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For this RFC, original HTML is available from the RFC-Editor: RFC8666

PROPOSED STANDARD

Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)                    P. Psenak, Ed.
Request for Comments: 8666                               S. Previdi, Ed.
Category: Standards Track                            Cisco Systems, Inc.
ISSN: 2070-1721                                            December 2019


                 OSPFv3 Extensions for Segment Routing

Abstract

   Segment Routing (SR) allows a flexible definition of end-to-end paths
   within IGP topologies by encoding paths as sequences of topological
   subpaths called "segments".  These segments are advertised by the
   link-state routing protocols (IS-IS and OSPF).

   This document describes the OSPFv3 extensions required for Segment
   Routing with the MPLS data plane.

Status of This Memo

   This is an Internet Standards Track document.

   This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
   (IETF).  It represents the consensus of the IETF community.  It has
   received public review and has been approved for publication by the
   Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG).  Further information on
   Internet Standards is available in Section 2 of RFC 7841.

   Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
   and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
   https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8666.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2019 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction
   2.  Terminology
   3.  Segment Routing Identifiers
     3.1.  SID/Label Sub-TLV
   4.  Segment Routing Capabilities
   5.  OSPFv3 Extended Prefix Range TLV
   6.  Prefix-SID Sub-TLV
   7.  Adjacency Segment Identifier (Adj-SID)
     7.1.  Adj-SID Sub-TLV
     7.2.  LAN Adj-SID Sub-TLV
   8.  Elements of Procedure
     8.1.  Intra-area Segment Routing in OSPFv3
     8.2.  Inter-area Segment Routing in OSPFv3
     8.3.  Segment Routing for External Prefixes
     8.4.  Advertisement of Adj-SID
       8.4.1.  Advertisement of Adj-SID on Point-to-Point Links
       8.4.2.  Adjacency SID on Broadcast or NBMA Interfaces
   9.  IANA Considerations
     9.1.  "OSPFv3 Extended-LSA TLVs" Registry
     9.2.  "OSPFv3 Extended-LSA Sub-TLVs" Registry
   10. TLV/Sub-TLV Error Handling
   11. Security Considerations
   12. References
     12.1.  Normative References
     12.2.  Informative References
   Contributors
   Authors' Addresses

1.  Introduction

   Segment Routing (SR) allows a flexible definition of end-to-end paths
   within IGP topologies by encoding paths as sequences of topological
   subpaths called "segments".  These segments are advertised by the
   link-state routing protocols (IS-IS and OSPF).  Prefix segments
   represent an ECMP-aware shortest path to a prefix (or a node) as per
   the state of the IGP topology.  Adjacency segments represent a hop
   over a specific adjacency between two nodes in the IGP.  A prefix
   segment is typically a multi-hop path while an adjacency segment, in
   most cases, is a one-hop path.  SR's control plane can be applied to
   both IPv6 and MPLS data planes, and it does not require any
   additional signaling (other than IGP extensions).  The IPv6 data
   plane is out of the scope of this specification; the OSPFv3 extension
   for SR with the IPv6 data plane will be specified in a separate
   document.  When used in MPLS networks, SR paths do not require any
   LDP or RSVP-TE signaling.  However, SR can interoperate in the
   presence of Label Switched Paths (LSPs) established with RSVP or LDP.

   This document describes the OSPFv3 extensions required for Segment
   Routing with the MPLS data plane.

   Segment Routing architecture is described in [RFC8402].

   Segment Routing use cases are described in [RFC7855].

2.  Terminology

   This section lists some of the terminology used in this document:

   ABR:        Area Border Router

   Adj-SID:    Adjacency Segment Identifier

   AS:         Autonomous System

   ASBR:       Autonomous System Boundary Router

   DR:         Designated Router

   IS-IS:      Intermediate System to Intermediate System

   LDP:        Label Distribution Protocol

   LSP:        Label Switched Path

   MPLS:       Multiprotocol Label Switching

   OSPF:       Open Shortest Path First

   SPF:        Shortest Path First

   RSVP:       Resource Reservation Protocol

   SID:        Segment Identifier

   SR:         Segment Routing

   SRGB:       Segment Routing Global Block

   SRLB:       Segment Routing Local Block

   SRMS:       Segment Routing Mapping Server

   TLV:        Type Length Value

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP
   14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
   capitals, as shown here.

