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For this RFC, original HTML is available from the RFC-Editor: RFC8791



Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)                        A. Bierman
Request for Comments: 8791                                     YumaWorks
Updates: 8340                                               M. Bjorklund
Category: Standards Track                                          Cisco
ISSN: 2070-1721                                                K. Watsen
                                                         Watsen Networks
                                                               June 2020


                     YANG Data Structure Extensions

Abstract

   This document describes YANG mechanisms for defining abstract data
   structures with YANG.

Status of This Memo

   This is an Internet Standards Track document.

   This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
   (IETF).  It represents the consensus of the IETF community.  It has
   received public review and has been approved for publication by the
   Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG).  Further information on
   Internet Standards is available in Section 2 of RFC 7841.

   Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
   and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
   https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8791.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2020 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction
     1.1.  Terminology
       1.1.1.  NMDA
       1.1.2.  YANG
   2.  Definitions
   3.  YANG Data Structures in YANG Tree Diagrams
   4.  YANG Data Structure Extensions Module
   5.  IANA Considerations
     5.1.  YANG Module Registry
   6.  Security Considerations
   7.  References
     7.1.  Normative References
     7.2.  Informative References
   Appendix A.  Examples
     A.1.  "structure" Example
     A.2.  "augment-structure" Example
     A.3.  XML Encoding Example
     A.4.  JSON Encoding Example
     A.5.  "structure" Example That Defines a Non-top-level Structure
   Authors' Addresses

1.  Introduction

   There is a need for standard mechanisms to allow the definition of
   abstract data that is not intended to be implemented as configuration
   or operational state.  The "yang-data" extension statement from RFC
   8040 [RFC8040] was defined for this purpose, but it is limited in its
   functionality.

   The intended use of the "yang-data" extension was to model all or
   part of a protocol message, such as the "errors" definition in the
   YANG module "ietf-restconf" [RFC8040], or the contents of a file.
   However, protocols are often layered such that the header or payload
   portions of the message can be extended by external documents.  The
   YANG statements that model a protocol need to support this
   extensibility that is already found in that protocol.

   This document defines a new YANG extension statement called
   "structure", which is similar to but more flexible than the "yang-
   data" extension from [RFC8040].  There is no assumption that a YANG
   data structure can only be used as a top-level abstraction, and it
   may also be nested within some other data structure.

   This document also defines a new YANG extension statement called
   "augment-structure", which allows abstract data structures to be
   augmented from external modules and is similar to the existing YANG
   "augment" statement.  Note that "augment" cannot be used to augment a
   YANG data structure since a YANG compiler or other tool is not
   required to understand the "structure" extension.

1.1.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP
   14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
   capitals, as shown here.

   The following term is used within this document:

   YANG data structure:  A data structure defined with the "structure"
      statement.

1.1.1.  NMDA

   The following terms are defined in the Network Management Datastore
   Architecture (NMDA) [RFC8342] and are not redefined here:

   *  configuration

   *  operational state

1.1.2.  YANG

   The following terms are defined in [RFC7950] and are not redefined
   here:

   *  absolute-schema-nodeid

   *  container

   *  data definition statement

   *  data node

   *  leaf

   *  leaf-list

   *  list

2.  Definitions

   A YANG data structure is defined with the "structure" extension
   statement, which is defined in the YANG module "ietf-yang-structure-
   ext".  The argument to the "structure" extension statement is the
   name of the data structure.  The data structures are considered to be
   in the same identifier namespace as defined in Section 6.2.1 of
   [RFC7950].  In particular, the seventh bullet states:

   |  All leafs, leaf-lists, lists, containers, choices, rpcs, actions,
   |  notifications, anydatas, and anyxmls defined (directly or through
   |  a "uses" statement) within a parent node or at the top level of
   |  the module or its submodules share the same identifier namespace.

   This means that data structures defined with the "structure"
   statement cannot have the same name as sibling nodes from regular
   YANG data definition statements or other "structure" statements in
   the same YANG module.

   This does not mean a YANG data structure, once defined, has to be
   used as a top-level protocol message or other top-level data
   structure.

   A YANG data structure is encoded in the same way as an "anydata"
   node.  This means that the name of the structure is encoded as a
   "container", with the instantiated children encoded as child nodes to
   this node.  For example, this structure:

     module example-errors {
       ...

       sx:structure my-error {
         leaf error-number {
           type int;
         }
       }
     }

   can be encoded in JSON as:

     "example-errors:my-error": {
       "error-number": 131
     }

3.  YANG Data Structures in YANG Tree Diagrams

   A YANG data structure can be printed in a YANG tree diagram
   [RFC8340].  This document updates RFC 8340 [RFC8340] by defining two
   new sections in the tree diagram for a module:

   1.  YANG data structures, which are offset by two spaces and
       identified by the keyword "structure" followed by the name of the
       YANG data structure and a colon (":") character.

