subnet.";
            leaf match-id {
              type uint32;
              description
                "An identifier of the subscriber match.";
            }
            leaf subnet {
              type inet:ip-prefix;
              mandatory true;
              description
                "The IP address subnets that match
                 should be translated.  For example, all addresses
                 that belong to the 192.0.2.0/24 prefix must
                 be processed by the NAT.";
            }
          }
          leaf address-allocation-type {
            type enumeration {
              enum arbitrary {
                if-feature "basic-nat44 or napt44 or nat64";
                description
                  "Arbitrary pooling behavior means that the NAT
                   instance may create the new port mapping using any
                   address in the pool that has a free port for the
                   protocol concerned.";
              }
              enum roundrobin {
                if-feature "basic-nat44 or napt44 or nat64";
                description
                  "Round-robin allocation.";
              }
              enum paired {



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                if-feature "napt44 or nat64";
                description
                  "Paired address pooling informs the NAT
                   that all the flows from an internal IP
                   address must be assigned the same external
                   address.  This is the recommended behavior
                   for NAPT/NAT64.";
                reference
                  "RFC 4787: Network Address Translation (NAT)
                             Behavioral Requirements for Unicast UDP";
              }
            }
            description
              "Specifies how external IP addresses are allocated.";
          }
          leaf port-allocation-type {
            if-feature "napt44 or nat64";
            type enumeration {
              enum random {
                description
                  "Port randomization is enabled.  A NAT port allocation
                   scheme should make it hard for attackers to guess
                   port numbers";
                reference
                  "REQ-15 of RFC 6888";
              }
              enum port-preservation {
                description
                  "Indicates whether the NAT should preserve the
                   internal port number.";
              }
              enum port-parity-preservation {
                description
                  "Indicates whether the NAT should preserve the port
                   parity of the internal port number.";
              }
              enum port-range-allocation {
                description
                  "Indicates whether the NAT assigns a range of ports
                   for an internal host.  This scheme allows the
                   minimizing of the log volume.";
                reference
                  "REQ-14 of RFC 6888";
              }
            }
            description
              "Indicates the type of port allocation.";
          }



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          leaf mapping-type {
            if-feature "napt44 or nat64";
            type enumeration {
              enum eim {
                description
                  "endpoint-independent-mapping.";
                reference
                  "Section 4 of RFC 4787";
              }
              enum adm {
                description
                  "address-dependent-mapping.";
                reference
                  "Section 4 of RFC 4787";
              }
              enum edm {
                description
                  "address-and-port-dependent-mapping.";
                reference
                  "Section 4 of RFC 4787";
              }
            }
            description
              "Indicates the type of NAT mapping.";
          }
          leaf filtering-type {
            if-feature "napt44 or nat64";
            type enumeration {
              enum eif {
                description
                  "endpoint-independent-filtering.";
                reference
                  "Section 5 of RFC 4787";
              }
              enum adf {
                description
                  "address-dependent-filtering.";
                reference
                  "Section 5 of RFC 4787";
              }
              enum edf {
                description
                  "address-and-port-dependent-filtering";
                reference
                  "Section 5 of RFC 4787";
              }
            }
            description



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              "Indicates the type of NAT filtering.";
          }
          leaf fragment-behavior {
            if-feature "napt44 or nat64";
            type enumeration {
              enum drop-all {
                description
                  "All received fragments are dropped.";
              }
              enum in-order {
                description
                  "Translate fragments only if they are received
                   in order.";
              }
              enum out-of-order {
                description
                  "Translate a fragment even if it is received out
                   of order.

                   This behavior is recommended.";
                reference
                  "REQ-14 of RFC 4787";
              }
            }
            description
              "The fragment behavior instructs the NAT about the
               behavior to follow to translate fragments received
               on the external interface of the NAT.";
          }
          list port-quota {
            if-feature "napt44 or nat64";
            key "quota-type";
            description
              "Configures a port quota to be assigned per subscriber.
               It corresponds to the maximum number of ports to be
               used by a subscriber.";
            leaf port-limit {
              type uint16;
              description
                "Configures a port quota to be assigned per subscriber.
                 It corresponds to the maximum number of ports to be
                 used by a subscriber.";
              reference
                "REQ-4 of RFC 6888";
            }
            leaf quota-type {
              type uint8;
              description



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                "Indicates whether the port quota applies to
                 all protocols (0) or to a specific protocol.";
            }
          }
          container port-set {
            when "../port-allocation-type = 'port-range-allocation'";
            if-feature "napt44 or nat64";
            description
              "Manages port-set assignments.";
            leaf port-set-size {
              type uint16;
              mandatory true;
              description
                "Indicates the size of assigned port sets.";
            }
            leaf port-set-timeout {
              type uint32;
              units "seconds";
              description
                "inactivity timeout for port sets.";
            }
          }
          container timers {
            if-feature "napt44 or nat64";
            description
              "Configure values of various timeouts.";
            leaf udp-timeout {
              type uint32;
              units "seconds";
              default "300";
              description
                "UDP inactivity timeout.  That is the time a mapping
                 will stay active without packets traversing the NAT.";
              reference
                "RFC 4787: Network Address Translation (NAT)
                           Behavioral Requirements for Unicast UDP";
            }
            leaf tcp-idle-timeout {
              type uint32;
              units "seconds";
              default "7440";
              description
                "TCP idle timeout should be 2 hours and 4 minutes.";
              reference
                "RFC 5382: NAT Behavioral Requirements for TCP";
            }
            leaf tcp-trans-open-timeout {
              type uint32;



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              units "seconds";
              default "240";
              description
                "The value of the transitory open connection
                 idle-timeout.

                 A NAT should provide different configurable
                 parameters for configuring the open and
                 closing idle timeouts.

                 To accommodate deployments that consider
                 a partially open timeout of 4 minutes as being
                 excessive from a security standpoint, a NAT may
                 allow the configured timeout to be less than
                 4 minutes.

                 However, a minimum default transitory connection
                 idle-timeout of 4 minutes is recommended.";
              reference
                "Section 2.1 of RFC 7857";
            }
            leaf tcp-trans-close-timeout {
              type uint32;
              units "seconds";
              default "240";
              description
                "The value of the transitory close connection
                 idle-timeout.

                 A NAT should provide different configurable
                 parameters for configuring the open and
                 closing idle timeouts.";
              reference
                "Section 2.1 of RFC 7857";
            }
            leaf tcp-in-syn-timeout {
              type uint32;
              units "seconds";
              default "6";
              description
                "A NAT must not respond to an unsolicited
                 inbound SYN packet for at least 6 seconds
                 after the packet is received.  If during
                 this interval the NAT receives and translates
                 an outbound SYN for the connection the NAT
                 must silently drop the original unsolicited
                 inbound SYN packet.";
              reference



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                "RFC 5382 NAT Behavioral Requirements for TCP";
            }
            leaf fragment-min-timeout {
              when "../../fragment-behavior='out-of-order'";
              type uint32;
              units "seconds";
              default "2";
              description
                "As long as the NAT has available resources,
                 the NAT allows the fragments to arrive
                 over the fragment-min-timeout interval.
                 The default value is inspired from RFC 6146.";
            }
            leaf icmp-timeout {
              type uint32;
              units "seconds";
              default "60";
              description
                "An ICMP Query session timer must not expire
                 in less than 60 seconds.  It is recommended
                 that the ICMP Query session timer be made
                 configurable";
              reference
                "RFC 5508: NAT Behavioral Requirements for ICMP";
            }
            list per-port-timeout {
              key "port-number";
              description
                "Some NATs are configurable with short timeouts
                 for some ports, e.g., as 10 seconds on
                 port 53 (DNS) and 123 (NTP), and longer timeouts
                 on other ports.";
              leaf port-number {
                type inet:port-number;
                description
                  "A port number.";
              }
              leaf protocol {
                type uint8;
                description
                  "The upper-layer protocol associated with this port.