3.  Segment Routing Identifiers

   Segment Routing defines various types of Segment Identifiers (SIDs):
   Prefix-SID, Adjacency SID, and LAN Adjacency SID.

3.1.  SID/Label Sub-TLV

   The SID/Label sub-TLV appears in multiple TLVs or sub-TLVs defined
   later in this document.  It is used to advertise the SID or label
   associated with a prefix or adjacency.  The SID/Label sub-TLV has the
   following format:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |              Type             |             Length            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                      SID/Label (variable)                     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   where:

      Type:  7

      Length:  3 or 4 octets.

      SID/Label:  If the length is set to 3, then the 20 rightmost bits
         represent a label.  If the length is set to 4, then the value
         represents a 32-bit SID.

4.  Segment Routing Capabilities

   Segment Routing requires some additional router capabilities to be
   advertised to other routers in the area.

   These SR capabilities are advertised in the OSPFv3 Router Information
   Opaque LSA (defined in [RFC7770]) and specified in [RFC8665].

5.  OSPFv3 Extended Prefix Range TLV

   In some cases, it is useful to advertise attributes for a range of
   prefixes in a single advertisement.  The SR Mapping Server, which is
   described in [RFC8661], is an example of where SIDs for multiple
   prefixes can be advertised.  To optimize such advertisement in case
   of multiple prefixes from a contiguous address range, OSPFv3 Extended
   Prefix Range TLV is defined.

   The OSPFv3 Extended Prefix Range TLV is a top-level TLV of the
   following LSAs defined in [RFC8362]:

      E-Intra-Area-Prefix-LSA

      E-Inter-Area-Prefix-LSA

      E-AS-External-LSA

      E-Type-7-LSA

   Multiple OSPFv3 Extended Prefix Range TLVs MAY be advertised in each
   LSA mentioned above.  The OSPFv3 Extended Prefix Range TLV has the
   following format:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |              Type             |             Length            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   | Prefix Length |       AF      |         Range Size            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |    Flags      |                 Reserved                      |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                     Address Prefix (variable)                 |
   |                           ...                                 |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                      Sub-TLVs (variable)                      |
   +-                                                             -+
   |                                                               |

   where:

      Type:  9

      Length:  Variable, in octets, depending on the sub-TLVs.

      Prefix Length:  Length of prefix in bits.

      AF:  Address family for the prefix.

         AF:  0 - IPv4 unicast

         AF:  1 - IPv6 unicast

      Range Size:  Represents the number of prefixes that are covered by
         the advertisement.  The Range Size MUST NOT exceed the number
         of prefixes that could be satisfied by the Prefix Length
         without including:

            Addresses from the IPv4 multicast address range
            (224.0.0.0/3), if the AF is IPv4 unicast.

            Addresses other than the IPv6 unicast addresses, if the AF
            is IPv6 unicast.

      Flags:  Reserved.  MUST be zero when sent and are ignored when
         received.

      Reserved:  SHOULD be set to 0 on transmission and MUST be ignored
         on reception.

      Address Prefix:  For the address family IPv4 unicast, the
            prefix itself is encoded as a 32-bit value.  The default
            route is represented by a prefix of length 0.

            For the address family IPv6 unicast, the
            prefix is encoded as an even multiple of 32-bit words and
            padded with zeroed bits as necessary.  This encoding
            consumes ((PrefixLength + 31) / 32) 32-bit words.

            Prefix encoding for other address families is
            beyond the scope of this specification.  Prefix encoding for
            other address families can be defined in future Standards
            Track specifications from the IETF stream.

   The range represents the contiguous set of prefixes with the same
   prefix length as specified by the Prefix Length field.  The set
   starts with the prefix that is specified by the Address Prefix field.
   The number of prefixes in the range is equal to the Range Size.

   If the OSPFv3 Extended Prefix Range TLVs advertising the exact same
   range appears in multiple LSAs of the same type, originated by the
   same OSPFv3 router, the LSA with the numerically smallest Instance ID
   MUST be used, and subsequent instances of the OSPFv3 Extended Prefix
   Range TLVs MUST be ignored.