   2.  YANG data structure augmentations, which are offset by 2 spaces
       and identified by the keyword "augment-structure" followed by the
       augment target structure name and a colon (":") character.

   The new sections, including spaces conventions, appear as follows:

     structure <structure-name>:
       +--<node>
          +--<node>
          |  +--<node>
          +--<node>
     structure <structure-name>:
       +--<node>

     augment-structure <structure-name>:
       +--<node>
          +--<node>
          |  +--<node>
          +--<node>
     augment-structure <structure-name>:
       +--<node>

   Nodes in YANG data structures are printed according to the rules
   defined in Section 2.6 of [RFC8340].  The nodes in YANG data
   structures do not have any <flags>.

4.  YANG Data Structure Extensions Module

   <CODE BEGINS> file "ietf-yang-structure-ext@2020-06-17.yang"
   module ietf-yang-structure-ext {
     yang-version 1.1;
     namespace "urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-yang-structure-ext";
     prefix sx;

     organization
       "IETF NETMOD (NETCONF Data Modeling Language) Working Group";
     contact
       "WG Web:   <https://datatracker.ietf.org/wg/netmod/>
        WG List:  <mailto:netmod@ietf.org>

        Author:   Andy Bierman
                  <mailto:andy@yumaworks.com>

        Author:   Martin Bjorklund
                  <mailto:mbj+ietf@4668.se>

        Author:   Kent Watsen
                  <mailto:kent+ietf@watsen.net>";
     description
       "This module contains conceptual YANG specifications for defining
        abstract data structures.

        The key words 'MUST', 'MUST NOT', 'REQUIRED', 'SHALL', 'SHALL
        NOT', 'SHOULD', 'SHOULD NOT', 'RECOMMENDED', 'NOT RECOMMENDED',
        'MAY', and 'OPTIONAL' in this document are to be interpreted as
        described in BCP 14 (RFC 2119) (RFC 8174) when, and only when,
        they appear in all capitals, as shown here.

        Copyright (c) 2020 IETF Trust and the persons identified as
        authors of the code.  All rights reserved.

        Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or
        without modification, is permitted pursuant to, and subject to
        the license terms contained in, the Simplified BSD License set
        forth in Section 4.c of the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions
        Relating to IETF Documents
        (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info).

        This version of this YANG module is part of RFC 8791
        (https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8791); see the RFC itself
        for full legal notices.";

     revision 2020-06-17 {
       description
         "Initial revision.";
       reference
         "RFC 8791: YANG Data Structure Extensions.";
     }

     extension structure {
       argument name {
         yin-element true;
       }
       description
         "This extension is used to specify a YANG data structure that
          represents conceptual data defined in YANG.  It is intended to
          describe hierarchical data independent of protocol context or
          specific message encoding format.  Data definition statements
          within a 'structure' extension statement specify the generic
          syntax for the specific YANG data structure, whose name is the
          argument of the 'structure' extension statement.

          Note that this extension does not define a media type.  A
          specification using this extension MUST specify the message
          encoding rules, including the content media type, if
          applicable.

          The mandatory 'name' parameter value identifies the YANG data
          structure that is being defined.

          This extension is only valid as a top-level statement, i.e.,
          given as a substatement to 'module' or 'submodule'.

          The substatements of this extension MUST follow the ABNF
          rules below, where the rules are defined in RFC 7950:

            *must-stmt
            [status-stmt]
            [description-stmt]
            [reference-stmt]
            *(typedef-stmt / grouping-stmt)
            *data-def-stmt

          A YANG data structure defined with this extension statement is
          encoded in the same way as an 'anydata' node.  This means
          that the name of the structure is encoded as a 'container',
          with the instantiated child statements encoded as child nodes
          to this node.

          The module name and namespace value for the YANG module using
          the extension statement are assigned to each of the data
          definition statements resulting from the YANG data structure.

          The XPath document element is the extension statement itself,
          such that the child nodes of the document element are
          represented by the data-def-stmt substatements within this
          extension.  This conceptual document is the context for the
          following YANG statements:

            - must-stmt
            - when-stmt
            - path-stmt
            - min-elements-stmt
            - max-elements-stmt
            - mandatory-stmt
            - unique-stmt
            - ordered-by
            - instance-identifier data type

          The following data-def-stmt substatements are constrained
          when used within a 'structure' extension statement.