                   Values are taken from the IANA Protocol Numbers
                   registry.

                   If no protocol is indicated, it means 'any
                   protocol'.";
              }



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              leaf timeout {
                type uint32;
                units "seconds";
                mandatory true;
                description
                  "Timeout for this port number";
              }
            }
            leaf hold-down-timeout {
              type uint32;
              units "seconds";
              default "120";
              description
                "Hold-down timer.

                 Ports in the hold-down pool are not reassigned until
                 hold-down-timeout expires.

                 The length of time and the maximum number of ports in
                 this state must be configurable by the administrator.

                 This is necessary in order to prevent collisions
                 between old and new mappings and sessions.  It ensures
                 that all established sessions are broken instead of
                 redirected to a different peer.";
              reference
                "REQ-8 of RFC 6888";
            }
            leaf hold-down-max {
              type uint32;
              description
                "Maximum ports in the hold-down port pool.";
              reference
                "REQ-8 of RFC 6888";
            }
          }
          leaf fragments-limit {
            when "../fragment-behavior='out-of-order'";
            type uint32;
            description
              "Limits the number of out-of-order fragments that can
               be handled.";
            reference
              "Section 11 of RFC 4787";
          }
          list algs {
            key "name";
            description



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              "Features related to the Application Layer
               Gateway (ALG).";
            leaf name {
              type string;
              description
                "The name of the ALG.";
            }
            leaf transport-protocol {
              type uint32;
              description
                "The transport protocol used by the ALG
                 (e.g., TCP and UDP).";
            }
            container dst-transport-port {
              uses port-number;
              description
                "The destination port number(s) used by the ALG.
                 For example,
                   - 21 for the FTP ALG
                   - 53 for the DNS ALG.";
            }
            container src-transport-port {
              uses port-number;
              description
                "The source port number(s) used by the ALG.";
            }
            leaf status {
              type boolean;
              description
                "Enable/disable the ALG.";
            }
          }
          leaf all-algs-enable {
            type boolean;
            description
              "Disable/enable all ALGs.

               When specified, this parameter overrides the one
               that may be indicated, eventually, by the 'status'
               of an individual ALG.";
          }
          container notify-pool-usage {
            if-feature "basic-nat44 or napt44 or nat64";
            description
              "Notification of pool usage when certain criteria
               are met.";
            leaf pool-id {
              type uint32;



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              description
                "Pool-ID for which the notification criteria
                 is defined";
            }
            leaf low-threshold {
              type percent;
              description
                "Notification must be generated when the defined low
                 threshold is reached.

                 For example, if a notification is required when the
                 pool utilization reaches below 10%, this
                 configuration parameter must be set to 10.

                 0% indicates that low-threshold notification is
                 disabled.";
            }
            leaf high-threshold {
              type percent;
              must '. >= ../low-threshold' {
                error-message
                  "The high threshold must be greater than or equal
                   to the low threshold.";
              }
              description
                "Notification must be generated when the defined high
                 threshold is reached.

                 For example, if a notification is required when the
                 pool utilization reaches 90%, this configuration
                 parameter must be set to 90.

                 Setting the same value as low-threshold is equivalent
                 to disabling high-threshold notification.";
            }
            leaf notify-interval {
              type uint32 {
                range "1 .. 3600";
              }
              units "seconds";
              default "20";
              description
                "Minimum number of seconds between successive
                 notifications for this pool.";
              reference
                "RFC 7659: Definitions of Managed Objects for
                           Network Address Translators (NATs)";
            }



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          }
          container external-realm {
            description
              "Identifies the external realm of the NAT instance.";
            choice realm-type {
              description
                "Can be an interface, VRF instance, etc.";
              case interface {
                description
                  "External interface.";
                leaf external-interface {
                  type if:interface-ref;
                  description
                    "Name of the external interface.";
                }
              }
            }
          }
        }
        container mapping-limits {
          if-feature "napt44 or nat64";
          description
            "Information about the configuration parameters that
             limits the mappings based upon various criteria.";
          leaf limit-subscribers {
            type uint32;
            description
              "Maximum number of subscribers that can be serviced
               by a NAT instance.

               A subscriber is identified by a given prefix.";
            reference
              "RFC 7659: Definitions of Managed Objects for
                         Network Address Translators (NATs)";
          }
          leaf limit-address-mappings {
            type uint32;
            description
              "Maximum number of address mappings that can be
               handled by a NAT instance.

               When this limit is reached, packets that would
               normally trigger translation will be dropped.";
            reference
              "RFC 7659: Definitions of Managed Objects for
                         Network Address Translators (NATs)";
          }
          leaf limit-port-mappings {



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            type uint32;
            description
              "Maximum number of port mappings that can be handled
               by a NAT instance.

               When this limit is reached, packets that would
               normally trigger translation will be dropped.";
            reference
              "RFC 7659: Definitions of Managed Objects for
                         Network Address Translators (NATs)";
          }
          list limit-per-protocol {
            if-feature "napt44 or nat64 or dst-nat";
            key "protocol-id";
            description
              "Configure limits per transport protocol";
            leaf protocol-id {
              type uint8;
              mandatory true;
              description
                "The upper-layer protocol.

                 Values are taken from the IANA Protocol Numbers
                 registry.

                 For example, this field contains 6 for TCP,
                 17 for UDP, 33 for DCCP, or 132 for SCTP.";
            }
            leaf limit {
              type uint32;
              description
                "Maximum number of protocol-specific NAT mappings
                 per instance.";
            }
          }
        }
        container connection-limits {
          if-feature "basic-nat44 or napt44 or nat64";
          description
            "Information about the configuration parameters that
             rate-limit the translation based upon various criteria.";
          leaf limit-per-subscriber {
            type uint32;
            units "bits/second";
            description
              "Rate-limit the number of new mappings and sessions
               per subscriber.";
          }



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          leaf limit-per-instance {
            type uint32;
            units "bits/second";
            description
              "Rate-limit the number of new mappings and sessions
               per instance.";
          }
          list limit-per-protocol {
            if-feature "napt44 or nat64";
            key "protocol-id";
            description
              "Configure limits per transport protocol";
            leaf protocol-id {
              type uint8;
              mandatory true;
              description
                "The upper-layer protocol.

                 Values are taken from the IANA Protocol Numbers
                 registry.

                 For example, this field contains 6 for TCP,
                 17 for UDP, 33 for DCCP, or 132 for SCTP.";
            }
            leaf limit {
              type uint32;
              description
                "Limit the number of protocol-specific mappings
                 and sessions per instance.";
            }
          }
        }
        container notification-limits {
          description
            "Sets notification limits.";
          leaf notify-interval {
            if-feature "basic-nat44 or napt44 or nat64";
            type uint32 {
              range "1 .. 3600";
            }
            units "seconds";
            default "10";
            description
              "Minimum number of seconds between successive
               notifications for this NAT instance.";
            reference
              "RFC 7659: Definitions of Managed Objects for
                         Network Address Translators (NATs)";



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          }
          leaf notify-addresses-usage {
            if-feature "basic-nat44 or napt44 or nat64";
            type percent;
            description
              "Notification of address mappings usage over
               the whole NAT instance.

               Notification must be generated when the defined
               threshold is reached.