6.  Prefix-SID Sub-TLV

   The Prefix-SID sub-TLV is a sub-TLV of the following OSPFv3 TLVs as
   defined in [RFC8362] and in Section 5:

      Intra-Area Prefix TLV

      Inter-Area Prefix TLV

      External Prefix TLV

      OSPFv3 Extended Prefix Range TLV

   It MAY appear more than once in the parent TLV and has the following
   format:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |               Type            |            Length             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Flags     |  Algorithm    |           Reserved            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                       SID/Index/Label (variable)              |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   where:

      Type:  4

      Length:  7 or 8 octets, depending on the V-Flag.

      Flags:  Single-octet field.  The following flags are defined:


           0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7
         +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+
         |  |NP|M |E |V |L |  |  |
         +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+

         where:

         NP-Flag:  No-PHP (Penultimate Hop Popping) Flag.  If set, then
            the penultimate hop MUST NOT pop the Prefix-SID before
            delivering packets to the node that advertised the Prefix-
            SID.

         M-Flag:  Mapping Server Flag.  If set, the SID was advertised
            by an SR Mapping Server as described in [RFC8661].

         E-Flag:  Explicit Null Flag.  If set, any upstream neighbor of
            the Prefix-SID originator MUST replace the Prefix-SID with
            the Explicit NULL label (0 for IPv4, 2 for IPv6) before
            forwarding the packet.

         V-Flag:  Value/Index Flag.  If set, then the Prefix-SID carries
            an absolute value.  If not set, then the Prefix-SID carries
            an index.

         L-Flag:  Local/Global Flag.  If set, then the value/index
            carried by the Prefix-SID has local significance.  If not
            set, then the value/index carried by this sub-TLV has global
            significance.

         Other bits:  Reserved.  These MUST be zero when sent and are
            ignored when received.

      Reserved:  SHOULD be set to 0 on transmission and MUST be ignored
         on reception.

      Algorithm:  Single octet identifying the algorithm the Prefix-SID
         is associated with as defined in the IGP Algorithm Types
         registry [ALGOREG].

         A router receiving a Prefix-SID from a remote node and with an
         algorithm value that the remote node has not advertised in the
         SR-Algorithm TLV [RFC8665] MUST ignore the Prefix-SID sub-TLV.

      SID/Index/Label:  According to the V-Flag and L-Flag, it contains:

            V-Flag is set to 0 and L-Flag is set to 0: The SID/Index/
            Label field is a 4-octet index defining the offset in the
            SID/Label space advertised by this router.

            V-Flag is set to 1 and L-Flag is set to 1: The SID/Index/
            Label field is a 3-octet local label where the 20 rightmost
            bits are used for encoding the label value.

            All other combinations of V-Flag and L-Flag are invalid and
            any SID Advertisement received with an invalid setting for
            V- and L-Flags MUST be ignored.

   If an OSPFv3 router advertises multiple Prefix-SIDs for the same
   prefix, topology, and algorithm, all of them MUST be ignored.

   When calculating the outgoing label for the prefix, the router MUST
   take into account, as described below, the E-, NP-, and M-Flags
   advertised by the next-hop router if that router advertised the SID
   for the prefix.  This MUST be done regardless of whether the next-hop
   router contributes to the best path to the prefix.

   The NP-Flag (No-PHP) MUST be set and the E-Flag MUST be clear for
   Prefix-SIDs allocated to prefixes that are propagated between areas
   by an ABR based on intra-area or inter-area reachability, unless the
   advertised prefix is directly attached to such ABR.

   The NP-Flag (No-PHP) MUST be set and the E-Flag MUST be clear for
   Prefix-SIDs allocated to redistributed prefixes, unless the
   redistributed prefix is directly attached to the advertising ASBR.

   If the NP-Flag is not set, then:

      Any upstream neighbor of the Prefix-SID originator MUST pop the
      Prefix-SID.  This is equivalent to the penultimate hop-popping
      mechanism used in the MPLS data plane.

      The received E-Flag is ignored.

   If the NP-Flag is set and the E-Flag is not set, then:

      Any upstream neighbor of the Prefix-SID originator MUST keep the
      Prefix-SID on top of the stack.  This is useful when the
      originator of the Prefix-SID needs to stitch the incoming packet
      into a continuing MPLS LSP to the final destination.  This could
      occur at an ABR (prefix propagation from one area to another) or
      at an ASBR (prefix propagation from one domain to another).