            - The list-stmt is not required to have a key-stmt defined.
            - The config-stmt is ignored if present.
         ";
     }

     extension augment-structure {
       argument path {
         yin-element true;
       }
       description
         "This extension is used to specify an augmentation to a YANG
          data structure defined with the 'structure' statement.  It is
          intended to describe hierarchical data independent of protocol
          context or specific message encoding format.

          This statement has almost the same structure as the
          'augment-stmt'.  Data definition statements within this
          statement specify the semantics and generic syntax for the
          additional data to be added to the specific YANG data
          structure, identified by the 'path' argument.

          The mandatory 'path' parameter value identifies the YANG
          conceptual data node that is being augmented and is
          represented as an absolute-schema-nodeid string, where the
          first node in the absolute-schema-nodeid string identifies the
          YANG data structure to augment, and the rest of the nodes in
          the string identifies the node within the YANG structure to
          augment.

          This extension is only valid as a top-level statement, i.e.,
          given as a substatement to 'module' or 'submodule'.

          The substatements of this extension MUST follow the ABNF
          rules below, where the rules are defined in RFC 7950:

            [status-stmt]
            [description-stmt]
            [reference-stmt]
            1*(data-def-stmt / case-stmt)

          The module name and namespace value for the YANG module using
          the extension statement are assigned to instance document data
          conforming to the data definition statements within this
          extension.

          The XPath document element is the augmented extension
          statement itself, such that the child nodes of the document
          element are represented by the data-def-stmt substatements
          within the augmented 'structure' statement.

          The context node of the 'augment-structure' statement is
          derived in the same way as the 'augment' statement, as defined
          in Section 6.4.1 of [RFC7950]. This conceptual node is
          considered the context node for the following YANG statements:

            - must-stmt
            - when-stmt
            - path-stmt
            - min-elements-stmt
            - max-elements-stmt
            - mandatory-stmt
            - unique-stmt
            - ordered-by
            - instance-identifier data type

          The following data-def-stmt substatements are constrained
          when used within an 'augment-structure' extension statement.

            - The list-stmt is not required to have a key-stmt defined.
            - The config-stmt is ignored if present.

          Example:

             module foo {
                import ietf-yang-structure-ext { prefix sx; }

                sx:structure foo-data {
                  container foo-con { }
                }
             }

             module bar {
                import ietf-yang-structure-ext { prefix sx; }
                import foo { prefix foo; }

                sx:augment-structure /foo:foo-data/foo:foo-con {
                  leaf add-leaf1 { type int32; }
                  leaf add-leaf2 { type string; }
                }
             }
         ";
     }
   }
   <CODE ENDS>

5.  IANA Considerations

5.1.  YANG Module Registry

   IANA has registered the following URI in the "ns" subregistry within
   the "IETF XML Registry" [RFC3688]:

   URI:  urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-yang-structure-ext
   Registrant Contact:  The IESG.
   XML:  N/A; the requested URI is an XML namespace.

   IANA has registered the following YANG module in the "YANG Module
   Names" subregistry [RFC6020] within the "YANG Parameters" registry:

   Name:  ietf-yang-structure-ext
   Namespace:  urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-yang-structure-ext
   Prefix:  sx
   Reference:  RFC 8791

6.  Security Considerations

   This document defines YANG extensions that are used to define
   conceptual YANG data structures.  It does not introduce any new
   vulnerabilities beyond those specified in YANG 1.1 [RFC7950].

7.  References

7.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC7950]  Bjorklund, M., Ed., "The YANG 1.1 Data Modeling Language",
              RFC 7950, DOI 10.17487/RFC7950, August 2016,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7950>.

   [RFC8040]  Bierman, A., Bjorklund, M., and K. Watsen, "RESTCONF
              Protocol", RFC 8040, DOI 10.17487/RFC8040, January 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8040>.

   [RFC8174]  Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
              2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
              May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>.

   [RFC8340]  Bjorklund, M. and L. Berger, Ed., "YANG Tree Diagrams",
              BCP 215, RFC 8340, DOI 10.17487/RFC8340, March 2018,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8340>.

   [RFC8342]  Bjorklund, M., Schoenwaelder, J., Shafer, P., Watsen, K.,
              and R. Wilton, "Network Management Datastore Architecture
              (NMDA)", RFC 8342, DOI 10.17487/RFC8342, March 2018,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8342>.