               For example, if a notification is required when
               the address mappings utilization reaches 90%,
               this configuration parameter must be set
               to 90.";
          }
          leaf notify-ports-usage {
            if-feature "napt44 or nat64";
            type percent;
            description
              "Notification of port mappings usage over the
               whole NAT instance.

               Notification must be generated when the defined
               threshold is reached.

               For example, if a notification is required when
               the port mappings utilization reaches 90%, this
               configuration parameter must be set to 90.";
          }
          leaf notify-subscribers-limit {
            if-feature "basic-nat44 or napt44 or nat64";
            type uint32;
            description
              "Notification of active subscribers per NAT
               instance.

               Notification must be generated when the defined
               threshold is reached.";
          }
        }
        container mapping-table {
          if-feature "basic-nat44 or napt44 or nat64 "
                   + "or clat or dst-nat";
          description
            "NAT mapping table.  Applicable for functions that maintain
             static and/or dynamic mappings, such as NAT44, Destination
             NAT, NAT64, or CLAT.";



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          list mapping-entry {
            key "index";
            description
              "NAT mapping entry.";
            uses mapping-entry;
          }
        }
        container statistics {
          config false;
          description
            "Statistics related to the NAT instance.";
          leaf discontinuity-time {
            type yang:date-and-time;
            mandatory true;
            description
              "The time on the most recent occasion at which the NAT
               instance suffered a discontinuity.  This must be
               initialized when the NAT instance is configured
               or rebooted.";
          }
          container traffic-statistics {
            description
              "Generic traffic statistics.";
            leaf sent-packets {
              type yang:zero-based-counter64;
              description
                "Number of packets sent.";
            }
            leaf sent-bytes {
              type yang:zero-based-counter64;
              units "bytes";
              description
                "Counter for sent traffic in bytes.";
            }
            leaf rcvd-packets {
              type yang:zero-based-counter64;
              description
                "Number of received packets.";
            }
            leaf rcvd-bytes {
              type yang:zero-based-counter64;
              units "bytes";
              description
                "Counter for received traffic in bytes.";
            }
            leaf dropped-packets {
              type yang:zero-based-counter64;
              description



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                "Number of dropped packets.";
            }
            leaf dropped-bytes {
              type yang:zero-based-counter64;
              units "bytes";
              description
                "Counter for dropped traffic in bytes.";
            }
            leaf dropped-fragments {
              if-feature "napt44 or nat64";
              type yang:zero-based-counter64;
              description
                "Number of dropped fragments on the external realm.";
            }
            leaf dropped-address-limit-packets {
              if-feature "basic-nat44 or napt44 or nat64";
              type yang:zero-based-counter64;
              description
                "Number of dropped packets because an address limit
                  is reached.";
            }
            leaf dropped-address-limit-bytes {
              if-feature "basic-nat44 or napt44 or nat64";
              type yang:zero-based-counter64;
              units "bytes";
              description
                "Counter of dropped packets because an address limit
                  is reached, in bytes.";
            }
            leaf dropped-address-packets {
              if-feature "basic-nat44 or napt44 or nat64";
              type yang:zero-based-counter64;
              description
                "Number of dropped packets because no address is
                 available for allocation.";
            }
            leaf dropped-address-bytes {
              if-feature "basic-nat44 or napt44 or nat64";
              type yang:zero-based-counter64;
              units "bytes";
              description
                "Counter of dropped packets because no address is
                 available for allocation, in bytes.";
            }
            leaf dropped-port-limit-packets {
              if-feature "napt44 or nat64";
              type yang:zero-based-counter64;
              description



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                "Number of dropped packets because a port limit
                 is reached.";
            }
            leaf dropped-port-limit-bytes {
              if-feature "napt44 or nat64";
              type yang:zero-based-counter64;
              units "bytes";
              description
                "Counter of dropped packets because a port limit
                 is reached, in bytes.";
            }
            leaf dropped-port-packets {
              if-feature "napt44 or nat64";
              type yang:zero-based-counter64;
              description
                "Number of dropped packets because no port is
                 available for allocation.";
            }
            leaf dropped-port-bytes {
              if-feature "napt44 or nat64";
              type yang:zero-based-counter64;
              units "bytes";
              description
                "Counter of dropped packets because no port is
                 available for allocation, in bytes.";
            }
            leaf dropped-subscriber-limit-packets {
              if-feature "basic-nat44 or napt44 or nat64";
              type yang:zero-based-counter64;
              description
                "Number of dropped packets because the subscriber
                 limit per instance is reached.";
            }
            leaf dropped-subscriber-limit-bytes {
              if-feature "basic-nat44 or napt44 or nat64";
              type yang:zero-based-counter64;
              units "bytes";
              description
                "Counter of dropped packets because the subscriber
                  limit per instance is reached, in bytes.";
            }
          }
          container mappings-statistics {
            description
              "Mappings statistics.";
            leaf total-active-subscribers {
              if-feature "basic-nat44 or napt44 or nat64";
              type yang:gauge32;



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              description
                "Total number of active subscribers (that is,
                 subscribers for which the NAT maintains active
                 mappings).

                 A subscriber is identified by a subnet,
                 subscriber-mask, etc.";
            }
            leaf total-address-mappings {
              if-feature "basic-nat44 or napt44 or nat64 "
                       + "or clat or dst-nat";
              type yang:gauge32;
              description
                "Total number of address mappings present at a given
                 time.  It includes both static and dynamic mappings.";
              reference
                "Section 3.3.8 of RFC 7659";
            }
            leaf total-port-mappings {
              if-feature "napt44 or nat64";
              type yang:gauge32;
              description
                "Total number of NAT port mappings present at
                 a given time.  It includes both static and dynamic
                 mappings.";
              reference
                "Section 3.3.9 of RFC 7659";
            }
            list total-per-protocol {
              if-feature "napt44 or nat64";
              key "protocol-id";
              description
                "Total mappings for each enabled/supported protocol.";
              leaf protocol-id {
                type uint8;
                mandatory true;
                description
                  "The upper-layer protocol.
                   For example, this field contains 6 for TCP,
                   17 for UDP, 33 for DCCP, or 132 for SCTP.";
              }
              leaf total {
                type yang:gauge32;
                description
                  "Total number of a protocol-specific mappings present
                   at a given time.  The protocol is identified by
                   protocol-id.";
              }



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            }
          }
          container pools-stats {
            if-feature "basic-nat44 or napt44 or nat64";
            description
              "Statistics related to address/prefix pools
               usage";
            leaf addresses-allocated {
              type yang:gauge32;
              description
                "Number of all allocated addresses.";
            }
            leaf addresses-free {
              type yang:gauge32;
              description
                "Number of unallocated addresses of all pools at
                 a given time.  The sum of unallocated and allocated
                 addresses is the total number of addresses of
                 the pools.";
            }
            container ports-stats {
              if-feature "napt44 or nat64";
              description
                "Statistics related to port numbers usage.";
              leaf ports-allocated {
                type yang:gauge32;
                description
                  "Number of allocated ports from all pools.";
              }
              leaf ports-free {
                type yang:gauge32;
                description
                  "Number of unallocated addresses from all pools.";
              }
            }
            list per-pool-stats {
              if-feature "basic-nat44 or napt44 or nat64";
              key "pool-id";
              description
                "Statistics related to address/prefix pool usage";
              leaf pool-id {
                type uint32;
                description
                  "Unique identifier that represents a pool of
                   addresses/prefixes.";
              }
              leaf discontinuity-time {
                type yang:date-and-time;