   If both the NP-Flag and E-Flag are set, then:

      Any upstream neighbor of the Prefix-SID originator MUST replace
      the Prefix-SID with an Explicit NULL label.  This is useful, e.g.,
      when the originator of the Prefix-SID is the final destination for
      the related prefix and the originator wishes to receive the packet
      with the original Traffic Class field [RFC5462].

   When the M-Flag is set, the NP-Flag and the E-Flag MUST be ignored on
   reception.

   As the Mapping Server does not specify the originator of a prefix
   advertisement, it is not possible to determine PHP behavior solely
   based on the Mapping Server Advertisement.  However, PHP behavior
   SHOULD be done in the following cases:

      The Prefix is intra-area type and the downstream neighbor is the
      originator of the prefix.

      The Prefix is inter-area type and the downstream neighbor is an
      ABR, which is advertising prefix reachability and is setting the
      LA-bit in the Prefix Options as described in [RFC8362].

      The Prefix is external type and the downstream neighbor is an
      ASBR, which is advertising prefix reachability and is setting the
      LA-bit in the Prefix Options as described in [RFC8362].

   When a Prefix-SID is advertised in the OSPFv3 Extended Prefix Range
   TLV, then the value advertised in the Prefix-SID sub-TLV is
   interpreted as a starting SID/Label value.

   Example 1: If the following router addresses (loopback addresses)
   need to be mapped into the corresponding Prefix-SID indexes:

             Router-A: 2001:DB8::1/128, Prefix-SID: Index 1
             Router-B: 2001:DB8::2/128, Prefix-SID: Index 2
             Router-C: 2001:DB8::3/128, Prefix-SID: Index 3
             Router-D: 2001:DB8::4/128, Prefix-SID: Index 4

   then the Address Prefix field in the OSPFv3 Extended Prefix Range TLV
   would be set to 2001:DB8::1, the Prefix Length would be set to 128,
   the Range Size would be set to 4, and the Index value in the Prefix-
   SID sub-TLV would be set to 1.

   Example 2: If the following prefixes need to be mapped into the
   corresponding Prefix-SID indexes:

             2001:DB8:1::0/120,   Prefix-SID: Index 51
             2001:DB8:1::100/120, Prefix-SID: Index 52
             2001:DB8:1::200/120, Prefix-SID: Index 53
             2001:DB8:1::300/120, Prefix-SID: Index 54
             2001:DB8:1::400/120, Prefix-SID: Index 55
             2001:DB8:1::500/120, Prefix-SID: Index 56
             2001:DB8:1::600/120, Prefix-SID: Index 57

   then the Prefix field in the OSPFv3 Extended Prefix Range TLV would
   be set to 2001:DB8:1::0, the Prefix Length would be set to 120, the
   Range Size would be set to 7, and the Index value in the Prefix-SID
   sub-TLV would be set to 51.

7.  Adjacency Segment Identifier (Adj-SID)

   An Adjacency Segment Identifier (Adj-SID) represents a router
   adjacency in Segment Routing.

7.1.  Adj-SID Sub-TLV

   The Adj-SID sub-TLV is an optional sub-TLV of the Router-Link TLV as
   defined in [RFC8362].  It MAY appear multiple times in the Router-
   Link TLV.  The Adj-SID sub-TLV has the following format:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |               Type            |              Length           |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   | Flags         |     Weight    |             Reserved          |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                   SID/Label/Index (variable)                  |
   +---------------------------------------------------------------+

   where:

      Type:  5

      Length:  7 or 8 octets, depending on the V-Flag.

      Flags:  Single-octet field containing the following flags:

             0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
            +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
            |B|V|L|G|P|     |
            +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

         where:

         B-Flag:  Backup Flag.  If set, the Adj-SID refers to an
            adjacency that is eligible for protection (e.g., using IP
            Fast Reroute (IPFRR) or MPLS-FRR (MPLS Fast Reroute)) as
            described in Section 3.4 of [RFC8402].

         V-Flag:  Value/Index Flag.  If set, then the Adj-SID carries an
            absolute value.  If not set, then the Adj-SID carries an
            index.