   [W3C.REC-xml-20081126]
              Bray, T., Paoli, J., Sperberg-McQueen, M., Maler, E., and
              F. Yergeau, "Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0 (Fifth
              Edition)", World Wide Web Consortium Recommendation REC-
              xml-20081126, November 2008,
              <http://www.w3.org/TR/2008/REC-xml-20081126>.

7.2.  Informative References

   [RFC3688]  Mealling, M., "The IETF XML Registry", BCP 81, RFC 3688,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3688, January 2004,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3688>.

   [RFC6020]  Bjorklund, M., Ed., "YANG - A Data Modeling Language for
              the Network Configuration Protocol (NETCONF)", RFC 6020,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6020, October 2010,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6020>.

Appendix A.  Examples

A.1.  "structure" Example

   This example shows a simple address book that could be stored as an
   artifact:

   module example-module {
     yang-version 1.1;
     namespace "urn:example:example-module";
     prefix exm;

     import ietf-yang-structure-ext {
       prefix sx;
     }

     sx:structure address-book {
       list address {
         key "last first";
         leaf last {
           type string;
           description "Last name";
         }
         leaf first {
           type string;
           description "First name";
         }
         leaf street {
           type string;
           description "Street name";
         }
         leaf city {
           type string;
           description "City name";
         }
         leaf state {
           type string;
           description "State name";
         }
       }
     }
   }

   Below is the tree diagram of this module:

   module: example-module

     structure address-book:
       +-- address* [last first]
          +-- last      string
          +-- first     string
          +-- street?   string
          +-- city?     string
          +-- state?    string

A.2.  "augment-structure" Example

   This example adds "county" and "zipcode" leafs to the address book:

   module example-module-aug {
     yang-version 1.1;
     namespace "urn:example:example-module-aug";
     prefix exma;

     import ietf-yang-structure-ext {
       prefix sx;
     }
     import example-module {
       prefix exm;
     }

     sx:augment-structure "/exm:address-book/exm:address" {
       leaf county {
         type string;
         description "County name";
       }
       leaf zipcode {
         type string;
         description "Postal zipcode";
       }
     }
   }

   Below is the tree diagram of this module:

   module: example-module-aug

     augment-structure /exm:address-book/exm:address:
       +-- county?    string
       +-- zipcode?   string

A.3.  XML Encoding Example

   This example shows how an address book can be encoded in XML
   [W3C.REC-xml-20081126]:

   <address-book xmlns="urn:example:example-module">
     <address>
       <last>Flintstone</last>
       <first>Fred</first>
       <street>301 Cobblestone Way</street>
       <city>Bedrock</city>
       <zipcode xmlns="urn:example:example-module-aug">70777</zipcode>
     </address>
     <address>
       <last>Root</last>
       <first>Charlie</first>
       <street>4711 Cobblestone Way</street>
       <city>Bedrock</city>
       <zipcode xmlns="urn:example:example-module-aug">70777</zipcode>
     </address>
   </address-book>

A.4.  JSON Encoding Example

   This example shows how an address book can be encoded in JSON:

   "example-module:address-book": {
     "address": [
       {
         "city": "Bedrock",
         "example-module-aug:zipcode": "70777",
         "first": "Fred",
         "last": "Flintstone",
         "street": "301 Cobblestone Way"
       },
       {
         "city": "Bedrock",
         "example-module-aug:zipcode": "70777",
         "first": "Charlie",
         "last": "Root",
         "street": "4711 Cobblestone Way"
       }
     ]
   }

A.5.  "structure" Example That Defines a Non-top-level Structure

   The following example defines a data structure with error information
   that can be included in an <error-info> element in an <rpc-error>:

   module example-error-info {
     yang-version 1.1;
     namespace "urn:example:example-error-info";
     prefix exei;

     import ietf-yang-structure-ext {
       prefix sx;
     }

     sx:structure my-example-error-info {
       leaf error-code {
         type uint32;
       }
     }

   }

   The example below shows how this structure can be used in an
   <rpc-error>:

   <rpc-reply message-id="101"
        xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:netconf:base:1.0">
     <rpc-error>
       <error-type>protocol</error-type>
       <error-tag>operation-failed</error-tag>
       <error-severity>error</error-severity>
       <error-info>
         <my-example-error-info
             xmlns="urn:example:example-error-info">
           <error-code>42</error-code>
         </my-example-error-info>
       </error-info>
     </rpc-error>
   </rpc-reply>

Authors' Addresses

   Andy Bierman
   YumaWorks

   Email: andy@yumaworks.com


   Martin Bjorklund
   Cisco

   Email: mbj+ietf@4668.se


   Kent Watsen
   Watsen Networks

   Email: kent+ietf@watsen.net


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