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                mandatory true;
                description
                  "The time on the most recent occasion at which this
                   pool counter suffered a discontinuity.  This must
                   be initialized when the address pool is
                   configured.";
              }
              container pool-stats {
                description
                  "Statistics related to address/prefix pool usage";
                leaf addresses-allocated {
                  type yang:gauge32;
                  description
                    "Number of allocated addresses from this pool.";
                }
                leaf addresses-free {
                  type yang:gauge32;
                  description
                    "Number of unallocated addresses in this pool.";
                }
              }
              container port-stats {
                if-feature "napt44 or nat64";
                description
                  "Statistics related to port numbers usage.";
                leaf ports-allocated {
                  type yang:gauge32;
                  description
                    "Number of allocated ports from this pool.";
                }
                leaf ports-free {
                  type yang:gauge32;
                  description
                    "Number of unallocated addresses from this pool.";
                }
              }
            }
          }
        }
      }
    }
  }

  /*
   * Notifications
   */

  notification nat-pool-event {



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    if-feature "basic-nat44 or napt44 or nat64";
    description
      "Notifications must be generated when the defined high/low
       threshold is reached.  Related configuration parameters
       must be provided to trigger the notifications.";
    leaf id {
      type leafref {
        path "/nat/instances/instance/id";
      }
      mandatory true;
      description
        "NAT instance identifier.";
    }
    leaf policy-id {
      type leafref {
        path "/nat/instances/instance/policy/id";
      }
      description
        "Policy identifier.";
    }
    leaf pool-id {
      type leafref {
        path "/nat/instances/instance/policy"
           + "/external-ip-address-pool/pool-id";
      }
      mandatory true;
      description
        "Pool Identifier.";
    }
    leaf notify-pool-threshold {
      type percent;
      mandatory true;
      description
        "A threshold (high threshold or low threshold) has
         been fired.";
    }
  }

  notification nat-instance-event {
    if-feature "basic-nat44 or napt44 or nat64";
    description
      "Notifications must be generated when notify-addresses-usage
       and/or notify-ports-usage thresholds are reached.";
    leaf id {
      type leafref {
        path "/nat/instances/instance/id";
      }
      mandatory true;



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      description
        "NAT instance identifier.";
    }
    leaf notify-subscribers-threshold {
      type uint32;
      description
        "The notify-subscribers-limit threshold has been fired.";
    }
    leaf notify-addresses-threshold {
      type percent;
      description
        "The notify-addresses-usage threshold has been fired.";
    }
    leaf notify-ports-threshold {
      type percent;
      description
        "The notify-ports-usage threshold has been fired.";
    }
  }
 }

 <CODE ENDS>

4.  Security Considerations

   Security considerations related to address and prefix translation are
   discussed in [RFC6888], [RFC6146], [RFC6877], [RFC6296], and
   [RFC7757].

   The YANG module specified in this document defines a schema for data
   that is designed to be accessed via network management protocols such
   as NETCONF [RFC6241] or RESTCONF [RFC8040].  The lowest NETCONF layer
   is the secure transport layer, and the mandatory-to-implement secure
   transport is Secure Shell (SSH) [RFC6242].  The lowest RESTCONF layer
   is HTTPS, and the mandatory-to-implement secure transport is TLS
   [RFC8446].

   The Network Configuration Access Control Model (NACM) [RFC8341]
   provides the means to restrict access for particular NETCONF or
   RESTCONF users to a preconfigured subset of all available NETCONF or
   RESTCONF protocol operations and content.

   All data nodes defined in the YANG module that can be created,
   modified, and deleted (i.e., config true, which is the default) are
   considered sensitive.  Write operations (e.g., edit-config) applied
   to these data nodes without proper protection can negatively affect
   network operations.  The NAT YANG module provides a method to set
   parameters to prevent a user from aggressively using NAT resources



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   (port-quota), rate-limit connections as a guard against DoS, or to
   enable notifications so that appropriate measures are enforced to
   anticipate traffic drops.  Nevertheless, an attacker who is able to
   access the NAT can undertake various attacks, such as:

   o  Set a high or low resource limit to cause a DoS attack:

      *  /nat/instances/instance/policy/port-quota

      *  /nat/instances/instance/policy/fragments-limit

      *  /nat/instances/instance/mapping-limits

      *  /nat/instances/instance/connection-limits

   o  Set a low notification threshold to cause useless notifications to
      be generated:

      *  /nat/instances/instance/policy/notify-pool-usage/high-threshold

      *  /nat/instances/instance/notification-limits/notify-addresses-
         usage

      *  /nat/instances/instance/notification-limits/notify-ports-usage

      *  /nat/instances/instance/notification-limits/notify-subscribers-
         limit

   o  Set an arbitrarily high threshold, which may lead to the
      deactivation of notifications:

      *  /nat/instances/instance/policy/notify-pool-usage/high-threshold

      *  /nat/instances/instance/notification-limits/notify-addresses-
         usage

      *  /nat/instances/instance/notification-limits/notify-ports-usage

      *  /nat/instances/instance/notification-limits/notify-subscribers-
         limit

   o  Set a low notification interval and a low notification threshold
      to induce useless notifications to be generated:

      *  /nat/instances/instance/policy/notify-pool-usage/notify-
         interval





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      *  /nat/instances/instance/notification-limits/notify-interval

   o  Access to privacy data maintained in the mapping table.  Such data
      can be misused to track the activity of a host:

      *  /nat/instances/instance/mapping-table

5.  IANA Considerations

   IANA has registered the following URI in the "ns" subregistry within
   the "IETF XML Registry" [RFC3688]:

            URI: urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-nat
            Registrant Contact: The IESG.
            XML: N/A; the requested URI is an XML namespace.

   IANA has registered the following YANG module in the "YANG Module
   Names" subregistry [RFC7950] within the "YANG Parameters" registry.

            name: ietf-nat
            namespace: urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-nat
            prefix: nat
            reference: RFC 8512

6.  References

6.1.  Normative References

   [RFC3688]  Mealling, M., "The IETF XML Registry", BCP 81, RFC 3688,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3688, January 2004,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3688>.

   [RFC4787]  Audet, F., Ed. and C. Jennings, "Network Address
              Translation (NAT) Behavioral Requirements for Unicast
              UDP", BCP 127, RFC 4787, DOI 10.17487/RFC4787, January
              2007, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4787>.

   [RFC5382]  Guha, S., Ed., Biswas, K., Ford, B., Sivakumar, S., and
              P. Srisuresh, "NAT Behavioral Requirements for TCP",
              BCP 142, RFC 5382, DOI 10.17487/RFC5382, October 2008,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5382>.

   [RFC5508]  Srisuresh, P., Ford, B., Sivakumar, S., and S. Guha, "NAT
              Behavioral Requirements for ICMP", BCP 148, RFC 5508,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5508, April 2009,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5508>.





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   [RFC6052]  Bao, C., Huitema, C., Bagnulo, M., Boucadair, M., and
              X. Li, "IPv6 Addressing of IPv4/IPv6 Translators",
              RFC 6052, DOI 10.17487/RFC6052, October 2010,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6052>.

   [RFC6146]  Bagnulo, M., Matthews, P., and I. van Beijnum, "Stateful
              NAT64: Network Address and Protocol Translation from IPv6
              Clients to IPv4 Servers", RFC 6146, DOI 10.17487/RFC6146,
              April 2011, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6146>.

   [RFC6241]  Enns, R., Ed., Bjorklund, M., Ed., Schoenwaelder, J., Ed.,
              and A. Bierman, Ed., "Network Configuration Protocol
              (NETCONF)", RFC 6241, DOI 10.17487/RFC6241, June 2011,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6241>.