         L-Flag:  Local/Global Flag.  If set, then the value/index
            carried by the Adj-SID has local significance.  If not set,
            then the value/index carried by this sub-TLV has global
            significance.

         G-Flag:  Group Flag.  When set, the G-Flag indicates that the
            Adj-SID refers to a group of adjacencies (and therefore MAY
            be assigned to other adjacencies as well).

         P-Flag.  Persistent Flag.  When set, the P-Flag indicates that
            the Adj-SID is persistently allocated, i.e., the Adj-SID
            value remains the same across router restart and/or
            interface flap.

         Other bits:  Reserved.  These MUST be zero when sent and are
            ignored when received.

      Reserved:  SHOULD be set to 0 on transmission and MUST be ignored
         on reception.

      Weight:  Weight used for load-balancing purposes.  The use of the
         weight is defined in [RFC8402].

      SID/Index/Label:  As described in Section 6.

   An SR-capable router MAY allocate an Adj-SID for each of its
   adjacencies and set the B-Flag when the adjacency is eligible for
   protection by an FRR mechanism (IP or MPLS) as described in
   [RFC8402].

   An SR-capable router MAY allocate more than one Adj-SID to an
   adjacency.

   An SR-capable router MAY allocate the same Adj-SID to different
   adjacencies.

   When the P-Flag is not set, the Adj-SID MAY be persistent.  When the
   P-Flag is set, the Adj-SID MUST be persistent.

7.2.  LAN Adj-SID Sub-TLV

   The LAN Adjacency SID is an optional sub-TLV of the Router-Link TLV.
   It MAY appear multiple times in the Router-Link TLV.  It is used to
   advertise a SID/Label for an adjacency to a non-DR router on a
   broadcast, Non-Broadcast Multi-Access (NBMA), or hybrid [RFC6845]
   network.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |              Type             |            Length             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Flags     |     Weight    |            Reserved           |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                           Neighbor ID                         |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                    SID/Label/Index (variable)                 |
   +---------------------------------------------------------------+

   where:

      Type:  6

      Length:  11 or 12 octets, depending on the V-Flag.

      Flags:  Same as in Section 7.1.

      Weight:  Weight used for load-balancing purposes.  The use of the
         weight is defined in [RFC8402].

      Reserved:  SHOULD be set to 0 on transmission and MUST be ignored
         on reception.

      Neighbor ID:  The Router ID of the neighbor for which the LAN
         Adjacency SID is advertised.

      SID/Index/Label:  As described in Section 6.

         When the P-Flag is not set, the LAN Adjacency SID MAY be
         persistent.  When the P-Flag is set, the LAN Adjacency SID MUST
         be persistent.

8.  Elements of Procedure

8.1.  Intra-area Segment Routing in OSPFv3

   An OSPFv3 router that supports Segment Routing MAY advertise Prefix-
   SIDs for any prefix to which it is advertising reachability (e.g., a
   loopback IP address as described in Section 6).

   A Prefix-SID can also be advertised by SR Mapping Servers (as
   described in [RFC8661]).  A Mapping Server advertises Prefix-SIDs for
   remote prefixes that exist in the OSPFv3 routing domain.  Multiple
   Mapping Servers can advertise Prefix-SIDs for the same prefix, in
   which case the same Prefix-SID MUST be advertised by all of them.
   The SR Mapping Server could use either area flooding scope or
   autonomous system flooding scope when advertising Prefix-SIDs for
   prefixes, based on the configuration of the SR Mapping Server.
   Depending on the flooding scope used, the SR Mapping Server chooses
   the OSPFv3 LSA type that will be used.  If the area flooding scope is
   needed, an E-Intra-Area-Prefix-LSA [RFC8362] is used.  If autonomous
   system flooding scope is needed, an E-AS-External-LSA [RFC8362] is
   used.

   When a Prefix-SID is advertised by the Mapping Server, which is
   indicated by the M-Flag in the Prefix-SID sub-TLV (Section 6), the
   route type as implied by the LSA type is ignored and the Prefix-SID
   is bound to the corresponding prefix independent of the route type.