   [RFC6242]  Wasserman, M., "Using the NETCONF Protocol over Secure
              Shell (SSH)", RFC 6242, DOI 10.17487/RFC6242, June 2011,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6242>.

   [RFC6296]  Wasserman, M. and F. Baker, "IPv6-to-IPv6 Network Prefix
              Translation", RFC 6296, DOI 10.17487/RFC6296, June 2011,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6296>.

   [RFC6619]  Arkko, J., Eggert, L., and M. Townsley, "Scalable
              Operation of Address Translators with Per-Interface
              Bindings", RFC 6619, DOI 10.17487/RFC6619, June 2012,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6619>.

   [RFC6877]  Mawatari, M., Kawashima, M., and C. Byrne, "464XLAT:
              Combination of Stateful and Stateless Translation",
              RFC 6877, DOI 10.17487/RFC6877, April 2013,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6877>.

   [RFC6888]  Perreault, S., Ed., Yamagata, I., Miyakawa, S., Nakagawa,
              A., and H. Ashida, "Common Requirements for Carrier-Grade
              NATs (CGNs)", BCP 127, RFC 6888, DOI 10.17487/RFC6888,
              April 2013, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6888>.

   [RFC6991]  Schoenwaelder, J., Ed., "Common YANG Data Types",
              RFC 6991, DOI 10.17487/RFC6991, July 2013,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6991>.

   [RFC7596]  Cui, Y., Sun, Q., Boucadair, M., Tsou, T., Lee, Y., and
              I. Farrer, "Lightweight 4over6: An Extension to the Dual-
              Stack Lite Architecture", RFC 7596, DOI 10.17487/RFC7596,
              July 2015, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7596>.





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   [RFC7597]  Troan, O., Ed., Dec, W., Li, X., Bao, C., Matsushima, S.,
              Murakami, T., and T. Taylor, Ed., "Mapping of Address and
              Port with Encapsulation (MAP-E)", RFC 7597,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7597, July 2015,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7597>.

   [RFC7757]  Anderson, T. and A. Leiva Popper, "Explicit Address
              Mappings for Stateless IP/ICMP Translation", RFC 7757,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7757, February 2016,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7757>.

   [RFC7857]  Penno, R., Perreault, S., Boucadair, M., Ed., Sivakumar,
              S., and K. Naito, "Updates to Network Address Translation
              (NAT) Behavioral Requirements", BCP 127, RFC 7857,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7857, April 2016,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7857>.

   [RFC7915]  Bao, C., Li, X., Baker, F., Anderson, T., and F. Gont,
              "IP/ICMP Translation Algorithm", RFC 7915,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7915, June 2016,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7915>.

   [RFC7950]  Bjorklund, M., Ed., "The YANG 1.1 Data Modeling Language",
              RFC 7950, DOI 10.17487/RFC7950, August 2016,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7950>.

   [RFC8040]  Bierman, A., Bjorklund, M., and K. Watsen, "RESTCONF
              Protocol", RFC 8040, DOI 10.17487/RFC8040, January 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8040>.

   [RFC8341]  Bierman, A. and M. Bjorklund, "Network Configuration
              Access Control Model", STD 91, RFC 8341,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8341, March 2018,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8341>.

   [RFC8343]  Bjorklund, M., "A YANG Data Model for Interface
              Management", RFC 8343, DOI 10.17487/RFC8343, March 2018,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8343>.

   [RFC8446]  Rescorla, E., "The Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocol
              Version 1.3", RFC 8446, DOI 10.17487/RFC8446, August 2018,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8446>.









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6.2.  Informative References

   [NAT-SUPP]
              Stewart, R., Tuexen, M., and I. Ruengeler, "Stream Control
              Transmission Protocol (SCTP) Network Address Translation
              Support", Work in Progress, draft-ietf-tsvwg-natsupp-12,
              July 2018.

   [RFC2663]  Srisuresh, P. and M. Holdrege, "IP Network Address
              Translator (NAT) Terminology and Considerations",
              RFC 2663, DOI 10.17487/RFC2663, August 1999,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2663>.

   [RFC3022]  Srisuresh, P. and K. Egevang, "Traditional IP Network
              Address Translator (Traditional NAT)", RFC 3022,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3022, January 2001,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3022>.

   [RFC5597]  Denis-Courmont, R., "Network Address Translation (NAT)
              Behavioral Requirements for the Datagram Congestion
              Control Protocol", BCP 150, RFC 5597,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5597, September 2009,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5597>.

   [RFC6269]  Ford, M., Ed., Boucadair, M., Durand, A., Levis, P., and
              P. Roberts, "Issues with IP Address Sharing", RFC 6269,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6269, June 2011,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6269>.

   [RFC6736]  Brockners, F., Bhandari, S., Singh, V., and V. Fajardo,
              "Diameter Network Address and Port Translation Control
              Application", RFC 6736, DOI 10.17487/RFC6736, October
              2012, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6736>.

   [RFC6887]  Wing, D., Ed., Cheshire, S., Boucadair, M., Penno, R., and
              P. Selkirk, "Port Control Protocol (PCP)", RFC 6887,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6887, April 2013,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6887>.

   [RFC6908]  Lee, Y., Maglione, R., Williams, C., Jacquenet, C., and
              M. Boucadair, "Deployment Considerations for Dual-Stack
              Lite", RFC 6908, DOI 10.17487/RFC6908, March 2013,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6908>.

   [RFC7050]  Savolainen, T., Korhonen, J., and D. Wing, "Discovery of
              the IPv6 Prefix Used for IPv6 Address Synthesis",
              RFC 7050, DOI 10.17487/RFC7050, November 2013,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7050>.



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   [RFC7289]  Kuarsingh, V., Ed. and J. Cianfarani, "Carrier-Grade NAT
              (CGN) Deployment with BGP/MPLS IP VPNs", RFC 7289,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7289, June 2014,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7289>.

   [RFC7335]  Byrne, C., "IPv4 Service Continuity Prefix", RFC 7335,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7335, August 2014,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7335>.

   [RFC7659]  Perreault, S., Tsou, T., Sivakumar, S., and T. Taylor,
              "Definitions of Managed Objects for Network Address
              Translators (NATs)", RFC 7659, DOI 10.17487/RFC7659,
              October 2015, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7659>.

   [RFC7753]  Sun, Q., Boucadair, M., Sivakumar, S., Zhou, C., Tsou, T.,
              and S. Perreault, "Port Control Protocol (PCP) Extension
              for Port-Set Allocation", RFC 7753, DOI 10.17487/RFC7753,
              February 2016, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7753>.

   [RFC8045]  Cheng, D., Korhonen, J., Boucadair, M., and S. Sivakumar,
              "RADIUS Extensions for IP Port Configuration and
              Reporting", RFC 8045, DOI 10.17487/RFC8045, January 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8045>.

   [RFC8340]  Bjorklund, M. and L. Berger, Ed., "YANG Tree Diagrams",
              BCP 215, RFC 8340, DOI 10.17487/RFC8340, March 2018,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8340>.

   [RFC8407]  Bierman, A., "Guidelines for Authors and Reviewers of
              Documents Containing YANG Data Models", BCP 216, RFC 8407,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8407, October 2018,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8407>.

   [RFC8513]  Boucadair, M., Jacquenet, C., and S. Sivakumar, "A YANG
              Data Model for Dual-Stack Lite (DS-Lite)", RFC 8513,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8513, January 2019,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8513>.