   Advertisement of the Prefix-SID by the Mapping Server using an Inter-
   Area Prefix TLV, External-Prefix TLV, or Intra-Area-Prefix TLV
   [RFC8362] does not itself contribute to the prefix reachability.  The
   NU-bit [RFC5340] MUST be set in the PrefixOptions field of the LSA,
   which is used by the Mapping Server to advertise SID or SID Range,
   which prevents the advertisement from contributing to prefix
   reachability.

   An SR Mapping Server MUST use the OSPFv3 Extended Prefix Range TLVs
   when advertising SIDs for prefixes.  Prefixes of different route
   types can be combined in a single OSPFv3 Extended Prefix Range TLV
   advertised by an SR Mapping Server.

   Area-scoped OSPFv3 Extended Prefix Range TLVs are propagated between
   areas, similar to propagation of prefixes between areas.  Same rules
   that are used for propagating prefixes between areas [RFC5340] are
   used for the propagation of the prefix ranges.

8.2.  Inter-area Segment Routing in OSPFv3

   In order to support SR in a multiarea environment, OSPFv3 MUST
   propagate Prefix-SID information between areas.  The following
   procedure is used to propagate Prefix-SIDs between areas.

   When an OSPFv3 ABR advertises an Inter-Area-Prefix-LSA from an intra-
   area prefix to all its connected areas, it will also include the
   Prefix-SID sub-TLV as described in Section 6.  The Prefix-SID value
   will be set as follows:

      The ABR will look at its best path to the prefix in the source
      area and find the advertising router associated with the best path
      to that prefix.

      The ABR will then determine if this router advertised a Prefix-SID
      for the prefix and use it when advertising the Prefix-SID to other
      connected areas.

      If no Prefix-SID was advertised for the prefix in the source area
      by the router that contributes to the best path to the prefix, the
      originating ABR will use the Prefix-SID advertised by any other
      router when propagating the Prefix-SID for the prefix to other
      areas.

   When an OSPFv3 ABR advertises an Inter-Area-Prefix-LSA from an inter-
   area route to all its connected areas, it will also include the
   Prefix-SID sub-TLV as described in Section 6.  The Prefix-SID value
   will be set as follows:

      The ABR will look at its best path to the prefix in the backbone
      area and find the advertising router associated with the best path
      to that prefix.

      The ABR will then determine if this router advertised a Prefix-SID
      for the prefix and use it when advertising the Prefix-SID to other
      connected areas.

      If no Prefix-SID was advertised for the prefix in the backbone
      area by the ABR that contributes to the best path to the prefix,
      the originating ABR will use the Prefix-SID advertised by any
      other router when propagating the Prefix-SID for the prefix to
      other areas.

8.3.  Segment Routing for External Prefixes

   AS-External-LSAs are flooded domain wide.  When an ASBR, which
   supports SR, originates an E-AS-External-LSA, it SHOULD also include
   a Prefix-SID sub-TLV as described in Section 6.  The Prefix-SID value
   will be set to the SID that has been reserved for that prefix.

   When a Not-So-Stubby Area (NSSA) [RFC3101] ABR translates an E-NSSA-
   LSA into an E-AS-External-LSA, it SHOULD also advertise the Prefix-
   SID for the prefix.  The NSSA ABR determines its best path to the
   prefix advertised in the translated E-NSSA-LSA and finds the
   advertising router associated with that path.  If the advertising
   router has advertised a Prefix-SID for the prefix, then the NSSA ABR
   uses it when advertising the Prefix-SID for the E-AS-External-LSA.
   Otherwise, the Prefix-SID advertised by any other router will be
   used.

8.4.  Advertisement of Adj-SID

   The Adjacency Segment Routing Identifier (Adj-SID) is advertised
   using the Adj-SID sub-TLV as described in Section 7.

8.4.1.  Advertisement of Adj-SID on Point-to-Point Links

   An Adj-SID MAY be advertised for any adjacency on a point-to-point
   (P2P) link that is in neighbor state 2-Way or higher.  If the
   adjacency on a P2P link transitions from the FULL state, then the
   Adj-SID for that adjacency MAY be removed from the area.  If the
   adjacency transitions to a state lower than 2-Way, then the Adj-SID
   Advertisement MUST be withdrawn from the area.