   [YANG-PCP] Boucadair, M., Jacquenet, C., Sivakumar, S., and
              S. Vinapamula, "YANG Modules for the Port Control Protocol
              (PCP)", Work in Progress, draft-boucadair-pcp-yang-05,
              October 2017.









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Appendix A.  Some Examples

   This section provides a non-exhaustive set of examples to illustrate
   the use of the NAT YANG module.

A.1.  Traditional NAT44

   Traditional NAT44 is a Basic NAT44 or NAPT that is used to share the
   same IPv4 address among hosts that are owned by the same subscriber.
   This is typically the NAT that is embedded in CPE devices.

   This NAT is usually provided with one single external IPv4 address;
   disambiguating connections is achieved by rewriting the source port
   number.  The XML snippet to configure the external IPv4 address in
   such case together with a mapping entry is depicted below:

   <instances>
     <instance>
       <id>1</id>
       <name>NAT_Subscriber_A</name>
        ....
       <external-ip-address-pool>
         <pool-id>1</pool-id>
           <external-ip-pool>
             198.51.100.1/32
           </external-ip-pool>
         </external-ip-address-pool>
         ....
       <mapping-table>
         ....
         <external-src-address>
           198.51.100.1/32
         </external-src-address>
           ....
       </mapping-table>
     </instance>
   </instances>














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   The following shows the XML excerpt depicting a dynamic UDP mapping
   entry maintained by a traditional NAPT44.  In reference to this
   example, the UDP packet received with a source IPv4 address
   (192.0.2.1) and source port number (1568) is translated into a UDP
   packet having a source IPv4 address (198.51.100.1) and source port
   (15000).  The remaining lifetime of this mapping is 300 seconds.

   <mapping-entry>
     <index>15</index>
     <type>
       dynamic-explicit
     </type>
     <transport-protocol>
       17
     </transport-protocol>
     <internal-src-address>
       192.0.2.1/32
     </internal-src-address>
     <internal-src-port>
       <start-port-number>
         1568
       </start-port-number>
     </internal-src-port>
     <external-src-address>
       198.51.100.1/32
     </external-src-address>
     <external-src-port>
       <start-port-number>
         15000
       </start-port-number>
     </external-src-port>
     <lifetime>
       300
     </lifetime>
   </mapping-entry>

A.2.  Carrier Grade NAT (CGN)

   The following XML snippet shows the example of the capabilities
   supported by a CGN as retrieved using NETCONF.

   <capabilities>
     <nat-flavor>napt44</nat-flavor>
     <transport-protocols>
       <protocol-id>1</protocol-id>
     </transport-protocols>
     <transport-protocols>
       <protocol-id>6</protocol-id>



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     </transport-protocols>
     <transport-protocols>
       <protocol-id>17</protocol-id>
     </transport-protocols>
     <restricted-port-support>
       false
     </restricted-port-support>
     <static-mapping-support>
       true
     </static-mapping-support>
     <port-randomization-support>
       true
     </port-randomization-support>
     <port-range-allocation-support>
       true
     </port-range-allocation-support>
     <port-preservation-suport>
       true
     </port-preservation-suport>
     <port-parity-preservation-support>
       false
     </port-parity-preservation-support>
     <address-roundrobin-support>
       true
     </address-roundrobin-support>
     <paired-address-pooling-support>
       true
     </paired-address-pooling-support>
     <endpoint-independent-mapping-support>
       true
     </endpoint-independent-mapping-support>
     <address-dependent-mapping-support>
       true
     </address-dependent-mapping-support>
     <address-and-port-dependent-mapping-support>
       true
     </address-and-port-dependent-mapping-support>
     <endpoint-independent-filtering-support>
       true
     </endpoint-independent-filtering-support>
     <address-dependent-filtering>
       true
     </address-dependent-filtering>
     <address-and-port-dependent-filtering>
       true
     </address-and-port-dependent-filtering>
   </capabilities>




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   The following XML snippet shows the example of a CGN that is
   provisioned with one contiguous pool of external IPv4 addresses
   (198.51.100.0/24).  Further, the CGN is instructed to limit the
   number of allocated ports per subscriber to 1024.  Ports can be
   allocated by the CGN by assigning ranges of 256 ports (that is, a
   subscriber can be allocated up to four port ranges of 256 ports
   each).

   <instances>
     <instance>
       <id>1</id>
       <name>myCGN</name>
       ....
       <external-ip-address-pool>
         <pool-id>1</pool-id>
         <external-ip-pool>
           198.51.100.0/24
         </external-ip-pool>
       </external-ip-address-pool>
       <port-quota>
         <port-limit>
           1024
         </port-limit>
         <quota-type >
           all
         </quota-type >
       </port-quota>
         <port-allocation-type>
           port-range-allocation
         </port-allocation-type>
         <port-set>
           <port-set-size>
             256
           </port-set-size>
         </port-set>
       ....
     </instance>
   </instances>













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   An administrator may decide to allocate one single port range per
   subscriber (e.g., a port range of 1024 ports) as shown below:

   <instances>
     <instance>
       <id>1</id>
       <name>myCGN</name>
       ....
       <external-ip-address-pool>
         <pool-id>1</pool-id>
         <external-ip-pool>
           198.51.100.0/24
         </external-ip-pool>
       </external-ip-address-pool>
       <port-quota>
         <port-limit>
           1024
         </port-limit>
         <quota-type >
           all
         </quota-type >
       </port-quota>
         <port-allocation-type>
           port-range-allocation
         </port-allocation-type>
         <port-set>
           <port-set-size>
             1024
           </port-set-size>
         </port-set>
       ....
     </instance>
   </instances>


















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A.3.  CGN Pass-Through

   Figure 1 illustrates an example of the CGN pass-through feature.

                     X1:x1            X1':x1'            X2:x2
                     +---+from X1:x1  +---+from X1:x1    +---+
                     | C |  to X2:x2  |   |  to X2:x2    | S |
                     | l |>>>>>>>>>>>>| C |>>>>>>>>>>>>>>| e |
                     | i |            | G |              | r |
                     | e |<<<<<<<<<<<<| N |<<<<<<<<<<<<<<| v |
                     | n |from X2:x2  |   |from X2:x2    | e |
                     | t |  to X1:x1  |   |  to X1:x1    | r |
                     +---+            +---+              +---+

                        Figure 1: CGN Pass-Through

   For example, in order to disable NAT for communications issued by the
   client (192.0.2.1), the following configuration parameter must be
   set:

   <nat-pass-through>
     ...
     <prefix>192.0.2.1/32</prefix>
     ...
   </nat-pass-through>

A.4.  NAT64

   Let's consider the example of a NAT64 that should use
   2001:db8:122:300::/56 to perform IPv6 address synthesis [RFC6052].
   The XML snippet to configure the NAT64 prefix in such case is
   depicted below:

   <nat64-prefixes>
     <nat64-prefix>
       2001:db8:122:300::/56
     </nat64-prefix>
   </nat64-prefixes>













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   Let's now consider the example of a NAT64 that should use
   2001:db8:122::/48 to perform IPv6 address synthesis [RFC6052] only if
   the destination address matches 198.51.100.0/24.  The XML snippet to
   configure the NAT64 prefix in such case is shown below:

   <nat64-prefixes>
     <nat64-prefix>
       2001:db8:122::/48
     </nat64-prefix>
     <destination-ipv4-prefix>
       <ipv4-prefix>
         198.51.100.0/24
       </ipv4-prefix>
     </destination-ipv4-prefix>
   </nat64-prefixes>

A.5.  Stateless IP/ICMP Translation (SIIT)

   Let's consider the example of a stateless translator that is
   configured with 2001:db8:100::/40 to perform IPv6 address synthesis
   [RFC6052].  Similar to the NAT64 case, the XML snippet to configure
   the NAT64 prefix in such case is depicted below:

   <nat64-prefixes>
     <nat64-prefix>
       2001:db8:100::/40
     </nat64-prefix>
   </nat64-prefixes>

   When the translator receives an IPv6 packet, for example, with a
   source address (2001:db8:1c0:2:21::) and destination address
   (2001:db8:1c6:3364:2::), it extracts embedded IPv4 addresses
   following rules per RFC 6052 with 2001:db8:100::/40 as the NSP:

   o  192.0.2.33 is extracted from 2001:db8:1c0:2:21::

   o  198.51.100.2 is extracted from 2001:db8:1c6:3364:2::

   The translator transforms the IPv6 header into an IPv4 header using
   the IP/ICMP Translation Algorithm [RFC7915].  The IPv4 packets will
   include 192.0.2.33 as the source address and 198.51.100.2 as the
   destination address.