8.4.2.  Adjacency SID on Broadcast or NBMA Interfaces

   Broadcast, NBMA, or hybrid [RFC6845] networks in OSPFv3 are
   represented by a star topology where the DR is the central point to
   which all other routers on the broadcast, NBMA, or hybrid network
   connect.  As a result, routers on the broadcast, NBMA, or hybrid
   network advertise only their adjacency to the DR.  Routers that do
   not act as DR do not form or advertise adjacencies with each other.
   They do, however, maintain 2-Way adjacency state with each other and
   are directly reachable.

   When Segment Routing is used, each router on the broadcast, NBMA, or
   hybrid network MAY advertise the Adj-SID for its adjacency to the DR
   using the Adj-SID sub-TLV as described in Section 7.1.

   SR-capable routers MAY also advertise a LAN Adjacency SID for other
   neighbors (e.g., Backup Designated Router (BDR), DR-OTHER, etc.) on
   the broadcast, NBMA, or hybrid network using the LAN Adj-SID sub-TLV
   as described in Section 7.2.

9.  IANA Considerations

   This specification updates two existing OSPFv3 registries.

9.1.  "OSPFv3 Extended-LSA TLVs" Registry

   The following values have been allocated:

   +-------+----------------------------------+---------------+
   | Value | Description                      | Reference     |
   +=======+==================================+===============+
   | 9     | OSPFv3 Extended Prefix Range TLV | This document |
   +-------+----------------------------------+---------------+

                Table 1: OSPFv3 Extended-LSA TLVs

9.2.  "OSPFv3 Extended-LSA Sub-TLVs" Registry

   The following values have been allocated:

   +-------+---------------------+---------------+
   | Value | Description         | Reference     |
   +=======+=====================+===============+
   | 4     | Prefix-SID sub-TLV  | This document |
   +-------+---------------------+---------------+
   | 5     | Adj-SID sub-TLV     | This document |
   +-------+---------------------+---------------+
   | 6     | LAN Adj-SID sub-TLV | This document |
   +-------+---------------------+---------------+
   | 7     | SID/Label sub-TLV   | This document |
   +-------+---------------------+---------------+

        Table 2: OSPFv3 Extended-LSA Sub-TLVs

10.  TLV/Sub-TLV Error Handling

   For any new TLVs/sub-TLVs defined in this document, if the length is
   invalid, the LSA in which it is advertised is considered malformed
   and MUST be ignored.  Errors SHOULD be logged subject to rate
   limiting.

11.  Security Considerations

   With the OSPFv3 Segment Routing extensions defined herein, OSPFv3
   will now program the MPLS data plane [RFC3031].  Previously, LDP
   [RFC5036] or another label distribution mechanism was required to
   advertise MPLS labels and program the MPLS data plane.

   In general, the same types of attacks that can be carried out on the
   IP control plane can be carried out on the MPLS control plane
   resulting in traffic being misrouted in the respective data planes.
   However, the latter can be more difficult to detect and isolate.

   Existing security extensions, as described in [RFC5340] and
   [RFC8362], apply to these Segment Routing extensions.  While OSPFv3
   is under a single administrative domain, there can be deployments
   where potential attackers have access to one or more networks in the
   OSPFv3 routing domain.  In these deployments, stronger authentication
   mechanisms, such as those specified in [RFC4552] or [RFC7166], SHOULD
   be used.

   Implementations MUST ensure that malformed TLVs and sub-TLVs defined
   in this document are detected and that they do not provide a
   vulnerability for attackers to crash the OSPFv3 router or routing
   process.  Reception of a malformed TLV or sub-TLV SHOULD be counted
   and/or logged for further analysis.  Logging of malformed TLVs and
   sub-TLVs SHOULD be rate limited to prevent a Denial-of-Service (DoS)
   attack (distributed or otherwise) from overloading the OSPFv3 control
   plane.

12.  References

12.1.  Normative References

   [ALGOREG]  IANA, "Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) Parameters",
              <https://www.iana.org/assignments/igp-parameters>.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC3031]  Rosen, E., Viswanathan, A., and R. Callon, "Multiprotocol
              Label Switching Architecture", RFC 3031,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3031, January 2001,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3031>.

   [RFC3101]  Murphy, P., "The OSPF Not-So-Stubby Area (NSSA) Option",
              RFC 3101, DOI 10.17487/RFC3101, January 2003,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3101>.

   [RFC5036]  Andersson, L., Ed., Minei, I., Ed., and B. Thomas, Ed.,
              "LDP Specification", RFC 5036, DOI 10.17487/RFC5036,
              October 2007, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5036>.

   [RFC5340]  Coltun, R., Ferguson, D., Moy, J., and A. Lindem, "OSPF
              for IPv6", RFC 5340, DOI 10.17487/RFC5340, July 2008,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5340>.

   [RFC5462]  Andersson, L. and R. Asati, "Multiprotocol Label Switching
              (MPLS) Label Stack Entry: "EXP" Field Renamed to "Traffic
              Class" Field", RFC 5462, DOI 10.17487/RFC5462, February
              2009, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5462>.

   [RFC6845]  Sheth, N., Wang, L., and J. Zhang, "OSPF Hybrid Broadcast
              and Point-to-Multipoint Interface Type", RFC 6845,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6845, January 2013,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6845>.

   [RFC7770]  Lindem, A., Ed., Shen, N., Vasseur, JP., Aggarwal, R., and
              S. Shaffer, "Extensions to OSPF for Advertising Optional
              Router Capabilities", RFC 7770, DOI 10.17487/RFC7770,
              February 2016, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7770>.

   [RFC8174]  Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
              2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
              May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>.

   [RFC8362]  Lindem, A., Roy, A., Goethals, D., Reddy Vallem, V., and
              F. Baker, "OSPFv3 Link State Advertisement (LSA)
              Extensibility", RFC 8362, DOI 10.17487/RFC8362, April
              2018, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8362>.

   [RFC8402]  Filsfils, C., Ed., Previdi, S., Ed., Ginsberg, L.,
              Decraene, B., Litkowski, S., and R. Shakir, "Segment
              Routing Architecture", RFC 8402, DOI 10.17487/RFC8402,
              July 2018, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8402>.

   [RFC8661]  Bashandy, A., Ed., Filsfils, C., Ed., Previdi, S.,
              Decraene, B., and S. Litkowski, "Segment Routing MPLS
              Interworking with LDP", RFC 8661, DOI 10.17487/RFC8661,
              December 2019, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8661>.

   [RFC8665]  Psenak, P., Ed., Previdi, S., Ed., Filfils, C., Gredler,
              H., Shakir, R., Henderickx, W., and J. Tantsura, "OSPF
              Extensions for Segment Routing", RFC 8665,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8665, December 2019,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8665>.

12.2.  Informative References

   [RFC4552]  Gupta, M. and N. Melam, "Authentication/Confidentiality
              for OSPFv3", RFC 4552, DOI 10.17487/RFC4552, June 2006,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4552>.

   [RFC7166]  Bhatia, M., Manral, V., and A. Lindem, "Supporting
              Authentication Trailer for OSPFv3", RFC 7166,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7166, March 2014,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7166>.

   [RFC7855]  Previdi, S., Ed., Filsfils, C., Ed., Decraene, B.,
              Litkowski, S., Horneffer, M., and R. Shakir, "Source
              Packet Routing in Networking (SPRING) Problem Statement
              and Requirements", RFC 7855, DOI 10.17487/RFC7855, May
              2016, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7855>.

Contributors

   The following people gave a substantial contribution to the content
   of this document and should be considered coauthors:


      Clarence Filsfils
      Cisco Systems, Inc.
      Brussels
      Belgium

      Email: cfilsfil@cisco.com


      Hannes Gredler
      RtBrick Inc.
      Austria

      Email: hannes@rtbrick.com


      Rob Shakir
      Google, Inc.
      United States of America

      Email: robjs@google.com


      Wim Henderickx
      Nokia
      Belgium

      Email: wim.henderickx@nokia.com


      Jeff Tantsura
      Apstra, Inc.
      United States of America

      Email: jefftant.ietf@gmail.com

   Thanks to Acee Lindem for his substantial contribution to the content
   of this document.

   We would like to thank Anton Smirnov for his contribution as well.

Authors' Addresses

   Peter Psenak (editor)
   Cisco Systems, Inc.
   Eurovea Centre, Central 3, Pribinova Street 10
   81109 Bratislava
   Slovakia

   Email: ppsenak@cisco.com


   Stefano Previdi (editor)
   Cisco Systems, Inc.

   Email: stefano@previdi.net


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