   Also, a NAT64 can be instructed to behave in the stateless mode by
   providing the following configuration.  The same NAT64 prefix is used
   for constructing both IPv4-translatable IPv6 addresses and
   IPv4-converted IPv6 addresses (see Section 3.3 of [RFC6052]).




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   <nat64-prefixes>
     <nat64-prefix>
       2001:db8:122:300::/56
     </nat64-prefix>
     <stateless-enable>
       true
     </stateless-enable>
   </nat64-prefixes>

A.6.  Explicit Address Mappings (EAM) for Stateless IP/ICMP Translation
      (SIIT)

   As specified in [RFC7757], an EAM consists of an IPv4 prefix and an
   IPv6 prefix.  Let's consider the set of EAM examples in Table 8.

                  +----------------+----------------------+
                  |  IPv4 Prefix   |     IPv6 Prefix      |
                  +----------------+----------------------+
                  | 192.0.2.1      | 2001:db8:aaaa::      |
                  | 192.0.2.2/32   | 2001:db8:bbbb::b/128 |
                  | 192.0.2.16/28  | 2001:db8:cccc::/124  |
                  | 192.0.2.128/26 | 2001:db8:dddd::/64   |
                  | 192.0.2.192/29 | 2001:db8:eeee:8::/62 |
                  | 192.0.2.224/31 | 64:ff9b::/127        |
                  +----------------+----------------------+

                        Table 8: EAM Examples (RFC 7757)

   The following XML excerpt illustrates how these EAMs can be
   configured using the NAT YANG module:

   <eam>
     <ipv4-prefix>
       192.0.2.1/32
     </ipv4-prefix>
     <ipv6-prefix>
       2001:db8:aaaa::/128
     </ipv6-prefix>
   </eam>
   <eam>
     <ipv4-prefix>
       192.0.2.2/32
     </ipv4-prefix>
     <ipv6-prefix>
       2001:db8:bbbb::b/128
     </ipv6-prefix>
   </eam>




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   <eam>
     <ipv4-prefix>
       192.0.2.16/28
     </ipv4-prefix>
     <ipv6-prefix>
       2001:db8:cccc::/124
     </ipv6-prefix>
   </eam>
   <eam>
     <ipv4-prefix>
       192.0.2.128/26
     </ipv4-prefix>
     <ipv6-prefix>
       2001:db8:dddd::/64
     </ipv6-prefix>
   </eam>
   <eam>
     <ipv4-prefix>
       192.0.2.192/29
     </ipv4-prefix>
     <ipv6-prefix>
       2001:db8:eeee:8::/62
     </ipv6-prefix>
   </eam>
   <eam>
     <ipv4-prefix>
       192.0.2.224/31
     </ipv4-prefix>
     <ipv6-prefix>
       64:ff9b::/127
     </ipv6-prefix>
   </eam>



















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RFC 8512               YANG Module for NAT and NPT          January 2019


   EAMs may be enabled jointly with stateful NAT64.  This example shows
   a NAT64 function that supports static mappings:

   <capabilities>
     <nat-flavor>
       nat64
     </nat-flavor>
     <static-mapping-support>
       true
     </static-mapping-support>
     <port-randomization-support>
       true
     </port-randomization-support>
     <port-range-allocation-support>
       true
     </port-range-allocation-support>
     <port-preservation-suport>
       true
     </port-preservation-suport>
     <address-roundrobin-support>
       true
     </address-roundrobin-support>
     <paired-address-pooling-support>
       true
     </paired-address-pooling-support>
     <endpoint-independent-mapping-support>
       true
     </endpoint-independent-mapping-support>
     <endpoint-independent-filtering-support>
       true
     </endpoint-independent-filtering-support>
   </capabilities>



















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A.7.  Static Mappings with Port Ranges

   The following example shows a static mapping that instructs a NAT to
   translate packets issued from 192.0.2.1 and with source ports in the
   100-500 range to 198.51.100.1:1100-1500.

   <mapping-entry>
     <index>1</index>
     <type>
       static
     </type>
     <transport-protocol>
       6
     </transport-protocol>
     <internal-src-address>
       192.0.2.1/32
     </internal-src-address>
     <internal-src-port>
       <start-port-number>
         100
       </start-port-number>
       <end-port-number>
         500
       </end-port-number>
     </internal-src-port>
     <external-src-address>
       198.51.100.1/32
     </external-src-address>
     <external-src-port>
       <start-port-number>
         1100
       </start-port-number>
       <end-port-number>
         1500
       </end-port-number>
     </external-src-port>
     ...
   </mapping-entry>













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A.8.  Static Mappings with IP Prefixes

   The following example shows a static mapping that instructs a NAT to
   translate TCP packets issued from 192.0.2.0/24 to 198.51.100.0/24.

   <mapping-entry>
     <index>1</index>
     <type>
       static
     </type>
     <transport-protocol>
       6
     </transport-protocol>
     <internal-src-address>
       192.0.2.0/24
     </internal-src-address>
     <external-src-address>
       198.51.100.0/24
     </external-src-address>
     ...
   </mapping-entry>

A.9.  Destination NAT

   The following XML snippet shows an example of a Destination NAT that
   is instructed to translate all packets having 192.0.2.1 as a
   destination IP address to 198.51.100.1.

   <dst-ip-address-pool>
     <pool-id>1</pool-id>
     <dst-in-ip-pool>
       192.0.2.1/32
     </dst-in-ip-pool>
     <dst-out-ip-pool>
       198.51.100.1/32
     </dst-out-ip-pool>
   </dst-ip-address-pool>














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   In order to instruct a NAT to translate TCP packets destined to
   '192.0.2.1:80' to '198.51.100.1:8080', the following XML snippet
   shows the static mapping configured on the NAT:

   <mapping-entry>
     <index>1568</index>
     <type>
       static
     </type>
     <transport-protocol>
       6
     </transport-protocol>
     <internal-dst-address>
       192.0.2.1/32
     </internal-dst-address>
     <internal-dst-port>
       <start-port-number>
         80
       </start-port-number>
     </internal-dst-port>
     <external-dst-address>
       198.51.100.1/32
     </external-dst-address>
     <external-dst-port>
       <start-port-number>
         8080
       </start-port-number>
     </external-dst-port>
   </mapping-entry>






















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RFC 8512               YANG Module for NAT and NPT          January 2019


   In order to instruct a NAT to translate TCP packets destined to
   '192.0.2.1:80' (HTTP traffic) to 198.51.100.1 and '192.0.2.1:22' (SSH
   traffic) to 198.51.100.2, the following XML snippet shows the static
   mappings configured on the NAT:

   <mapping-entry>
     <index>123</index>
     <type>
       static
     </type>
     <transport-protocol>
       6
     </transport-protocol>
     <internal-dst-address>
       192.0.2.1/32
     </internal-dst-address>
     <internal-dst-port>
       <start-port-number>
         80
       </start-port-number>
     </internal-dst-port>
     <external-dst-address>
       198.51.100.1/32
     </external-dst-address>
     ...
   </mapping-entry>
   <mapping-entry>
     <index>1236</index>
     <type>
       static
     </type>
     <transport-protocol>
        6
     </transport-protocol>
     <internal-dst-address>
       192.0.2.1/32
     </internal-dst-address>
     <internal-dst-port>
       <start-port-number>
         22
       </start-port-number>
     </internal-dst-port>
     <external-dst-address>
       198.51.100.2/32
     </external-dst-address>
     ...
   </mapping-entry>




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RFC 8512               YANG Module for NAT and NPT          January 2019


   The NAT may also be instructed to proceed with both source and
   Destination NAT.  To do so, in addition to the above example to
   configure Destination NAT, the NAT may be provided, for example with
   a pool of external IP addresses (198.51.100.0/24) to use for source
   address translation.  An example of the corresponding XML snippet is
   provided hereafter:

   <external-ip-address-pool>
     <pool-id>1</pool-id>
     <external-ip-pool>
       198.51.100.0/24
     </external-ip-pool>
   </external-ip-address-pool>

   Instead of providing an external IP address to share, the NAT may be
   configured with static mapping entries that modify the internal IP
   address and/or port number.

A.10.  Customer-Side Translator (CLAT)

   The following XML snippet shows the example of a CLAT that is
   configured with 2001:db8:1234::/96 as a PLAT-side IPv6 prefix and
   2001:db8:aaaa::/96 as a CLAT-side IPv6 prefix.  The CLAT is also
   provided with 192.0.0.1/32 (which is selected from the IPv4 service
   continuity prefix defined in [RFC7335]).

   <clat-ipv6-prefixes>
     <ipv6-prefix>
       2001:db8:aaaa::/96
     </ipv6-prefix>
   </clat-ipv6-prefixes>
   <clat-ipv4-prefixes>
     <ipv4-prefix>
       192.0.0.1/32
     </ipv4-prefix>
   </clat-ipv4-prefixes>
   <nat64-prefixes>
     <nat64-prefix>
       2001:db8:1234::/96
     </nat64-prefix>
   </nat64-prefixes>










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RFC 8512               YANG Module for NAT and NPT          January 2019


A.11.  IPv6 Network Prefix Translation (NPTv6)

   Let's consider the example of an NPTv6 translator that should rewrite
   packets with the source prefix (fd03:c03a:ecab::/48) with the
   external prefix (2001:db8:1::/48).  The internal interface is "eth0"
   while the external interface is "eth1" (Figure 2).

                  External Network:  Prefix = 2001:db8:1::/48
                      --------------------------------------
                                        |
                                        |eth1
                                 +-------------+
                             eth4|     NPTv6   |eth2
                         ...-----|             |------...
                                 +-------------+
                                        |eth0
                                        |
                      --------------------------------------
                  Internal Network:  Prefix = fd03:c03a:ecab::/48

                        Figure 2: Example of NPTv6

   The XML snippet to configure NPTv6 prefixes in such case is depicted
   below:

   <nptv6-prefixes>
     <internal-ipv6-prefix>
       fd03:c03a:ecab::/48
     </internal-ipv6-prefix>
     <external-ipv6-prefix>
       2001:db8:1::/48
     </external-ipv6-prefix>
   </nptv6-prefixes>
   ...
   <external-realm>
     <external-interface>
       eth1
     </external-interface>
   </external-realm>












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   Figure 3 shows an example of an NPTv6 translator that interconnects
   two internal networks (fd03:c03a:ecab::/48 and fda8:d5cb:14f3::/48);
   each is translated using a dedicated prefix (2001:db8:1::/48 and
   2001:db8:6666::/48, respectively).

                     Internal Prefix = fda8:d5cb:14f3::/48
                     --------------------------------------
                          V            |      External Prefix
                          V            |eth1   2001:db8:1::/48
                          V        +---------+      ^
                          V        |  NPTv6  |      ^
                          V        |         |      ^
                          V        +---------+      ^
                 External Prefix       |eth0        ^
                 2001:db8:6666::/48    |            ^
                     --------------------------------------
                     Internal Prefix = fd03:c03a:ecab::/48

                  Figure 3: Connecting Two Peer Networks
































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RFC 8512               YANG Module for NAT and NPT          January 2019


   To that aim, the following configuration is provided to the NPTv6
   translator:

   <policy>
     <id>1</id>
     <nptv6-prefixes>
       <internal-ipv6-prefix>
         fd03:c03a:ecab::/48
       </internal-ipv6-prefix>
       <external-ipv6-prefix>
         2001:db8:1::/48
       </external-ipv6-prefix>
     </nptv6-prefixes>
     <external-realm>
       <external-interface>
         eth1
       </external-interface>
     </external-realm>
   </policy>
   <policy>
     <id>2</id>
     <nptv6-prefixes>
       <internal-ipv6-prefix>
         fda8:d5cb:14f3::/48
       </internal-ipv6-prefix>
       <external-ipv6-prefix>
         2001:db8:6666::/48
       </external-ipv6-prefix>
     </nptv6-prefixes>
     <external-realm>
       <external-interface>
         eth0
       </external-interface>
     </external-realm>
   </policy>
















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Acknowledgements

   Many thanks to Dan Wing, Tianran Zhou, Tom Petch, Warren Kumari, and
   Benjamin Kaduk for their review.

   Thanks to Juergen Schoenwaelder for the comments on the YANG
   structure and the suggestion to use NMDA.  Mahesh Jethanandani
   provided useful comments.

   Thanks to Lee Howard and Jordi Palet for the CLAT comments, Fred
   Baker for the NPTv6 comments, Tore Anderson for the EAM SIIT review,
   and Kristian Poscic for the CGN review.

   Special thanks to Maros Marsalek and Marek Gradzki for sharing their
   comments based on the FD.io implementation of this module
   (https://git.fd.io/hc2vpp/tree/nat/nat-api/src/main/yang).

   Rajiv Asati suggested clarifying how the module applies for both
   stateless and stateful NAT64.

   Juergen Schoenwaelder provided an early YANG Doctors review.  Many
   thanks to him.

   Thanks to Roni Even, Mach(Guoyi) Chen, Tim Chown, and Stephen Farrell
   for the directorates review.  Igor Ryzhov identified a nit in one
   example.

   Mirja Kuehlewind made a comment about the reuse of some TCP timers
   for any connection-oriented protocol.






















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Authors' Addresses

   Mohamed Boucadair (editor)
   Orange
   Rennes  35000
   France

   Email: mohamed.boucadair@orange.com


   Senthil Sivakumar
   Cisco Systems
   7100-8 Kit Creek Road
   Research Triangle Park, North Carolina  27709
   United States of America

   Phone: +1 919 392 5158
   Email: ssenthil@cisco.com


   Christian Jacquenet
   Orange
   Rennes  35000
   France

   Email: christian.jacquenet@orange.com


   Suresh Vinapamula
   Juniper Networks
   1133 Innovation Way
   Sunnyvale  94089
   United States of America

   Email: sureshk@juniper.net


   Qin Wu
   Huawei
   101 Software Avenue, Yuhua District
   Nanjing, Jiangsu  210012
   China

   Email: bill.wu@huawei.com







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